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BOUNDARIES

A STUDIO AIR

YUNKE YAO


UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR [ABPL30048_2018_SEM2] STUDENT: YUNKE YAO_779984 TUTOR: ALLAN BURROWS


CONTENTS 4

INTRODUCTION [.0]

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DESIGN FUTURING [.1]

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DESIGN COMPUTATION [.2]

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COMPOSITION/GENERATION [.3]

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CONCLUSION [.4]

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LEARNING OUTCOMES [.5]

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK[.6]

30

REFERENCES


A.0 INTRODUCTION

My name is Yunke Yao, and my friends usually call me Kayla. I am currently a third year architecture student in University of Melbourne, pursing a Bachelor degree in Environments (Major in Architecture). I originally from Wuhan China and came to Melbourne two years ago. My interest in architecture began during high school of reading different kinds of architecture journals and magazines. From then on, I came to realize that architecture is not simply a ‘dead’ building, it is about the creation of experience and designing for built environments. My other interests include graphic design, photography and travelling. My experience with digital design theory was quite limited before I came to university. Last year I have done Digital Design and Fabrication which developed my knowledge of computergenerated model and built form. We used Rhinoceros as design tool and Laser-cutting machine to help completing the Second Skin project. Looking forward to explore more interesting things in parametric design field.


FIG .1 SECOND SKIN, PROJECT FROM DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION

FIG.2 HERRING ISLAND PAVILLION, PROJECT FROM DESIGN STUDIO EARTH 2017


A.1 DESIGN FUTURING

The advancement of technology and society has made people have higher requirements on the living environment. It not only requires that the exterior of the building has formal beauty, but also requires that buildings provide people with a safe, comfortable, and convenient living environment. However, to some extent, this kind of ‘better life‘ pursuing had accelerated the defuturing.

‘How can a future actually be secured by design?’ Today, we face severe environmental issues. The ‘carzy‘ temperature rise caused by global warming in Arctic has alarmed scientists. Dr Sarah Cornell, an environmental scientist described what will happen with just a 2C rise of temperature, includes towering seas and extremely hot climates.1 However, today’s design is more design- orientated and less focus on the sustainable design which is accelerating defuturing. Also, the embodied energy is huge when build a house. Fry suggested design futuring has two tasks to encounter, which include slowing the rate defuturing and lead us to a more sustainbale modes of habitation.2 Sustainability is the thing we always should take account when considering future.

1 BBC NEWS, 2018 <https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-45096740> [Accessed 7 August 2018]. 2 Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics And New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), pp. 1-16.

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1.1 CASE STUDY 01 THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE ARCHITECT : WOODS BAGOT LOCATION : ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA CLIENT : SOUTH AUSTRALIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SAHMRI) AND DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING, TRANSPORT & INFRASTRUCTURE (DPTI) COMPLETION DATE: 2013

FIG.3 Woods Bagot, South Australian Health And Medical Research Institute, 2013 <https://www.woodsbagot. com/projects/south-australian-health-and-medical-research-institute> [Accessed 27 July 2018].

NEW TECHNOLOGY & ARCHITECTURE The SAHMRI Medical Research Building is one of the sustainable design in the Adelaide city centre. The whole diamond-shaped facade elements wrapped around its exterior could responds to sunlight, heat load, glare and wind.1 In the Western classical period of stone architecture and wood-orientatal architecture, it is widely used the method of attaching sculptures, paintings or text symbols to convey information on the facade of the building. With the emergence of modernist architecture in the late 19th century, the new materials such as concrete, steel and glass gradually became the mainstream, coupled with the influence of modern abstraction art, figurative painting and sculpture in traditional architecture are gradually replaced by space and volume. In this building, the facade is ‘breathable’. The form and its articulated skin becomes a living organism that could respond and adpt to the environments. 2

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FIG.4 & 5Woods Bagot, South Australian Health And Medical Research Institute, 2013 <https://www.woodsbagot.com/ projects/south-australian-health-and-medical-research-institute> [Accessed 27 July 2018].

The relationship between the contemporary building facade and the information aided parametric design has undergone profound changes. The information is not attached to the building skin in an additional way, but is placed or immersed in the building skin and eventually becoming the part of it. This way of placing information in the skin rather than in an additional way, makes the building skin and information as a whole. The information symbols are no longer optional and pure decorations: information is the skin, the skin is the information. At the same time, contemporary architects continue to expand the boundaries of materials in practice, exploring new construction techniques, and a large number of unconventional architectural skin forms, which exercise some of the physical functions of the building skin to regulate outdoor climate resources to use for indoor activity, like what SAHMRI did. It represents a new trend in the design of the smart facade or building envelope.

1 Woods Bagot, South Australian Health And Medical Research Institute, 2013 <https://www.woodsbagot.com/projects/south-australian-health-and-medical-research-institute> [Accessed 27 July 2018]. 2 Woods Bagot, â&#x20AC;&#x153;South Australian Health And Medical Research Institute | Projects | Woods Bagotâ&#x20AC;?, Woodsbagot.Com, 2018 <https://www.woodsbagot.com/projects/south-australian-health-and-medical-researchinstitute> [Accessed 29 July 2018].

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1.2 CASE STUDY 02 2015 SUMMER ARCHITECTURE COMMISSION / PAVILION ARCHITECT : JOHN WARDLE ARCHITECTS LOCATION : MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA CLIENT : NATIONAL GALLERY OF VICTORIA (NGV) COMPLETION DATE: 2015

FIG 6. John Wardle Architects, The 2015 Summer Architecture Commission, 2015 <https://architectureau. com/articles/ngv-summer-architecture-commission-2015/> [Accessed 28 July 2018].

RECYCLABILITY & ARCHITECTURE John Wardle Architects’ design for the National Gallery of Victoria’s inaugural Summer Architecture Commission is a good example of Design Futuring in environmental aspect. Pavilion provides a small insertions into the urban fabric that offer up new possibilities for built form. With the notion of sustain-ability, Wardle and his team decided to use comtemporary affordance 3D modelling, innovative fabricated systems combining with the ad hoc and the handmade.1 There are 1350 hand-folded polypropylene flower-like elements fixed on the layer of timber battens, the outer shell is a lightweight arched structure made of precisionengineered steel. It is notable that, all the elemets on this pavilion are able to disassemble and re-use in the future. The material of the flower-like elements is polypropylene which is a ubiquitous material that Australian bank notes are also made out of. 2 This kind of recyclable and fexible building elements do benefits to

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FIG 7. John Wardle Architects, The 2015 Summer Architecture Commission, 2015 <https://architectureau. com/articles/ngv-summer-architecture-commission-2015/> [Accessed 28 July 2018].

the environments and future design. Moreover, this kind of steel grid shell is a 19th century structural system, and modelled using 3D programs. It’s all designed for fast assembly, with all the components made off site and installed in just 10 days. 2 Decrease the cost of time. It seems obvious that the flexible temporary building concept is surpassing the occasional popularity of boutique buildings. Following this trend, more and more “pop-up” or remodelable buildings and structural examples have emerged that have changed the city.

1 John Wardle Architects, The 2015 Summer Architecture Commission, 2015 <https://architectureau. com/articles/ngv-summer-architecture-commission-2015/> [Accessed 28 July 2018].

2 John Wardle Architects, The 2015 Summer Architecture Commission, 2015 <https://architectureau. com/articles/ngv-summer-architecture-commission-2015/> [Accessed 28 July 2018].

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION

The influence of digital technology on the construction-related fields has been continuously expanded and deepened. Since everything in the three-dimensional world can be digitized, which means could expressed and calculated using algorithmic equations. In this way, the building is no longer a building, but parameters. Then the modification of the parameters directly affects the results of a series of operations, and ultimately leads to different forms. Moreover, Kalay argued that computers are naturally superb analytical engines which follow the logical conclusion. On the other hand, computers lack of creativities, all the command should be input by human. 1 The complexity is composed of simple rules, which is exactly the breakthrough point of our use of computation in architectural design.

1

Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media: Principles, Theories, and

Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

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2.1 CASE STUDY 03 ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2014-15 ARCHITECT : ICD-ITKE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART LOCATION : STUTTGART, GERMANY COMPLETION DATE: 2015

The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 was inspired by the underwater nest construction of the water spider.1 This shell shape and main fiber bundle locations was founded by the computational form fiding program and then deepenly investigate the design parameters pavilion is based on biological light weight construction principles. As to achieve the nest appearance, the carbon fibres were used in as reinforcement element inside the pneumatic template. The team analyse the composite shell through compitational methods and tools, then compared to different fibre strategies, and finally choose the various fibre to layer on. The traditinal structure element might not be able to achieve the shape. Computatiopnal design is the crucial part to realise the project as it provides precise parametric calculations and help solve construction problems during the process.

FIG 8&9. â&#x20AC;&#x153;ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Constructionâ&#x20AC;?, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd. uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 4 August 2018].

1 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 4 August 2018].

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FIG 10. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 4 August 2018].

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2.2 CASE STUDY 04 MESH MOULD METAL ARCHITECT : ETH ZURICH COMPLETION DATE: 2015-18

“Mesh Mould”, is a research project developed by researchers at ETH Zurich in 2016. Aimed to revolutionise the construction of steel re-inforced concrete structures. This metal mesh is designed through computational tool, in a way to ensure that the mesh is dense enough to hold in the concrete so that it does not run out laterally. This The research of ‘Mesh Mould’ allows people to design complex structures without a traditional formwork with low production cost and save materials. Since the ‘mesh mould’ can be both of the formwork and reinforcement. Dunne emphasised the importance of speculative design since there are more possiblities. 1 The mesh Mould shows the ability to achieve more more performance-focused design that might useful in the future development of design.

FIG.11 Https://Www.Archdaily.Com/792079/Amazing-Robotically-Fabricated-Mesh-RevolutionizesHow-Concrete-Is-Formed-And-Reinforced/579A49c0e58ece2cea000041-Amazing-RoboticallyFabricated-Mesh-Revolutionizes-How-Concrete-Is-Formed-And-Reinforced-Image, 2015 <https:// www.archdaily.com/792079/amazing-robotically-fabricated-mesh-revolutionizes-how-concreteis-formed-and-reinforced/579a49c0e58ece2cea000041-amazing-robotically-fabricated-meshrevolutionizes-how-concrete-is-formed-and-reinforced-image> [Accessed 2 August 2018].

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FIG12&13. Https://Www.Archdaily.Com/792079/Amazing-Robotically-Fabricated-Mesh-Revolutionizes-How-Concrete-Is-Formed-And-Reinforced/579A49c0e58ece2cea000041-Amazing-RoboticallyFabricated-Mesh-Revolutionizes-How-Concrete-Is-Formed-And-Reinforced-Image, 2015 <https://www.archdaily.com/792079/amazing-robotically-fabricated-mesh-revolutionizes-how-concrete-isformed-and-reinforced/579a49c0e58ece2cea000041-amazing-robotically-fabricated-mesh-revolutionizes-how-concrete-is-formed-and-reinforced-image> [Accessed 2 August 2018].

1 Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45

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A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION

If we look back at the development of modern architecture in the twentieth century, the development of the technology generation and form composition were actually in a cross-helix rise route. The development of various technologies has continually promoted the advancement of architectural composition. Designs with technical support are more vital and contemporary. The development and change of design tools cannot simply be thought of as creating formal logic problems. If you think so, it may be slightly superficial. In fact, many of them are more deep-level things, such as the improvement of simulation tools, which can predict the environmental performance of the design almost accurately. The development of tools such as BIM may build the data of the rule specification class, perhaps directly with the factory. Or 3D printers combined with the production of building parts or the building itself, as the experience of architects and engineers, will be challenged. The era when all the people are architects may not be far behind.

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3.1 CASE STUDY 05 PROTOTYPE OF THE CABLE-NET AND FABRIC FORMED, FERROCEMENT SANDWICH SHELL ROOF OF NEST HILO ARCHITECT : ETH ZURICH, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE LOCATION : ZURICH, SWITZERLAND COMPLETION DATE: 2017

FIG 14. Block Research Group, ETH Zürich, 2017 <https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/ eth-news/news/2017/10/innovative-construction.html> [Accessed 9 August 2018].

This ultra-thin concrete roof is a prototype for exploring the potetial of combing cable net with fabric formwork, completed in 2017. It will be used in real construction project Hilo Penthouse in 2018. Algorithmic calculation was used to explore the geometric form based on hyperbolic paraboloid. The group wants to build up a complex concrete structure by using less material. Also try to use recycled steel cable. They used computation to generate the net and bounced the 2 dimensional net up to a 3 dimensional shape and the material they chose was the tensioned steel cables. Algorithmic design allows the precision of the structure of the roof as it cannot be collapsing. It ensures the structure being stable which all forces are equally distributed over the roof . With aid of digital design tools, the stressing force could be calculated as the form generated.

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FIG15. Diederik Veenendaal, Jack Bakker and Philippe Block, Structural Design Of The Cable-Net And Fabric Formed, Ferrocement Sandwich Shell Roof Of NEST Hilo (Amsterdam: IAAS, 2015), pp. 1-12 <https://www.research-collection.ethz.ch/handle/20.500.11850/110901> [Accessed 10 August 2018].

Figure above explains the computational design process of HiLo, consisting of form generation, structural analysis, and multi-criteria shape optimisation.

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3.2 CASE STUDY 06 ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-16 ARCHITECT : ICD-ITKE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART LOCATION : KEPLERSTRASSE 11, 70174 STUTTGART, GERMANY AREA: 85.0 sqm COMPLETION DATE: 2016

A paradigm of cross-border architecture, engineering and biology The ICD and the ITKE of the University of Stuttgart have completed a new research pavilion demonstrating robotic textile fabrication techniques for segmented timber shells. This pavilion was completed within a multi-disciplinary team of architects, engineers and biologists. The form generation was based on the studies on sea urchins. Natural segmented shell structure was analysed by arcgitects and biogisits, two species of the class Echinoidea (sea urchin) and the order Clypeasteroida (sand dollar) were identified as particularly promising for the transfer of morphological principles. Due to its distinct biological principles, they developed a double-layered structure. This project explore the meterial and structural logic of wood which expand the potial of materiality. It is the first of its kind to employ industrial sewing of wood elements on an architectural scale which showcase the potential of computational design, simulation and fabrication processes in architecture. The highlight of this project is that the form is inspired by nature and trough generative design to realize it as a real world pavilion.

FIG 16&17. â&#x20AC;&#x153;ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 | Achimmenges. Netâ&#x20AC;?, Achimmenges.Net, 2016 <http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=5822> [Accessed 10 August 2018].

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FIG 18. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 | Achimmenges.Net”, Achimmenges.Net, 2016 <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5822> [Accessed 10 August 2018].

FIG 19. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 | Achimmenges.Net”, Achimmenges.Net, 2016 <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5822> [Accessed 10 August 2018].

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A.4 CONCLUSION In short conclusion, parametric design greatly expands the design imagination and creativity. From the presentation of the design style, we also see more and more architectural works with complex and digital aesthetics, including the generation and application of corresponding new materials. Looking back at the history of architecture, the most cutting-edge technology of any era will become a culture that represents that era to a certain extent. From this perspective, parameterization brings about not only technological innovation, but also thinking and philosophical aspects. Today is the era of plural coexistence.

A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES Computation become increasingly relevant in the realm of design. Through Part A, I gained some knowledge regarding to computational design and the theoretical background. Also have begun to learn more about Grasshopper, algorithms, inputs and outputs. As a begginer, it is a little bit hard to thoroughly understand the algorithmic thinking, but I will overcome it in the next coming weeks.

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A.6. APPENDIX ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

CARLTON, VIC


1

FENCES - Carlton, VIC - Windsor pickets

2 1. build 4 vertical curevs in rhino, then reference each of them in grasshopper. 2. array curves in direction of x dimension with interval of 10 and number of 20. 3. bake the geometry in Rhino. Iterations: open [points on] the control point of each curves in rhino, do iterations.

3

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5

Comments: The initial intend is to keep the original windsor shape of the fences. Limited space for design There are easier ways to build fences in grasshopper without using the command of LOFT. In order to get more intersting iterations with using LOFT command, I started with doing 2-dimensional surface first. Grasp the abstract shape of the fence which is simply straight lines, then loft them into a surface. Less is more

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REFERENCE Block Research Group, ETH Zürich, 2017 <https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/ethnews/news/2017/10/innovative-construction.html> [Accessed 9 August 2018] BBC NEWS, “What Could Disappear On ‘Hothouse Earth’”, BBC News, 2018 <https:// www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-45096740> [Accessed 7 August 2018] Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics And New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), pp. 1-16 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction, Icd. Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 4 August 2018] ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 | Achimmenges.Net, Achimmenges.Net, 2016 <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5822> [Accessed 10 August 2018] John Wardle Architects, The 2015 Summer Architecture Commission, 2015 <https://architectureau. com/articles/ngv-summer-architecture-commission-2015/> [Accessed 28 July 2018] Veenendaal, Diederik, Jack Bakker, and Philippe Block, Structural Design Of The Cable-Net And Fabric Formed, Ferrocement Sandwich Shell Roof Of NEST Hilo (Amsterdam: IAAS, 2015), pp. 1-12 <https:// www.research-collection.ethz.ch/handle/20.500.11850/110901> [Accessed 10 August 2018] “What Could Disappear On ‘Hothouse Earth’”, BBC News, 2018 <https://www. bbc.com/news/newsbeat-45096740> [Accessed 7 August 2018] Woods Bagot, South Australian Health And Medical Research Institute, 2013 <https://www.woodsbagot. com/projects/south-australian-health-and-medical-research-institute> [Accessed 27 July 2018] Woods Bagot, “South Australian Health And Medical Research Institute | Projects | Woods Bagot”, Woodsbagot.Com, 2013 <https://www.woodsbagot.com/projects/southaustralian-health-and-medical-research-institute> [Accessed 29 July 2018]

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