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LAW REVIEW Policing and Searching at Yale Analyzing the rise of discrimination against students in light of recent campus arrests.

On to The Big Bench: The Life and Work of Elena Kagan Kagan’s life is studded with achievements, but as the newest member of the nation’s highest court, she has only begun to forge her legacy.

Why Study Law at Oxford? A comparison of legal education in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Interview with Harvard Law School’s Dean of Admissions Fall 2010, Issue I, Volume I


THE YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW WWW.YULR.ORG INFO@YULR.ORG

EDITORAL BOARD AND STAFF

LETTER FROM THE EDITOR:

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF DAVID CHAN

Welcome to the inaugural issue of the Yale Undergraduate Law Review! We are glad that you have chosen to pick up a copy of Yale’s latest and only publication focusing on law and legal education, and we are sure that you will like it. The editorial team has been working hard over the past few months to put this issue together, and we are proud to present it to you today.

MANAGING EDITORS DAVID TRINH MENGJIA YANG Publisher WILL ROBLES ASSISTANT EDITORS JARED BARAGAR JENNIFER BRIGHT JUAN CABALLERO MAX CHO PAULO COELHO FILHO ANDRENE DABAGHI NADIA DANFORD SAMUEL GAMER JULIO GARZON ALEXANDRA HESS CARYS JOHNSON ROBERT KLIPPER LAUREN KOSTER HARRY KOULOS TOBIAS KUEHNE CHRISTOPHER LEE JORDAN OROSZ EWELINA RUDNICKA DANIEL SPECTOR BEAU WITTMER MIMI WU SOPHIA YOO

COPY EDITORS ERIN BIEL JACLYN DELLIGATTI MINDY GEE ANDREW SQUIRE PHOTO EDITORS GRACE PATUWO ALLISON RABKIN-GOLDEN FINANCE ELIZABETH CUI ERIN FACKLER ALLEN GRANZBERG MARKETING WILLIAM DESMOND KATHERINE GIACCONE CATHERINE MORRIS NICOLE NEGBENEBOR EMILY ROSENBERG

Regardless of whether you are interested to go to law school, or keen to learn more about developments in American and International law, or just love to read, we are confident that this issue will have something that will pique your interest. Covering topics from Brazilian Favelas, Sharia Law and Treason, to the recent campus arrests, Citizens United, and the Kagan confirmation, this issue offers a comprehensive overview of the key concerns facing Yale, our nation and the world. We have also interviewed Josh Rubenstein, Harvard Law’s Dean of Admissions, Joe Calve, Chief Marketing Officer at Morrison and Foerster LLP, and Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court, Margaret Marshall, and believe that you will enjoy their sharing. We would also like to hear what you think about our first issue! Drop me a line at editor@yulr.org, and we will definitely be in touch. Also, if you are thinking of writing for us, or would like to be part of our editorial board, do contact me as well – we would love to have you in the family. Finally, as Chief Justice Earl Warren once wrote, ‘it is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive’ – we hope this publication will cultivate a spirit of discourse about law and its intersection with other spheres of society here at Yale, and be the first step in molding the next generation of lawyer-leaders. Enjoy!

BOARD OF ADVISORS JAMES SILK CLINICAL PROFESSOR OF LAW, ALLARD K. LOWENSTEIN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS CLINIC, AND EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, ORVILLE H. SCHELL, JR. CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS, YALE LAW SCHOOL LINDA GREENHOUSE SENIOR RESEARCH SCHOLAR IN LAW, KNIGHT DISTINGUISHED JOURNALIST-IN-RESIDENCE, AND JOSEPH GOLDSTEIN LECTURER IN LAW, YALE LAW SCHOOL

David Chan Editor-In-Chief Yale Undergraduate Law Review ____________________________________________________ THE YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE FOLLOWING ORGANIZATIONS AT YALE UNIVERSITY FOR THEIR GENEROUS SUPPORT: ORVILLE H. SCHELL, JR. CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS, YALE LAW SCHOOL

UNDERGRADUATE ORGANIZATIONS FUNDING COMMITTEE (UOFC) ____________________________________________________ All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the express written consent of the Yale Undergraduate Law Review.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


FALL 2010 ISSUE 1, VOLUME 1 ______________ Domestic Law Hello, Citizens United, My Name Is Santa Clara: A brief history of corporate personhood in America, Beau Wittmer Examining both sides of an age-old debate, it’s hard to say who’s right - or rather, who has what rights.

[1]

Double Take: Corporate Personhood, Jordan Orosz Since our nation’s founding, courts have continually knocked down limitations on corporate activity.

[4]

The Treason Clause and Free Speech, Robert Klipper <ZMI[WV"IVIOMWTLWNNMV[MJ]\PW_[PW]TL_M^QM_Q\QV\PMÅOP\IOIQV[\\MZZWZQ[U'

[7]

The Puerto Rican Predicament: A Look at Puerto Rico’s Past to Understand its Future, Juan Caballero +I]OP\QVI[\I\MWN XWTQ\QKITTQUJWNWZW^MZIKMV\]Za\PMQ[TIVLUIaÅVITTaJMWVIXI\P\W statehood.

[17]

On to the Big Bench: The Life and Work of Elena Kagan, Beau Wittmer Kagan’s life is studded with achievements, but as the newest member of the nation’s highest court, she’s only begun to forge her legacy.

[20]

The Mandate: Can Congress Tell Us What to Buy?, Jared Baragar The health insurance mandate included in the recent health care reform bill should be considered constitutional, and the proof is in the commerce.

[24]

International Law The Legitimacy of Law in the Brazilian Urban Slums: A Sociological Inquiry IJW]\<_W+WVÆQK\QVO.WZU[WN ;WKQIT7ZLMZ, Paulo Coelho Filho  0W_KIVNI^MTIQVPIJQ\IV\[ZM[XMK\*ZIbQTQIVTI_QN \PMaNMMTQ\M`KT]LM[\PMU'

[27]

Laws of Poverty: Citizenship Rights for Brazil’s Urban Poor, Andrene Dabaghi  1V\PMÅOP\IOIQV[\XW^MZ\aTI_XTIa[IKZ]KQITZWTMQVXZWUW\QVOMKWVWUQKIVL[WKQITLM^MTWXUMV\

[31]

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: European Union Fiscal Policy, Carys Johnson and Tobias Kuehne A look at the European Unionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Special Purpose Vehicle Emergency Fund, in light of the recent European Union Financial Crisis.

[36]

The Legal Problem of Trade Linkage and Judicial Policy Harmonization in the WTO, Nadia Danford Understanding World Trade Organization Jurisprudence and Dispute Settlement

[44]

Sharia Law in the International Legal Sphere, Mimi Wu A Study of Sharia Law in Theory and in Practice

[50]

Legal Education Why Study Law at Oxbridge?, Tobias Kuehne A Comparison of Legal Education in the United States and the United Kingdom

[55]

:MĂ&#x2020;MK\QWV[WV?WZSQVOI\\PMAITM4I_;KPWWT, Laurent Koster Working at the Yale Law Library is much more enlightening than you would think.

[60]

The Bottom Billion by Paul Collier, Andrene Dabaghi  0W_^ITQLQ[\PMZMTI\QWV[PQXJM\_MMVTI_IVLLM^MTWXUMV\')VI[[M[[UMV\WV8I]T+WTTQMZÂź[XZWXW[ITNWZ poverty alleviation.

[62]

Interviews Interview: Josh Rubenstein, Dean of Admissions, Harvard Law School, Jennifer Bright and David Chan

[65]

1V\MZ^QM_"2WM+IT^M+PQMN 5IZSM\QVO7NĂ&#x2026;KMZI\5WZZQ[WV.WMZ[\MZ448, Katherine Giaccone

[70]

Interview: Massachusetts Supreme Court Chief Justice Margaret Marshall, Samuel Gamer

[72]

8ZWĂ&#x2026;TM"6W\AW]Z<aXQKIT4I_aMZ"5IZK?I[[MZUIV, Christopher Lee

[75]

;XMKQITAITM.MI\]ZM 8WTQKQVOIVL;MIZKPQVOI\AITM"<PM:Q[MWN ,M[KZQUQVI\QWV)OIQV[\;\]LMV\[, Will Robles

[77]

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Domestic Law

Hello, Citizens United, My Name Is Santa Clara: A brief history of corporate personhood in America Beau Wittmer

~

“With today’s monumental decision, the Supreme Court took an important step in the direction of restoring the First Amendment rights of these groups.” -Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY)i ¹<WLIa¼[+W]Z\LMKQ[QWVZMRMK\[aZ[WN XZMKMLMV\IVLW]ZLMUWKZI\QKXZQVKQXTM[° The decision affects the legitimacy of elections everywhere - we need to consider a Constitutional amendment.” -Sen. Arlen Specter (D-PA)ii Such has been the debate about Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission, the recent case overturning much of the past decade’s KIUXIQOVÅVIVKMTI_[;W_PaPI^MZMIK\QWV[JMMVI[UQ`MLI[5K+WVVMTT¼[IVL;XMK\MZ¼['1\Q[VW\UMZMTaXWTQ\QKIT\PW]OPKMZ\IQVTaXWTQ\QK[PI[QVÆ]MVKMLUIVaZMIK\QWV[J]\I\PMIZ\Q[ITMOITKWV]VLZ]U\PI\KWUXTQKI\M[\PMUI\\MZ"?PMVIZMKWZXWZI\QWV[ KWV[QLMZMLTMOITXMZ[WV['<PMY]M[\QWVPI[JMMVLMJI\ML[QVKM\PM\QUMWN 0IUQT\WVIVL2MNNMZ[WVIVLKWV\QV]M[\WLIa1N WVMQ[ to truly understand this most recent ruling, one needs to understand at least the most basic history behind “corporate personhood” in America. Corporate personhood is the term describing the designation of corporations as legal entities separate and distinct from their owners with their own privileges and responsible for their own liabilities as “legal persons” subject to the law in roughly the same manVMZI[QVLQ^QL]ITKQ\QbMV[1V\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[U]KPWN \PMLMJI\MQVZMKMV\\QUM[PI[NWK][MLWV\PMIXXTQKI\QWVWN \PQ[KWVKMX\ QVZMNMZMVKM\W\PM\MZU¹XMZ[WVº_Q\PQV;MK\QWV7VMWN \PM.W]Z\MMV\P)UMVLUMV\" All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.iii AM\\PMLMJI\MXZMLI\M[M^MV\PMZI\QÅKI\QWVWN \PM.W]Z\MMV\P)UMVLUMV\JaNIZ1VNIK\\PMLMJI\MJMOIVQVUIVa_Ia[I\\PM very founding of the country with the argument between men like Jefferson arguing against the establishment or chartering of IVI\QWVITJIVSIVMNNWZ\N]TTa[]XXWZ\MLJa0IUQT\WVIVLW\PMZ[<PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\¼[Z]TQVOQVMcCulloch v. Maryland settled \PQ[Y]M[\QWVWN QVKWZXWZI\QWVI[+PQMN 2][\QKM2WPV5IZ[PITT_ZW\M¹<PMXW_MZWN M[\IJTQ[PQVOIKWZXWZI\QWVQ[VW\ILQ[\QVK\ sovereign power or end of Government, but only the means of carrying into effect other powers which are sovereign. Whenever it JMKWUM[IVIXXZWXZQI\MUMIV[WN M`MZKQ[QVOIVaWN \PMXW_MZ[OQ^MVJa\PM+WV[\Q\]\QWV\W\PM/W^MZVUMV\WN \PM=VQWVQ\UIa JMM`MZKQ[MLJa\PI\/W^MZVUMV\ºiv The debate was hardly ended, though, as James Madison and others continued to press that QVKZMI\QVOIV¹IZ\QÅKQITXMZ[WVXZM^QW][TaVW\M`Q[\QVOQVTI_IVLCKWVNMZZQVOEQUXWZ\IV\KQ^QTZQOP\[IVLI\\ZQJ]\M[_PQKPKW]TLVW\ otherwise be claimed,” Congress was treading on dangerous territory of upending the superiority of the citizen’s voice.v

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YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


Hello, +Q\QbMV[=VQ\ML, My Name is Santa Clara

President Jackson, of course, famously vetoed the creation WN \PM;MKWVL*IVSWN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[J]\\PMMIZTa!\P KMV\]ZaKWV\IQVMLI\TMI[\WVMW\PMZQUXWZ\IV\Ă&#x2026;OP\W^MZKWZXWZI\MZQOP\[1VDartmouth College v. Woodward, the Court held that the charter of Dartmouth College was to be honored Ja6M_0IUX[PQZMI[[\I\MLQV)Z\QKTM1;MK\QWVWN \PM +WV[\Q\]\QWV šVW [\I\M [PITT°XI[[ IVa JQTT WN  I\\IQVLMZ M` post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts.â&#x20AC;?vi As such, the Court interpreted the Constitution to mean not only contracts amongst citizens, but also amongst corpora\QWV[1V\MZM[\QVOTa\PW]OP5IZ[PITTNMT\KWUXMTTML\W_ZQ\M QV\PM[IUMWXQVQWV\PI\KWZXWZI\QWV[_MZM" )Z\QĂ&#x2026;KQITJMQVOC[EQV^Q[QJTMQV\IVOQJTMIVLM`Q[\QVOWVTaQV contemplation of law. Being the mere creature of law, it possesses only those properties which the charter of its creation confers upon it, either expressly or as incidental to its very existence. These are such as are supposed best calculated to effect the object for which it was created. Among the most important are immortality, and if the expression may be allowed, individuality properties by which a perpetual succession of many persons are considered, as the same, and may act as the single individual, They enable a corporation to manage its own affairs, and to hold property without the perplexing intricacies, the hazardous and endless necessity of perpetual conveyance for the purpose of transmitting it from hand to hand. It is KPQMĂ&#x2020;aNWZ\PMX]ZXW[MWN KTW\PQVOJWLQM[WN UMVQV[]KKM[sion, with these qualities and capacities, that corporations were invented, and are in use.vii 5IZ[PITTÂź[LM[QOVI\QWVWN KWZXWZI\QWV[I[šIZ\QĂ&#x2026;KQITXMZ[WV[Âş much as Madison had argued, is an important distinction, for Q\\PMVTMI^M[\PMY]M[\QWV]VIV[_MZMLWN _PI\ZQOP\[VI\]

ZITXMZ[WV[MOKQ\QbMV[IZMMV\Q\TML\W\PI\IZ\QĂ&#x2026;KQITXMZ[WV[ are not. DartmouthKMZ\IQVTaJMOIV\WZM^WT]\QWVQbM\PMTMOITLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV of a corporation, but it preceded drastic change in the reality WN \PMKWZXWZI\QWVQV)UMZQKI1V\PM_ISMWN \PM+Q^QT?IZ and as Americans began to move west in greater numbers, the late nineteenth century gave rise to the modern, large corporations through railroad companies and other largescale industrial projects. As industrialization of the country began to take hold, corporations became much more commonplace, and the issue of corporate charters became often \PML]\aWN IVWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[]KPI[\PM[MKZM\IZaWN [\I\MZI\PMZ than a legislative body, such as the state senate.viii States beOIV \W XMV OMVMZIT QVKWZXWZI\QWV TI_[ \PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\ _ZQ\\MV QV +WVVMK\QK]\QV NWZšIVaTI_N]TJ][QVM[[ÂşQ` As would be M`XMK\MLUWZMTI_[]Q\[IVLKI[M[W^MZ_PI\\PM[MKWZXWZItions were entitled to do, especially across state lines, came before the American courts. Many railroad regulation cases reached the courts, often centered on the debate of whether [\I\M[KW]TL[M\UI`QU]UZI\M[NWZ[]KPKWUXIVQM[1V Munn v. Illinois, the Court held that a private company may be regulated in pursuit of the public interest and that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give substantial ground to the claim that the state could not regulate this corporate person.` <PMV QV   \PM +W]Z\ LMKQLML \PM KI[M WN  Santa Clara +W]V\a ^ ;W]\PMZV 8IKQĂ&#x2026;K :IQTZWIL, and law seemed to take a LZI[\QK\]ZV1VWVMWN \PMUWZMQV\MZM[\QVOIVLJQbIZZM[\Wries in the history of the Supreme Court, the case looked PMILMLNWZINIQZTa]VKWV\ZW^MZ[QITZ]TQVO"I[NMVKM[_MZMVW\ TQ[\ML]VLMZ\PMXZW^Q[QWV[NWZ\I`I[[M[[UMV\Ja\PMKW]V\aQV +ITQNWZVQIÂź[[\I\MKWV[\Q\]\QWV\PMKW]V\aÂź[\I`I[[M[[UMV\QVKT]LQVONMVKM[_I[QTTMOITIVLKWV[MY]MV\Ta\PMKW]V\aKW]TL VW\ ZMKW^MZ \PM MV\QZM \I`  *]\ \PMV QV I XI[[QVO ZMUIZS an obiter dictum, Chief Justice Morrison Waite uttered before IZO]UMV\[\PMNWTTW_QVO" The court does not wish to hear argument on the question whether the provision in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws, applies to these corporations. We are all of the opinion that it does.xii

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward, 1819 (WordPress)

The court reporter, a former railroad company president VIUML *IVKZWN\ ,I^Q[ \WWS LW_V \PM ZMUIZS 0W_M^MZ the mention of such corporate personhood does not appear in the Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actual unanimous opinion, only in the court syllabus. Though some have used his past ties with railroad KWUXIVQM[\WTI]VKPIKWVĂ&#x2020;QK\WN QV\MZM[\KPIZOMIOIQV[\,Ivis, it should be noted that the eventual publication of this statement did receive judicial acknowledgment. As writers like Jack Beatty have reported, Davis wrote to Chief Justice ?IQ\MIJW]\\PM[\I\MUMV\\W_PQKP?IQ\MZMXTQML"

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Domestic Law

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I leave it with you to determine whether anything need be said about it in the report inasmuch as we avoided meeting the constitutional question in the decision.â&#x20AC;?xiii So, did the Chief Justice really mean to rule that corpora\QWV[PIL.W]Z\MMV\P)UMVLUMV\ZQOP\[' The case becomes stranger when, almost a decade later, the Court in Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Ry. Co. v. Ellis held that š1\ Q[ _MTT [M\\TML \PI\ KWZXWZI\QWV[ IZM XMZ[WV[ _Q\PQV \PM provisions of the fourteenth amendment of the constitution WN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ÂşKQ\QVOIUWVO[\W\PMZKI[M[Santa Clara as precedent.`Q^<PMVM`\\PQZ\aaMIZ[WZ[WWN\MVKITTML\PM LochnerMZIQVZMNMZMVKM\W\PM!Z]TQVO_MZMUIZSMLJa court rulings striking down wage, hour, and workplace laws and law enforcement busting unions. The eraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s namesake, Lochner v. New York was itself a ruling striking down a New AWZSTI_[M\\QVOUI`QU]UPW]Z[NWZIJISMZ]VLMZ\PMZQOP\[ of individual contract protected by the Fourteenth Amendment.`^ There was pushback to all this, seen in the Tillman )K\ WN  ! JIVVQVO KWZXWZI\M KWV\ZQJ]\QWV[ \W XWTQ\QKIT KIVLQLI\M[IVL\PMQZKIUXIQOV[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\KIUXIQOVĂ&#x2026;VIVKM legislation in America. Though, it should be noted that the act could just as well have been created by notorious racist South Carolina Democrat Benjamin Tillman in order to K]ZJ \PM XW_MZ IVL QVĂ&#x2020;]MVKM WN  \PM :MX]JTQKIV 8IZ\a [W U]KPUWZMQVĂ&#x2020;]MV\QITIVLNZQMVLTa\WKWZXWZI\QWV[QV[\MIL of for a truly more moral or legal reason.`^Q Nevertheless, without enforcement of these and like efforts, it was not reITTa]V\QT!\PI\\PMLochner era came to an end in the case of West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, in which the Court upheld the constitutionality of a minimum wage law in Washington due in part at least to a â&#x20AC;&#x153;compelling consideration which reKMV\MKWVWUQKM`XMZQMVKMPI[JZW]OP\QV\WI[\ZWVOTQOP\° C\PI\\PMEM`XTWQ\I\QWVWN IKTI[[WN _WZSMZ[_PWIZMQVIV]VMY]ITXW[Q\QWV_Q\PZM[XMK\\WJIZOIQVQVOXW_MZIVLIZM\P][ relatively defenseless against the denial of a living wage is not only detrimental to their health and well being, but casts a direct burden for their support upon the community.â&#x20AC;?^`QQ With such a ruling, the Court seemed to intimate, at least, that the liberties and well-being of one type of person, a corporation, were subject to the greater liberties and well-being of another person, a citizen, a worker. Even during the Lochner era, though, the Court seemed to leave room for debate over the nature of corporate personPWWLZ]TQVOQV!QVNorthwestern National Life Insurance Co. v. Riggs\PI\šQ\Q[MY]ITTa\PMLWK\ZQVMWN \PQ[KW]Z\\PI\\PM power, whether called police, governmental, or legislative, M`Q[\[ QV MIKP [\I\M Ja IXXZWXZQI\M TMOQ[TI\QWV°Ÿ\W ZMO]TI\M the relative rights and duties of all persons and corporations within its jurisdiction, and, therefore, to provide for the public convenience and the public good.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;â&#x20AC;?`^QQQ The Court has always seemed to allow leeway for regulation, without clearly ever LMĂ&#x2026;VQVO\W_PI\M`\MV\\PMOW^MZVUMV\KIVZMO]TI\M\IKSTQVO objectionable regulations on an individual case basis.

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Much of the last hundred years has been marked by similar rulings on corporate personhood, but has gradually moved away from business regulation laws and towards campaign Ă&#x2026;VIVKQVO)[IUXTQVO" The equal protection clause extends to foreign corporations within the jurisdiction of the state, and safeguards to them protection of TI_[ IXXTQML MY]ITTa \W ITT QV \PM [IUM [Q\]I\QWV° CJ]\ELWM[VW\LM\ZIK\NZWU\PMZQOP\WN \PM[\I\MR][\Ta\WM`MZ\Q\[\I`QVOXW_MZWZXZM^MV\Q\NZWUILR][\ing its legislation to differences in situation or forbid KTI[[QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWVQV\PI\KWVVMK\QWVÂťJ]\Q\LWM[ZMY]QZM \PI\\PMKTI[[QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWVJMVW\IZJQ\ZIZaJ]\JI[MLWV a real and substantial difference having a reasonable relation to the subject of the particular legislation.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Quaker City Cab Co. v. Pennsylvania! `Q` â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quaker City Cab Co. v. Pennsylvania is only a relic of a bygone era. We cannot follow it and [\Ia _Q\PQV \PM VIZZW_ KWVĂ&#x2026;VM[ WN  R]LQKQIT ZM^QM_ which is an important part of our constitutional tradition.â&#x20AC;? - Lehnhausen v. Lake Shore Auto Parts Co! š<PM[\I\]\MI\Q[[]M°XZWPQJQ\[IXXMTTIV\[\_WVItional banking associations and three business corpoZI\QWV[NZWUUISQVOKWV\ZQJ]\QWV[WZM`XMVLQ\]ZM[ šNWZ\PMX]ZXW[MWN QVĂ&#x2020;]MVKQVOWZINNMK\QVO\PM ^W\MWVIVaY]M[\QWV[]JUQ\\ML\W\PM^W\MZ[W\PMZ than one materially affecting any of the property, J][QVM[[ WZ I[[M\[ WN  \PM KWZXWZI\QWVº°Because [that statute] challenged by appellants prohibits protected speech in a manner unjustiĂ&#x2026;ML Ja I KWUXMTTQVO [\I\M QV\MZM[\ Q\ U][\ be invalidated.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; First National Bank of Boston ^*MTTW\\Q! `` šC<EPM ]VQY]M [\I\MKWVNMZZML KWZXWZI\M [\Z]K\]ZM that facilitates the amassing of large treasuries warZIV\[ \PM TQUQ\ WV QVLMXMVLMV\ M`XMVLQ\]ZM[ CorXWZI\M _MIT\P KIV ]VNIQZTa QVĂ&#x2020;]MVKM MTMKtions when it is deployed in the form of independent expenditures, just as it can when it assumes the guise of political contributions.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce !!``Q š<PQ[ +W]Z\ Q[ KWVNZWV\ML _Q\P KWVĂ&#x2020;QK\QVO TQVM[ WN  XZMKMLMV\"IXZM)][\QVTQVMNWZJQLLQVO[XMMKPZMstrictions based on the speakerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corporate identity IVLIXW[\)][\QVTQVMXMZUQ\\QVO\PMU°\PQ[+W]Z\ VW_ KWVKT]LM[ \PI\ QVLMXMVLMV\ M`XMVLQ\]ZM[ QVcluding those made by corporations, do not give rise to corruption or the appearance of corruption. <PI\[XMISMZ[UIaPI^MQVĂ&#x2020;]MVKMW^MZWZIKKM[[\W MTMK\MLWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[LWM[VW\UMIV\PI\\PW[MWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[IZM KWZZ]X\°<PM+W]Z\ZM\]ZV[\W\PMXZQVKQXTMM[\IJlished in Buckley and Bellotti that the Government

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Double Take: Corporate Personhood may not suppress political speech based on the speakerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corporate identity.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission``QQ Multiple charges can be leveled against the Citizens United LMKQ[QWV"\WWJZWILIZ]TQVONZWU\WWVIZZW_OZW]VL[LQ[ZMgarding recent precedent, and not deferring to legislative preZWOI\Q^M0W_M^MZI\PMIZ\\PMLMKQ[QWVPIZSMV[JIKS\WIV WTLLMJI\MWVM\PI\UMZQ\[LMMXKWV[QLMZI\QWV"IZMKWZXWZItions legal persons, and, if so, what kind of persons are they IVL_Q\P_PI\ZQOP\['1V+Q\QbMV[=VQ\MLI\TMI[\\PM+W]Z\ has cast its lot with those who maintain that a legal personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s QLMV\Q\a I[ I KWZXWZI\QWV [PW]TL VW\ QUXIK\ Q\[ M`MZKQ[M WN  free speech. Whether you, dear reader, agree with this is your own call to make; at least this background will hopefully help you understand and respect the objections and claims of the other side. Regardless of whichever side you agree with, you will be wading into an age-old controversy that will not be ZM[WT^ML [WWV 8MZPIX[ ;MV ;XMK\MZ Q[ ZQOP\" XMZPIX[ WVTa something with the power of a constitutional amendment will be the only answer in the end. Beau Wittmer is a sophomore in Ezra Stiles College.

______________________________________________ Reactions to the Supreme Court reversing limits on corporate spending in political campaigns, ?I[PQVO\WV8W[\2IV ii Tony Romm, Specter pitches constitutional amendment in response to Citizens United case<PM0QTT2IV iv =;+WV[\IUMVL@1>Â&#x2039; iv McCulloch v. Maryland=; ! v ,I^QL 0 /IV[ IVL ,W]OTI[ < 3MVLITT A Capitalist Joker: The Strange Origins, Disturbing Past and Unceratin Future of Corporate Personhood in American Law I^IQTIJTMWVTQVMI\P\\X"___ \PM][KWV[\Q\]\QWVWZO]XTWILNKSĂ&#x2026;TM.QTMG[\WZIOM) +IXQ\ITQ[\ 2WSMZXLN vi =;+WV[\IZ\1Â&#x2039; vii Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward=;  ! viii Adolf A. Berle, Jr. & Gardiner C. Means, The Modern Corporation and Private Property, ! Q` 1L ` Munn v. State of Illinois!=;  `Q Santa Clara County v. Southern Pac. R. Co =;!  `QQ 1LI\ `QQQ Jack Beatty, Age of Betrayal: The Triumph of Money in America  !  `Q^ Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Ry. Co. v. Ellis=; ! `^ Lochner v. New York! =;! `^Q 0IV[ ^WV ;XISW^[Sa The Truth About President Obama and Citizens United<PM0MZQ\IOM.W]VLI\QWV2IV I^IQTIJTMI\ P\\X"JTWOPMZQ\IOMWZO \PM\Z]\PIJW]\XZM[QLMV\WJIUIIVLKQ\QbMV[]VQ\ML `^QQ West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish=;!! `^QQQ Northwestern National Life Ins. Co. v. Riggs=;! xix Quaker City Cab Co. v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, =; ! !  `` First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti=;!  xxi Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce!=;!!``QQCitizens United v. Federal Election Commission =; i

Double Take: Corporate Personhood Jordan Orosz

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I hope we shall crush in its birth the aristocracy of our monied corporations which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength, and bid defiance to the laws of our country. -Thomas Jefferson š1ÂźU° 1ÂźU ZMIT  1ÂźU I ZMIT JWa Âş  <PM X]XXM\ 8QVWKKPQW M`KTIQUML\PM[MNIUW][_WZL[_PMV\PM*T]M.IQZaOZIV\ML him the gift of life. Corporations across America were chiming in right alongside everyoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s favorite marionette once the full implications of the Supreme Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision in Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission emerged. Like the Blue Fairy waving her magic wand, the Court granted corporations another privilege of the living with a strike of the gavel. <PMKWV\ZW^MZ[QITZ]TQVOQV2IV]IZaMTQUQVI\MLKWZXWZI\M spending limits, among other restrictions, on political campaigns. American companies are now permitted to buy as much time as they want, when they want, for electioneering communications. Previously, corporate-sponsored advertiseUMV\[ NWZ WZ IOIQV[\ XWTQ\QKIT KIVLQLI\M[ _MZM JIVVML  LIa[JMNWZMIXZQUIZaMTMK\QWVIVLLIa[JMNWZMIOMVMZIT MTMK\QWV6W_\PM[MIL[_QTTJMITTW_ML\WĂ&#x2020;WWLW]ZIQZ_I^M[ and publications unimpeded. To put this in perspective, the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) reported that the ReX]JTQKIVIVL,MUWKZI\QKXIZ\QM[[XMV\I\W\ITWN  JQTTQWV QVIVL Fortune Magazine found that the combined XZWĂ&#x2026;\[WN \PM\WX\MVUW[\XZWĂ&#x2026;\IJTMKWUXIVQM[IUW]V\ML\W W^MZ JQTTQWV This means that if these ten companies [XMV\R][\WVMXMZKMV\WN \PMQZXZWĂ&#x2026;\[WVXWTQ\QKITKIUXIQOV[ they could more than double what the Democrats and RepubliKIV[[XMVL1UIOQVM_PI\_QTTPIXXMV_PMVITTWN KWZXWZI\M America enters the fray. While Citizens United was indeed a landmark decision with [\QZZQVOQUXTQKI\QWV[NWZ\PMN]\]ZMWN KIUXIQOVĂ&#x2026;VIVKMKWZporate law, and First Amendment rights, it is merely a small step in the long march of American corporations away from

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Domestic Law their surprisingly meager beginnings at the time of our nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s founding. Think of it as the shift from your average, M^MZaLIaTIUX\W\PMOMVQMMY]QXXML^IZQM\aIJTM\W\ZIV[NWZU IVL M`XIVL Q\[ IJQTQ\QM[ M`XWVMV\QITTa ZM[\ZIQVML WVTa by the will of the man who releases its power. This evolution Q[Ă&#x2026;ZUTaZWW\MLQV\PMPQ[\WZaWN \PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\NZWUQ\[ QVKMX\QWVQV!\W\PM:WJMZ\[KW]Z\WN \WLIa

0W_M^MZ W^MZ \PM KW]Z[M WN  \PM  [ KWZXWZI\M TI_aMZ[ especially those working for the railroad companies of the time, whittled away at the charter system by taking case after case to the Supreme Court. Corporations gained the gift of eternal life with charters granted â&#x20AC;&#x153;in perpetuityâ&#x20AC;?. The genMZITKPIZ\MZZMXTIKML\PMXZWRMK\[XMKQĂ&#x2026;K^IZQM\aITTW_QVONWZ M`IUXTM5QVVM[W\I5QVQVOIVL5IV]NIK\]ZM1VK\WUISM Post-it Notes, and Nokia to morph from a paper company to the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest producer of mobile phones. Limited liability investment contracts became increasingly common, allowing corporations to raise sums unimaginable at the beginning of the century, and causing these same companies to take risks that would never have been contemplated if their shareholders bore the full burden of debt. Companies gained the ability to own each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shares, allowing them \WM`XIVLIVLKWTT]LM*M\_MMV !IVL!VMIZTa  KWUXIVQM[KWV[WTQLI\MLQV\W\Z][\[WZKWZXWZI\QWV[

It is telling that neither Karl Marx (Flickr) Our founding fathers took a suspicious view of corporations. <PMQZM`XMZQMVKM[_Q\P\PM*ZQ\Q[P-I[\1VLQI+WUXIVa_MZM enough to make the treatment of corporations a key topic as they drafted our founding documents. James Madison JZW]OP\]X\PMQ[[]MVWTM[[\PIVĂ&#x2026;^M\QUM[I\\PM+WV[\Q\]tional Convention. The framers decided not to give the federal government the power to charter, or create and restrict, a corporation because they feared it would bestow too much XW_MZWV\PMĂ&#x2020;MLOTQVOOW^MZVUMV\1V[\MIL\PQ[XW_MZ_I[ OZIV\ML\W[\I\MTMOQ[TI\]ZM[1V\PQ[MZI\PMZWTMWN KWZXWZI\QWV[ _I[ M`\ZMUMTa TQUQ\ML  ;UITT J][QVM[[M[ IVL NIZU[ were seen as the future of the American economy, while corporations were viewed as a tool of government mostly for infrI[\Z]K\]ZMXZWRMK\[1\Q[\MTTQVO\PI\VMQ\PMZ3IZT5IZ`VWZ Adam Smith, two of the most eminent economic theorists of the day, predicted the rise of the corporation. This failure of foresight may be due to the fact that corporations were strictly monitored, and regulated to a degree unimaginable in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy. The key was the char\MZLZI_V]XJa[\I\MTMOQ[TI\]ZM[1\LQK\I\MLIKWZXWZI\QWVÂź[ TQNM[XIV][]ITTaJM\_MMVaMIZ[J]\[WUM\QUM[I[[PWZ\ I[aMIZ[\PM[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KL]\QM[Q\_I[ITTW_ML\WXMZNWZUIVL the size to which it was allowed to grow. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Limited liabilityâ&#x20AC;?, the idea, taken for granted today, that investors cannot be held responsible for a companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s debts beyond their initial QV^M[\UMV\_I[VWVM`Q[\MV\L]ZQVOW]ZVI\QWVÂź[MIZTaaMIZ[ 1V[\MIL šLW]JTM TQIJQTQ\aÂş WZ š]VTQUQ\ML TQIJQTQ\aÂş _I[ \PM standard of the day. Charters sometimes even limited the XZWĂ&#x2026;\[IKWZXWZI\QWVKW]TLMIZV+WUXIVQM[_MZMVW\XMZmitted to hold stock in other companies, so mergers and acY]Q[Q\QWV[_MZMVMIZTaQUXW[[QJTM.QVITTaIVLKZ]KQITTaKWZpoZI\QWV[_MZMĂ&#x2026;ZUTaZWW\MLQV\PM[\I\M\PI\OZIV\ML\PMQZ charter. Any violation of these stipulations could result in a Y]QKSMVL\W\PMKWZXWZI\QWVJa_IaWN KPIZ\MZZM^WKI\QWV

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nor Adam Smith, two of the most eminent economic theorists of the day, predicted the rise of the corporation. <PM6M_2MZ[MaOMVMZITQVKWZXWZI\QWVTI_WN  ![M^MZML corporate roots to their home state, and allowed them to â&#x20AC;&#x153;shop aroundâ&#x20AC;? for the state with the most favorable political conditions.)XIZILQOU[PQN\WKK]ZZML1V[\MILWN \PMTI_ determining the future of corporations, corporations began to determine the future of the law. States were now in competition with one another to create the most favorable corXWZI\MTMOITMV^QZWVUMV\<PMaZMTI`MLTIVL][MTIJWZIVL \I`I\QWVZMO]TI\QWV[\WI\\ZIK\KWZXWZI\M\I`ZM^MV]MI\ZMVL that continues to this day. SomM_PMZML]ZQVO\PQ[XMZQWLWN !\PKMV\]Za\ZIV[NWZUItion, corporations became people, too. Yet, go to any law library and pore over the myriad of Supreme Court decisions NZWU\PQ[MZIIVLaW]_WVÂź\Ă&#x2026;VLIVWZQOQVITLMKQ[QWVQVNI^WZ WN KWZXWZI\MXMZ[WVPWWLIVa_PMZM<PMZMM`Q[\[QVNIK\VW legitimate foundation for corporations as people in the eyes WN \PMTI_0W_LQL\PQ[PIXXMV'1\[MMU[\PI\KWZXWZI\QWV[ gained the gift of life thanks to a court reporter by the name WN 2+*IVKZWN\,I^Q[L]ZQVO\PM PMIZQVOWN Santa Clara +W]V\a^8IKQĂ&#x2026;K:IQTZWIL. Chief Justice Morrison Waite made a comment during the proceedings indicating that the justices believed that corporations should be treated as persons under the law, and Mr. Davis dutifully recorded the statement in the general heading of the case. To be clear, general headings have no legal weight, and Chief Justice Waite later said that he had no intention of making such a groundbreaking decision in Santa Clara County0W_M^MZ\PMKI[M_I[KQ\MLQV [M^MZIT []J[MY]MV\Ta I[ OZIV\QVO KWZXWZI\QWV[ \PM ZQOP\[ WN  personhood, and stands as precedent to this day.

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Double Take: Corporate Personhood The Santa Clara County VWVLMKQ[QWV WXMVML \PM Ă&#x2020;WWLOI\M[ NWZIVMV\QZMTaVM__IaWN LWQVOJ][QVM[[*M\_MMV !IVL ! \PM TMOIT TQVM JM\_MMV KQ\QbMV IVL KWZXWZI\QWV OZM_ ever fuzzier. Lochner v. New York gave corporations the right to []J[\IV\Q^ML]MXZWKM[[QV!IVLHale v. Henckel protected \PMUNZWU]VVMKM[[IZa[MIZKPIVL[MQb]ZMQV! These shifts fuelled the engine of the American economy L]ZQVO\PM/QTLML)OMIVL\PMJMOQVVQVOWN \PM\PKMVtury, but also catalyzed such symbols of working-class dissatQ[NIK\QWVI[\PM/ZMI\:IQTZWIL;\ZQSMWN  IVL;QVKTIQZÂź[ The Jungle. As class tensions rose and the economy spiraled out of control with the onset of the Great Depression, the pendulum of public opinion swung back toward regulation and restraint. With the progressive era came the eight-hour workday, environmental protections, safety standards, womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enfranchisement, and antitrust legislation. Both the Legislative and the Judiciary endeavored to craft an environment where the pursuit of individual prosperity guaranteed by the Constitution could not be interpreted as a Get Out of Jail .ZMM KIZL NWZ W]Z KWZXWZI\QWV[  .WZ IJW]\ [Q`\a aMIZ[ \PM š)OM WN  :MNWZUÂş I[ PQ[\WZQIV :QKPIZL 0WN[\IL\MZ ZMNMZZML to the era, placed environmental concerns, civil rights, and the demands of labor before the demands of corporations. *M\_MMV!IVL!!KWZXWZI\QWV[OIQVMLWVTaWVMZQOP\ XZM^QW][TaPMTLJaQVLQ^QL]IT[ITWVM"XZW\MK\QWVNZWULW]JTM jeopardy.

______________________________________________ Kendall, Doug. Five Reasons Why Citizens United is Truly a Momentous Case. )+;*TWO)UMZQKIV+WV[\Q\]\QWV;WKQM\a ;MX\MUJMZ!.  Stoll, Mary Lynn. Journal of Business Ethics, >WT 6W 8ZWUW\QVO*][QVM[[-\PQK[)XZ5IaXX  Nace, Ted. Gangs of America: The Rise of Corporate Power and the Disabling of Democracy.   Corporations and the Bill of Rights. NewsNotes, MaryKnoll OfĂ&#x2026;KMNWZ/TWJIT+WVKMZV[5Ia2]VM!  Stoll, Mary Lynn. Journal of Business Ethics>WT 6W 8ZWUW\QVO*][QVM[[-\PQK[)XZ5IaXXvi=; +WV[\IZ\1Â&#x2039;  Nace, Ted. Gangs of America: The Rise of Corporate Power and the Disabling of Democracy.  8M_:M[MIZKP+MV\MZÂź[1V\MZVM\IVL)UMZQKIV4QNM8ZWRMK\ 4;<6?¡;]Q\M?I[PQVO\WV,+___ pewinternet.org 

0W_M^MZ\PMVM_WZLMZKIUMI\\PMM`XMV[MWN \PMZMTMV\TM[[M`XIV[QWV[W]OP\Ja\PMJ][QVM[[KWUU]VQ\a<PMVMWKWV[MZ^I\Q^MUW^MUMV\OIQVML\ZIK\QWVQV\PM!Âź[IVLJa using a strategic combination of new think tanks, lobbyists, and lawsuits, managed to bring to its knees much of the legislation that had constrained them during the Age of Reform. The corporate community managed to overturn the Tillman Act, which banned corporate contributions to federal political campaigns with the advent of Political Action Commit\MM[8)+;QV!1V!*]KSTMa^>ITMWUILMUWVMa \PMTMOITMY]Q^ITMV\WN KWZXWZI\M[XMMKPIVLKWZXWZI\MXWlitical activity took off. Today, large corporations employ nearly a third of American workers and their contributions to economic growth are undeniable. The Supreme Court and the legislature made these contributions possible by the systematic elimination of many limitations on corporate activity over the last two cen\]ZQM[IVL\WIKMZ\IQVM`\MV\JaXZQWZQ\QbQVO\PMKWZXWZI\M XMZ[WVIPMILWN \PMZMITXMZ[WV<PM!+Q\QbMV[=VQ\ML ruling is yet another limitation rescinded. As Nathaniel PersQTaIXWTQ\QKIT[KQMV\Q[\IVLTI_XZWNM[[WZI\+WT]UJQI=VQversity observed, â&#x20AC;&#x153;On its own, it will not be responsible to WXMVQVO \PM Ă&#x2020;WWLOI\M[ \W KWZXWZI\M UWVMa  JMKI][M \PM Ă&#x2020;WWLOI\M[_MZMXZM\\a_QLMWXMV\WJMOQV_Q\PÂş+WZXWZI\M N]VLZIQ[QVOKWV\ZQJ]\ML\PZMMY]IZ\MZ[WN ITTKIUXIQOVLWTTIZ[QV_QTT[MM\PMKWV[MY]MVKM[_PMV\PMĂ&#x2020;WWLgates vanish. Jordan Orosz is a sophomore in Jonathan Edwards College.

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Domestic Law

The Treason Clause and Free Speech Robert Klipper

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Courts have called treason the single most serious offense one KIVKWUUQ\IOIQV[\\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ The language of the treason clause of the Constitution is derived from a nearly seven hundred year old English statute. Colonial Americans considered the treason statute important enough to warrant KWUXIZQ[WV_Q\P\PM5IOVI+IZ\IIVL\PM0IJMI[+WZX][ Act. Great legal scholars, including Sir William Blackstone and James Wilson, praised the treason statute effusively for its stability and power.,M[XQ\M\PMTWVOPQ[\WZaIVL[QOVQĂ&#x2026;cance of treason law, and the severity of the crime it controls, the treason clause of the Constitution is often overlooked. <ZMI[WVQ[LMĂ&#x2026;VMLQV)Z\QKTM111WN \PM+WV[\Q\]\QWV" Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on confession in open Court. The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.4 Commenting on the treason clause, the Supreme Court noted that, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the little clause is packed with controversy and LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\aÂş The words of the clause, resonant with history, demand even closer analysis in a time of war. Such analysis reveals that the clause is intimately associated _Q\P \PM .QZ[\ )UMVLUMV\ 0Q[\WZQKITTa \PM ZMTI\Q^MTa [\ZQK\ O]QLMTQVM[ QUXW[ML Ja \PM KTI][M PI^M PIL I [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\ MNfect on legislation restrictive of speech. Challenges to this TMOQ[TI\QWVXIZ\QK]TIZTaL]ZQVOIVLIN\MZ?WZTL?IZ1QVI]gurated the modern era of First Amendment jurisprudence. As the Supreme Court moved towards greater protection NWZ [XMMKP Q\ JMKIUM UWZM LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\ NWZ \PM OW^MZVUMV\ \W

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prosecute individuals for sedition. As this transformation was underway, the prosecution of American citizens working as )`Q[XZWXIOIVLQ[\[L]ZQVO?WZTL?IZ11UILMQ\XW[[QJTMNWZ the government to limit and punish speech under the treason clause. The current judicial construction of the treason clause is overly broad. A reevaluation of the treason clause is particularly important because of the contemporary understandingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;shaped by the nature of the war on terrorâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;of the crime of treason. A comparison of the cases of American citizens John Walker Lindh, who fought for the Taliban, and Adam Gadahn, an al-Qaeda propagandist, reveals that treason has come to be understood in part as an ideological crime. This understanding, coupled with the treason jurisXZ]LMVKMWN ?WZTL?IZ11PI[TML\WIVQUXMZUQ[[QJTMTQUQtation on speech. A construction of the treason clause that protects both First Amendment rights and national security can be developed through an interpretation of the clause both loyal to the intentions of the Framers and responsive to modern threats IVLUM\PWL[WN KWUU]VQKI\QWV5WZM[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KITTa\PM\MZU[ â&#x20AC;&#x153;adheringâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;enemiesâ&#x20AC;? must be construed more narrowly. The History of Treason The treason clause of the Constitution is taken almost verbatim from English law. Enacted during the reign of Edward 111QV\PM<ZMI[WV)K\[\I\MLQVXIZ\\PI\\ZMI[WV_W]TL consist of â&#x20AC;&#x153;levying war against the king in his realm,â&#x20AC;? or â&#x20AC;&#x153;adhering to the kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enemies in his realm, giving them aid and comfort in the realm or elsewhere.â&#x20AC;? The Framers of the Constitution were acutely aware of the impressive staying power of the Act, which James Wilson referred to as, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the legal Gibraltar of England.â&#x20AC;? Despite the adoption of the

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


The Treason Clause and Free Speech English standard, the treason clause was written as a refutation of the political oppression revolutionary America sought to escape. The strict limitation on Congressional treason statutesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;within the Constitution, the word â&#x20AC;&#x153;onlyâ&#x20AC;? is found only in the treason clauseâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was a manifestation of the Constitutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emphasis on protecting political dissent. Constitutional law scholar Ahkil Amar has called the treason clause a â&#x20AC;&#x153;proto-First Amendment, prohibiting any federal treason law that criminalized mere dissent.â&#x20AC;?! Further, the treason KTI][M _I[ LQ[K][[ML M`\MV[Q^MTa I[ I NZMM [XMMKP XZW^Q[QWV L]ZQVO \PM [\I\M ZI\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWV LMJI\M[  1V WVM WN  \PM MIZTQest treason cases brought before the Supreme Court, Chief Justice Marshall opined, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The crime of treason should not JMM`\MVLMLJaKWV[\Z]K\QWV\WLW]J\N]TKI[M[Âş Marshall recognized both the severity of the charge and the Framersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; desire for the treason clause to be interpreted narrowly.

)UMZQKIV8I[[XWZ\)TM`;\MNĂ&#x2020;MZ The challenge to speech posed by the treason clause became apparent early in American history. Lacking the constitutional sanction to punish dissenters for treasonâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as would have been possible under English lawâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Federalists under 2WPV)LIU[XI[[ML\PM)TQMVIVL;MLQ\QWV)K\[QV! *a utilizing a different criminal category, that of sedition, the .MLMZITQ[\[ _MZM IJTM \W KZQUQVITQbM M`XZM[[QWV Even after the Alien and Sedition Acts withered in the heat of the public outcry they were designed to suppress, the concept of punishing seditious speech maintained its place in American legal practice. )N\MZ \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ MV\MZML ?WZTL ?IZ 1 +WVOZM[[ Y]QKSTaXI[[ML\PM-[XQWVIOM)K\WN !_PQKPXZWPQJQ\ML attempts to cause insubordination in the military or obstruct \PM ZMKZ]Q\QVO [MZ^QKM WN  \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ After the At\WZVMa/MVMZITZMY]M[\ML\PI\\PMJQTTJM[TQOP\TaUWLQĂ&#x2026;ML an increasingly war frenzied Congress passed an amendment SVW_VI[\PM;MLQ\QWV)K\WN !  The Act went so far as to punish â&#x20AC;&#x153;any language intended to incite resistance to \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[WZXZWUW\M\PMKI][MWN Q\[MVMUQM[ÂşIVL â&#x20AC;&#x153;words or acts supporting or favoring the cause of any country at war with us.â&#x20AC;?<PM_WZL[WN \PM;MLQ\QWV)K\WN !  are remarkably similar to those of the treason clause, but pro-

^QLMVWVMWN Q\[XZW\MK\QWV[#\PMKZQUMQVY]M[\QWVIN\MZITT was technically not treason. ! UIZSML \PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\ \QUM \PM ;]XZMUM +W]Z\ ZMIKPML I [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\KWVKT][QWVIJW]\\PMUMIVQVOWN \PMNZMM[XMMKP clauses. Responding to a series of challenges to the constitutionality of the Espionage and Sedition Acts, the Court XZWXW[ML MIZTa O]QLMTQVM[ NWZ KWV\ZWTTQVO [XMMKP 1V Schenck v. United States, the Court upheld the conviction of a man charged with violating the Espionage Act. A pamphlet published by Schenck encouraged people to join the Socialist Party, argued that conscription violated the Thirteenth )UMVLUMV\IVLM`PWZ\MLZMILMZ[VW\\WšTM\K]VVQVOXWTQticians and a mercenary capitalist press wrongly and untruthfully mould your thoughts.â&#x20AC;? Although rhetorically mild by todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s standards, the pamphlet was found â&#x20AC;&#x153;to create a clear IVL XZM[MV\ LIVOMZ \PI\ CQ\E _QTT JZQVO IJW]\ \PM []J[\IVtial evils that Congress has a right to prevent.â&#x20AC;?! Although Schenck is best remembered for the hypothetical man â&#x20AC;&#x153;falsely [PW]\QVOĂ&#x2026;ZMQVI\PMI\MZÂş2][\QKM0WTUM[ÂźMV]VKQI\QWVWN \PM clear and present danger test set the initial bar for judicial limitations on speech. Less than one year later, in his dissent to Abrams v. United States, 0WTUM[_W]TLM`XIVLPQ[^QM_WN XZW\MK\ML[XMMKP<PMĂ&#x2026;^M defendants in Abrams, all born in Russia, were charged with violating the amended Espionage Act for publishing and distributing pamphlets that called on American workers to save their revolutionary Russian compatriots by keeping â&#x20AC;&#x153;the armies of the allied countries busy at home.â&#x20AC;? Although \PM \WVM¸QN  VW\ \PM X]ZXW[M¸WN  \PM [XMMKP QV Y]M[\QWV _I[ [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\Ta UWZM ^QWTMV\ \PIV \PI\ QV Schenck 0WTUM[ vigorously dissented against the Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision to uphold \PMKWV^QK\QWV[,Q[K][[QVO\PM)UMZQKIVM`XMZQUMV\WN \PM UIZSM\XTIKMWN QLMI[0WTUM[_ZW\M" While that experiment is part of our system I think that we should be eternally vigilant against attempts to check the expression of opinions that we loathe and believe to be fraught with death, unless they so imminently threaten immediate interference with the lawful and pressing purposes of the law that an immediate check is required to save the country.21 0WTUM[ PMZM XZWXW[ML I VM_ IVL QUXWZ\IV\ MTMUMV\ QV\W the test for limiting dissent, that of immediacy. The inclusion of immediacy was a recognition of the value of open discussion, and dissent, in all cases but those that pose both grave and time sensitive threats to the country. Although it TIKSML\PMNWZKMWN TI_0WTUM[ÂźLQ[[MV\\WAbrams presaged IVL QVĂ&#x2020;]MVKML TI\MZ LM^MTWXUMV\[ QV .QZ[\ )UMVLUMV\ R]risprudence. 0WTUM[Âź LQ[[MV\ QV Abrams contrasts sharply with his opinion in Schenck 1V Schenck 0WTUM[ IT[W _ZW\M \PI\ QV times of peace the pamphlet might have been permissible, but â&#x20AC;&#x153;when a nation is at war many things that might

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Domestic Law be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men Ă&#x2026;OP\Âş  0WTUM[Âź _WZL[ MUXPI[QbM \PM LIVOMZ \W NZMM [XMMKP XW[ML Ja \PM KZQUQVITQbI\QWV WN  M`XZM[[QWV ]VLMZ \PM TIJMT WN  [MLQ\QWV <PM M`\ZI XZW\MK\QWV[ WN  \PM \ZMI[WV clause were written in anticipation of these sentiments. 1\ Q[ ]VTQSMTa \PI\ \PM OW^MZVUMV\ [PQML I_Ia NZWU \ZaQVO men like Schenck for treason because of doubts about the IXXTQKIJQTQ\aWN \PMKTI][M\W]\\MZIVKM[1V! TMOITPQ[\WZQIV+PIZTM[?IZZMV_ZW\M" Words which embody advice, or counsel, or inducement, or persuasionâ&#x20AC;Śmay constitute in themselves the act of advisingâ&#x20AC;Ś which may in itself be a treasonable act; and the embodiment of such words in circulars, or other printed matter, and their circulation or distribution may be treasonable acts.23 ?IZZMVÂź[KWV[\Z]K\QWVWN \ZMI[WVQ[M`XIV[Q^MIVLKMZ\IQVTa encompasses the speech prohibited by the Espionage Act. <PI\ ?IZZMV IV I[[Q[\IV\ =; )\\WZVMa /MVMZIT ]VLMZ Woodrow Wilson, drafted the Espionage Act is clear evidence of the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attempt to limit speech via circumvention of the treason clause. Warren himself acknowledged this, writing that legislation like the Espionage Act was adoptMLš*MKI][MWN \PMTQUQ\[QUXW[MLJa\PM+WV[\Q\]\QWV°WV the crime of treason and its proof.â&#x20AC;? Although lawmakers TQSM?IZZMVUQOP\VW\PI^MY]M[\QWVML\PMIXXTQKIJQTQ\aWN  the treason statute to utterances proscribed by the Espionage Act, they doubted the Supreme Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s willingness to uphold a treason conviction for speech given the â&#x20AC;&#x153;heavy penalties and odiumâ&#x20AC;? attached to treason. <PM \ZMI[WV XZW[MK]\QWV[ IZQ[QVO NZWU ?WZTL ?IZ 11 ZMmoved any doubt of the treason clauseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s applicability to acts of speech. Of the twelve prosecutions for treason brought during the war, seven centered on acts of speech. The individuals charged in these speech cases were accused of acting I[)`Q[XZWXIOIVLQ[\[5QTLZML/QTTIZ[OQ^MV\PMVQKSVIUM )`Q[;ITTaJa)TTQML\ZWWX[_I[IUWVO\PW[MIKK][ML)\\PM \QUMWN \PMI\\IKSWV8MIZT0IZJWZ/QTTIZ[IV)UMZQKIVKQ\Qzen, was in the employ of the German government as a radio broadcaster.)N\MZ\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[LMKTIZML_IZWV/MZmany, she continued to work for the German government, recording and transmitting several broadcasts, including one MV\Q\TMLš>Q[QWVWN 1V^I[QWVÂş <PM[KZQX\WN š>Q[QWVWN 1V^I[QWVÂşIZILQWLZIUIQVKT]LML a scene of an American mother worrying to her husband \PI\š-^MZaWVMSVW_[\PMQV^I[QWVQ[[]QKQLM°*M\_MMV[M^enty and ninety percent of the boys will be killed or crippled for the rest of their lives.â&#x20AC;?! The Court found that these words, â&#x20AC;&#x153;which reasonably viewed constitute acts in furtherance of a program of an enemy to which the speaker adheres and to which he gives aid with intent to betray his own country, are not rid of criminal character merely because they are words.â&#x20AC;?<PM+W]Z\\P][WNĂ&#x2026;KQITTa[IVK\QWVML\PM

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inclusion of speech as an â&#x20AC;&#x153;overt Actâ&#x20AC;? within the meaning of the treason clause. One of several arguments Gillars used to defend her speech was that she had been forced to make the recordings under threat of being sent to a concentration camp. Emphasizing the severity of acts of treason, the Court upheld the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contention that such a threat was not serious enough to justify her actions. A different defense to the charge of treason was made in Best v. United States.  =VTQSM /QTTIZ[ :WJMZ\ *M[\ IV )UMZQKIV citizen who worked as a broadcaster under the German Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, was not at all reticent about his enthusiastic support of the Nazis. Best claimed in court that he believed at the time of his broad KI[\[\PI\Q\_I[QV\PMJM[\QV\MZM[\WN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[\W either withdraw from or lose the war. As such, he wholeheartedly attempted, in the words of the Court, to undermine â&#x20AC;&#x153;the moral and spiritual stamina of the American people.â&#x20AC;? The Court, following the precedent of Chandler v. United States, anW\PMZ?WZTL?IZ11\ZMI[WVKI[M_I[MV\QZMTa]V[aUXI\PM\QK \W PQ[ IZO]UMV\ 1V Chandler, Judge Ford commented that, â&#x20AC;&#x153;When war breaks out, a citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s obligation of allegiance X]\[ LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\M TQUQ\[ ]XWV PQ[ NZMMLWU \W IK\ WV PQ[ XZQ^I\M R]LOUMV\°0MQ[ O]QT\aWN  \ZMI[WV _PI\M^MZPQ[ UW\Q^MÂş Fordâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision made it clear that the government retained \PM ZQOP\ \W LMĂ&#x2026;VM _PI\ NWZU \PM šITTMOQIVKMÂş W_ML ]VLMZ the treason statute could take. Despite the Chandler courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emphatic denial of the logic emXTWaMLJa*M[\ILM^W\MLILUQZMZWN 0Q\TMZLM[KZQJMLJa\PM Supreme Court as â&#x20AC;&#x153;fanatically anti-Jewish,â&#x20AC;? the potential protections afforded to his speech by the First Amendment should not be immediately discounted. According to his testimony, Best was aware that the objective of his speech _I[š\WNW[\MZI[XQZQ\WN LMNMI\Q[U°CIVLE\WQVL]KMIVW^MZ_PMTUQVO _IZ_MIZQVM[[ IUWVO \PM UMUJMZ[ WN  \PM =; armed forces and the civilian population.â&#x20AC;?2][\QKM0WTUM[ decision in Schenck, however, established the principle that, š?WZL[ IVL QV\MV\QWV[°IZM VW\ X]VQ[PIJTM NWZ \PMQZ W_V sake, or merely for their tendency to discourage citizens at war.â&#x20AC;? )[[]KP\PM_WZL[[XWSMVJa*M[\¸WZ)`Q[;ITTa¸ were not, without more, punishable. Bestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contention that his speech acts were for the ultimate OWWLWN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[Q[IVQUXWZ\IV\WVM)[TMOIT[KPWTar Zechariah Chafee wrote, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Truth can be sifted out from falsehood only if the government is vigorously and constantly KZW[[M`IUQVMLÂş!<PMUIZSM\XTIKMWN QLMI[KMI[M[\WM`ist in a democracy at war if vocal opponents of the war are [QTMVKML1V!\PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\ZMKWOVQbML\PMXZQVciple that speech, even if patently offensive to the sensibilities of the general community, can serve an important public purpose. Bestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s remarks, although anathema to a patriotic American public, ostensibly served to encourage public disK][[QWV WN  \PM UMZQ\[ WN  =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ QV^WT^MUMV\ QV \PM war. Yet a unanimous court upheld Bestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conviction for trea-

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The Treason Clause and Free Speech son. Best, Gillars, and others accused of treason for their activities as propagandists were convicted in part because of the content of their speech, but primarily because they worked directly for the governments of countries at war with the =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ )[ +PIZTM[ ?IZZMV _ZW\M š1\ Q[ PMTL \PI\ RWQVQVO\PMMVMUaQ[\PMUW[\Ă&#x2020;IOZIV\QV[\IVKMWN \PMKZQUM WN \ZMI[WVIVLVW\PQVOM`KMX\\PMNMIZWN LMI\PKIVM`K][M it.â&#x20AC;? No First Amendment defense advanced could haveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; or should haveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;overcome the fact of their employment. By following the letter of the treason clause in deciding the ?WZTL?IZ11\ZMI[WVKI[M[\PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\[M\IXZMKedent that may have violated the clauseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intention. The cases established that an American citizen or individual owing alTMOQIVKM\W\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[_PWKPWW[M[\WIKKMX\MUXTWament by an enemyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;given that anything he or she does will []J[MY]MV\TaKWV[\Q\]\MIšN]Z\PMZIVKMWN IXZWOZIUWN IV enemyâ&#x20AC;?â&#x20AC;&#x201D;could be charged with treason. As such, that individuals like Gillars and Best were employed in the speechdriven role of propagandists was incidental to the charges IOIQV[\\PMU1VLMKQLQVO\PMQZKI[M[PW_M^MZ\PM;]XZMUM Court emphatically brought speech that dissented against the OW^MZVUMV\WN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[QV\W\PMZMITUWN \ZMI[WV The likelihood of the government using the treason clause to prosecute acts of speech was increased by the continued development of First Amendment jurisprudence in the years IN\MZ?WZTL?IZ111VI[MZQM[WN KI[M[QV\PMLMKILM[IN\MZ \PM_IZ\PM+W]Z\M`XIVLML\PMXZW\MK\QWV[INNWZLMLJa\PM First Amendment. These changes were so far reaching as to XZWUX\WVMKWUUMV\I\WZ\W_ZQ\M\PI\Ja\PMMIZTa!Âź[ â&#x20AC;&#x153;the shield of the speaker became worthy of a democracy.â&#x20AC;? Not surprisingly, these protections were not achieved without struggle. *MNWZM \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ MV\MZML ?WZTL ?IZ 11 +WVOZM[[ passed the Smith Act, which stated in part that it was illegal to â&#x20AC;&#x153;Advocate, abet, advise, or teach the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying any govMZVUMV\WN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[JaNWZKMWZ^QWTMVKMÂş Like \PM-[XQWVIOM)K\WN !\PM;UQ\P)K\KZQUQVITQbMLM`pression that could be construed as treasonous by creating a LQNNMZMV\KZQUQVITKI\MOWZa1VIXIUXPTM\X]JTQ[PMLQV! by a group calling themselves The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, the Smith Act was denounced as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;proscription of thought and belief.â&#x20AC;? The E.C.L.C. pamphlet contin]M[š1\Q[PIZLTaIVM`IOOMZI\QWV\W[Ia\PI\_PI\PIXXMV[\W the Smith Act could determine the future of freedom in this country.â&#x20AC;?)T\PW]OP\PM[\I\MUMV\_I[XZWJIJTaIVM`IOOMZI\QWV Q\ KWZZMK\Ta QLMV\QĂ&#x2026;ML \PM \ZMUMVLW][ \PZMI\ [MLQ\QWVTI_[XW[ML\WNZMM[XMMKP#JM\_MMV! IVL!  individuals, almost all of whom were connected to the Communist Party, were convicted under the Smith Act. The Smith Act cases were a prelude to the darker days of Mc+IZ\PaQ[U1V\PM!Âź[\PMOW^MZVUMV\ZM[XWVLML\WZIUXIV\¸IVLTIZOMTa]VNW]VLML¸NMIZ[WN +WUU]VQ[\QVĂ&#x2026;T\ZI-

tion by establishing loyalty boards. More than four million federal civil employees were investigated. None were found guilty of â&#x20AC;&#x153;actual espionage or subversive malfeasance.â&#x20AC;? The scope of these investigations was unprecedented, and the chilling effect they had on speech incalculable. The only way to avoid the investigations was to maintain a low proĂ&#x2026;TMPIZLTa\PMKWVLQ\QWV[NWZZWJ][\LMJI\MMV^Q[QWVMLJa\PM Framers. The McCarthy era, brought to an end by a series of nationally televised hearings at which Senator McCarthyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s NMIZ\IK\QK[_MZMM`XW[MLQ[QUXWZ\IV\\WI[\]LaWN \PM\ZMIson clause. Despite the widespread investigations for disloyIT\aVWWNĂ&#x2026;KQITKPIZOM[WN \ZMI[WV_MZMTM^QMLLMUWV[\ZI\QVO once more the protections for speech provided by the clause. 1VILLQ\QWV\PMM`XIV[QWVWN .QZ[\)UMVLUMV\XZW\MK\QWV[ QV\PM!Âź[KIVJM]VLMZ[\WWLQVXIZ\I[IZMIK\QWV\W\PM M`KM[[M[WN 5K+IZ\PaQ[U <PM KWZVMZ[\WVM WN  \PQ[ M`XIV[QWV WN  .QZ[\ )UMVLUMV\ protections was Brandenburg v. Ohio, which came before the ;]XZMUM+W]Z\QV!!*MNWZMBrandenburg, there were two [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\ IXXZWIKPM[ \W .QZ[\ )UMVLUMV\ R]ZQ[XZ]LMVKM \PI\ WN  2][\QKM 7TQ^MZ ?MVLMTT 0WTUM[ IVL \PI\ WN  R]ZQ[\ 4MIZVML0IVL0WTUM[ÂźIXXZWIKPI[[MMVQVPQ[WXQVQWVQV Schenck and dissent to Abrams, focuses on the circumstances in which the speech is made.!=VLMZ\PQ[IXXZWIKP_WZL[ not intended or likely to incite others to lawless action under normal circumstances can be construed as presenting a clear and present danger if spoken at a time when listeners are UWZMTQSMTa\WJMQVKQ\ML1\NWTTW_[\PI\0WTUM[ÂźIXXZWIKP \MVL[\W_IZL[\PMTQUQ\I\QWVWN LQ[[MV\QVI\QUMWN _IZ1V KWV\ZI[\0IVLÂź[IXXZWIKPNWK][M[XZQUIZQTaWV\PMKWV\MV\ of speech and devalues the circumstances. Words intended to incite others to violent or lawless action are thus susceptiJTM\WTQUQ\I\QWVM^MVQN \PMI]LQMVKMQVY]M[\QWVQ[VW\TQSMTa \WJMUW^ML\W\ISM[]KPIK\QWV0IVLÂź[IXXZWIKP\PMZMNWZM leads to the limitation of relatively harmless speech like that LMNMVLML Ja 0WTUM[ QV PQ[ LQ[[MV\ \W Abrams. Brandenburg represented the fusion of these two visions. 1VBrandenburgI3]3T]`3TIVTMILMZ_I[KWV^QK\ML]VLMZ IVIV\Q[aVLQKITQ[U[\I\]\MNWZšIL^WKI\CQVOE\PML]\aVMcessity, or propriety of crime, sabotage, violence, or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform.â&#x20AC;? The Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s holding invalidated the [\I\]\MXWQV\QVO\WITQVMWN KI[M[\PI\" Have fashioned the principle that the constitutional guarantees of free speech and free press do not permit a State to forbid or proscribe advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action. <PQ[Ă&#x2026;VLQVOKWUJQVM[\PMIXXZWIKPM[WN 0IVLIVL0WTUM[ QV\PI\Q\ZMY]QZM[[XMMKP\WJMJW\PšLQZMK\ML\WQVKQ\QVOWZ producing imminent lawless actionâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;likely to incite or produce such actionâ&#x20AC;? before it can be limited by statute. The

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Domestic Law Brandenburg LMKQ[QWV [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\Ta M`XIVLML \PM XZW\MK\QWV[ offered to speech. First Amendment scholar Owen M. Fiss has asserted that, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Brandenburg is one of the blessings of our liberty.â&#x20AC;? Among the many virtues of the Brandenburg decision, perhaps the most important was the strict standard imposed on prosecutions for speech that could be construed as disloyal. The strength of the protection offered in Brandenburg is augmented when viewed in tandem with the Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan.1VSullivan, the Court called for a â&#x20AC;&#x153;profound national commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust, and wide-open, and that it may well include vehement, caustic, and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks on govMZVUMV\IVLOW^MZVUMV\WNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[Âş After Brandenburg, the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to continue the practiceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;dating back \W\PM)TQMVIVL;MLQ\QWV)K\[¸WN KZQUQVITQbQVOM`XZM[[QWV under a criminal category other than treason was severely, and perhaps irrevocably, limited.

Klu Klux Klan Initiation Ceremony, 1948 (Flickr) Brandenburg was an important milestone in the history of the treason clause because it isolated the clause as one of the few W]\TM\[NWZ\PMX]VQ[PUMV\WN IV\QOW^MZVUMV\[XMMKP1N \PM ?WZTL?IZ11\ZMI[WVKI[M[[WTQLQĂ&#x2026;ML\PMIXXTQKIJQTQ\aWN \PM treason clause against speech, the contemporary understanding of treasonâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as a crime linked as intimately to ideology as to actionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;further increased the probability of treason charges being levied against individuals for acts of speech. The ideological focus of the contemporary understanding of treason is illustrated by a comparison of Adam Gadahn, a.k.a. Azzam al-Amriki, and John Walker Lindh. <PMX]VQ[PUMV\WN \PMM`XZM[[QWVWN QLMWTWOQM[I[LQ[\QVK\ from the punishment of speech acts encouraging action, has occurred with unfortunate regularity. A convincing argument can be made that any of the cases mentioned above, from Schenck to Gillars to Brandenburg, could be construed as punishments of ideologies. Two cases, however, Debs v. United States and Dennis v. United States[MZ^MI[XIZ\QK]TIZTaXW_MZN]TM`-

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amples. 1VDebs, Socialist Leader Eugene Debs was convicted under \PMIUMVLML-[XQWVIOM)K\WN ! NWZLMTQ^MZQVOI[XMMKP \WI;WKQITQ[\KWV^MV\QWVš<PMUIQV\PMUMWN C_PQKPE_I[ Socialism, its growth, and a prophecy of its ultimate success.â&#x20AC;? Debs was, to be sure, an avowed opponent of the war, but the Court upheld the allegation that he was attempting to foster insubordination and obstruct the administration of the draft without proving that his speech had contained any such provocations. Probably unaware of the legal sub\M`\ WN  PQ[ [\I\MUMV\ ,MJ[ KWVKT]LML PQ[ [XMMKP _Q\P \PM words, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t worry about the charge of treason to your masters; but be concerned about the treason that involves yourselves.â&#x20AC;?! Debsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; advice was correct; the treason clause should have protected his activities. <PMVM`\KI[M\WLMUWV[\ZI\M\PMOW^MZVUMV\Âź[_QTTQVOVM[[ to punish statements of ideology, Dennis v. United States, came during the era of Smith Act prosecutions. Judge Learned 0IVL XIQV\ML ,MVVQ[ IVL PQ[ KWLMNMVLIV\[ _Q\P I JZWIL brush, labeling them as â&#x20AC;&#x153;controlling spiritsâ&#x20AC;? of the American Communist Party. The defendants were charged, in essence, with adhering to a political ideology alien to America. Accounting for the pastâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tendency to appear inevitable when viewed through the lens of history, it still seems unlikely that the defendants stood a remote chance of pursuing the abstract aspect of their ideology that called for the overthrow of the government. The implicit message delivered to the nation by DennisIVLZMTI\ML;UQ\P)K\XZW[MK]\QWV[_I[KTMIZ" â&#x20AC;&#x153;Engage in unpopular political thought at your own risk.â&#x20AC;? 1V\PMXW[\Brandenburg world, the risk of engaging in unpopular thought is, perhaps, being labeled a traitor. <PQ[ ZQ[S Q[ UIOVQĂ&#x2026;ML Ja \PM VI\]ZM WN  \PM WVOWQVO _IZ against terrorism. Although there are by one estimate at least LQNNMZMV\LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV[WN \MZZWZQ[U\WJMNW]VLQV\PMIKIdemic literature, a brief review of this literature reveals that \MZZWZQ[UQ[WN\MVLMĂ&#x2026;VMLVW\WVTaQVUQTQ\IZaJ]\IT[WQLMWlogical terms. One straightforward, relatively apolitical definition holds that terrorism is, â&#x20AC;&#x153;An ideology justifying acts of terror.â&#x20AC;? Al-Qaedaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary enemy in the war on terrorismâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;not only uses this ideology of terror, it is itself a component of and driven by the ideology of ultra-radical 1[TIU Many of Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wars have had ideological unLMZXQVVQVO[J]\NM_QN IVaPI^MJMMVI[Ă&#x2026;ZUTaOZW]VLMLQV ideological struggle as the war on terror. One can, of course, point to the Cold War as one fought alUW[\M`KT][Q^MTaQV\PMZMITUWN QLMWTWOQM[1VLMMLWVMKWUUMV\I\WZ _ZQ\QVO QV ! PaXW\PM[QbML \PI\ QV šIV IOM WN  international revolutionary ideologies,â&#x20AC;? prosecutions under the treason clause would become more important. 1V!WN KW]Z[M\PMOW^MZVUMV\_I[[\QTTNZMM\WX]Z[]M prosecutions under sedition laws like the Smith Act, and the fear of treason clause prosecutions never materialized. The

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The Treason Clause and Free Speech entrenchment of post-Brandenburg standards, combined with the emphasis on ideological struggle central to the current war on terror, has made prosecution of ideological disloyalty under the treason clause more likely today. 5IVaM`XMK\ML\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\\ZMI[WVKPIZOM[WN \PM_IZWV\MZror to be levied against John Walker Lindh, branded in the popular media as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;American Taliban.â&#x20AC;? Lindh, born to Catholic parents in Washington D.C., spent his formative aMIZ[QV+ITQNWZVQIM^MV\]ITTaKWV^MZ\QVO\W1[TIUI\\PMIOM WN [Q`\MMV*a4QVLPPILJMKWUMKWV^QVKML\PI\Q\ was the role of every Muslim to train for military jihad. )N\MZ RWQVQVO IVL IJIVLWVQVO IV WZOIVQbI\QWV Ă&#x2026;OP\QVO NWZ Kashmiri independence, Lindh joined the jihad in Afghanistan.!0M\ZIQVMLI\IKIUXNWZ)ZIJ[XMISMZ[ITWVO[QLMIT 9IMLIĂ&#x2026;OP\MZ[IVLKIUMQVKWV\IK\_Q\P7[IUIJQV4ILMV on several occasions. 4QVLP_I[LMXTWaML\W\PMNZWV\QV\PM[]UUMZWN R][\ UWV\P[ JMNWZM ;MX\MUJMZ \P After al-Qaedaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attacks WV )UMZQKI 4QVLPÂź[ ]VQ\ KIUM ]VLMZ Ă&#x2026;ZM NZWU =; _IZplanes on several occasions before surrendering to Northern Alliance troops. Lindh was presentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;although bound and severely weakenedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;at the bloody prison uprising known as \PM*I\\TMWN 9ITIQ2IVOQL]ZQVO_PQKP)UMZQKIV+1)WXerative Mike Spann was killed. Lindh, an American citizen who had sworn his allegiance to the Taliban, was not charged with treason. 1VKWV\ZI[\WV7K\WJMZ)LIU/ILIPVJMKIUM\PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\)UMZQKIVQVLQK\MLNWZ\ZMI[WV[QVKM! There are larger gaps in Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s storyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;he is still at largeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;but much of it bears a striking resemblance to that of Lindh. An American citizen born and raised in California, Gadahn converted \W1[TIUI\\PMIOMWN [M^MV\MMV After coming in contact I\PQ[UW[Y]M_Q\PXZWXWVMV\[WN ZILQKIT1[TIUQKLWK\ZQVM[ Gadahn traveled to Pakistan, and eventually made his way to IT9IMLIKIUX[QV)NOPIVQ[\IV0MY]QKSTaZW[M\WIXW[Q\QWV WN  XZWUQVMVKM QV \PM WZOIVQbI\QWV IVL Ja  _I[ VIZrating propaganda written by Osama bin Laden himself. Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indictment cites four videos, produced between IVLQV_PQKP/ILIPVIXXMIZ[]VLMZ\PMVIUM Azzam al-Amrikiâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Azzam the American. The indictment Y]W\M[/ILIPVI[[\I\QVOQV\PM^QLMW[š.QOP\QVOIVLLMNMI\QVO)UMZQKIQ[W]ZĂ&#x2026;Z[\XZQWZQ\aÂşIVLš<PM[\ZMM\[WN )UMZQKI[PITTZ]VZML_Q\PJTWWL°KI[]IT\QM[_QTTJM\WWUIVa\W KW]V\ IVL \PM VM`\ _I^M WN  I\\IKS[ UIa KWUM I\ IVa UWment.â&#x20AC;? Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most recent polemical announcement, in _PQKP PM [WTQKQ\ML Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT []XXWZ\ NWZ \PM KI][M WN  RQPIL and predicted Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s imminent collapse, was released on )XZQT! The contrast between the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prosecution of the cases of Gadahn and Lindh is striking, and reveals much about how the crime of treason is understood today. 4QVLPÂź[IK\QWV[[MMUML\WNITT_Q\PQV\PMKTI[[QKLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWVWN 

treason; he picked up arms with the intention of aiding the Taliban, and had trained and fought alongside members of IT9IMLI 4QVLP _I[ QVLQK\ML WV \MV KW]V\[ QVKT]LQVO   =;+Â&#x2039;!*+WV[XQZIKa\W8ZW^QLM5I\MZQIT;]XXWZ\ Resources to Foreign Terrorist Organizations.! The sec WVLKW]V\WN /ILIPVÂź[QVLQK\UMV\_I[IT[W]VLMZ =;+ Â&#x2039;!*?Pa\PMV_I[/ILIPVIT[WKPIZOML_Q\P\ZMI[WV' /Q^MV\PMQVNZMY]MV\][MWN \PM\ZMI[WVKTI][MQV)UMZQKIV history, we can assume that the addition of the treason charge to Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indictment would not have been taken lightly. Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty announced the \ZMI[WV KPIZOM[ IOIQV[\ /ILIPV [IaQVO š0M KPW[M \W RWQV our enemy and to provide it with aid and comfort by acting I[IXZWXIOIVLQ[\NWZ)T9IMLI°<PMa_IV\\WLMUWZITQbM us. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why propaganda is so important to them, and why facilitating that propaganda is such an egregious crime.â&#x20AC;?  5K6]T\a_PWR][\aMIZ[JMNWZMPILJMMV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ Attorney responsible for the decision not to charge Lindh with treason, levied the charge against Gadahn because of the ideological content of Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s words; in a war of ideWTWOQM[\PM\PZMI\XW[ML\W\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[JaIUIV_Q\P IZQĂ&#x2020;MIVLIOZMVILMQ[[WUM\QUM[I[[MZQW][I[\PI\XW[MLJa a man with a video camera and a microphone. The desire of the government to prevent the spread of ideologies at odds _Q\PQ\[W_V_I[IT[WZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLQV\PMXTMIIOZMMUMV\[\Z]KS with Lindh. The government dropped nine of the ten counts against him, but Lindh had to agree not to speak to the public, directly or indirectly, for the entirety of the twenty years he is to be incarcerated.  To be clear, Adam Gadahn deserved to be indicted for trea[WV0MILPMZM[\WIT9IMLIIVMVMUaWN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ and his videos give the terrorist organization â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comNWZ\Âş0Q[_WZL[]VLW]J\MLTaNITTW]\[QLM\PM]UJZMTTIWN  First Amendment protection, and the rulings in the World ?IZ 11 \ZMI[WV KI[M[ [MMU \W IXXTa ITUW[\ LQZMK\Ta \W PQU The import of his case, however, is revealed when placed alongside that of John Walker Lindh. With Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indictment, the government announced that the treason clause would be used in the war on terror, but reserved for the bat\TMĂ&#x2026;MTLWN QLMWTWOQM[ Implications The treason clause threatens to chill public dissent to the war on terror. This conclusion is supported by an understandQVOWN \PMXZMKMLMV\M[\IJTQ[PMLJa\PM?WZTL?IZ11\ZMI[WV cases and the contemporary view of treason as an ideological crime. The chilling effect on speech posed by the current construction and application of the treason clause can be illustrated by the hypothetical case of an American who writes a blog supporting al-Qaeda. 1\ KIV JM I[[]UML \PI\ \PM JTWOOMZ _PW OWM[ Ja \PM X[M]-

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Domestic Law LWVaU0WTa?IZZQWZQ[IV)UMZQKIVKQ\QbMVZM[QLQVOQV\PM =VQ\ML;\I\M[IVL\PI\PQ[_ZQ\QVOQ[[aUXI\PM\QK\W\PMKI][M WN IT9IMLI\MZZWZQ[\[0MMVKW]ZIOM[ZMILMZ[\WKWV^MZ\\W 1[TIUIVLM`XZM[[M[[I\Q[NIK\QWV_PMVIT9IMLIKIZZQM[W]\ []KKM[[N]TI\\IKS[WV=VQ\ML;\I\M[KQ^QTQIVWZUQTQ\IZa\IZOM\[ 0MLWM[VW\IL^Q[MPQ[ZMILMZ[\WXIZ\QKQXI\MQVIVa[]KPI\\IKS[ 4QSM UIVa WN  \PM ?WZTL ?IZ 11 )`Q[ XZWXIOIVLQ[\[ JMNWZMPQU0WTa?IZZQWZKTIQU[\WJM[XMISQVOQV\PMQV\MZest of otherwise innocent Americans who have been dragged \W _IZ Ja XWTQ\QKQIV[ KWZZ]X\ML Ja Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT QV\MZM[\[ 1V I similar hypothetical posed by Professor Tom Bell, the blogOMZQVY]M[\QWVšIT9IMLI)TÂşJWI[\[WN PI^QVOšXZQ^QTMOML accessâ&#x20AC;? to terrorists. 1V\PMQV\MZM[\WN M[\IJTQ[PQVO\PMKPQTTing effect on free speech posed by the treason clause, no such KWVVMK\QWV\W\MZZWZQ[\[[PW]TLJMI[[]UMLPMZM0WTa?IZrior, absent even a direct connection to terrorists, would be M`XW[ML\WI\ZMI[WVXZW[MK]\QWV /Q^MV\PMQVNZMY]MV\][MWN \PM\ZMI[WVKTI][MIVL\PMLZImatic nature of the cases in which it has been invoked, it may seem unlikely that the blogger would be convicted for PQ[ _ZQ\QVO <PMZM _MZM PW_M^MZ UIVa ]VWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT IKK][I\QWV[WN \ZMI[WVUILMIN\MZ\PM;MX\MUJMZ\PI\\IKS[  As BMKPIZQIP+PINMMKI]\QWVMLš1\Q[WVTaQV\QUM[WN XWX]TIZ panic and indignation that freedom of speech becomes important as an institution, and it is precisely in those times that the protection of a jury proves illusory.â&#x20AC;?  One need not look any further than the Supreme Court sanctioned internment WN 2IXIVM[M)UMZQKIV[L]ZQVO?WZTL?IZ11NWZM^QLMVKMWN  \PMM`\ZMUMUMI[]ZM[[WUM\QUM[\ISMVQVXIZ\I[IZM[]T\WN  wartime hysteria.  Even if there are no further indictments for treason, the current construction of the treason clause will continue to have a chilling effect on speech.

1\PI[JMMVVW\ML\PI\š=VLMZ\PM?WZTL?IZ11XZMKMLMV\[ \PMZMQ[VWTWOQKITTQUQ\XZM^MV\QVOIVÂťIQLIVLKWUNWZ\Âź\ZMI[WVKPIZOMIOIQV[\[WUMWVMQV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[_PW[XMIS[ the same words as Gadahn.â&#x20AC;?   1\ Q[ XW[[QJTM PW_M^MZ \W establish a â&#x20AC;&#x153;logical limitâ&#x20AC;? that protects both speech and the security of the country. To do so, the portion of the treason clause that reads, â&#x20AC;&#x153;adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfortâ&#x20AC;? should be reevaluated carefully. <PM KZQUM WN  \ZMI[WV Q[ QV XIZ\ I UMV\IT WVM 1V Cramer v. United States, the Supreme Court decided that an individual who, â&#x20AC;&#x153;intellectually or emotionally may favor the enemy and harbor sympathies or convictions disloyal to this countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policy or interest,â&#x20AC;? had adhered to the enemy. !<PQ[LMĂ&#x2026;VQtion is inherently subjective, and therefore problematic. As Zechariah Chafee wrote, â&#x20AC;&#x153;No judge and jury are capable of looking through the skull of a man who has done nothing but talk to see what goes on inside.â&#x20AC;?! As a result, juries are forced to look to the defendantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s objective actions to prove []JRMK\Q^MQV\MV\1V\PMKI[MWN 0WTa?IZZQWZ\PMR]Za_W]TL TWWS \W PQ[ _ZQ\QVO =VLMZ \PM K]ZZMV\ KWV[\Z]K\QWV WN  \PM \ZMI[WVKTI][M0WTa?IZZQWZÂź[_ZQ\QVO_W]TLJM[]NĂ&#x2026;KQMV\\W prove his disloyal mindset. This standard is dangerous because it automatically assumes that the very act of speech for _PQKP\PMLMNMVLIV\Q[WV\ZQITNWZM`XZM[[M[LQ[TWaIT\a)J[MV\IVaLQZMK\KWVVMK\QWV\WIT9IMLI0WTa?IZZQWZKW]TL be found to have adhered to the terrorist network.

At least one writer has proposed to address this problem by prosecuting individuals like Adam Gadahn under the â&#x20AC;&#x153;levying warâ&#x20AC;? prong of the treason clause. 1\Q[IZO]ML\PI\\PM TIKS WN  I XZMKQ[M LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV NWZ _PI\ KWV[\Q\]\M[ šIQL IVL comfortâ&#x20AC;? threatens speech, and that Gadahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation in al-Qaedaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s campaign of psychological warfare constitutes â&#x20AC;&#x153;levying war.â&#x20AC;?  The argument for bringing treason charges against Gadahn under the heading of â&#x20AC;&#x153;levying warâ&#x20AC;? is intriguingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and would probably lead to his convictionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;but it NIQT[\WTQUQ\\PM\PZMI\\W0WTa?IZZQWZÂź[_ZQ\QVO The argument fails simply because it offers no incentive to stop prosecuting domestic political dissenters under the â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comfortâ&#x20AC;? prong. A Supreme Court ruling that Gadahn PILKWUUQ\\ML\ZMI[WVJašTM^aQVO_IZÂşIOIQV[\\PM=VQ\ML States would probably do nothing to limit the Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conKT][QWV[QV\PM?WZTL?IZ11KI[M[<PM+W]Z\PI[VWZMI[WV \W QVLMXMVLMV\Ta W^MZ\]ZV \PM ?WZTL ?IZ 11 LMKQ[QWV[ JMcause doing so would unnecessarily limit its latitude in future treason cases. The prosecution of an act of speech under \PMTM^aQVO_IZXZWVO_W]TLUMZMTaM`\MVL\PMZMIKPWN \PM \ZMI[WVKTI][MIVLWNNMZVWILLQ\QWVITXZW\MK\QWV[NWZ0WTaWarrior.

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United States Supreme Court (dbking) A more balanced standard for establishing adherence would NWK][WVW^MZ\IK\[W\PMZ\PIV\PMIK\[WN [XMMKPQVY]M[\QWV 5WZM[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KITTaWVTa\PW[MQVLQ^QL]IT[QV\PMMUXTWaWN MVMUQM[WN \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[[PW]TLJMNW]VL\WPI^MILPMZML \W \PM MVMUa <PM NIK\[ WN  \PM ?WZTL ?IZ 11 XZWXIOIVLI cases, in which all of the individuals charged were in the

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


The Treason Clause and Free Speech MUXTWaWN )`Q[OW^MZVUMV\[[]XXWZ\\PQ[XW[Q\QWVIT\PW]OP \PM+W]Z\QV\PW[MKI[M[NIQTML\WM`XZM[[TaILWX\IVMUXTWament-based standard.! That such a standard would be in accordance with the Framerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s understanding of the treason KTI][MQ[LMUWV[\ZI\MLJaIKWUXIZQ[WVWN 0WTa?IZZQWZ\W Robert Best. The Framers believed that hearing the viewpoints of all )UMZQKIV[QVKT]LQVOM`\ZMUQ[\[QVI\QUMWN _IZ_W]TLTMIL to well-reasoned decision making. An American like Best, who worked directly for an enemy, has no basis for claiming \PI\PQ[[\I\MUMV\[PW_M^MZPMTXN]T\W\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[LW not also help the enemy.!1N \PMaLQLVW\PM_W]TLVW\JM MUXTWaML1VKWV\ZI[\IV)UMZQKIVKQ\QbMVWXMZI\QVOQVLMpendently is not guilty of treason merely for making statements he believes to be in the best interest of the country, even if said statements inadvertently give â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comfortâ&#x20AC;? to the enemy. As Scott Nearing, one of the men charged with ^QWTI\QVO\PM-[XQWVIOM)K\WN ! [IQLI\PQ[\ZQITš<PM Constitution does not guarantee us only the right to be correct, we have a right to be honest and in error.â&#x20AC;?! Adopting an employment-based standard for establishing adherence will protect both speech and the right to be in error.! Adherence should be established by employment by an enemy. But who or what is an enemy within the meaning of \PM \ZMI[WV KTI][M' 1V -VOTQ[P TI_ šMVMUQM[Âş _MZM NWZMQOV states or subjects, to be distinguished from domestic subjects who owed allegiance to the king.! One early commentator summarized the distinction, writing, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Subjects of the king, in open war, or rebellion, are not the kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enemies, but traitors.â&#x20AC;?! This distinction has been threatened recently by the Supreme Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, decided QV ! Although the case did not speak directly to the treason clause, the Court in Hamdi opened the door for the LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWVWN IV)UMZQKIVKQ\QbMVI[IVMVMUaKWUJI\IV\! This presents potential problems for speech. While al-Qaeda should be considered an enemy under the treason clause, individuals like Adam Gadahn must not be. 1N  /ILIPV _MZM \W JM TIJMTML IV MVMUa \PW[M _PW OI^M PQUšIQLIVLKWUNWZ\Âş_W]TLQV\]ZVJMM`XW[ML\W\ZMI[WV charges. Such aid and comfort could come in many forms, QVKT]LQVO \PM _ZQ\QVO WN  I JTWOOMZ TQSM 0WTa?IZZQWZ WZ IV IKILMUQKXIXMZIZO]QVO\PI\\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[PI[VWZQOP\ to prosecute Gadahn. Mere association with Gadahn, even for his legal defense, might raise suspicion of traitorous activity. This situation, akin to McCarthyism, would undoubtedly have a chilling effect on political dissent. Therefore, the centuries old precedent distinguishing enemies from traitors should be maintained. 0I^QVOXZWXW[MLLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV[IVLKWV[\Z]K\QWV[WN ILPMZMVKM and â&#x20AC;&#x153;enemiesâ&#x20AC;? that accord with the Framersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; vision of the \ZMI[WV KTI][M _M KIV \]ZV Ă&#x2026;VITTa \W \PM IK\]IT šIQL IVL KWUNWZ\ÂşOQ^MV=VLMZ\PMK]ZZMV\KWV[\Z]K\QWVIVM`XZM[sion needs to give very little aid and comfort to the enemy

\W Y]ITQNa I[ \ZMI[WV!!  1V Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Aquino v. United States, another ?WZTL ?IZ 11 XZWXIOIVLI KI[M \PM IXXMTTI\M KW]Z\ NW]VL â&#x20AC;&#x153;That a traitorous plan does not have the desired effect is immaterial.â&#x20AC;? Because Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Aquino established that the â&#x20AC;&#x153;overt Actâ&#x20AC;? is the writing itself, and not successfully reaching an auLQMVKM0WTa?IZZQWZKW]TLJMKPIZOML_Q\P\ZMI[WVM^MVQN  his blog is not read and gives no actual aid and comfort to al-Qaeda. One method for addressing the chilling effect of this broad construction is to use standards similar to those adopted in Brandenburg \W KTIZQNa \PM [\I\]\WZa LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV WN  šIQL IVL comfort.â&#x20AC;? Applying the Brandenburg[\IVLIZL[_W]TLZMY]QZM KW]Z\[\W[PW_\PI\\PM[XMMKPWN QVLQ^QL]IT[TQSM0WTa?IZrior was both intended to give â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comfortâ&#x20AC;? and likely to do so. Further, it would pressure the government to demonstrate that actual â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comfortâ&#x20AC;? had been given by mere words. Although adopting the Brandenburg standard would provide [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\XZW\MK\QWVNWZXWTQ\QKITLQ[[MV\[]KPIUMI[]ZMQ[ JW\PLQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\\WR][\QNaIVL]VVMKM[[IZa<PMPQ[\WZaIVLTIVguage of the treason clause suggests that the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;giving them aid and comfortâ&#x20AC;? is secondary in importance to â&#x20AC;&#x153;adhering to their enemies.â&#x20AC;? As noted by Charles Warren, the most Ă&#x2020;IOZIV\^QWTI\QWVWN \PM\ZMI[WVKTI][MQ[\WILPMZM\QOP\Ta\W an enemy. Properly understood, the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;overt Actâ&#x20AC;? thus refers not to giving substantial â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comfort,â&#x20AC;? but rather to the act of adhering to the enemy. As demonstrated by \PM+W]Z\Âź[PWTLQVO[QV\PM?WZTL?IZ11\ZMI[WVKI[M[ITUW[\ anything done while adhering to an enemy can be construed as â&#x20AC;&#x153;giving aid and comfort.â&#x20AC;? Further, if the construction and LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV WN  šILPMZQVOÂş IVL šMVMUQM[Âş XZWXW[ML IJW^M Q[ followed, a narrow construction of â&#x20AC;&#x153;aid and comfortâ&#x20AC;? beKWUM[]VVMKM[[IZa\WXZW\MK\\PM[XMMKPWN 0WTa?IZZQWZIVL other political dissenters. Conclusion In the post-September 11th world, Americans should heed the words of lawyer Jeremiah Black, who argued in Ex parte Milligan: In peaceable and quiet times, our legal rights are in little danger of being overborne; but when the wave of power lashes itself into violence and rage, and goes surging up against the barriers which were made to confine it, then we need the whole strength of an unbroken Constitution to save us from destruction.102 The Framers intended the treason clause to be one of the JIZZQMZ[IOIQV[\\PMš_I^MWN XW_MZÂş=VNWZ\]VI\MTa\PMKWV[\Z]K\QWVWN \PMKTI][MILWX\MLIN\MZ?WZTL?IZ11KWUJQVML with the ideological nature of the war on terror have made it possible for the government to transform a shield of the people into a sword for prosecuting political dissent. The treason clause deserves to be studied because of its history, but de-

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Domestic Law mands analysis and reconsideration because of its power to protect dissent. Such dissent will continue to be chilled until \PM [\I\]\WZa LMร…VQ\QWV WN  \ZMI[WV Q[ VIZZW_ML 7VTa \PMV can the โ€œwhole strength of an unbroken Constitutionโ€ be brought to bear in the defense of speech. Robert Klipper is a senior in Berkeley College. ______________________________________________  *MTT<WU?ยน<ZMI[WV<MKPVWTWOaIVL.ZMMLWUWN -`pression.โ€ Arizona State Law Journal +Q\QVO;\MXPIV ^=VQ\ML;\I\M[.L !\P+QZ!  Larson, Carlton F.W. โ€œThe Forgotten Constitutional Law of Treason and the Enemy Combatant Problem.โ€ University of Pennsylvania Law Review" !8O   4IZ[WV   =;+WV[\Q\]\QWV)Z\QKTM111[MK\QWV.WZN]Z\PMZLQ[K][[QWV of the second paragraph, see Akhil Amar, Americaโ€™s Constitution: A Biography  4IZ[WV +Q\QVOCramer v. United States=;!  4IZ[WV   4IZ[WV   Amar, Akhil Reed. Americaโ€™s Constitution A Biography. 6M_ AWZS" :IVLWU 0W][M <ZILM 8IXMZJIKS[  8O  ! )UIZ  William T. Mayton, Seditious Libel and the Lost Guarantee of a Freedom Of Expression +744:->!   -`8IZ\M*WTTUIV =;   )UIZ  Chafee, Zechariah. Free Speech in The United States. CamJZQLOM"0IZ^IZL=8!8O!  +PINMM  +PINMM  +PINMM  Schenck v. United States,!=;!!   3IT^MV 0IZZa ยน) ?WZ\Pa <ZILQ\QWVยบ 1deas of the First Amendment;\8I]T"<PWU[WV?M[\8O ! Schenck v. United States!=;!!  Abrams v. United States=;!!  Abrams v. United States,=;!!  Schenck v. United States!=;!!  ?IZZMV+PIZTM[ยน?PI\1[/Q^QVO)QLIVL+WUNWZ\\W\PM -VMUa'ยบThe Yale Law Journal! "8O  ?IZZMVJ  ?IZZMVJ  *MTT  Gillars v. United States, .L!!   GillarsI\ ! GillarsI\  GillarsI\  GillarsI\  Best v. United States .L  Best v. United States .LI\  Chandler v. United States.L![\+QZ! KMZ\

CE

LMVQML=;! !!I\!  =;+ย‹   BestI\  BestI\   +PINMM  ! +PINMM   Near v. Minnesota   =; ! ! ,]ZQVO WZIT IZO]ments, Justice Brandeis largely ignored the virulently anti;MUQ\QKVI\]ZMWN \PMX]JTQKI\QWVQVY]M[\QWVQV[\MILNWK][QVOWV\PMX]JTQ[PMZ[ยผMNNWZ\\WM`XW[MWZOIVQbMLKZQUM;MM ยน6MIZ^5QVVM[W\I"7ZIT)ZO]UMV\ยบIdeas of the First Amendment;\8I]T"<PWU[WV?M[\!!  ?IZZMV  Fiss, Owen M. โ€œFree Speech and Social Structure.โ€ Ideas of the First Amendment ;\ 8I]T" <PWU[WV ?M[\  !! 8O!   =;+ย‹   The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. The Smith Act: Its Origin=[M8WQ[WV6M_AWZS!  The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee  The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee  ;\WVM /MWNNZMa :MML ยน8MZQTW][ <QUM[" .ZMM ;XMMKP QV Wartime.โ€ Ideas of the First Amendment. ;\ 8I]T" <PWU[WV ?M[\8O  One federal employee summed up the pervasive atmosXPMZMWN NMIZLZaTaKWUUMV\QVOยน1N +WUU]VQ[\[TQSMIXXTM XQMIVL1LW1[MMVWZMI[WV_Pa1[PW]TL[\WXMI\QVOQ\*]\ 1 _W]TLยบ +Q\ML QV ;\WVM ยน8MZQTW][ <QUM[" .ZMM ;XMMKP QV Wartime.โ€ ! 3IT^MV  3IT^MV  1V PQ[ LQ[[MV\ 0WTUM[ LM[KZQJML \PM TMIร†M\[ X]JTQ[PML Ja Abrams and his co-defendants as โ€œpoor and puny anonymities.โ€  Brandenburg v. Ohio!=;!!  Brandenburg v. Ohio!=;!!  .Q[[!  New York Times Co. v. Sullivan=;!  New York Times Co. v. Sullivan  =;  ! KQ\QVO Terminiello v. Chicago  =;  IVL De Jonge v. Oregon !! =;  Debs v. United States!=;!!   +PINMM  ! 3MT^MV  The Clause also would have protected the activities of his supporters, nearly one million of whom voted for Debs for President while he served his prison sentence.  Dennis v. United States=;!!  :MLQ[P5IZ\QV0ยน=VTI_N]T)L^WKIKaIVL.ZMM;XMMKP <PMWZa":M\PQVSQVO\PM4M[[WV[WN \PM5K+IZ\Pa-ZIยบIdeas of the First Amendment;\8I]T"<PWU[WV?M[\! 8O  +WILa+)2ยน<MZZWZQ[UIVL1VVWKMVKMยบThe Journal of Ethics " KQ\QVO)`MT8;KPUQL   Political Terrorism: A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases, and Literature)U[\MZLIU"<ZIV[IK\QWV8]JTQ[PMZ[!  XX!  

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The Treason Clause and Free Speech Turk, Austin T. โ€œSocial Dynamics of Terrorism.โ€ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences! " !   +I^I\WZ\I .ZIVKM[KW ยน<PM ยป?IZ WV <MZZWZQ[Uยผ8MZ[XMK\Q^M[NZWU:ILQKIT1[TIUQK/ZW]X[ยบIrish Studies in International Affairs"  4MMS20ยน<ZMI[WVIVL\PM+WV[\Q\]\QWVยบThe Journal of Politics!"  Kukis, Mark. My Heart Became Attached: The Strange Odyssey of John Walker Lindh6M_AWZS"8W\WUIK*WWS[8O   5IaMZ 2IVM ยน4W[\ 1V <PM 2QPILยบ The New Yorker  5IZ  The New Yorker  5Ia ! $P\\X" ___VM_aWZSMZKWUIZKPQ^MNIG NIK\'K]ZZMV\8IOM%ITT& ! 3]SQ[  Mayer  3]SQ[!  3]SQ[  P\\X"___][LWROW^WXILWK]UMV\[ILIUGQVLQK\ment.pdf  3PI\KPILW]ZQIV :INร… ยน)bbIU \PM )UMZQKIVยบ The New Yorker  2IV  The New Yorker  5Ia ! $P\\X" ___VM_aWZSMZKWUZMXWZ\QVONIG NIK\GSPI\KPILW]ZQIV&  Khatchadourian  P\\X"___][LWROW^WXILWK]UMV\[ILIUGQVLQK\ment. pdf  โ€œAmerican al-Qaeda Operative Says Western Countriesโ€™ -KWVWUQM[ยป7V\PM*ZQVSWN .IQT]ZMยผยบ+*;6M_[*ZMISQVO 6M_[0MILTQVM["*][QVM[[-V\MZ\IQVUMV\?WZTL6M_[  5Ia!$P\\X"___KJ[VM_[KWUJTWO[! UWVQ\WZMV\Za!![P\UT&   1\[PW]TLJMVW\ML\PI\\PMZM_MZM[M^MZIT[QOVQร…KIV\TMOIT obstacles facing Lindhโ€™s prosecutors. The technical points of his case, which are beyond the scope of this paper, are disK][[MLQVOZMI\MZLM\IQTQVยน5a0MIZ\*MKIUM)\\IKPMLยบXX  IVL5IaMZยน4W[\QV\PM2QPILยบ ! P\\X"___][LWROW^IOVLQVLQK\UMV\P\U  Khatchadourian  3QZS][`Q  *MTT  *MTTNWW\VW\MKQ\QVOIKK][I\QWV[IOIQV[\?IZL+P]ZKPQTT Roger Moore, and several others.  +PINMM  Korematsu v. United States=;  -QKPMV[MPZ 3ZQ[\MV <ZMI[WVยผ[ :M\]ZV  A)4- 42 87+3-<8):<!     P\\X"\PMXWKSM\XIZ\WZOMQKPMV[MPZP\UT  -QKPMV[MPZ  -QKPMV[MPZ ! Cramer v. United States=;! ! +PINMM ! *MTT ! Cramer v. United States=;! ! Nearing, Scott. Scott Nearingโ€™s Address to the jury : the speach C[QKE JMNWZM \PM R]Za _PMV KPIZOML _Q\P I ^QWTI\QWV WN  \PM -[XQWVIOM Act.6M_AWZS+Q\aC! 'E<PM5ISQVOWN 5WLMZV4I_ 

/ITM!/ITM+MVOIOM4MIZVQVO 5Ia!$P\\X" OITMVM\OITMOZW]XKWU[MZ^TM\5754'IN%:6IM%. [ZKP\X%I[\M%& ! ,Mร…VQVOMUXTWaUMV\_QTTWN KW]Z[MJMIKWV\MV\QW][Q[[]M J]\ WVM UWZM IUMVIJTM \W [XMKQร…K TMOQ[TI\QWV IVL R]dicial determination than the nebulous concept of intent. ! 4IZ[WV! ! 4IZ[WV! ! Hamdi v. Rumsfeld=; !  *MTT !! *MTT!  *MTTKQ\QVODโ€™Aquino v. United States!.LI\[\ +QZK!   ?IZZMV  +PINMM

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Domestic Law

The streets of San Juan, Puerto Rico (Juan Oquendo)

The Puerto Rican Predicament: A Look at Puerto Rico’s Past to =VLMZ[\IVL1\[.]\]ZM Juan Caballero

~

¹)N\MZWVMP]VLZMLaMIZ[WN NMLMZITZ]TM\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[0W][MWN :MXZM[MV\I\Q^M[PI[UW^ML\WXZW^QLMNWZ\PMÅZ[\UMIVQVON]TZW]\M\W[MTN determination for the Puerto Rican people under our federal system.” - Richard Thronburgh March 28,19981

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The Puerto Rican Predicament: A Look At Puerto Ricoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Past to Understand Its Future I\ML I :M[QLMV\ +WUUQ[[QWVMZ NWZ \PM 1[TIVL <PM QV[]TIZ Legislature was divided into a lower and upper house. The 7V )XZQT !  \PM 0W][M WN  :MXZM[MV\I\Q^M[ ^W\ML \W XI[[\PM8]MZ\W:QKW,MUWKZIKa)K\WN \_MT^MaMIZ[ IN\MZ:QKPIZL<PWZVJ]OPINWZUMZ=;)\\WZVMa/MVMZIT Q[[]ML\PMY]W\MIJW^M<PM)K\_W]TLQ[[]MIXTMJQ[KQ\M\W Puerto Rican voters to determine the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political sta\][<PMUMI[]ZM_PQKPXI[[ML!PI[XZWOZM[[ML\W \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ ;MVI\M NWZ I ^W\M WV \PM UMI[]ZM JMNWZM passing to the President. The recent activity concerning the XTMJQ[KQ\M PI[ KI][ML XWTQ\QKQIV[ \W ZMĂ&#x2020;MK\ WV \PM aMIZ ZMTI\QWV[PQX JM\_MMV \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ IVL \PM WN\ NWZOW\ten island of Puerto Rico. Despite over a century of political LQ[KW]Z[M\PM=;IVL8]MZ\W:QKWPI^MaM\\WLM\MZUQVM\PM ultimate status of this tiny island. <PM K]ZZMV\ =VQ\ML ;\I\M[  8]MZ\W :QKW ZMTI\QWV[PQX JMOIVQV ! _PMV)UMZQKIVNWZKM[QV^ILML\PMQ[TIVL<PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ PIL RWQVML \PM _IZ _PQKP JMOIV I[ \PM +]ban struggle for independence, on the premise of liberating \PMWXXZM[[ML+]JIV[7V2]Ta ! \PZMMUWV\P[IN\MZ Congress declared war, General Nelson A. Miles landed in Guanica, Puerto Rico. Prior to the American invasion, Puerto Rico had not actively engaged in the war. The American NWZKM[ Y]QKSTa [_MX\ \PZW]OP \PM [XIZ[MTa XWX]TI\ML Q[TIVL that had operated as a Spanish outpost. At the peace negotiations in Paris, President McKinley demanded the Spanish cessation of Puerto Rico in addition to demands for Cuban independence. The island presented a lucrative trading opXWZ\]VQ\aNWZ\PM=;IKPIVKM\WMTQUQVI\M\PM;XIVQ[PXZM[ence from the Caribbean, and a naval base located at the mouth of the Caribbean. 1UUMLQI\MTa]XWVQ\[IKY]Q[Q\QWV\PMN]\]ZM[\I\][WN 8]MZ\W Rico became an item of contention in Congress. Many difNMZMV\XZWXW[IT[_MZMX]\NWZ\PQVLMITQVO_Q\P)UMZQKIÂź[Ă&#x2026;Z[\ colony. The discussion hardly considered the possibility of independence for the island and politicians argued primarily over whether or not to accept Puerto Rico as a state at some ]VLMĂ&#x2026;VMLXWQV\QV\PMN]\]ZM;MVI\WZ0MVZa4WLOMWN 5I[[IKP][M\\[_I[Y]W\MLI[[IaQVOš?PMVaW]ZMĂ&#x2020;MK\\PI\_M PI^MSMX\6M_5M`QKWI[I\MZZQ\WZaNWZUWZM\PIVĂ&#x2026;N\aaMIZ[ although it is entailed to be a state, you can see how easy it is going to be to keep an outlying possession in a territorial condition.â&#x20AC;?<PQ[LMJI\MWKK]ZZMLI\I\QUM_PMV\PM=VQ\ML States was emerging from the Reconstruction and many senI\WZ[ M`XZM[[ML ZMOQWVIT KWVKMZV[ W^MZ 8]MZ\W :QKIV [\I\Mhood. Senators from southern states viewed Congressional opposition to Puerto Rico statehood as an attempt to keep the Southern states impotent.1V !!_Q\PVWKTMIZIV[_MZ \W \PM Y]M[\QWV WN  8]MZ\W :QKWÂź[ [\I\][ )UMZQKIV UQTQ\IZa forces ended their occupation of the island and control of \PMQ[TIVL\ZIV[Q\QWVML\WIKQ^QTQIVOW^MZVUMV\1V!\PM Organic Act, also referred to as the Foraker Act, went into effect, which created a legislative body for the island and cre-

NWZUMZKWV[Q[\MLWN \PQZ\aĂ&#x2026;^MMTMK\MLWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[_PQTM\PMTI\\MZKWV[Q[\MLWN \PMMTM^MVUMUJMZM`MK]\Q^MKW]VKQT_PQKP IT[W[MZ^MLI[\PMOW^MZVWZÂť[KIJQVM\5WZMQUXWZ\IV\Ta\PM governor and the department heads were all chosen by the XZM[QLMV\ WN  \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ To this day, Puerto Ricoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Resident Commissioner still represents Puerto Rico in the =;0W][MWN :MXZM[MV\I\Q^M[I\+WVOZM[[QWVITLMJI\M[IVL can speak but cannot vote. 1V!XZM[[]ZM\WITTW_UWZM[MTNOW^MZVUMV\ZM[]T\MLQV \PM 2WVM[;PINZW\P )K\ ?PQTM \PQ[ IK\ M`\MVLML )UMZQKIV citizenship to Puerto Ricans, it also gave the absolute veto power to the governor who continued to be selected by the American President. :I\PMZ\PIV ZM[WT^M IVa Y]M[\QWV[ WN  the future status of Puerto Rico, the Act entrenched Puerto Rico in its status as a Free Liberated state. .WTTW_QVO?WZTL?IZ11\PM[\I\][WN 8]MZ\W:QKWIOIQVKIUM QV\W Y]M[\QWV <PM JMOQVVQVO WN  \PM +WTL ?IZ KZMI\ML IV QV\MZM[\QVLQ[XTIaQVO\PMQ[TIVLI[IVM`IUXTMWN )UMZQKIV democratic and capitalist values in Latin America.1V! Puerto Rico was allowed to draft its own constitution and the NWTTW_QVOaMIZQ\KPW[MQ\[Ă&#x2026;Z[\XWX]TIZTaMTMK\MLOW^MZVWZ 1V order to highlight the success of capitalism on the island, the =;+WVOZM[[XI[[ML\PM1VL][\ZQIT1VKMV\Q^MIK\WN !QV order to industrialize the economy as part of a multi-faceted approach called Operation Bootstrap.! This nonsurgical operation increased foreign investment on the island by grantQVO[]J[QLQM[IVLM`MUX\QWV[NWZ\MV\W\PQZ\aaMIZ[\WNWZMQOV corporations and that established factories in Puerto Rico. *a\PM!Âź[=;QV^M[\UMV\PIL[TW_MLLW_VJMKI][M\I` M`MUX\QWV[VWTWVOMZWNN[M\\PMQ[TIVLÂź[ZQ[QVOTIJWZKW[\[ For this reason, emphasis shifted towards promoting capital QV\MV[Q^MĂ&#x2026;ZU[[]KPI[WQTZMĂ&#x2026;VQVOXM\ZWKPMUQKITUIKPQVMZa metal and pharmaceutical plants. Although, these new industries provided better pay for the more skilled labor, fewer RWJ[_MZMI^IQTIJTM1V!\PM=;+WVOZM[[QV[\Q\]\QWVITQbML\I`K]\[NWZ=;Ă&#x2026;ZU[_Q\PJZIVKPM[QV8]MZ\W:QKW ]VLMZ;MK\QWV!WN \PM1:;\I`KWLM<PM=;+WVOZM[[ ZM^WSML;MK\QWV!QV!! )XTMJQ[KQ\MPMTLQV!NW]VLXMZKMV\WN 8]MZ\W:QKIV ^W\MZ[QVNI^WZWN UIQV\IQVQVO\PM[\I\][Y]W!XMZKMV\NI^WZQVO[\I\MPWWLIVLXMZKMV\XZWXW[QVOQVLMXMVLMVKM 1V!!/W^MZVWZ0MZVIVLMb+WTWVÂź[ZMNMZMVL]U\WUISM ;XIVQ[P \PM WNĂ&#x2026;KQIT TIVO]IOM _I[ LMNMI\ML _Q\P  XMZKMV\ of voters in favor of the referendum. Two years later, Governor Pedro Rosello issued a plebiscite. The Plebiscite was QVKWVKT][Q^M_Q\P!XMZKMV\WN \PM\]ZVW]\^W\QVONWZKWV\QV]MLKWUUWV_MIT\P[\I\][XMZKMV\^W\QVONWZ[\I\MPWWL IVL TQ\\TM W^MZ  XMZKMV\ KPWW[QVO QVLMXMVLMVKM Rosello \ZQMLWVKMUWZMĂ&#x2026;^MaMIZ[TI\MZ_PMVPMQ[[]MLIZMNMZMVL]U asking voters to choose between statehood and independ-

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Domestic Law ence. Fifty percent of voters chose â&#x20AC;&#x153;none of the aboveâ&#x20AC;?. The Current Predicament The problem facing Congress today is more complicated \PIV I UMZM Y]M[\QWV WN  _PM\PMZ WZ VW\ \W KWV\QV]M _Q\P this special relationship. Operation Bootstrap permanently \ZIV[NWZUML=;8]MZ\W:QKWZMTI\QWV[Ă&#x2026;VIVKQITTaI[_MTTI[ culturally. Operation Bootstrap began as one facet of President Franklin D. Rooseveltâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Deal campaign and used \ZIV[NMZIVLXIaUMV\[NZWU\PM=;OW^MZVUMV\\W[]J[QLQbM Puerto Ricanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s income. This is a trend that has continued and even become a life sustaining measure in Puerto Rico. *a\PMMVLWN \PM\_MV\QM\PKMV\]Za=;\ZIV[NMZXIaUMV\[ comprised one -third of the islands total income. Operation JWW\[\ZIXQVKZMI[ML8]MZ\W:QKIVLMXMVLMVKaWV=;UIZkets. Although the campaign to attract American investment succeeded in attracting corporations, these companies were already integrated into the supply and distribution networks WN \PMUIQVTIVL=;!:I_OWWL[WZ]VĂ&#x2026;VQ[PMLOWWL[_W]TL JMQUXWZ\MLI[[MUJTMLIVLM`XWZ\MLIXZWKM[[\PI\LQLTQ\tle to develop internal markets within the island. <PM 8]MZ\W :QKW ,MUWKZIKa )K\ WN   Q[ Ja VW UMIV[ IĂ&#x2026;VIT[WT]\QWV\W\PQ[KMV\]ZaWTLY]M[\QWVWN \PM[\I\][WN  8]MZ\W:QKW<PMXTMJQ[KQ\MQN Q[[]MLZML]KM[\PMY]M[\QWV WN  [\I\][ \W I UMZM JQVIZa [a[\MU >W\MZ[ U][\ KPWW[M JMtween whether Puerto Rico should continue to have its present form of political status or if it should have a â&#x20AC;&#x153;differentâ&#x20AC;? XWTQ\QKIT[\I\][1N ^W\MZ[KPWW[M\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\WX\QWVWN KWV\QV]ML status, the government of Puerto Rico is authorized to issue a plebiscite every eight years. This measure is viewed by opponents as pressuring Puerto Ricans to accept the latter choice. 1N \PM8]MZ\W:QKIVXWX]TI\QWVdoes vote in favor of changing the status, then a follow up plebiscite asking voters to choose between statehood, commonwealth, independence, and the ^IO]MTa\MZUMLš[W^MZMQOV\aQVI[[WKQI\QWV_Q\P\PM=VQ\ML Statesâ&#x20AC;?. No matter what the outcome of the plebiscite, however, ConOZM[[ Q[ VW\ JW]VL \W IKKMX\ \PM Z]TQVO WN  \PM XMWXTM 1\ Q[ unlikely that the current, budget conscious Congress will seriously consider changing the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s status. By the end of the twentieth century, two-thirds of Puerto Ricoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population received some form of federal assistance. 1V ILLQ\QWV \W its reliance on Federal assistance, the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy was LM^I[\I\ML Ja Q\[ LMXMVLMVKM WV \W]ZQ[U L]ZQVO \PM Ă&#x2026;VIVcial crisis. Although as a state Puerto Ricans would become [][KMX\QJTM \W NMLMZIT \I`M[ [\I\MPWWL _W]TL IT[W MTQUQVI\M K]ZZMV\KIX[WV_MTNIZM¸PIZUQVO\PM=;OW^MZVUMV\Âź[JW\tom line.

plebiscite passes in the Senate and is approved, it will still have accomplished little in determining the ultimate fate of \PMQ[TIVL1\[MMU[I\TMI[\NWZ\PM\QUMJMQVO\PI\\PMĂ&#x2020;IOWN  \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[_QTTJMNZMMWN I[\[\IZ

Juan Cabellero is a junior in Jonathan Edwards College. ______________________________________________ š<PM 6I\QWVIT 1V\MZM[\ QV ;MTN,M\MZUQVI\QWV NWZ 8]MZ\W Rico.â&#x20AC;? Puerto Rico Herald: The Voice of Puerto Rico Self Determination^WT]UM!6]UJMZ[-L?MJ2]Ta  $P\\X"___X]MZ\WZQKWPMZITLWZOQ[[]M[^WTV \PWZVJ]ZOP!  )\AITM=VQ^P\UT&  1JQLI\ !  ,I^QL 0MMTMa US Expansionism: The Imperialist Urge in the 1890s=VQ^MZ[Q\aWN ?Q[KWV[QV8ZM[[!  1JQLI\  Eric Williams, Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean 1492-19694WVLWV":IVLWU0W][M1VK! X  Kal Wagenheim (ed.) & Olga Jimenez de Wagenheim (ed.), The Puerto Ricans: A Documentary History. 8ZQVKM\WV" 5IZS][ ?QMVMZ8]JTQ[PMZ[   Ramon Grosfoguel & Frances Negron-Mutaner (ed.), The Divorce of Nationalist Discourses, Puerto Rican Jam: Rethinking Colonialism and Nationalism5QVVMIXWTQ["=VQ^MZ[Q\aWN 5QVVM[W\I8ZM[[   Columbus to Castro!#8]MZ\W:QKW2IU ! Jan Rogonzinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and Carib to the Present 6M_AWZS"8T]UM!  1JQLI\   1JQLI\   1JQLI\  1JQLI\!  Robert Moss, The Stability of the Caribbean"ZMXWZ\WN I[MUQVIZPMTLI\,Q\KPTMa8IZS7`NWZL[PQZM=34WVLWV"1V[\Q\]\MNWZ\PM;\]LaWN +WVĂ&#x2020;QK\!  1JQLI\X!  1JQLI\!  1JQLI\!   1JQLI\ ! ! 1JQLI\!  .WZN]TT\M`\XTMI[MZMNMZ\W\PM4QJZIZaWN +WVOZM[[_MJ[Q\M š*QTT *QTT <M`\  \P +WVOZM[[ !Âş <075); 4QJZIZaWN +WVOZM[[?MJ2]Ta$P\\X"\PWUI[ TWKOW^KOQJQVY]MZa,'K""\MUXfK)LR5QQ""&  A Brief History of the Caribbean !  <PMQ[TIVLÂź[/,8M`XMZQMVKMLVMOI\Q^MOZW_\PZI\M[WN   QV QV IVL! QV!$P\\X["___KQI OW^TQJZIZaX]JTQKI\QWV[\PM_WZTLNIK\JWWSĂ&#x2026;MTL[ P\UT& 

;QVKMQ\[IKY]Q[Q\QWVQV ! 8]MZ\W:QKWPI[JMMV[\]KSQV ITQUJW1\PI[VMQ\PMZXZWOZM[[ML\W_IZL[QVLMXMVLMVKMWZ [\I\MPWWLIVLQ\[N]\]ZMZMUIQV[I[]VSVW_VI[M^MZ1N \PM

C!E

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


On to the Big Bench: The Life and Work of Elena Kagan

On to the Big Bench: -TMVI3IOIVI\\MVL[\PM;MVI\M2]LQKQIZa+WUUQ\\MMKWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWVPMIZQVOWVPMZVWUQVI\QWV\WJMIV)[[WKQI\M2][\QKMWN  the Supreme Court of the United States. (Flickr)

The Life and Work of Elena Kagan Beau Wittmer

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*WZV)XZQT !-TMVI3IOIVOZM_]XWV\PM=XXMZ?M[\;QLMWN 5IVPI\\IV0MZUW\PMZI[KPWWT\MIKPMZIVLPMZNI\PMZ a lawyer representing tenant associations and involved in community advocacy, cultivated in the young Elena and her brothersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; both now teachers themselvesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a love for education, justice, and a habit of debating current events at the dinner table. They did not just give her a powerful mind, as Ms. Kagan also showed from a young age an assertiveness and independent spirit, challenging her rabbi over the running of her bat mitzvah. As colleagues would see years later, she possessed an ability to navigate normally treacherous waters and negotiate a resolution that all parties could agree to, doing just that with her rabbi. Displaying PMZQV\MTTQOMVKMLZQ^MIVL_WZSM\PQKMIZTaWV[PM_I[ILUQ\\ML\W\PMXZM[\QOQW][0]V\MZ+WTTMOM0QOP;KPWWTIKPIVKMWNNMZML WVTa\W\PW[M_PWXMZNWZU_MTTWVI[MZQM[WN MV\ZIVKMM`IU[<PMZM5[3IOIVKWV\QV]ML\WM`KMTJMKWUQVOXZM[QLMV\WN \PM [\]LMV\OW^MZVUMV\IVLMIZVQVOILUQ[[QWV\W8ZQVKM\WVQV!IUMZMMQOP\aMIZ[IN\MZ\PM]VQ^MZ[Q\aĂ&#x2026;Z[\ILUQ\\ML_WUMV During her college years, Ms. Kagan continued to seek new challenges and delved deeper into her early political interests. She IVLPMZVM_NW]VLKWTTMOMNZQMVLWVM-TQW\;XQ\bMZPMTXMLXMV\PM,MKTIZI\QWVWN \PM+IUXIQOVNWZI,MUWKZI\QK=VQ^MZ[Q\a the start of a greater initiative calling for increased dialogue and communication between the university administration and the studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s government. She joined the Daily Princetonian, becoming editorial chair by her senior year, and interned for New York ,MUWKZI\QK:MXZM[MV\I\Q^M[<ML?MQ[[IVL-TQbIJM\P0WT\bUIV.WZPMZ[MVQWZ\PM[Q[5[3IOIVLMKQLML\WIVITabM\PMMIZTa \PKMV\]ZaPQ[\WZaWN [WKQITQ[UIVQV\MZM[\[XIZSMLJaPMZJZW\PMZÂź[QV^WT^MUMV\QVšZILQKITKI][M[Âş1VQ\[PM_ZW\Mš<PZW]OP Q\[W_VQV\MZVITNM]LQVO\PMV\PM;8C;WKQITQ[\8IZ\aEM`PI][\MLQ\[MTN NWZM^MZ<PM[\WZaQ[I[ILJ]\IT[WIKPI[\MVQVOWVMNWZ those who, more than half a century after socialismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decline, still wish to change America.â&#x20AC;?,ZI_QVOĂ&#x2026;ZMNZWUUIVaWV\PMZQOP\ aMIZ[TI\MZL]ZQVOPMZKWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWVPMIZQVO[\PM_WZL[WN PMZ\PM[Q[IL^Q[MZY]MTTMLU]KPWN \PMKWV\ZW^MZ[a"š<W[\]La[WUME

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Domestic Law

thing is not to endorse it.â&#x20AC;? Ms. Kagan graduated summa cum laude with an AB in history and earned the Daniel M. Sachs +TI[[WN !/ZIL]I\QVO;KPWTIZ[PQXIVI_IZLOQ^MV\WI senior to travel and study abroad. Ms. Kagan took advantage WN \PQ[KZW[[QVO\PM)\TIV\QK\W[\]LaI\7`NWZLNWZ\PMVM`\ \_WaMIZ[MIZVQVOI5I[\MZ[QVXPQTW[WXPaQV!  :M\]ZVQVO\W\PM;\I\M[5[3IOIVMVZWTTMLQV0IZ^IZL4I_ School, where she became supervisory editor for the law review and graduated with a J.D. magna cum laude QV !  Again demonstrating her seemingly innate ability to manage KWVĂ&#x2020;QK\[KTI[[UI\MIVLTMOIT[KPWTIZ2MNNZMa<WWJQVZMKITTML â&#x20AC;&#x153;At the time, the law school was a politically charged and divided place. She navigated the factions with ease, and won the respect of everyone.â&#x20AC;?  ;PM \PMV [XMV\ \PM VM`\ KW]XTM aMIZ[ KTMZSQVO NWZ 2]LOM )JVMZ 5QS^I 1[ZIMTQ +PQMN  2][\QKM Aharon Barak, and famed Supreme Court Justice Thurgood 5IZP[ITT)N\MZ\PMMTMK\QWVWN ! NIQTML\WaQMTLI,MUWcratic administration in which she might hold a position, Ms. Kagan decided to work as a litigator at Williams & Connolly. 1V!!5[3IOIVZMKMQ^MLIVWXXWZ\]VQ\a\W\MIKPI\\PM =VQ^MZ[Q\a WN  +PQKIOWÂź[ 4I_ ;KPWWT ;MQbQVO ]XWV Q\ [PM taught constitutional and administrative law, becoming a popular and well-respected professor amongst students and NIK]T\a 1\ _I[ PMZM \PI\ [PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\ UM\ \PM UIV _PW _W]TL later nominate her for the Supreme Court, Barack Obama, PQU[MTN IXZWNM[[WZWN KWV[\Q\]\QWVITTI_I\\PM[KPWWT0MZ desire to rejoin the political world seemed to have never died, however, as she served as special counsel to then-Senator Joe *QLMVL]ZQVO\PMKWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWVPMIZQVO[WN ;]XZMUM+W]Z\ 2][\QKM:]\P*ILMZ/QV[J]ZOIVM`XMZQMVKM\PI\XZWUX\ML her to lament that these â&#x20AC;&#x153;vapid and hollowâ&#x20AC;? hearings â&#x20AC;&#x153;serve TQ\\TMML]KI\Q^MN]VK\QWVM`KMX\XMZPIX[\WZMQVNWZKMTM[[WV[ of cynicism that citizens often glean from government.â&#x20AC;? Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, only a year after receiving tenure, Ms. Kagan was approached by Mikva and Domestic Policy Council Director Bruce Reed, a friend from her college years, to join \PM+TQV\WV?PQ\M0W][M;PM\WWSITMI^MWN IJ[MVKMNZWU Chicago, later resigning outright, to serve as an Associate ?PQ\M0W][M+W]V[MTIVLTI\MZXWTQKaIL^Q[MZ\W8ZM[QLMV\ +TQV\WV_PWQV!!!VWUQVI\MLPMZNWZIR]LOM[PQXWV\PM Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. The nomination fell through, though, as then-Judiciary Committee Chair Orrin 0I\KP NIQTML \W [M\ PMIZQVO LI\M[ 0MZ VWUQVI\QWV TIX[ML and the seat eventually went to her future Supreme Court colleague, John Roberts.  =VIJTM\WZM\]ZV\W+PQKIOW5[3IOIV\WWSIXW[Q\QWVI[I^Q[Q\QVOXZWNM[[WZI\PMZWTLTI_[KPWWT0IZ^IZL MIZVQVO\MV]ZMQV<PMVQV[PMJMKIUM\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\ NMUITM LMIV WN  0IZ^IZL 4I_ IVL JMOIV \W QUUMLQI\MTa transform the school. Just as her friends from high school, college, and law school had noted, Ms. Kagan displayed an almost uncanny ability to bring a divided people together. The aging law school faculty had long been embroiled in

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a bitter ideological divide between conservative and liberal professors. Now dean, Ms. Kagan recruited star professors from across country and all over the political spectrum, hiring Cass Sunstein from Chicago, Lawrence Lessig from StanNWZLIVL2IKS/WTL[UQ\PI*][PILUQVQ[\ZI\QWVWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT_PW had drawn the objection of liberal faculty members. A forUMZ[\]LMV\WN 0IZ^IZLPMZ[MTN5[3IOIVZM^IUXML[\]dent life at the law school, leading the most successful legal education fundraiser of all time and renovating the student center, building new recreational and academic facilities, adding legal clinics, and even offering free coffee and bagels to students. She altered the curriculum as well, adding courses in international law, economic systems, and legislation and statutory education. <PQ[ Q[ _PI\0IZ^IZL[\]LMV\[IVL NIK]T\aZMUMUJMZUW[\ NZWU\PMQZ\QUM_Q\P,MIV3IOIVJ]\L]ZQVO\PMKWVĂ&#x2026;ZUItion hearings, her tenure as dean seemed to be marked by WVM\PQVO",WVÂź\)[S,WVÂź\<MTT1V!!+WVOZM[[XI[[ML the Solomon Amendment, blocking federal funds from schools refusing to allow military recruiters on campus. Since !! 0IZ^IZL PIL JIZZML \PM UQTQ\IZa NZWU \PM 7NĂ&#x2026;KM WN  Career Services because the militaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ask, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t tellâ&#x20AC;? XWTQKa\W_IZL[PWUW[M`]IT[[MZ^QVOQV\PMIZUMLNWZKM[^QWTI\ML0IZ^IZLÂź[W_VVWVLQ[KZQUQVI\QWVXWTQKQM[1V\PM .WZ]UNWZ)KILMUQKIVL1V[\Q\]\QWVIT:QOP\[.)1:KPITlenged the Solomon Amendment in court, with Ms. Kagan IVLWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[NZWUW\PMZ]VQ^MZ[Q\aĂ&#x2026;TQVOIVIUQK][JZQMN WV JMPITN WN .)1:?PQTM\PMKI[M_I[I_IQ\QVOIKMZ\QWZIZQZ]Ting by the Supreme Court, Ms. Kagan reinstated the old polQKa WN  0IZ^IZL" JIZZQVO UQTQ\IZa ZMKZ]Q\MZ[ NZWU \PM 7NĂ&#x2026;KM of Career Services, but allowing them access to the school through veterans groups. When the Supreme Court eventually reversed the Third Circuit unanimously, Ms. Kagan agreed to follow the Courtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision, but still commented â&#x20AC;&#x153;As 1PI^M[IQLJMNWZM1JMTQM^M\PI\XWTQKaQ[XZWNW]VLTa_ZWVO ¸JW\P]V_Q[MIVL]VR][\¸IVL1TWWSNWZ_IZL\W\PMLIa _PMVITTW]Z[\]LMV\[ZMOIZLTM[[WN [M`]ITWZQMV\I\QWV_QTT be able to serve and defend this country in the armed ser vices.â&#x20AC;? Drawing criticism from some in the Pentagon at the time!, Ms. Kagan faced renewed criticism of her actions L]ZQVO PMZ KWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWV PMIZQVO[ 1V PQ[ [\I\ML WXXW[Q\QWV \WPMZKWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWV;MV7ZZQV0I\KP:=<_ZW\Mš5[ 3IOIVKWV\QV]MLJTWKSQVOMY]ITIKKM[[JaUQTQ\IZaZMKZ]Q\MZ[ even after the Third Circuit stayed its own decision. Once again, her personal views drove her legal views.â&#x20AC;? Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) said likewise before the hearings, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ms. Kagan obstructed the access of the military as it tried to recruit JZQOP\aW]VO2)/WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[\W[]XXWZ\IVLZMXZM[MV\W]Z[WTdiers.â&#x20AC;? During the hearings, Kagan rebuffed this criticism, [IaQVO\PI\0IZ^IZL[\]LMV\[PILIKKM[[\WUQTQ\IZaZMKZ]Q\MZ[šM^MZa[QVOTMLIa1_I[LMIVÂş<WPMZKZMLQ\\PMaLQL" military recruiters were never banned entirely from campus during her tenure as dean. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, she has praised the military and encouraged service to students for years, com

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


On to the Big Bench: The Life and Work of Elena Kagan

menting on her decisions as dean that because of her deep respect for the institution made her â&#x20AC;&#x153;wish devoutly that these Americans could join this noblest of all professions and serve their country in this most important of ways.â&#x20AC;?1V\PMMVL Kaganâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actions speak perhaps more to her commitment to MY]ITQ\aIVLR][\QKMJMNWZM\PMTI_[MMVIUWVO[\TQSMUQVLML faculty at other universities (including our own Yale) than any sort of â&#x20AC;&#x153;anti-militaryâ&#x20AC;? bias of which she has been accused. 0MZ\MV]ZMI[LMIVMVLML_PMV8ZM[QLMV\7JIUIVWUQVI\ed Ms. Kagan for Solicitor General, the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top TI_aMZ I ZWTM [PM WKK]XQML NZWU 5IZKP WN  ! ]V\QT PMZ KWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWVNWZ\PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\*MNWZM\PQ[M`XMZQMVKM Ms. Kagan, despite her vast background in the legal community, had never argued a case in a trial setting. During her \QUMI[;WTQKQ\WZ/MVMZITPW_M^MZ[PMIZO]ML[Q`KI[M[WV behalf of the government, the most notable of which was PMZĂ&#x2026;Z[\Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission. And so, only a little over a year after her old Chicago Law colleague had nominated her for the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top role, Ms. Kagan again appeared beside President Obama, this time to receive the nomination to the Supreme Court, replacing outgoing longtime justice and noted liberal pillar of the bench John Paul Stevens. After the customary waiting period, marked by a release of just about every document written by Ms. Kagan dating back to her college years, she UM\_Q\P^IZQW][;MVI\WZ[QVLQ^QL]ITTaJMNWZMPMZKWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWVPMIZQVO[JMOIVWV2]VM \P1\_I[VW_PMZ\QUM\WXIZticipate in the â&#x20AC;&#x153;vapid and hollow charadeâ&#x20AC;? that is the modern KWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\QWVPMIZQVO[?PQTM[WUMPMTL\PMQZJZMI\P\W[MMQN  it might become the most outspoken hearings since the time of Robert Bork (as Ms. Kagan herself had claimed as well), little, but perhaps more than in the past two decades of Supreme Court nominations, was learned about the judicial XPQTW[WXPaWN -TMVI3IOIV1V[\MIL\PZW]OPW]\\PM_MMS ;MVI\WZ[ XZWLLML 5[ 3IOIV _Q\P Y]M[\QWV[ \ZaQVO \W OM\ LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\Q^MIV[_MZ[\W\PMQZXM\Q[[]M[WZ\WK]ZZMV\;]XZMUM Court controversies. So after this life of study and growth, what does Elena KaOIVVW_JMTQM^M'0W__W]TL[PMZ]TM[MI\MLWV\PMPQOPM[\ KW]Z\ QV \PM TIVL' 1\Âź[ LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\ \W [Ia ,QNNMZQVO NZWU +PQMN  Justice Robertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assertion that being a justice is like being an umpire, calling â&#x20AC;&#x153;balls and strikes,â&#x20AC;? Ms. Kagan told Sen. John 3aT:<@š\PMZMIZMKI[M[_PMZMQ\Q[LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\\WLM\MZUQVM _PI\\PMTI_ZMY]QZM[2]LOQVOQ[VW\IZWJW\QKWZI]\WUI\QK enterprise, especially on cases that come before the Supreme Court.â&#x20AC;?;W_PI\M`IK\TaO]QLM[PMZ\PMV';MVI\WZ[TWWSML for a reaction to more controversial court rulings, but Ms. 3IOIV_W]TLPI^MVWVMWN Q\"šQ\_W]TLVÂź\JMIXXZWXZQI\MNWZ UM\W\ITSIJW]\_PI\1\PQVSIJW]\XI[\KI[M[aW]SVW_ to grade cases -- because those cases themselves might again come before the court.â&#x20AC;?1VIVMNNWZ\\WLQ[KW^MZ\PQ[:Mpublican Senators began to press Ms. Kagan on her mentors, M[XMKQITTa<P]ZOWWL5IZ[PITT;MV+PIZTM[/ZI[[TMa:1)

7JIUI[QOVM[-TMVI3IOIVÂź[KWUUQ[[QWVQV\PM7^IT7NĂ&#x2026;KMWV)]O][\ 7NĂ&#x2026;KQIT?PQ\M0W][M8PW\WOZIXPJa8M\M;W]bI called him a man whose legal views â&#x20AC;&#x153;do not comport with the proper role of a judge or judicial method.â&#x20AC;? Such a line of QVY]QZaLQLVW\LW_MTTJa5[3IOIV_PWZM\WZ\ML\W;MV Kyl later â&#x20AC;&#x153;Justice Marshallâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s whole life was about seeing the courts take seriously claims that were not taken seriously anyXTIKMMT[M°*]\QN aW]KWVĂ&#x2026;ZUUM\W\PQ[XW[Q\QWVaW]_QTT get Justice Kagan. You wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get Justice Marshall, and thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an important thingâ&#x20AC;? or the press, whose editorial pages attacked the Republican Senators after the second day of the hearings.! Such were the highlights of the hearings, with little else making headlines around the nation. Why was this nomination [MMUQVOTa [W TM[[ KWV\MV\QW][ \PIV \PM TI[\ NM_' 8MZPIX[ Q\ was because of her incontrovertible intelligence, invoked as IXW[Q\Q^MY]ITQ\aJaITUW[\M^MZa;MVI\WZWN JW\PXIZ\QM[QV speaking about their reactions to Ms. Kagan. Perhaps it was her beliefs, characterized by the writers at the well respected ;+7<=;JTWO _PW NW]VL PMZ \W JM šKMZ\IQVTa WV \PM TMN\ J]\°IT[W KI]\QW][ XZIOUI\QK IVL XWTQ\QKITTa [I^^aÂş J]\ who does not seem to approach the law as â&#x20AC;&#x153;an ideologue.â&#x20AC;? Perhaps it was the credibility she has built up over the years across the political spectrum, eight former Solicitors General,[Q`\aVQVMIN]TT\PQZLWN \PMVI\QWVTI_[KPWWTLMIV[ and conservatives Ken Starr, Lawrence Lessig, and Miguel -[\ZILI\PMNWZUMZ;WTQKQ\WZ/MVMZITIVLKWV\ZW^MZ[QITTaĂ&#x2026;TQbustered Bush appeals court nominee, endorsing her strongly.  1[ [PM ]VXZMXIZML JMKI][M [PM PI[ VM^MZ [MZ^ML I[ I R]LOM'6MQ\PMZLQL-IZT?IZZMVVWZ?QTTQIU:MPVY]Q[\1V fact, she will be the only current Supreme Court justice who PI[VW\[MZ^MLI[IR]LOMXZQWZ\W\PM*QO*MVKPIY]ITQ\a that may be more positive than negative in this case. For these reasons amongst many others, the Senate conĂ&#x2026;ZUML5[3IOIVWVI^W\MWV)]O][\\PIVL the woman who took her senior high school yearbook photo in robes, gavel in hand, will once again do the same. Nearly \PQZ\aaMIZ[IOW\PI\XPW\WPMTLIY]W\MNZWU2][\QKM.MTQ` Frankfurter, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Government is itself an art, one of the subtlest

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Domestic Law

WN IZ\[ยบ;WPW__QTT[PMXZIK\QKM\PQ[IZ\'7VTa\QUMKIV\MTT but perhaps her opening remarks to the Judiciary Committee _QTT OQ^M [WUM QLMI ยนC<EPM ;]XZMUM +W]Z\ Q[ I _WVLZW][ institution. But my stints in the other branches of government remind me that it must also be a modest one -- properly deferential to the decisions of the American people and their elected representatives.โ€

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Beau Wittmer is a sophomore in Ezra Stiles College. ______________________________________________ P \ \ X "   _ _ _ V a \ Q U M [  K W U             ] [  XWTQ\QK[SIOIVP\UT'ZMN%ILIUGTQX\IS  P\\X"___VM_[_MMSKWUKT]M[NZWU princeton.html  1L  P \ \ X "   _ _ _ V a \ Q U M [  K W U             ] [  XWTQ\QK[SIOIVP\UT'XIOM_IV\ML%ZMN%ILIUGTQX\IS  P \\X "   _ _ _ V M_ aW ZS MZ K W U  W V T Q V M JTW O[  V M_ [ LM[SMTMVISIOIV[VWUQVI\QWVP\UT  P\\X"IJKVM_[OWKWU8WTQ\QK[;]XZMUMG+W]Z\MTMVI SIOIV[]XZMUMKW]Z\KWVร…ZUI\QWVPMIZQVO[^IXQLPWTTW_ [\WZa'QL% !  P\\X"___TI_PIZ^IZLML]VM_[GK]ZZQK]lum.php P\\X"___[KW\][JTWOKWU!_WZL[WVMTMVISIOIV ! P\\X"___KVVKWU8741<1+;!XMV\IOWV SIOIQVQVLM`P\UT  P\\X"___K[UWVQ\WZKWU=;)7ZZQV 0I\KP[VWWV-TMVI3IOIVI\MUXTI\MNWZ/78WXXW[Qtion  P \ \ X "   _ _ _ V X Z W Z O  \ M U X T I \ M [  [ \ W Z a  [ \ W Z a XPX'[\WZa1L%    P\\X"____I[PQVO\WVXW[\KWU_XLaVKWV\MV\^QLMW!>1!P\UT  P\\X"___[KW\][JTWOKWU!_WZL[WV MTMVISIOIV  P\\X"[XMK\I\WZWZOJTWOSIOIVLQ[K][[QVO bork-hearings  P\\X"___[TI\MKWUQL MV\Za  P\\X"IJKVM_[OWKWU8WTQ\QK[;]XZMUMG+W]Z\MTMVI SIOIVPMIZQVO[_WZ\P_PQTM[\WZa'QL% !!XIOM%  P\\X"IJKVM_[OWKWU8WTQ\QK[;]XZMUMG+W]Z\MTMVI SIOIVPMIZQVO[_WZ\P_PQTM[\WZa'QL% !!  P\\X"___[TI\MKWUQL   P\\X"___XJ[WZOVM_[PW]ZJJTI_RIVR]VMSIOIVG!P\UT ! P\\X"\PM_MMSKWUIZ\QKTMQVLM`!\PMSIOIV KWVร…ZUI\QWVZMX]JTQKIV[^[\P]ZOWWLUIZ[PITT  P \ \ X "   _ _ _ [ K W \ ] [ J T W O K W U  _ X  K W V \ M V \  ] X TWIL[3IOIVQ[[]M[GQLMWTWOa2]VM!XLN  P\\X"___XWTQ\QKWKWUVM_[[\WZQM[  html  P\\X"____I[PQVO\WVXW[\KWU_XLaVKWV\MV\IZ

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The Mandate: Can Congress <MTT=[ ?PI\\W*]a' Jared Baragar

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One of the most fundamental yet controversial elements of )UMZQKIÂź[ VM_ PMIT\PKIZM TI_ Q[ \PM QVLQ^QL]IT UIVLI\M" NZWUWV_IZL)UMZQKIV[_QTTJMZMY]QZML\WPI^MPMIT\P QV[]ZIVKM WZ XIa I \I` QN  \PMa LW VW\ <PM 8I\QMV\ 8ZW\MKtion and Affordable Care Act, signed into law by President 7JIUIWV5IZKPPI[JMMVUM\_Q\PWXXW[Q\QWV from several states, with one state already having enacted a law that invalidates a federal health insurance mandate. The debate over whether Congress can regulate inactivity- i.e. our failure to purchase health insurance-centers on how broadly _MKWV[\Z]MQ\[XW_MZ\WZMO]TI\MQV\MZ[\I\MKWUUMZKM1\Q[ KWUUWVXTIKMNWZ+WVOZM[[\WQUXW[MM`KQ[M\I`M[WVKMZ\IQV OWWLIVL\I`\PMKWV[]UX\QWVWN KMZ\IQVKWUUWLQ\QM[*]\ can Congress penalize an American citizen because he or [PMLWM[VW\X]ZKPI[MIKMZ\IQVKWUUWLQ\a'+WV[MZ^I\Q^M[ decry such a measure as a breach of federalism and raise fears of a slippery slope down to a Congress that penalizes us for other more private forms of inactivity such as not going to the gym or not eating our vegetables. By contrast, liberals [Ia []KP ZMO]TI\QWV Ă&#x2026;\[ [Y]IZMTa _Q\PQV +WVOZM[[Âź XW_MZ\W regulate interstate commerce and frame the penalty for not WJ\IQVQVOPMIT\PQV[]ZIVKMI[I\I`\W_PQKP\PM+WV[\Q\]tion affords considerable defense. 1V\PQ[IZ\QKTM1_QTT[QLM_Q\P\PMTI\\MZ^QM_\PI\+WVOZM[[Âź power to enact an individual health insurance mandate is KWV[\Q\]\QWVIT.QZ[\1_QTTJZQMĂ&#x2020;aLQ[K][[\PMKWUUMZKMKTI][M whence Congress derives its new controversial power to enIK\ IV QV[]ZIVKM UIVLI\M 1 _QTT \PMV M`IUQVM \PM VI\]ZM of health insurance in order to demonstrate how those who refrain from buying it substantially affect its availability and price, and thus affect interstate commerce, thereby enabling Congress to intervene under the auspices of its commerce KTI][MXW_MZ1VVW\QVO\PMMNNMK\[WVQV\MZ[\I\MKWUUMZKM1 will cite the interstate elements of the health insurance mar ket structure created by the Patient Protection and

CODEPINK DC calls for healthcare reform at Healthcare Now Rally, July 30, 2009 (Flickr) )NNWZLIJTM+IZM)K\1VWZLMZ\WIV[_MZ\WKWV[MZ^I\Q^MNMIZ[ IVL WJRMK\QWV[ \W \PM VM_ UIVLI\M 1 _QTT LQ[UQ[[ \PM [TQXXMZa[TWXMIZO]UMV\\PI\NMIZ[IVM^MZM`XIVLQVO+WVOZM[[ encroaching upon state and individual rights as misguided and not so slippery. A brief discussion of the most relevant Supreme Court precedent on the commerce clause reveals the signposts that Congress must follow in regulating interstate commerce, making what seems to be an icy slope not [W[TQXXMZa.]Z\PMZUWZMITWWSI\\PMPQ[\WZQKITLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWVWN  â&#x20AC;&#x153;commerceâ&#x20AC;? as understood by the framers of the Constitu\QWV[MZ^M[I[IOWWLKI[MLMUWV[\ZI\QVO+WVOZM[[ÂźM`XIV[Q^M regulatory power over commerce. <PM šKWUUMZKM KTI][MÂş WN  )Z\QKTM 1 [MK\QWV  WN  \PM =; +WV[\Q\]\QWV[\I\M["š<PM+WVOZM[[[PITTPI^MXW_MZ\WZMO]late commerce with foreign nations, and among the several [\I\M[IVL_Q\P\PM1VLQIV\ZQJM[Âş<PMW\PMZ[QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\\M`\ in this debate is the main standard shaping Congressâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reguTI\WZaXW_MZW^MZKWUUMZKM[\MUUQVONZWU=;^4WXMb stating that the activity to be regulated must â&#x20AC;&#x153;substantially affect interstate commerce.â&#x20AC;? Abstaining from purchasing the commodity of health insurance, conceived of as inactivity, [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\Ta INNMK\[ \PM XZQKM WN  M^MZaJWLa MT[MÂź[ QV[]ZIVKM XWTQKQM[QVI_IaXMK]TQIZ\W\PMKWVKMX\WN QV[]ZIVKM1VOMVeral, insurance works well when many people buy it, thereby composing a large risk pool where risk is spread and costs are shared among the young and old, healthy and sick. The thinking is that, with health insurance, when you are young and healthy, you pay for the health care of the old and sick because you know that one day you will also be old and sick and need care. This social logic displays its appeal very saliently in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual market for health insurance policies where adverse selection prevails. Considering only the size of the risk pool and not its composition, when people refrain from buying

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Domestic Law health insurance, the risk pool is not as large as it otherwise KW]TL JM KI][QVO ZI\M[ \W ZQ[M 1V \PM QVLQ^QL]IT QV[]ZIVKM market, where people not covered by their employers buy plans, a certain group of people tend to not purchase health QV[]ZIVKM"aW]VOQV^QVKQJTM[XMWXTMQV\PMQZ\_MV\QM[_PW[MM insurance as unnecessary since they feel healthy and rarely VMML[]J[\IV\QIT PMIT\PKIZM 1\Q[ VW []ZXZQ[M\PMV \PI\\PM proportion of people in their twenties who do not buy health QV[]ZIVKMQ[\_QKM\PI\WN XMWXTMIOM\W This dynamic skews the health insurance market toward a composition of sick and old people, driving rates up which causes the marginal group of people not willing to pay those rates to refrain from purchasing health care, further shrinking and changing the composition of the risk pool for the worse. To cope with the new higher-risk insurance consumers, insurance companies either drive up rates, implement limits on coverage, or deny coverage to certain people or health problems. This substantially affects the availability and prices of health insurance on the interstate markets. 1\Âź[ I ^QKQW][ KaKTM IVL Q\[ XMZVQKQW][ MNNMK\[ KIV ZM[]ZNIKM each time someone with health insurance receives treatment. This comes as a result of those who are uninsured tending to wait to seek care until their health problems are worse and demand more costly treatment. Because of the cost-shifting nature of health insurance, the insured bear the higher costs of the health care going to the, on average, more severe problems of the uninsured when they seek care. To compensate for the lack of insurance payments from the uninsured, doctors and hospitals charge the insured more. Bearing the brunt of these costs only becomes a downside to being insured, one that may sway those at the margin deciding whether to purKPI[MPMIT\PQV[]ZIVKM\PMZMJaM`IKMZJI\QVO\PMXZWJTMUWN  adverse selection. The effects of not buying health insurance on the prices of other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policies in the interstate individual market are clear. So is the interstate nature of our health insurance market, a market that will see the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act inject many new interstate and multistate MTMUMV\[QV\WQ\-^MVJMNWZM\PMTI__I[XI[[MLUQTTQWV Americans in the employer-provided group market alone could purchase insurance policies across state boundaries. 5W[\[QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\_QTTJM\PMVM_M`KPIVOM[1VMIKPM`KPIVOM in each state, there will be at least two multistate health plans offering individual or group insurance policies. 1VILLQ\QWV there will be immediate recourse for those who carry high health risks in the form of a nationwide high-risk pool.! All these elements paint the health insurance landscape with an interstate hue, and thus give Congress power to regulate it. But the Congressâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s regulation is not without guidance.The ;]XZMUM+W]Z\Z]TMLQV=;^4WXMb\PI\+WVOZM[[KIVZMO]late an activity if it substantially affects interstate commerce. 1V[WZ]TQVO\PMKW]Z\PMTL\PI\+WVOZM[[W^MZ[\MXXMLQ\[KWVstitutionally circumscribed authority in passing the Gun-Free ;KPWWTBWVM[)K\WN !!_PQKPXZWPQJQ\ML\PMXW[[M[[QWV

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WN IĂ&#x2026;ZMIZUWVWZVMIZ[KPWWTOZW]VL[ Such an act, the KW]Z\ LM\MZUQVML PIL šVW\PQVO \W LW _Q\P ÂťKWUUMZKMÂź WZ any sort of economic enterprise.â&#x20AC;? The government argued that carrying guns near or in a school leads to more crime, or at least the fear thereof. This increased incidence of crime drives up insurance costs, affecting the rest of the economy in which such costs are dispersed, and results in less travel in \PMINNMK\MLIZMI1VILLQ\QWV[]KPKZQUMWZ\PMNMIZ\PMZMWN  hinders studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s learning and, in turn, lowers economic productivity. The Court in Lopez truly recognized the slippery slope that regulating an activity affecting the economic productivity of \PM KQ\QbMVZa MVOMVLMZ[ 0W_M^MZ \PM KI[M _Q\P \PM PMIT\P insurance mandate can easily be distinguished in two ways. First, in the health insurance market, there is no need for a series of inferences to be made in order to link not purchasing health insurance to an effect on interstate commerce. The problem of adverse selection involves one step of rea[WVQVO"\PW[M_PWLWVW\X]ZKPI[MPMIT\PQV[]ZIVKM[]J[\IVtially drive up the prices for those who do. Second, the effect on interstate commerce of not having health insurance is not a nebulous reference to citizenry productivity supported by a gossamer chain of inferences but a straightforward palpable rise in prices in an interstate market for health insurance. Despite the duly noted and manifest effect that an abstention from purchasing health insurance has on the rest of the interstate health insurance market, conservatives point out that Congress has the power to regulate activity that bears a substantial relation to interstate commerce but not inactivity. Prima facie, the commerce clause seems to endow Congress with the authority to regulate a certain class of activities, i.e. â&#x20AC;&#x153;commerceâ&#x20AC;?, but not the authority to regulate inactivity. Since commerce seems to be a term denoting economic actions, activities, or affairs- all positive things- one might be hard pressed to construe the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;commerceâ&#x20AC;? as encompassing inactivity, no matter if it subsumes noneconomic in\MZIK\QWV[I[_MTT<PMY]M[\QWVJMKWUM["KIV+WVOZM[[QUXW[MI\I`WVQVIK\Q^Q\aIVLVW\WVTaWVIKMZ\IQVIK\Q^Q\a'1N  so, what is preventing Congress from regulating other forms of inactivity in the national interest, such as not engaging in XPa[QKITM`MZKQ[M' We can dismiss any fears raised over such a slippery slope LW_V\W[]KPIVM^MZM`XIV[Q^MIVLQV\Z][Q^M+WVOZM[[\PI\ NWZM`IUXTM_W]TLUIVLI\M\PI\WVMXMZNWZUIKMZ\IQVV]UJMZWN [Q\]X[I_MMS?PMZMI[M`MZKQ[QVOIVLJ]aQVOPMIT\P insurance are both in the national interest, only a failure to obtain health insurance substantially affects interstate comUMZKM*aKWV\ZI[\NIQTQVO\WM`MZKQ[M_PQTMQ\UIaXW[[M[[ [WUMMKWVWUQKNWW\XZQV\LWM[VW\[]J[\IV\QITTaQVĂ&#x2020;]MVKM\PM availability or pricing of a certain commodity. Moreover, the regulation of commerce must simply, at times, involve the regulation of inactivity just as it more traditionally involves the regulation of activity. Given Congressâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; regulatory power over commerce, any effect on interstate commerce, wheth

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<PM5IVLI\M"+IV+WVOZM[[<MTT=[?PI\\W*]a' er it derives from activity or inactivity, must be considered when legislating any sort of regulatory mechanism. To claim otherwise would hamper Congressâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; constitutional ability to regulate commerce among the states. 1V\MZM[\QVOTaMVW]OP\PMIZO]UMV\\P][NIZPI[KWVKMLMLI UIRWZXWQV\1PI^MI[[]UMLI[LQL\PM+W]Z\QV=;^4WXMb that the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;commerceâ&#x20AC;? in the commerce clause denotes commercial activity or economic enterprise. Looking at the way in which the framers of the Constitution conceived of \PM\MZUšKWUUMZKMÂşPW_M^MZ_MĂ&#x2026;VL\PI\KWUUMZKMPI[ much broader implications than mere commercial activity. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Commerceâ&#x20AC;? meant something more like the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;affairsâ&#x20AC;? WZ šQV\MZKW]Z[MÂş \W \PMNZIUMZ[ QV \PM \P KMV\]Za The 7`NWZL -VOTQ[P ,QK\QWVIZa M^MV TQ[\[ I LI\ML LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV WN  commerce as â&#x20AC;&#x153;social dealings between people.â&#x20AC;?<PQ[LMĂ&#x2026;nition of commerce makes perfect sense with the interstate commerce phrase couched between phrases dealing with the ZMO]TI\QWVWN KWUUMZKMš_Q\PNWZMQOVVI\QWV[°IVL1VLQIV tribes.â&#x20AC;?   ,MITQVO _Q\P W\PMZ VI\QWV[ IVL 1VLQIV \ZQJM[ QV economic, social, and political affairs necessitated a federal response from Congress, lest an individual state went rogue and threatened the cohesion of the union by striking out its own diplomatic or military path. The framers also thought that such a response was needed to regulate the economic and social interactions among the states.

8]JTQK)NNIQZ[8ZQV\X   P\\X"WVTQVM_[RKWUIZ\QKTM;* ! html  Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Subtitle D, Part 1>;MK 4IVLUIZS" <PM 1V[QLM ;\WZa WN  )UMZQKI¼[ 6M_ 0MIT\P +IZM4I_IVL?PI\1\5MIV[NWZ=[)TTML6M_AWZS" 8]JTQK)NNIQZ[8ZQV\X   =VQ\ML;\I\M[^4WXMb=;!!!  =;KWLM<Q\TM [MK\QWV!  =VQ\ML;\I\M[^4WXMb=;!!!  =VQ\ML;\I\M[^4WXMb=;!!!  )UIZ )SPQT :MML )UMZQKI¼[ +WV[\Q\]\QWV" ) *QWOZIXPa 6M_AWZS":IVLWU0W][M<ZILM8IXMZJIKS[8ZQV\ X  7`NWZL-VOTQ[P,QK\QWVIZa#MV\Za"¹KWUUMZKMº  =;+WV[\Q\]\QWV#)Z\QKTM1;MK\QWV +TI][M  )UIZ )SPQT :MML )UMZQKI¼[ +WV[\Q\]\QWV" ) *QWOZIXPa 6M_AWZS":IVLWU0W][M<ZILM8IXMZJIKS[8ZQV\ X !

For originalist interpreters of the Constitution, this original LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV WN  KWUUMZKM JM[\W_[ ]XWV +WVOZM[[ JZWIL I]thority to regulate many activities among the states that do VW\QV^WT^MKWUUMZKQITIK\Q^Q\aWZUIZSM\[IVLKWV[MY]MV\Ta ZMVLMZ[ \PM PMIT\P QV[]ZIVKM UIVLI\M KWV[\Q\]\QWVIT 1V this case, originalists have to abide by their own strict hermeneutic and swallow the perhaps unpalatable conception of a Congress regulating economic and social affairs to which their own interpretation leads. All of the resistance against the mandate casts into doubt the success of the new health insurance market envisioned in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a market dependent on the notion that UW[\XMWXTM_QTTPI^MPMIT\PQV[]ZIVKM)[\PMQV[]ZIVKMM`KPIVOM[ IVL UIVLI\M LW VW\ OW QV\W MNNMK\ ]V\QT  \PM future for American health care is still up in the air. Jared Baragar is a senior in Ezra Stiles College. ______________________________________________ P \ \ X "   _ _ _ Va \ Q U M [ K W U             P M I T \ P  XWTQKaTI_[]Q\P\U'GZ%[KX%[Y%ZQ^SQV  UIVLI\M[\%K[M<PM[\I\MQ[>QZOQVQI  =;+WV[\Q\]\QWV#)Z\QKTM1;MK\QWV +TI][M  =VQ\ML;\I\M[^4WXMb=;!!!  4IVLUIZS" <PM 1V[QLM ;\WZa WN  )UMZQKIÂź[ 6M_ 0MIT\P +IZM4I_IVL?PI\1\5MIV[NWZ=[)TTML6M_AWZS" 8]JTQK)NNIQZ[8ZQV\X   1JQLX   4IVLUIZS" <PM 1V[QLM ;\WZa WN  )UMZQKIÂź[ 6M_ 0MIT\P +IZM4I_IVL?PI\1\5MIV[NWZ=[)TTML6M_AWZS" 

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International Law

Favela (Chico Ferreira)

!"#$%#&'(')*+,$-.$%*/$'0$("#$12*3'4'*0$ 526*0$748)9: ;$7-+'-4-&'+*4$<0=8'2,$*6-8($!/-$>-0.4'+('0&$?-2)9$-.$7-+'*4$@2A#2 Paulo Coelho Filho

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YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


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"* #+,* -)&&.,* %/* #+,* 0,1,"#,,"#+* (,"#'$23* 4+%-50* 6%77,0* (%"(,)1,&* %/* 5* 0%(),#2* #+5#* 8%'.&*$,.2*+,51).2*'9%"*%'#0)&,*5'#+%$)#2*5"&* 7%'"&5$),0:*6,*7,.),1,&*#+5#*-,"*+5&*#%*(,&,*95$#* %/*#+,)$*$);+#0*#%*5*0%1,$,);"*(+),/*)"*%$&,$*#%*.)1,*)"* 5* 9,5(,/'.* 0%(),#2:* <#+,$8)0,3* ()1).* (%"/.)(#* 8%'.&* 7,*5"*,1,$=9$,0,"#*,.,-,"#3*5"&*&,5#+*8%'.&*$,);"* 0'9$,-,:*>%$*#+,*/%'"&)";*/5#+,$*%/*-%&,$"*9%.)#)= (5.*9+).%0%9+23*.)/,*8%'.&*7,*?0%.)#5$23*9%%$3*"50#23* 7$'#)0+3* 5"&* 0+%$#@* )"* #+,* 570,"(,* %/* 5* A,1)5#+5"* #%*0,('$,*#+,*599,5$5"(,*5"&*#+,*9,$-5","(,*%/*5* /'"(#)%"5.3*05/,3*5"&*95##,$",&*0%()5.*.)/,:*!"*B$5C).* #%&523*#+,*0%$#*%/*0%()5.*%$&,$*6%77,0*%'#.)",0*,D= )0#0* )"* #8%* /%$-0E* %",* &,$)1,&* /$%-* #+,* B$5C).)5"* F%"0#)#'#)%"* 5"&* #+,* %#+,$* &,$)1,&* /$%-* #+,* 5'= #+%$)#5$)5"*$'.,*%/*#+,*&$';*.%$&0:*4+)0*5$#)(.,*)"1,0= #);5#,0*+%8*#+,*B$5C).)5"*'$75"*0.'-0*5##,0#*#%*#+,* 9%00)7).)#2* %/* #+,* ,D)0#,"(,* %/* 0#5#,0* 8)#+)"* 5* 0#5#,3* $'.,&*72*&)//,$,"#*"%$-0*5"&*8)#+*&)//,$,"#*.,5&,$0:* The Social Dilemma of the Urban Slums of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro The Brazilian favelas are similar to the U.S. ghettos in the sense that they represent “stigmatized neighborhoods.”1 The favelas, however, are more ethnically diverse than the ghettos, as people are primarily driven to these urban slums by social and economic reasons rather than racial issues. Poverty, social exclusion, and violence mark these settlements, mostly illegally built against hillsides and placed on the urban periphery. They offer unsanitary conditions and lack adequate infrastructure, which contribute to the marginalization of their growing populations. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the two largest metropolitan areas in South America, comprise 43.9% of Brazilian favelas,2 where dwellers are obliged to live on the margins of the city because of downtown real estate speculation and the unequal distribution of resources among the population. The favela reality can be analyzed through two different lenses. On the one hand, one can focus on its violent disordered disorder. An artistic representation of such a view is Fernando Meirelles’ highly praised movie City of God.3<PZW]OP\PMÆI[Pes and snapshots of a young boy’s camera, the movie shows the generations of drug dealers who lived and ruled in City of God, a favela of 50,000 inhabitants in Rio de Janeiro. This picture

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strikingly reveals the socially unfortunate recruitment of juvenile drug soldiers, some as young as 8 years old, who abandon [KPWWTQVWZLMZ\W_WZSQV\PMLZ]O\ZILM0WXQVO\WÅVLIJM\ter life, those youngsters cooperate with the drug dealers, for whom they work, steal, kill, and, eventually, die. On the other hand, one can focus on a more subtle reality of the favela. A sociological eye, in particular, can recognize that, despite shootings and police interventions, the favela is not an absolutely chaotic society. Instead, the favela has attained a surXZQ[QVOTM^MTWN [WKQITWZLMZ"J]TTM\[LWVW\ÆaZIVLWUTaITIZOM number of kids still attend public schools outside the urban slum, and people are still able to have a normal family life. The Leviathan that maintains this order is not a democratically organized government, but a group of drug dealers who establish the rules that should be followed in the community. Through the lens of sociology, one may thus comprehend the patterned and regular life in the Brazilian urban slums. On the hill, people look for social control in the norms of the drug lords. Although the rules of the favela are not posited in a single document such as the Constitution of Brazil, they dictate people’s behavior. For informality does not remove favela law’s normativity. The drug lord’s rules are not written anywhere, but they are known by the favela residents – and so is the

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International Law X]VQ[PUMV\NWZ\PMQZ^QWTI\QWV1N [WUMWVMJZMIS[IZ]TM\PM offender will not be contacted by the police, but rather by the LZ]OLMITMZ¼[OIVO8]VQ[PUMV\KWV[MY]MV\Ta_QTTJMJZ]\IT to alert the others about the dangers of disrespecting the favela VWZU[1V\PMfavela that City of GodQ[[M\NWZQV[\IVKMQ\Q[M`pressly prohibited to steal from other people within the community, as can be witnessed in a scene in which a group of children steal roasted chicken from a community restaurant and end up getting caught by the drug dealer’s gang. Because those children violated a norm, they must be punished. The drug dealer’s accomplices ask the children where they want to JM[PW\"QV\PMNWW\WZQV\PMPIVL+ZaQVO\PMKPQTLZMVPWTL W]\\PMQZPIVL[*]\\PMQZZMY]M[\LWM[VW\ZMITTaUI\\MZ"\PMa are shot in their feet. The social order in the favela blatantly disrespects human LQOVQ\a\PMN]VLIUMV\ITXZQVKQXTMWN \PM*ZIbQTQIV;\I\M1V Brazil, practicing law, sentencing an offender, enacting a statute, writing a contract, establishing a policy, discussing ethics, acting in daily life – all of these actions must pay attention \W -VTQOP\MVUMV\ XPQTW[WXPMZ 1UUIV]MT 3IV\¼[ XZQVKQXTM WN  P]UIV LQOVQ\a 1V !  IN\MZ \PM KWTTIX[M WN  I ^QWTMV\ LQK\I\WZ[PQX UIZSML Ja ]VR][\QÅIJTM QUXZQ[WVUMV\[ ^QKQW][ tortures and painful disappearances, having a principle that _W]TLZM[XMK\\PMM[[MVKMWN P]UIVM`Q[\MVKM_I[^Q\ITNWZ\PM recovery of the Brazilian people. Thus, the Kantian thought of a man as an end in himself became the doctrinal founda\QWVWN \PM+WV[\Q\]\QWVWN *ZIbQTWN ! 0W_M^MZ\WLIa the drug lords’ rule does not absolutely respect this constitu\QWVITXZQVKQXTM-^MV\PW]OP\PMN]VLIUMV\ITTI_M`XZM[[Ta XZWPQJQ\[ KIXQ\IT X]VQ[PUMV\ NWZ M`IUXTM \PM LZ]O LMITMZ[ KWV\QV]M\WM`MK]\M\PW[M_PWLWVW\NWTTW_\PMQZKWUUIVL Brazilian State law, as result, seems to be devoid of normativity in the favela. But one might wonder why favela residents do not react against the drug lords’ rule. After all, why don’t they rebel \W TQ^M QV I KWV[\Q\]\QWVITTa TMOQ\QUI\M KWUU]VQ\a' <PM IV[_MZQ[XZWJTMUI\QK"KWUXTQIVKM_Q\P\PMLZ]OLMITMZ¼[VWZU[ is a two-way street. Residents of the favela obey the violent rules not only because of fear, but also because of the rewards \PMa UIa OIQV NWZ LWQVO [W 1V M`KPIVOM NWZ VW\ \MTTQVO \PM police the identity of criminals, dwellers continue to live in a patterned community; they are still able to live with their families, go to the favela nightclubs, play soccer, and even go \WKP]ZKPWV;]VLIa[<PMJMVMÅ\[WN KWUXTQIVKMUQOP\IT[W be seen in City of God. As bandits raid a truck of natural gas, many families run to get onto the truck in order to get cylinders of gas. The narrator of the movie tells us, “The City had become much safer for residents. There were hardly any hold]X[VW_º1VLMMLQVI[]Z^MaKWVL]K\MLQV\PM;WKQIT 5MLQKQVM1V[\Q\]\MWN \PM;\I\M=VQ^MZ[Q\aWN :QWLM2IVMQZW [PW_ML\PI\ WN favela inhabitants do not want to move somewhere else. Accordingly, the favela drug dealers are similar to the social

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JIVLQ\[ \PI\ -ZQK 0WJ[JI_U LM[KZQJM[ I[ ¹XMI[IV\ W]\TI_[ whom the lord and state regard as criminals, but who remain within peasant society, and are considered by their people as PMZWM[ I[ KPIUXQWV[ I^MVOMZ[ ÅOP\MZ[ NWZ R][\QKM XMZPIX[ even leaders of liberation, and in any case as men to be admired, helped and supported.” Through the eyes of general society, both the social bandit and the favela drug dealer are seen as unlawful individuals; both of them help in some way their respective communities. Yet the relation between them and the “ordinary peasant” is not the same. Different NZWU:WJQV0WWL\PMfavela drug lords make use of violence against those who do not accept their “generosity.” On the WVM PIVL \PM ;KW\\Q[P :WJ :Wa IVL :WJQV 0WWL IVL \PM )UMZQKIV2M[[M2IUM[PI^MI\ZIV[KMVLMV\ITQUIOM"\PMWXpressed classes see them as legendary men who advocate for social and economic justice. On the other hand, the drug lords in the urban slums of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are known for an assertive authority that allows the regularization of social life in the favela. 0WJ[JI_V IZO]M[ \PI\ _PMV JIVLQ\Za ¹UMZOM[ QV\W I TIZOM movement, it becomes part of a force which can and does change society.” The peculiar form of banditry in the favela has created a separate society that recognizes the “bandits” as their true leaders. The social norms established by the drug dealers have become the residents’ morality – a morality enforced from the outside through threats and punishment, but also from the inside through personal convictions and the de[QZM NWZ ZM_IZL[ 1V NIK\ UIVa aW]VO[\MZ[ ILUQZM \PM LZ]O lords and dream about becoming the “king of favela” one day. These boys want to be as famous as the drug dealers and want to see pictures of theirs printed on the front pages of the democratically organized society’s newspapers. As a result, it is hard for the police to enforce Brazilian state TI_WV\PMPQTT)[IY]ITQ\I\Q^MZM[MIZKP[\]LaJa\PM=VQ^MZsity of Brasília showed, residents of the favela can negatively view police manifestations, because such manifestations “pre^MV\\PMUC\PMZM[QLMV\[ENZWULWQVO\PMQZLIQTaIK\Q^Q\QM[º1V \PMMVLXWTQKMWNÅKMZ[UQOP\PI^M\_WLQNNMZMV\I\\Q\]LM["\PMa might end up being bribed and taking part in the schemes of the favela drug lords; or they might impotently try to enforce Brazilian State law. Evidently, both scenarios are problematic. 1V \PM ÅZ[\ WVM _M [MM \PM ]VKWV[\Q\]\QWVIT NWZU WN  [WKQIT WZLMZ KWZZ]X\QVO \PM QV\MOZQ\a WN  \PM KWV[\Q\]\QWVIT WNÅKQIT NWZU1V\PM[MKWVLWVM_M[MMI_IZJM\_MMV\_W[\I\M["WVM based upon a formal, democratic Constitution; the other built upon the disregard for the principle of human dignity. Nowadays, Brazil has a solid Ideological State Apparatus 1;) with its foundation on the Kantian philosophy, but it lacks a coherent, articulate Repressive State Apparatus (RSA) to secure “by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of \PMZMXZWL]K\QWVWN ZMTI\QWV[WN XZWL]K\QWV°º Although the KWVKMX\ WN  WZLMZ IVL P]UIV LQOVQ\a Q[ ]VMY]Q^WKIT QV \PM Constitution, the Brazilian army and the Brazilian police do

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


<PM4MOQ\QUIKaWN 4I_QV\PM*ZIbQTQIV=ZJIV;T]U[");WKQWTWOQKIT1VY]QZaIJW]\<_W+WVĂ&#x2020;QK\QVO.WZU[WN ;WKQIT7ZLMZ

by the Brazilian government. Just as drug lords comprise these four elements â&#x20AC;&#x201C; territory, people, common purpose, and sovereigntyâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; in the favela, they allow for the organization of a supreme, sovereign state in the urban slums of Brazil.

!"#$%&$'()&"*#$+,-(./0 not possess the appropriate means to impose order over the MV\QZM\MZZQ\WZa1V\PMMVL\PM:;)QV[\Q\]\QWV[NIQT\WQUXW[M the State law and take over the urban slums, allowing a violent, authoritarian group of people to establish a dynasty and to rule a territory that should respect the dispositions in the +WV[\Q\]\QWVWN ! 

Brazilian State law will be legitimate in the urban slums only if favelaQVPIJQ\IV\[LWVW\NMMT\PI\\PMTI_M`KT]LM[\PMUIVLQN  they feel the government has made the conditions in the favela one of its priorities. Non-governmental organizations, such as â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Favela8ZWRMK\Âşš>QTTI4WJQVPW[ÂşIVLš-[\ItrW.]\]ZWÂş strive to change the reality of the hillsides through soccer, music, and computers, respectively, using them as catalysts for XW[Q\Q^MOZW_\P0W_M^MZQ\Q[ZM[XWV[QJQTQ\aWN \PM;\I\M\WM`ert control over police integrity and to develop social inclusion XZWOZIU[1N *ZIbQT_IV\[\WJMKWUM\PM3IV\QIVšSQVOLWU of endsâ&#x20AC;? its Constitution envisions, the country must undergo serious changes. Otherwise, we will continue to see a war between two states â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a clash of two societies that cannot forever KWM`Q[\ Paulo Coelho Filho is a sophomore in Ezra Stiles College.

Conclusion <PMLZ]OLMITMZÂź[Z]TMQ[ILQ[\ZM[[QVOM`IUXTMQVXWTQ\QKIT\PMory. The presence of territories which neither follow the rule of the government nor are deterred by the police or the army casts doubt on the ability of the Brazilian state to â&#x20AC;&#x153;successN]TTa]XPWTLC[EIKTIQUWV\PMmonopoly of the legitimate use of violence in the enforcement of its order.â&#x20AC;?!1VW\PMZ_WZL[\PM law is powerless if the state is unable to obtain a monopoly on its repressive apparatus. No matter how noble or solid the 1LMWTWOQKIT ;\I\M )XXIZI\][ UIa JM \PQ[ QLMWTWOa Q[ LM^WQL of any normative power if there are no means to enforce it. The problem present today in Brazil is that the country has a clear, idealistic ideology, but the State struggles to â&#x20AC;&#x153;control \PMKPQMN KWVKMV\ZI\MLUMIV[WN KWMZKQWV_Q\PQV_MTTLMĂ&#x2026;VML \MZZQ\WZQM[IVLM`MZKQ[MXZQWZQ\aQV[WUMZM[XMK\[W^MZITTW\PMZ organizations operating within those territories.â&#x20AC;? Monopoly on coercion is the key to the imposition of social order in a society. While the police and the army cannot seize the leadership role from the drug lords, those â&#x20AC;&#x153;social banditsâ&#x20AC;? control machine guns, combat militia, and develop a consis\MV\KWMZKQ^MIXXIZI\][1V\PMMVL\PMLZ]OTWZL[\ZIV[NWZU \PM]ZJIV[T]U[QV\WMV\Q\QM[\PI\N]TĂ&#x2026;TT\PMNW]ZKZQ\MZQIWN IV QVLMXMVLMV\[\I\M"IterritoryĂ&#x2026;TTML_Q\PIpeople whose common purpose drives into the direction of a patterned, regular daily life, thereby creating a sovereign state that cannot be deterred

1 LoĂŻc Wacquant. Urban Outcasts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. Page 1. 2 š,uĂ&#x2026;KQ\0IJQ\IKQWVITVW*ZI[QTÂşFundação JoĂŁo Pinheiro, Centro de EstatĂ­stica e Informaçþes. 2006. 3 City of God,QZ.MZVIVLW5MQZMTTM[3I\QI4]VL8MZN)TM`IVLZM:WLZQO]M[4MIVLZW.QZUQVWIVL8PMTTQXM0IIOMV[MV 7.QTUM[,>,5QZIUI`0WUM-V\MZ\IQVUMV\ 4 )TM`IVLZM :WLZQO]M[ š  LW[ UWZILWZM[ XZMNMZMU NI^MTI[Âş O Estado de SĂŁo Paulo)]O")  -ZQK20WJ[JI_UBandits6M_AWZS"<PM6M_8ZM[[ Page 20. 6 -ZQK20WJ[JI_UBandits6M_AWZS"<PM6M_8ZM[[ Page 33. 7 4]Q[);QT^IIVL5nZKQI84MQ\Mš>QWTMVKMKZQUMIVLXWTQKM"_PI\LWXMWXTM_PWTQ^MQV[T]U[[Ia_PMV\PMa\ITSIJW]\ \PM[M[]JRMK\['ÂşSociedade e Estado"!8IOM 8 4W]Q[)T\P][[MZLenin and Philosophy and Other Essays6M_AWZS" 5WV\PTa:M^QM_8ZM[[!8IOM! ! 5I` ?MJMZ The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. 6M_AWZS"7`NWZL=VQ^MZ[Q\a8ZM[[!8IOM 10 +PIZTM[ <QTTa Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1990+IUJZQLOM"*TIKS_MTT8]JTQ[PQVO!!8IOM! 11 ,ITUW LM )JZM] ,ITTIZQ Elementos de Teoria Geral do Estado. ;rW8I]TW"-LQ\WZI;IZIQ^I!! 8IOM

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International Law

Rocinha Favela (Alicia Nijdam)

R !"#$%&'%(&)*+,-.%% /0,01*2$304%5063,$% '&+%7+"1089$%:+;"2% (&&+ Andrene Dabaghi

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io de Janeiro â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the name conjures glossy images of tanned beach bodies, bright costume parades and elegant hotels resting along a picturM[Y]MKWI[\TQVMAM\_ITSINM_JTWKS[LW_VNZWU\PM[M _MIT\Pa[MI[QLMVMQOPJWZPWWL[IVLPMZMaW]Ă&#x2026;VL*ZIzilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s favelas¡UQTM[WN [PIV\aPW][M[\PI\M`\MVL]XQV\W the mountains and provide shelter to the poorest of the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poor. Built illegally by the residents themselves and controlled by drug lords, these neighborhoods lack any vestige of urban planning. Their streets are so narrow that appliances such as refrigerators must be carried up by hand, while the absence of proper water, electricity and sewage systems creates a stench that per^ILM[\PMOIZJIOMĂ&#x2026;TTML[\ZMM\[<W\PMI^MZIOM\W]ZQ[\[ this image certainly does not mesh with their preconception of Brazil â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the tropical paradise and future host WN JW\P\PM.1.)?WZTL+]XIVL7TaUXQK[ that seeks to prove its rising economic power to the rest of the world.

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Laws of Poverty: Citizenship Rights for Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Urban Poor In preparation for its upcoming publicity, the Brazilian government has initiated construction of a wall between the highway and its close-by favela running from Maracana Stadium to the airport. While this barrier serves to contain the violence and brutality typical to favela life, it simultaneously acts as a screen. Referred to as the muro da vergonha (wall of shame) by human rights activists, this structure conceals the aesthetically unpleasing sight of run-down houses and dingy streets. Yet what happens to the people living in these districts, realizing that their own government is ashamed of them? Why has this gap between rich and poor reached such a crucial point, and what are Brazilian state leaders currently doing to close it? The issue comes down to an entity that many Americans take for granted â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the legal system in place that ensures the security and opportunity for all of its citizens. -^MZa KW]V\ZaÂź[ TMOIT [a[\MU PI[ Q\[ Ă&#x2020;I_[ IVL \PM =VQ\ML States is certainly no exception. Yet American citizens receive many government concessions in the form of civil, political and economic rights simply because they were born within \PMLMVW\ML=;JW]VLIZaTQVM[?PQTMX]JTQK[KPWWT[MV[]ZM that all children can receive some form of education regardTM[[WN \PMQZXIZMV\[Âź_MIT\PTI_MVNWZKMUMV\WNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[WV\PM state and federal level guard our personal safety. At the same time labor rights serve to prevent exploitation of workers by their employers, property rights and standards for urban planning / regulation promote the construction of practical living spaces. While not perfect by any means, these legal structures provide the basic necessities for a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily existence, regardless of his or her socio-economic status. Through analyzing Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s laws pertaining to criminal justice, education, and labor rights, we recognize that the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s failure to provide critical legal measures for all of its citizens ultimately perpetuates its shocking economic inequality. Criminal Justice The 2002 release of Cidade de Deus, based on the novel by Paulo Lins, garnered international attention in response to its brutal depiction of life in Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poor neighborhoods. Though originally a government-sponsored housing project designed to supplant a favela, Cidade de Deus (meaning â&#x20AC;&#x153;city of Godâ&#x20AC;?) fell down the same path as the other slums in Rio in terms of gang violence and control by drug lords. Despite the OZIXPQKQUIOM[LMXQK\MLQV\PMĂ&#x2026;TU\PW[MNIUQTQIZ_Q\P\PM VMQOPJWZPWWLIOZMM\PI\\PMĂ&#x2026;TUQ[TM[[^QWTMV\\PIV\PMJWWS which is in turn less violent than reality. In an interview with \PMĂ&#x2026;TUÂź[LQZMK\WZ.MZVIVLW5MQZMTTM[PMLM[KZQJM[\PMfavelas as â&#x20AC;&#x153;a society completely different from the rest of Brazil. Different laws -- thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no police, no judges, no medical systems. The drug dealers really control the areaâ&#x20AC;?. 1 In recent years, the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attempt to reduce crime and mortality in the favelas has resulted in an increasing num-

ber of police raids and occupations. In 2009, authorities ILWX\MLIVM_\IK\QKWN PW]ZXWTQKQVO_Q\PĂ&#x2026;`ML8MIKMUISMZ 8WTQKM =VQ\M[ 88= I[ WXXW[ML \W UMZMTa O]IZLQVO favela entrances and periodically raiding the neighborhoods (Minority Rights Group International). However, unlike the =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ _PMZM KQ\QbMV[ KIV \Z][\ \PM XWTQKM \W XZW\MK\ them and rely on court of law to defend their rights, the Brazilian criminal justice system is marked by apathy, prejudice and corruption.2 Due to existing ethnic and socio-economic \MV[QWV[IVLIOZW[[Ta]VLMZXIQL[MK]ZQ\aNWZKMWNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[WN \PM law frequently participate in death squads, militia and illegal activities. Though the government attempted to reduce crime and encourage social inclusion through National Public Security and Citizenship Programme (PRONASCI), few states managed to propose ideas worthy of federal funding. While many Brazilians support police occupation of favelas to reduce crime, police brutality frequently characterizes these WXMZI\QWV[=[QVOIZUWZML^MPQKTM[IVLPMTQKWX\MZ[[MK]ZQ\a WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[][M^QWTMVKMQVLQ[KZQUQVI\MTaI[IUMKPIVQ[U\WQUpose order in these areas, leaving residents injured or dead from stray bullets and other collateral damage. In June 2009, parliament initiated an inquiry into the function of militias â&#x20AC;&#x201C; armed non-state actors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in the power structure of 170 favelas in Rio de Janeiro.3.]Z\PMZQV^M[\QOI\QWVTQVSML\PMIJL]K\QWV and torture of three reporters and a favela resident to corrupt WNĂ&#x2026;KQIT[ QVU]VQKQXITIVL[\I\MQV[\Q\]\QWV[QVKT]LQVOXWTQKM WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[[\I\MLMX]\QM[IVLXWTQ\QKQIV[)[IUMI[]ZMIOIQV[\ brutality at the point of arrest, interrogation and detention of suspected criminals, the government passed the 1997 Torture Act to assert that any individual engaging in torture will be held responsible for the crime. However, such cases are selLWU\ISMV\WKW]Z\TM\ITWVMZMXWZ\MLQV\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\XTIKM<P][ through the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inability to reform Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s criminal justice system, many law-breakers escape punishment while innocent civilians suffer the indifference and brutality of a corrupt police force. Education Assuming they survive the violence of favela life, children and aW]VOIL]T\[NIKMM`\ZMUMLQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\QM[QV\ZaQVO\WM[KIXM\PQ[ dangerous environment. However, when the only legal path \W Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT MUXW_MZUMV\ TQM[ QV ML]KI\QWV IV QV[\Q\]\QWV just as dysfunctional as the criminal justice system, the future WN \PM[MaW]\PTWWS[JTMIS1V\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ML]KI\QWVIT opportunities for low-income students encourage the social UWJQTQ\aZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLQV\PMQLMITQbMLš)UMZQKIV,ZMIUÂş?Q\P NZMMX]JTQKML]KI\QWVINĂ&#x2026;ZUI\Q^MIK\QWVXZWOZIU[IVLĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITIQL=;[KPWWT[a[\MU[MV[]ZM\PMXW[[QJQTQ\aWN UW^Mment from the lower class into middle and upper classes. In Brazil, however, the socio-economic lines dividing the poor NZWU\PM_MIT\PaZMUIQV[\ZWVOTaĂ&#x2026;`ML<PW]OP)Z\QKTM  of the Constitution demands free and mandatory fundamen-

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law

A school in a favela (Ollie Harridge)

A favela in Sao Paolo (Henri Bergius)

tal (elementary) education for all children, many parents fail to send their children because they cannot afford it. Some families so desperately need the money that they send their chilLZMV\W_WZSQV[\MILWN [KPWWTZMOIZLTM[[WN TI_[ZMY]QZQVO mandatory fundamental education and prohibiting employUMV\WN \PW[MaW]VOMZ\PIV[Q`\MMV.WZ\]VI\MTa\_WOW^MZVment programs initiated in the past few years have provided incentives for parents to send their children to school. Bolsa .IUyTQII_MTNIZMXZWOZIUKZMI\MLQVWNNMZ[Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT aid to underprivileged families provided that they vaccinate \PMQZKPQTLZMVIVL[MVL\PMU\W[KPWWT4QSM_Q[M.=6,-. grants federal money to municipalities based on the number of children attending school in their region. According to recent studies, these welfare initiatives are ameliorating the situI\QWV .WZ M`IUXTM M`XMZ\[ M[\QUI\M \PI\ *WT[I .IUyTQI PI[ ZIQ[MLMVZWTTUMV\ZI\M[JaIXXZW`QUI\MTa QVMTMUMV\IZa [KPWWT[IVL QVUQLLTM[KPWWT[

OZMI\M[\ Ă&#x2020;I_ QV Q\[ ML]KI\QWVIT [a[\MU )KKWZLQVO \W )Z\QKTM  WN  \PM +WV[\Q\]\QWV U]VQKQXIT OW^MZVUMV\[ IVL [\I\M[ U][\ ITTWKI\M I\ TMI[\ I Y]IZ\MZ WN  \PMQZ J]LOM\[ \W MTMUMVtary education. Several decades ago, this legal measure func\QWVML _MTT I[ KQ\QbMV[ QV UWZM INĂ&#x2020;]MV\ LQ[\ZQK\[ LMUIVLML PQOPMZ Y]ITQ\a X]JTQK ML]KI\QWV IVL \PMQZ OW^MZVUMV\ PIL the means to provide it. Wealthier families remained content _Q\P\PM[KPWWT[a[\MU[I[\PMQZLQ[\ZQK\[KW]TLIKY]QZMJM\\MZ \MIKPMZ[ IVL []XMZQWZ QVNZI[\Z]K\]ZM 0W_M^MZ I[ [\IVLIZL[ WN ML]KI\QWVNMTTW^MZ\PMVM`\NM_aMIZ[[\I\M[QV^M[\MLTM[[ QVML]KI\QWV)[IKWV[MY]MVKM\PMY]ITQ\aWN X]JTQKML]KItion dropped and the middle class enrolled their children in private schools.

While these measures help to alleviate the poverty of lower KTI[[ NIUQTQM[ \PMa UISM VW [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\ QUXIK\ WV *ZIbQTÂź[

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The increasing indifference of the middle class initiated a vicious cycle as the state, in turn, allocated even less money to education. As with elementary school, children of Brazilian middle class families started to attend private intermediary [KPWWT[¡M`XMV[Q^MaM\U]KPPQOPMZY]ITQ\a\PIVNZMMX]JTQK intermediary schools. Since topics covered at this educational

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Laws of Poverty: Citizenship Rights for Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Urban Poor

level impact studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance on their college entrance M`IU[ \PW[M IJTM \W INNWZL \PM JM[\ QV\MZUMLQIZa [KPWWT[ achieve the test scores necessary to attend the free public uni^MZ[Q\QM[ 1ZWVQKITTa \PM XWWZM[\ [\]LMV\[ _PW KIVVW\ INNWZL fundamental and intermediary education at private schools have no choice but to attend the private universities. Not only must these poor families pay to send their children to private KWTTMOM[J]\\PMY]ITQ\aI\\PM[M[KPWWT[Q[\aXQKITTaU]KPTW_er than that of public universities. 1VIZMKMV\MNNWZ\\WZMK\QNa\PM[Q\]I\QWV\PM*ZIbQTQIV0W][M WN :MXZM[MV\I\Q^M[IXXZW^MLINĂ&#x2026;ZUI\Q^MIK\QWVJQTT[LMUIVLQVO ZIKQIT IVL [WKQWMKWVWUQK Y]W\I[ I\ ITT X]JTQK ]VQ^MZ[Qties..WZM`IUXTMPITN \PM[TW\[I\INMLMZIT]VQ^MZ[Q\a_W]TL be set aside for an underprivileged sector of society, such as )NZW*ZIbQTQIV[ WZ [\]LMV\[ NZWU X]JTQK PQOP [KPWWT[ 0W_ever, once these bills reached the Senate, they were stalled IVL VM^MZ XI[[ML ¡ I KTMIZ M`IUXTM WN  \PM XWTQ\QKIT QVMZ\QI \PI\QUXMLM[\PMKW]V\ZaÂź[LM^MTWXUMV\WN P]UIVKIXQ\IT1V 2]Ta!\PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\ZMRMK\MLIVIXXMITNZWU*ZIbQTÂź[,MUWKZI\QK8IZ\a\WIJWTQ[PINĂ&#x2026;ZUI\Q^MIK\QWVUMI[]ZM[ I\ \PM =VQ^MZ[Q\a WN  *ZIbQT )KKWZLQVO \W \PM XM\Q\QWV []KP Y]W\I[\PZMI\MVML\PMÂťKWV[\Q\]\QWVITZQOP\WN P]UIVLQOVQ\aÂź as well as the universal right to education. The Court ruling ]XPMTL\PMKWV[\Q\]\QWVITQ\aWN ZIKQITY]W\I[aM\[\ZM[[ML\PI\ INĂ&#x2026;ZUI\Q^MIK\QWVXZWOZIU[U][\QUXW[MY]W\I[JI[MLWV[Wcio-economic status rather than race. While such changes in the educational system provide hope for Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban poor, a third facet of legal rights ignored by the government also perpetuates the gap between socio-economic classes. Labor Rights With an abundance of natural resources and a growing energy business, Brazil is regarded as an â&#x20AC;&#x153;economy on the riseâ&#x20AC;?. Distracted by Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s booming capitalist economy, we forget to acknowledge the vast number of people working for minimum wage or living unemployed in the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban KMV\MZ[ 0W_M^MZ _PQTM WVTa  XMZKMV\ WN  :QW LM 2IVMQZWÂź[ population resided in favelas QV ! \WLIa \PI\ V]UJMZ Q[ KTW[M \W ! XMZKMV\ ¡ VMIZTa WVM W]\ WN  M^MZa Ă&#x2026;^M XMWXTM Though part of this increase occurs due to a higher birth rate than death rate, migration serves as the main factor provoking this trend. Poor people from the countryside continue to move to the outskirts of big cities such as Rio and SĂŁo Paulo primarily because it is the only available land within city limits. At the same time, favelasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; location on the edge of town provides IKKM[[\WNIK\WZQM[IVLW\PMZRWJWXXWZ\]VQ\QM[0W_M^MZLMspite the growing economy, the slums of Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban poor KWV\QV]M\WM`XIVL Although President Lula raised the minimum wage this year, it remains at such a low level that the urban poor continue \W NIKM LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\QM[ _Q\P KTQUJQVO \PM [WKQWMKWVWUQK TILLMZ

Favela residents with jobs live hand-to-mouth, and they must often work more than one job in order to make ends meet by the end of the week. Even though labor unions are permitted in Brazil, the high ratio of people seeking work to the number of jobs available renders these organizations futile. With so NM_MUXTWaUMV\WXXWZ\]VQ\QM[M`Q[\QVONWZ[]KPITIZOM_WZS force, businesses naturally take advantage of the situation by [M\\QVOTW_UQVQU]U_IOM[0W_M^MZZI\PMZ\PIVQV[\ITTQVO UMI[]ZM[IOIQV[\_WZSMZM`XTWQ\I\QWV\PMOW^MZVUMV\Âź[ZWTM in ameliorating the situation ultimately rests in making more jobs available. As illustrated by Rocinha â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rio de Janeiroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest favela â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the development of infrastructure creates employment opportunities to generate wealth within these poor neighborhoods while simultaneously improving the residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; standard of living.! With drug stores, banks, cable television and bus lines, Rocinha has developed into a Favela Bairro, meaning a Favela Neighborhood. The success of Programa de AceleratrWLW+ZM[KQUMV\W8)+I[WKQIT_MTNIZMXZWOZIULM[QOVML \WIKKMTMZI\MOZW_\PWN QVL][\ZaQV\PM+WUXTM`WLW)TMUrW [MZ^M[ I[ I IVW\PMZ KTMIZ M`IUXTM WN  PW_ KZMI\QVO RWJ[ QUproves the situation in favelas. According to local community leader Nilcea da ConceicĂŁo, the investment program â&#x20AC;&#x153;is really the salvation of the communityâ&#x20AC;? by providing work related to the construction of new infrastructure such as houses, cable cars and energy power plants. ConceicĂŁo states that PAC gives hope to the community, as â&#x20AC;&#x153;the majority of people are working and earning money and receiving what they never PILJMNWZM¡INIQZ_IOM°\PMaKIV_WZSTWVOMZIVLUISM M`\ZI KI[PÂş <P][ IT\PW]OP \PM K]ZZMV\ TIJWZ [a[\MU XW[M[ LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\WJ[\IKTM[NWZ\PW[M[MMSQVOIN]\]ZMJMaWVL\PMfavelas, the slow and steady implementation of methods to generate wealth from within the community offers a glimmer of hope. Conclusion ,M[XQ\M\PM[MĂ&#x2020;I_[QV*ZIbQTÂź[[a[\MU[WN KZQUQVITR][\QKMML]cation and labor, small changes taking place at a micro-level within these favela communities inspire optimism for change. As NGOs, social workers and community leaders strive to establish schools and job opportunities within their neighborhoods, they create options for the new generation. Rather than joining the lucrative drug trade, an adolescent will see a better future in his education and choose to stay in school. 1V[\MILWN JMIZQVOIKPQTLI\\PMIOMWN [M^MV\MMVIaW]VO OQZT _QTT [\]La NWZ PMZ ]VQ^MZ[Q\a MV\ZIVKM M`IU[ 0W_M^MZ micro-change can only do so much â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the future of Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban poor rests in change on the government level, in a system characterized by legal measures that raise people out of poverty instead of hiding them behind a wall. Thus, only through honest efforts to protect civil, economic and social rights can the state empower its poorest citizens and endow them with hope of surmounting the obstacles life set before them.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law

Andrene Dabaghi is a junior in Berkeley College.

<MZZa 3MMNM ยน.MZVIVLW 5MZMQTTM[ IVL +Q\a WN  /WL" <PM 0WTTa_WWL .TI[PJIKS 1V\MZ^QM_ยบ The Hollywood Interview, 2IV]IZa   P\\X"\PMPWTTa_WWLQV\MZ^QM_JTWO[XW\ KWUNMZVIVLWUMZMQTTM[IVLKQ\aWNOWLP\UT  โ€œBrazil.โ€ Amnesty International  ! P\\X"ZMXWZ\!IUVM[\aWZOMVZMOQWV[IUMZQKI[JZIbQT  5QVWZQ\a:QOP\[/ZW]X1V\MZVI\QWVITState of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2010 - Brazil2]TaI^IQTIJTM I\" P\\X"___]VPKZWZOZMN_WZTLLWKQLKMKP\UT CIKKM[[ML )]O][\E  5IZQI/WZM\M5IZY]M[LM2M[][ยน7KZQUMLM\WZ\]ZIMIR][\QtI KZQUQVIT"]UM[\]LWLW[XZWKM[[W[LM\WZ\]ZIVIKQLILMLM;rW 8I]TWยบ,Q[[MZ\ItrWLM5M[\ZILW=VQ^MZ[QLILMLM;rW8I]TW ! P\\X"___\M[M[][XJZ\M[M[LQ[XWVQ^MQ[   \LM!  /TM__M 8 IVL ) 4 3I[[W]N    <PM 1UXIK\ WN  \PM *WT[I-[KWTI.IUQTQI+WVLQ\QWVIT+I[P<ZIV[NMZ8ZWOZIUWV Enrollment, Drop Out Rates and Grade Promotion in Brazil. ,MXIZ\UMV\WN )XXTQML-KWVWUQK[=VQ^MZ[Q\aWN 5QVVM[W\I  โ€œEducation in Brazil.โ€ Brazil TravelP\\X"___^JZIbQTKWU [WKQITML]KI\QWVP\UT  1JQL <QU 0QZ[KP ยน4]TI JWT[\MZ[ *ZIbQT UQVQU]U _IOMยบ BBC News ,MK   P\\X"VM_[JJKKW]SPQIUMZQKI[[\U 9 Internetgeography P\\X"___OMWOZIXPaTMIZVWV\PMQV\MZVM\ KW]S\WXQK[]ZJIVXZWJT[TMLK[P\UT  Gary Duffy, โ€œBrazil spends to transform slums.โ€ BBC News )XZQT  ! P\\X"VM_[JJKKW]SPQJ][QVM[[  ![\U 

CE

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW ยŒ1[[]M>WT]UM


Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: European Union Fiscal Policy

!"#$%&'()#'*%+,'-",.$/"(,$0,123"45, 6)($7"2%,8%*$%,9*&#24,:$4*#; Carys Johnson and Tobias Kuehne

! â&#x20AC;&#x153;Behold, the people is one â&#x20AC;Ś and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. (Gen 11:6)â&#x20AC;?

M

illennia after the Babylonian Empire joined territories across Asia and Europe, another union joined nations across the European continent. Although the Babylonian Empire integrated regions through the use of a common tongue, UWLMZV-]ZWXMQ[]VQĂ&#x2026;ML\PZW]OPIKWUUWVXWTQ\QKITIVLMKWVWUQK[\Z]K\]ZM"\PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWV?PQTM\PM*IJaTWVQIV-UXQZMNMTTUWZM\PIVaMIZ[IOW\PM-]ZWbWVM _Q\PQ\[KWUXTM`TMOIT]VLMZXQVVQVO[\ZQ^M[\WI^WQLI[QUQTIZNI\M  <PQ[IZ\QKTM[MMS[\WIVITabM\PMZMKMV\-=Ă&#x2026;VIVKQITKZQ[Q[XIaQVO[XMKQITI\\MV\QWV \W\PMMUMZOMVKaN]VLIT[WSVW_VI[\PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTM;8>\PI\_I[KZMI\ML WV5Ia<PMIZ\QKTMOQ^M[IOMVMZITW]\TQVMWN \PM-=Âź[TMOITNZIUM_WZSIVL IKPZWVWTWOaWN M^MV\[\PI\TML]X\W\PMĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITKZQ[Q[IVL\PMKZMI\QWVWN \PM;XMKQIT 8]ZXW[M>MPQKTM)N\MZIVM`XTIVI\QWVWN PW_\PM;8>N]VK\QWV[\PMIZ\QKTMXZWKMML[ \WQV^M[\QOI\M\PM;8>Âź[TMOITZMTI\QWV[PQX\W\PM-=KWZM\ZMI\QM[IVLI[[M[[M[Q\[[QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIVKM4I[\Ta\PQ[IZ\QKTMILLZM[[M[\PMY]M[\QWVWN _PI\_MZM\WPIXXMVQV\PM_WZ[\KI[M [KMVIZQWWN \PM;8>NIQTQVO\W[I^M\PM-]ZWbWVM

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law I. European Fiscal Crisis: An Overview A. European Union Law: A Background The most basic of European Union legal foundations is the Treaty on European Union. The treaty, more commonly SVW_V I[ \PM 5II[\ZQKP\ <ZMI\a _I[ ZI\QĂ&#x2026;ML WV .MJZ]IZa  1992, formally converting the European Community into the European Union. The documentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main objective was the integration of Europe in both the political and economic spheres; it accomplished this objective by creating the three-pillar structure upon which the current European Unionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s framework is JI[ML"\PM-]ZWXMIV+WUU]VQ\aXQTTIZ\PM+WUUWV.WZMQOV and Security Policy pillar, and the Justice and Home Affairs pillar.1 The central pillar of the Maastricht Treaty, the European Community pillar, governs supranational organizations, including the European economy. This facet introduced two [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\ KPIVOM[ \W -]ZWXMIV TMOIT IVL Ă&#x2026;[KIT XWTQKa .QZ[\ its â&#x20AC;&#x153;Citizenship of the Unionâ&#x20AC;? component granted European Union citizenship to a citizen of any of its member states; additionally, it instituted the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), establishing a single European market. As part of the EMU, a common currency, the euro, was introduced. Initially, WVTaVI\QWV[¡)][\ZQI*MTOQ]U/MZUIVa/ZMMKM.QVTIVL .ZIVKM1ZMTIVL1\ITa4]`MUJW]ZO\PM6M\PMZTIVL[8WZ\]OIT and Spain â&#x20AC;&#x201C; introduced the euro; today, 16 nations make up the EMU, as Greece, Slovenia, Cyprus, Malta, and Slovakia have all adopted the euro as their sole currency. Thus, through the Maastricht Treaty, European Union member states encouraged their citizens to consider Europe as a society with a KWUUWVK]ZZMVKaIVLJaM`\MV[QWVIKWUUWVQLMV\Q\a .W]Z aMIZ[ IN\MZ \PM ZI\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWV WN  \PM <ZMI\a WV -]ZWXMIV Union, the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) was implemented in order to achieve more macroeconomic stability for countries in the Eurozone. The Pact was engineered to safeguard against a debt crisis by ensuring that all member states maintain a standard of budgetary discipline; it mandates all 16 EuZWbWVM[\I\M[VW\M`KMMLIVIVV]ITJ]LOM\LMĂ&#x2026;KQ\WN  WN \PM VI\QWVÂź[/,8WZIOZW[[LMJ\WN  WN \PMVI\QWVÂź[/,81V order to discourage nations from reaching this debt ceiling, the ;\IJQTQ\a IVL /ZW_\P 8IK\ QVKWZXWZI\M[ IV šM`KM[[Q^M LMĂ&#x2026;KQ\ procedureâ&#x20AC;? (EDP) into its framework. The EDP authorizes the European Council to penalize any nation that fails to comply _Q\P\PMĂ&#x2026;[KIT[\IVLIZL#\PMLQ[KQXTQVMQ\[MTN Q[IXZWKM[[\PI\Q[ primarily guided by the Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s discretion. Upon deciding \PI\IVI\QWVÂź[LMJ\Q[šM`KM[[Q^MÂşIVWNNMVLQVOVI\QWVQ[OMVMZally requested to submit reports regarding its internal affairs IVLMKWVWUa\W\PM+W]VKQT#QN Q\[Ă&#x2026;VIVKQITZM[WT]\QWVQ[NW]VL inadequate or remiss, the Council may impose a sanction, requiring the nation to submit a deposit to the European Community. The Stability and Growth Pact and its EDP clause are meant to work together to monitor Eurozone nationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; economies, thereby ensuring that the European Monetary Union N]VK\QWV[[UWW\PTa#PW_M^MZ-,8PI[VW\JMMVM`MK]\ML[QVKM 2005, although many nations have been found in violation of one or both prongs of the SGP guidelines.

CE

Statue at European Parliament, Brussels (David Chan) B. Chronology of the Greek Debt Crisis Throughout its membership in the Eurozone, Greece has had LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\QM[KWUXTaQVO_Q\P\PM[\IJQTQ\a[\IVLIZL[QUXW[MLJa the Maastricht Treaty. In 1999, Greece was denied access to the Eurozone, due to the instability of the Greek drachma at the time.2 After taking measures to stabilize the drachma, Greece was admitted to the Eurozone on January 1, 2001. In 6W^MUJMZ  /ZMMKM KWVKMLML \PI\ Q\[ IVV]IT LMJ\ QVKZMI[M PIL VM^MZ ZMUIQVML JMTW_ \PM UIVLI\WZa UI`QU]U WN  WN Q\[/,8PI^QVO\PMZMJaKWV[Q[\MV\Ta^QWTI\ML\PM-= Stability and Growth Pact. Attention to reckless behavior on the markets rose again with \PMKWTTIX[MWN 4MPUIV*ZW\PMZ[QV\PM=;QV\PMNITTWN   Greece, however, took no austerity measures, even after Standard & Poorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s downgraded Greeceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s credit to from A to A-. As the year proceeded, imprudent economic behavior and viola\QWV[WN \PM;\IJQTQ\aIVL/ZW_\P8IK\[]ZNIKMLQV.ZIVKM8WZtugal, Spain, and Ireland. 5MIV_PQTM ;8 5WWLaÂź[ IVL .Q\KP PI^M ITT LW_VOZILML Greeceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s credit into the B-range, which rapidly devalued Greek JWVL[ IVL UILM Q\ LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\ NWZ /ZMMKM \W IKKM[[ \PM KIXQ\IT UIZSM\1V,MKMUJMZ/ZMMSĂ&#x2026;VIVKMUQVQ[\MZ/MWZOM8IXI

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: European Union Fiscal Policy

Greek protest amidst overhaul of social security (Joanna) KWV[\IV\QVW]XZMLQK\MLILMĂ&#x2026;KQ\WN ! <PM-]ZWXMIV +MV\ZIT*IVS-+*M[\QUI\MLQ\\WJMIJW^M  <PM-+*IVL\PM-=ZMXMI\MLTa[\ZM[[ML\PI\\PMa_W]TLVW\ loan any money to Greece or to buy Greek bonds, claiming that such measures would not be in tune with European poTQ\QKITXZQVKQXTM[IVL-=KWZM\ZMI\QM[ Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou announced sharp austerity measures in Greece, which led to strikes, protests, and riots across the country. While uneasiness began to spread, Jean-Claude Juncker, head of the Eurozone Finance Ministers, categorically denied that a Greek bankruptcy and withdrawal from the Eurozone were imminent. )XXZWIKPQVO)XZQT\PMKZQ[Q[\WWSWVM^MZUWZMUMVIKing dimensions, prompting Juncker and national government PMIL[WN \PM-]ZWbWVM\WZMI[[M[[\PMQZXW[Q\QWV[7V)XZQT -=.QVIVKM+WUUQ[[QWVMZ7TTQ:MPVIVVW]VKML\PI\[M^MZIT -=VI\QWV[PILIOZMML\WKZMI\MIĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWVTWIVXIKSIOM IKKWUXIVQMLJaIVILLQ\QWVITĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWVOZIV\MLJa\PM15. German Chancellor Angela Merkel voiced strong reservations against such measures at that time. To the dismay of Greece IVL\PM-]ZWbWVM-]ZW[\I\ZM^MITMLWV)XZQT\PI\\PM\Z]M /ZMMSVI\QWVITLMĂ&#x2026;KQ\QV!PILVW\JMMV! J]\  while S&P downgraded Greek bonds to junk status (B--) on )XZQT *a\PMJMOQVVQVOWN 5IaILZIUI\QKĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITJZMISLW_V_I[ TWWUQVO7V5IaQ\_I[IVVW]VKML\PI\/ZMMKMÂź[XIKSIOM

_W]TLQVKT]LMĂ&#x201A; JQTTQWVNZWU-]ZWbWVMUMUJMZ[\I\M[IVL Ă&#x201A;JQTTQWVNZWU\PM15.)LIaTI\MZ-+*8ZM[QLMV\<ZQKPM\ contradicted his earlier principal statement not to buy up IVaJWVL[0M\PMVIVVW]VKML\PI\\PM-+*_W]TLJ]a]X Greek bonds even if they have junk status. Trichetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s statements caused rumors about national governments pressuring the []XXW[MLTa QVLMXMVLMV\ -+* IVL [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\Ta ]VLMZUQVML investorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; trust in the euro. 7V 5Ia  \PM 6M_ AWZS ;\WKS -`KPIVOM XT]UUM\ML IVL UWVMa [\WXXML Ă&#x2020;W_QVO NZWU \PM =; \W -]ZWXM I[ ;XIVQ[P Portuguese, and Greek bonds crashed. The crisis was no longer limited to Greece â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Eurozone at large was threatened. >WQKM[JMOIV\WKITTNWZIVMUMZOMVKaN]VLNWZ\PMM]ZW/MZmany vehemently opposed this plan, fearing that this would KWV[\Q\]\M I XZMKMLMV\ \PI\ _W]TL OQ^M XWWZMZ -= KW]V\ZQM[ OZW]VL[NWZKTIQUQVOĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITI[[Q[\IVKMNZWU\PMZQKPMZWVM[ 7V5IaPW_M^MZ\PM-]ZWbWVMUMUJMZ[\I\M[IVVW]VKML \PI\\PMa_W]TLKZMI\MI;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTM;8>QVWZLMZ\W[I^M\PMM]ZW1\[\W\IT^WT]UMKWV[\Q\]\M[Ă&#x201A;JQTTQWV WN _PQKPTWIV[KW]TLJMM`\MVLML\WMKWVWUQKITTaMVLIVOMZML KW]V\ZQM[Ă&#x201A;JQTTQWVWN \PM;8>Q[XZW^QLMLJa\PM15.Ă&#x201A; JQTTQWVJa\PM-=+WUUQ[[QWVIVLĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWVJa\PMUMUJMZ[\I\M[)LIaIN\MZ\PM;8>Âź[KZMI\QWV/ZMMKMZMKMQ^MLQ\[ Ă&#x2026;Z[\TWIVWN Ă&#x201A;JQTTQWV\WUMM\ILMJ\\PI\_I[XIaIJTM5Ia  <PM/ZMMSĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITKZQ[Q[TMN\QV^M[\WZ[ÂźNIQ\PQV\PM[\IJQTity of the European currency deeply damaged. Between JanuIZaIVL5Ia!\PMM]ZWNMTTNZWU \W IVL NMTTI[TW_I[  QVMIZTa2]VM

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International Law

C. The Special Purpose Vehicle: Its Purpose and Scope 1V[XQ\MWN \PMXZM^MV\I\Q^MUMI[]ZM[XZM[MV\MLQV\PM5II[tricht Treaty and the Stability and Growth Pact, the European KWUU]VQ\aPI[M^QLMV\TaMVKW]V\MZML[WUMĂ&#x2026;[KITXZWJTMU[QV \PMZMKMV\XI[\+WV[MY]MV\Ta\PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWVPI[[W]OP\ more immediate relief through the establishment of various TWIVNIKQTQ\QM[<PM\_WUW[\[QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\TWIVNIKQTQ\QM[QV\PM-]rozone are the Balance of Payments facility and, more recently, \PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTM Generally, â&#x20AC;&#x153;balance of paymentsâ&#x20AC;? refers to a record of all transactions between a country and the rest of the world that WKK]ZMIKPaMIZ+]ZZMV\Ta\PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWVIVL\PM-]ZWXMIV5WVM\IZa=VQWVMUXTWa\PQ[[MZ^QKMQVWZLMZ\WSMMXITT UMUJMZ[WN \PM-=WV\PM[IUMXIOM_Q\PZMOIZL\WĂ&#x2026;VIVcial accounts.<PMIKKW]V\ITTW_[\PMVWV-5=UMUJMZ states, i.e., those nations that do not use the euro as currency, to ][M]X\WĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWVQVKI[MWN IĂ&#x2026;[KITMUMZOMVKa#I[Ă&#x201A;JQTlion were unavailable at the time due to outstanding loans, only Ă&#x201A;JQTTQWV_I[I^IQTIJTMXZQWZ\W\PMXZWOZIUÂź[M`XIV[QWV)N\MZ\PM*ITIVKMWN 8IaUMV\XZWOZIUÂź[M`XIV[QWVĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWV KW]TLJM][MLL]M\WK]ZZMV\LMJ\Ă&#x201A;WN \PW[MĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWV ]VI^IQTIJTM<PM[MN]VL[IZMI^IQTIJTM\WITTUMUJMZ[WN  \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWVVW\UMZMTa\PMUMUJMZ[WN \PM-]ZWXMIV5WVM\IZa=VQWV#ILLQ\QWVITTaVWXIZTQIUMV\IZaIXXZW^ITQ[ VMMLMLQVWZLMZ\WZI\QNa\PMM`XIV[QWVWN []KPILWK]UMV\I[ Q\Q[UMZMTaIVM`\MV[QWVWN IXZM^QW][TaM`Q[\QVOMV\Q\a <PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTMWZ;8>Q[IVW\PMZTWIVNIKQTQ\a that shares some common features with the former Balance of 8IaUMV\[[\Z]K\]ZM#PW_M^MZQ\Q[]VQY]MQVJW\PQ\[[\Z]K\]ZM IVLQ\[QUXTMUMV\I\QWV)T\PW]OP\PM;8>Q[L]M\WM`XQZMIN\MZ\PZMMaMIZ[Q\[J]LOM\WN Ă&#x201A;JQTTQWVNIZM`KMML[\PMXZM^Qous amount available under the Balance of Payments facility. <PMLMJ\Q[[]MLJa\PM;8>_QTTJMO]IZIV\MMLWVIXZWZI\I basis by all member states in cooperation with the European Central Bank. 1\Q[JW\PQV\MZM[\QVOIVLQUXWZ\IV\\WVW\M\PI\ \PMKZMI\QWVWN \PM;8>TQSM\PMM`\MVLML*ITIVKMWN 8IaUMV\[ NIKQTQ\a LWM[ VW\ VMML \W JM ZI\QĂ&#x2026;ML Ja \PM -]ZWXMIV 8IZTQIment, as it will be set up by intergovernmental agreements, thereby bypassing the European Parliament completely. Due to the unprecedented nature of this loan facility, many in the European and international community have called the legality WN \PM;8>QV\WY]M[\QWVM^MV[]OOM[\QVO\PI\Q\^QWTI\M[\MVM\[ IVL^IT]M[WN \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWVI[M[\IJTQ[PML\PZW]OPQ\[ core treaties. II. A New EU Institution? An Analysis of the Special Purpose Vehicle <PM ;XMKQIT 8]ZXW[M >MPQKTM _I[ ]VXZMKMLMV\ML JW\P QV Q\[ dimensions as well as in its kind. Never before have members of the Eurozone rallied to a joint effort of such proportions, and never before have they taken on such stakes for each othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; economic welfare.

C!E

European Union building France (Ana Branca) ?PI\ Q[ \PM [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIVKM WN  \PM ;8>' +ZQ\QK[ _MZM Y]QKS IZO]M \PI\\PM;8>Z]V[KW]V\MZ\W\PM[XQZQ\WN -=KWZM\ZMI\QM[IVL \PI\Q\^QWTI\M[JW\P\PMQZXZQVKQXTM[IVL[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KIZ\QKTM[ITQSM  <PQ[IZ\QKTMI\\MUX\[\W[PW_PW_M^MZ\PI\\PM;8>Q[ VW\WVTaXMZNMK\TaQVTQVM_Q\P\PM-=KWZM\ZMI\QM[J]\\PI\[]KP KZQ\QKQ[U[ NIQT \W OZI[X \PM \Z]M [QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIVKM WN  \PM ;8> _PQKP ZMIKPM[U]KPNIZ\PMZ"\PM;8>QVQ\[W_VZQOP\Q[VW\PQVO[PWZ\ WN IVM_-=QV[\Q\]\QWV\PI\PI[X]\-=Ă&#x2026;[KITXWTQKaWV\WMV\QZMTaVM_ZIQT[1\PI[][PMZMLQVIXIZILQOU[PQN\QV\PMXMZKMX\QWV IVLWXMZI\QWVWN \PM-]ZWXMIV5WVM\IZa=VQWV A. Legal Concerns and the Special Purpose Vehicle <PMTMOITQ\aWN \PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTMPI[JMMVY]M[\QWVML WV UIVa OZW]VL[ <PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\ KZQ\QKQ[U KWVKMZV[ \PM UMUJMZ [\I\M[Âź QV^WT^MUMV\ QV \PM ;8> <PM [MKWVL KZQ\QKQ[U ILLZM[[M[ \PMNIK\\PI\\PM+WUUQ[[QWVIKMV\ZITXWTQ\QKIT-=WZOIVXZW^QLM[UWVMa\W\PM;8>_Q\PW]\IXXIZMV\I]\PWZQbI\QWVJa\PM <ZMI\aWN \PM.]VK\QWVQVOWN \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWV<.-=\PM latest version of the Maastricht Treaty). The third point of contention regards the ECBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision to buy up Greek junk bonds, LM[XQ\M\PM[WKITTMLš6W*IQT7]\+TI][MÂşWN \PM<.-=<PM last criticism is more general in scope and addresses the ECBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s IXXIZMV\ZMTQVY]Q[PUMV\WN Q\[QVLMXMVLMVKM)[\PQ[IZ\QKTM_QTT [PW_IKIZMN]TZMILQVOWN \PMIXXZWXZQI\MIZ\QKTM[QV\PM<.-=

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Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: European Union Fiscal Policy debunks all of these criticisms and proves the complete legality WN \PM;8> <PMUMUJMZ[\I\M[XZW^QLMI[]UWN ]X\WĂ&#x201A;JQTTQWV\WJM TWIVML \W KW]V\ZQM[ QV Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT \ZW]JTM[ +ZQ\QK[ JMTQM^M \PQ[ bailout may run contradictory to European core values, citing <.-=)Z\QKTMKTI][M"š)5MUJMZ;\I\M[PITTVW\JM liable for or assume the commitments of central governments °WZX]JTQK]VLMZ\ISQVO[WN IVW\PMZ5MUJMZ;\I\M_Q\PW]\ XZMR]LQKM\WU]\]ITĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITO]IZIV\MM[NWZ\PMRWQV\M`MK]\QWVWN I[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KXZWRMK\Âş)[\ZQK\QV\MZXZM\I\QWVWN š[PITTVW\ be liable for or assume the commitments of â&#x20AC;? suggests that no member state of the Eurozone should lend any money to another member state. To provide a loan, however, is not to as[]UMTQIJQTQ\aWZKWUUQ\UMV\[1\Q[\WJMI[[]UML\PI\KZMLQ\WZKW]V\ZQM[_QTTVW\JMNWZKMLJaITI_WZIV-=QV[\Q\]\QWV to lend money to an ailing member state. Money provided to a country through a loan is a bilateral agreement that falls diZMK\Ta]VLMZ\PM[KWXMWN šU]\]ITĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITO]IZIV\MM[NWZ\PM RWQV\M`MK]\QWVWN I[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KXZWRMK\Âş0MVKM\PMVIUMš;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTMÂş"Q\Q[[W\W[XMISQVQ\[MTN IN]VLQVOXWWT for projects pursued by the member states of the Euro zone, not a legal obligation. Critics, however, may object that the above reasoning does VW\ ZMUMLa \PM NIK\ \PI\ +WUUQ[[QWV WN  \PM -= i.e., a cen\ZITXWTQ\QKIT-=WZOIVI[WXXW[ML\WIUMUJMZ[\I\MWN \PM -]ZWbWVM Q[ KWV\ZQJ]\QVO Ă&#x201A; JQTTQWV \W \PM ;8> Nothing QV)Z\QKTMKTI][M[MMU[\WR][\QNa\PM+WUUQ[[QWVÂź[ QV^WT^MUMV\QV\PM;8> )Z\QKTMKTI][MWN \PM<.-=[]KKM[[N]TTaZMUW^M[\PM JI[Q[ NWZ \PQ[ KZQ\QKQ[U 1\ [\I\M[" š?PMZM I 5MUJMZ ;\I\M Q[ QVLQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\QM[WZQ[[MZQW][Ta\PZMI\MVML_Q\P[M^MZMLQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\QM[ KI][MLJaVI\]ZITLQ[I[\MZ[WZM`KMX\QWVITWKK]ZZMVKM[JMaWVL its control, the Council, on a proposal from the Commission, UIa OZIV\ ]VLMZ KMZ\IQV KWVLQ\QWV[ =VQWV Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT I[[Q[\IVKM\W\PM5MUJMZ;\I\MKWVKMZVMLÂş<PMXPZI[MšM`KMXtional occurrences beyond its controlâ&#x20AC;? provides enough leeway \W\PM+WUUQ[[QWV\WTWIVUWVMa\WUMUJMZ[\I\M[\PI\Ă&#x2026;VL themselves in severe economic conditions. Critics might again retort that the founding fathers did not intend to include economic crises under purview of this article, or that the advent of an economic crisis is not beyond the KWV\ZWTWN I[\I\M*W\PKZQ\QKQ[U[PW_M^MZIZM_MIS"VW\PQVO QV\PMOQ^MVKTI][M_IZZIV\[\PMM`KT][QWVWN MKWVWUQKKZQ[M[ I[IVM^MV\šJMaWVLC\PM[\I\MÂź[EKWV\ZWTÂş.]Z\PMZUWZMQVIV economically interdependent world, the state has at best miniUITXW_MZ\WXZM^MV\\PMIL^MV\WN IĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITKZQ[Q[ The third point of contention regards the European Central *IVSÂź[LMKQ[QWV\WJ]a]X/ZMMSR]VSJWVL[1VI\\IKSQVO\PM ECBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision, critics rely on the â&#x20AC;&#x153;No Bail-Out Clause,â&#x20AC;? Ar\QKTMKTI][MWN \PM<.-="š7^MZLZIN\NIKQTQ\QM[WZIVa other type of credit facility with the European Central Bank

European Commission, Brussels (David Chan) ° QV NI^W]Z WN  ° KMV\ZIT OW^MZVUMV\[ ° [PITT JM XZWPQJited, as shall the purchase directly from them by the European Central Bank or national central banks of debt instruments.â&#x20AC;? Greek bonds are a debt instrument and thus fall under the purview of this clause. The ECB seems to violate this clause by purchasing Greek junk bonds. The word â&#x20AC;&#x153;directlyâ&#x20AC;? guarantees the legality of the ECBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actions. The ECB did not directly purchase bonds from Greece, but Greece made her bonds available on the secondary capital UIZSM\NZWU_PQKP\PM-+*X]ZKPI[ML\PMU1VW\PMZ_WZL[ the ECB conducted a business transaction like any other bank, and has not engaged in direct business relations with Greece. 0W_M^MZ WV I UWZM OMVMZIT VW\M KZQ\QK[ KW]TL WJRMK\ \PI\ \PM -+* PI[ ZMTQVY]Q[PML Q\[ XW[Q\QWV I[ IV QVLMXMVLMV\ Ă&#x2026;VIVKQITWZOIVQV\PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWV=V\QT2IV]IZa ECB President Claude Trichet himself had insisted that the -+*_W]TLVW\J]a]X/ZMMSJWVL[<PQ[ LMOZMM\]ZVaround seems to suggest that critics have a valid point, which UIaJMIZO]MLPWUMJaKQ\QVO)Z\QKTMWN \PM<.-="š)Va measure, not based on prudential considerations, establishing XZQ^QTMOMLIKKM[[Ja=VQWVQV[\Q\]\QWV[JWLQM[WNĂ&#x2026;KM[WZIOMVKQM[KMV\ZITOW^MZVUMV\[°\WĂ&#x2026;VIVKQITQV[\Q\]\QWV[[PITTJM prohibited.â&#x20AC;? 7VKMIOIQVPW_M^MZ\PMĂ&#x2026;VMXZQV\KWUM[\W\PMZM[K]M<PM decision to prevent the Eurozone from crashing into a crisis

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law that may have ushered in its dissolution – and the end of the euro at large – may surely be considered a “prudential con[QLMZI\QWVº\PI\R][\QÅM[\PQ[]VXZMKMLMV\ML[\MXJa\PM-+* This may not completely do away with the fact that, within a few months, the ECB has directly contradicted its own statements. On the whole, however, it has become clear that objec\QWV[\W\PM;8>WV\PMOZW]VL[\PI\\PM-=PI[LQ[ZMOIZLML its principles and even violated its core treaties, are unfounded. 1\ PI[ \PMZMNWZM \]ZVML W]\ \PI\ \PM LMJI\M W^MZ \PM TMOITQ\a WN \PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTMQ[UQ[O]QLML6WVM\PMTM[[\PQ[ debate is not without use. The debate, as well as the back and forth among Europe’s political leaders during the spring UWV\P[WN QTT][\ZI\M\PI\\PM;8>Q[[WUM\PQVO\PI\\PM founding fathers probably never had in mind — that it is something categorically new, and that a new legal domain had to JMKIZ^MLW]\NWZQ\1\\P][JMKWUM[KTMIZ\PI\_PI\Q[ZMITTa VMMLMLQ[ILQ[K][[QWV\PI\I[[M[[M[\PM[QOVQÅKIVKMWN \PM;8> *<PM;QOVQÅKIVKMWN \PM;8> ?PI\Q[\PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTM'1\Q[VW\I\ZMI\aVWZQ[ Q\IN]VLWN NZMMUWVMaNWZXWWZ-=KW]V\ZQM[<PM;8>Q[I JQTI\MZITIOZMMUMV\WN \PM-=+WUUQ[[QWVIVL\PM-]ZWbWVM member states to provide loans to countries in economic dis\ZM[["<PM;XMKQIT8]ZXW[M>MPQKTMQ[IXTMLOM 1VMNNMK\\PM;8>Q[IVM_-=QV[\Q\]\QWV\PI\[\IVL[[MXIZI\M NZWU\PMKWZM\ZMI\QM[J]\WVI[QUQTIZXTIVMWN QUXWZ\IVKM" \PM;8>Q[IKWUXTMUMV\\W\PM-=<ZMI\QM[?PQTM]VTQSMI \ZMI\aQ\LQLVW\PI^M\WJMZI\QÅML\PM;8>UIa\]ZVW]\\WJM ¹I[[QOVQÅKIV\I[\PMKWZM\ZMI\QM[\PMKWZM\ZMI\QM[\PMU[MT^M[º [IQL?WTNOIVO8TI[I-=QV[QLMZIVLK]ZZMV\+W]V[MTTWZQV\PM -]ZWXMIV+WUUQ[[QWV¼[,QZMK\WZI\M/MVMZITNWZ-`\MZVIT:Mlations.7V\PMKMV\ZIT-=TM^MT8TI[I[IQL¹VWJWLa[Q\[QV the negotiations with a copy of the Maastricht Treaty in his hand. Only when treaties are clearly breached, would a legal adviser of the Council Secretariat remind Member States representatives of their legal commitments.”?PQTM\PM-=KWZM treaties may provide rough principal guidelines, the Special 8]ZXW[M>MPQKTMQ[I\IVOQJTM-=QV[\Q\]\QWVIVL\P][XWZ\MVL[ to carry much more weight in terms of policy results. <PM NIK\ \PI\ -= PMIL[ WN  [\I\M IVL \PM +WUUQ[[QWV KIUM together to create a new institution (and of such dimensions) [QOVQÅM[[WUM\PQVOMT[M"\PM-=Q[[\IVLQVOI\\PMJMOQVVQVOWN I[\PMZMVW_VML[WKQWTWOQ[\IVLXPQTW[WXPMZ2†ZOMV0IJMZUI[ X]\ Q\ ¹I XIZILQOU [PQN\º QV \PM IZMI WN  Å[KIT XWTQKa Facing a possible collapse of the euro and Europe’s economy at large, Euro zone members have recognized the futility of a ¹6W *IQT7]\ +TI][Mº <PM ;8> [QOVQÅM[ \PM ÅZ[\ [\MX QV I ZILQKITZM\PQVSQVOWN -=Å[KITXWTQKQM[)KKWZLQVO\W:)TM`IVLMZ4WZb[XMKQITQ[\QV-=4I_IVLN]TT8ZWNM[[WZWN 4I_I\ \PM0MQVZQKP0MQVM=VQ^MZ[Q\aQV,†[[MTLWZN/MZUIVa¹\PM \Z]M XIZILQOU [PQN\ Q[ [\QTT \W WKK]Z" VIUMTa \W ILR][\ -]ZWXMIVÅVIVKQITXWTQKa\W\PMVM_ZMITQ\aº<PMZMNWZM\PM;8>

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is not only a new institution in itself, but it also points toward IVM_XWTQ\QKITI^MV]M\PI\-=Q[\ISQVOIVI^MV]MWN [\ZQK\MZ MKWVWUQKLQ[KQXTQVMIVLI[PQN\WN Å[KITXWTQ\QKITXW_MZ\W\PM KMV\ZITWZOIV[WN \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWV .QZ[\ZM[]T\[IZMITZMILa^Q[QJTM;XIQV8WZ\]OITIVL1\ITaPI^M IVVW]VKML I][\MZQ\a XIKSIOM[ \PI\ \PM -= +WUUQ[[QWV PI[ lauded as “ambitious.” Recently, Greece has received praise Ja\PM15.\PM-+*IVL\PM+WUUQ[[QWVNWZQ\[¹[\ZWVO[\IZ\º in enacting its austerity measures.! The European Parliament has called for a greater say in economic governance, claiming \PI\\PMWVTaXZWXMZ_Ia\WILUQVQ[\MZ\PMÂJV;8>Q[\W X]\ KMV\ZIT -= QV[\Q\]\QWV[ QV KPIZOM German Chancellor Angela Merkel has even gone so far as to push for member states that violate the Maastricht Treaty debt guidelines to be [\ZQXXML WN  \PMQZ ^W\QVO ZQOP\[ QV \PM -= +W]VKQT WN  5QVQ[ters. French President Nicolas Sarkozy agreed to support her XZWXW[ITM^MVQN -=KWZM\ZMI\QM[_W]TLVMML\WJMIUMVLML Whether or not these claims will result in true change of political practice and attitude is, of course, still to be determined, but signals are pointing in the direction of change. C. Conclusion <PQ[ [MK\QWV I\\MUX\ML \W [PW_ \PI\ \PM UIQV Y]M[\QWV \PI\ ZM^WT^M[ IZW]VL \PM ;XMKQIT 8]ZXW[M >MPQKTM Q[ VW\ _PM\PMZ or not it conforms to the legal framework of the European =VQWV WZ _Q\P Q\[ \PMWZM\QKIT XZQVKQXTM[ <PM MKWVWUQK [Q\]I\QWV ZMY]QZML Q\[ KZMI\QWV IVL \PM \ZMI\QM[ _MZM UITTMIJTM enough to justify it, regardless of whether or not the founding NI\PMZ[ PIL []KP I UMI[]ZM QV UQVL <PM ZMIT Y]M[\QWV \PI\ VMMLML\WJMI[SML_I[PW_\PM;8>ZM[PIXML\PMTMOITNZIUM_WZSWN \PM-=WV\PM_PWTMIVLPW_Q\_QTTQUXIK\-]ZWXMIV Å[KITXWTQ\QKITXZIK\QKM III. “Confounding the Language of All the Earth”: A Collapse of the European Union Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech. (Gen 11:7) ;QVKM \PM M]ZW _I[ ÅZ[\ QV\ZWL]KML QV !!! [KPWTIZ[ NZWU UIVa LQ[XIZI\M ÅMTL[ IVL KWVKMV\ZI\QWV[ PI^M JMMV XZMLQK\ing its disintegration; ten years later, the advent of the current Å[KITKZQ[Q[IKZW[[-]ZWXMPI[WVTa[MZ^ML\WN]MT\PMÅZM_Q\P regard to discussions about the possibility of a collapsing EuZWbWVM ?PI\ _W]TL \PM KWTTIX[M WN  \PM -]ZWXMIV ÅVIVKQIT system mean for the unity of Europe – both for members of \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWVIVLNWZVI\QWV[\PI\IZMVW\UMUJMZ[' Europe, especially the area that currently constitutes the EuZWbWVMPI[PQ[\WZQKITTaJMMVXTIO]ML_Q\PÅVIVKQITTQKMV\QW][ness – in fact, a lack of European frugality was the primary reason that the economic community was initially proposed. =VNWZ\]VI\MTaNWZUIVa-]ZWXMIV=VQWVUMUJMZ[\I\M[\PQ[

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: European Union Fiscal Policy M`\ZI^IOIVKMQ[[\QTTKPIZIK\MZQ[\QKWN U]KPWN \PM-]ZWbWVM Although the common currency was engineered to provide a level of economic stability to all member states, many worry \PI\[WUM[\I\M[Âź[M^MZMJ]LOM\LMĂ&#x2026;KQ\[UIaM`MZ\I[\ZIQVWV W\PMZUMUJMZ[WN \PM-]ZWXMIVKWUU]VQ\a#\PM/ZMMSĂ&#x2026;[KIT crisis and bailout procedure has brought this dilemma to a head. Joachim Fels, the co-head of Morgan Stanleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Global Economics Team in Europe, suggests that the bailout has, in NIK\QVKZMI[ML\PMTQSMTQPWWLWN IM]ZWKWTTIX[M" !"#$%&'$(%)*+$,%+*$&-$.-,/0$1/2/,34$&1*$5/%0-6&$/73$&1*$ 89:;+$ +-<&*,$ =-00/&*,/0$ +&/7=*$ +*&$ /$ 5/3$ >,*=*3*7&$ <-,$ -&1*,$*6,-$/,*/$.*.5*,$+&/&*+$/73$./?*$%&$.-,*$0%?*0@$ WKDWWKHHXURDUHDGHJHQHUDWHVLQWRD]RQHRIÂżVFDOSURIA OLJDF\FXUUHQF\ZHDNQHVVDQGKLJKHULQĂ&#x20AC;DWLRQDU\SUHVA +6,*+$-)*,$&%.*B$C<$+-D$=-67&,%*+$E%&1$/$1%(1$>,*<*,*7=*$ <-,$>,%=*$+&/5%0%&@D$+6=1$/+$F*,./7@D$.%(1&$=-7=063*$&1/&$ &1*@$E-603$5*$5*&&*,$-<<$E%&1$/$1/,3*,$56&$+./00*,$=6,A ,*7=@$ 67%-7B$G73$ 5*=/6+*$ &1*$ H//+&,%=1&$ I,*/&@$ 3-*+$ 7-&$ >,-)%3*$ <-,$ &1*$ >-++%5%0%&@$ -<$ *J>*00%7($ *6,-$ /,*/$ .*.5*,+D$ &1*$ -70@$ E/@$ 1-E$ F*,./7@$ =-603$ /=1%*)*$ &1%+$E-603$5*$5@$0*/)%7($&1*$*6,-$&-$%7&,-36=*$/$+&,-7(*,$ =6,,*7=@BKLL$ Recent data produced by the European Central Bank supports Felsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; theory, as it is evident that the growth of the en\QZM-]ZWXMIVKWUU]VQ\aVW\R][\INM_XZWĂ&#x2020;QOI\MUMUJMZ [\I\M[Q[JMQVOKPMKSMLJaĂ&#x2026;[KIT[\IOVI\QWV While the curZMV\[\I\MWN INNIQZ[IVLJIQTW]\XWTQKaUIaJMVMĂ&#x2026;\UWZM^]TVMZIJTMVI\QWV[[]KPI[/ZMMKMIVL1ZMTIVL\PMWVM[QbMĂ&#x2026;\[ all solution of the euro may not sound as favorable to nations like Germany or France, that have larger economies and a desire to stabilize their economies through a more secure curZMVKa<PM/ZMMSJIQTW]\NWZM`IUXTMPI[KZMI\MLILW]JTM edged solution that may favor less frugal Eurozone states at \PMM`XMV[MWN UWZMNZ]OITWVM[ 1V[XQ\MWN IVQVKZMI[QVOIUW]V\WN QV[MK]ZQ\aQV\PM-]ZWzone, Fels â&#x20AC;&#x201C; like many critics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; does not believe that a collapse is imminent. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Obviously, we have not reached the endgame yet; however, with the recent developments, such a breakup scenario has clearly become more likely, for two reasons. First, the lesson for other euro area members from the Greek bailout package that no matter how badly you violate the ;/8 O]QLMTQVM[ Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT PMTX _QTT JM NWZ\PKWUQVO QN  X][P comes to shove. This introduces a serious moral hazard probTMUQV\W\PM-]ZWXMIVMY]I\QWV.Q[KIT[TQXXIOM°QVW\PMZ countries has now become more rather than less likely.â&#x20AC;? No timeline has yet been posited that suggests the European 5WVM\IZa =VQWV WZ -]ZWXMIV =VQWV Q\[MTN  _QTT KWTTIX[M QV the near future; however, there are several warning signs that could signal the possibility of disintegration. <_W\aXM[WN QVLQKI\WZ[KW]TL[QOVITIJZMIS]XWN \PMM]ZW" VI\QWVITXWTQKQM[IVLQV\MZVI\QWVITMKWVWUQKXWTQKa1N UMUber nations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; especially already nations with weak economies TQSM1ZMTIVL1\ITaWZ8WZ\]OIT¡ILWX\IVQVKZMI[QVOTaVMOTQ-

gent economic policy in spite of stagnation or recession, one could safely assume that they are relying upon the prospect of bailout instead of adhering to the principles behind Stability and Growth Pact, which advocates economic independence instead of total reliance on the support of the European MonM\IZa=VQWV)VW\PMZQVLQKI\QWVWN LQ[QV\MOZI\QWVM`Q[\[WVI UWZMQV\MZVI\QWVITTM^MT"\PM-]ZWXMIV+MV\ZIT*IVSKW]TLWNfer insight as to the possibility of a euro collapse. The ECB PI[KWV\ZWTW^MZQV\MZM[\ZI\M[IKZW[[-]ZWXM#QN QVĂ&#x2020;I\QWVZI\M[ increase again and the ECB is hesitant to raise interest rates, it would indicate that the ECB, deeply connected to the best QV\MZM[\WN \PM-5=Q[QV\MZM[\MLQV\PMšXWTQ\QKQbI\QWVWN UWVM\IZaXWTQKaÂşI[.MT[[Ia[)\XZM[MV\Ă&#x2026;VIVKQITKZQ[M[IZMWVTa a severe problem for smaller member states in the Eurozone; _MZM \PM \PZMI\ WN  LMNI]T\ \W M`XIVL \W TIZOMZ KW]V\ZQM[ TQSM ;XIQVWZ1\ITa\PM\PZMI\WN IV]VZI^MTQVOM]ZW_W]TLJMUWZM seriously considered. Fortunately for the Eurozone, recent political events suggest European leaders have been willing to ILWX\ [WUM I][\MZQ\a UMI[]ZM[ IVL I UWZM LQ[KQXTQVML Ă&#x2026;[KIT policy to evade further problems. As the complete collapse of the euro is only looming on the horizon, the fact that it is already considered a serious possibility does not bode well for nations already committed to the Eurozone. 6I\QWV[\PI\IZMITZMILaUMUJMZ[WN \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWVIZM VW\\PMWVTaWVM[INNMK\MLJa\PMK]ZZMV\LMĂ&#x2026;KQ\KZQ[Q[#VI\QWV[ that have already submitted applications for membership or VI\QWV[KWV[QLMZQVOUMUJMZ[PQXIZMQVM^Q\IJTaQVĂ&#x2020;]MVKMLJa \PMK]ZZMV\[\I\MWN INNIQZ[QV\PM=VQWV+]ZZMV\Ta\PMZMIZM four recognized candidates for membership in the European =VQWV" +ZWI\QI 1KMTIVL 5IKMLWVQI IVL <]ZSMa# )TJIVQI Montenegro, and Serbia have all submitted applications for KWV[QLMZI\QWVJ]\IZMVW\aM\WNĂ&#x2026;KQITTaZMKWOVQbMLKIVLQLI\M[ )TTWN \PM[MVI\QWV[IVL\PMQZMKWVWUQM[IZMLMMXTaQVĂ&#x2020;]MVKML JaM^MZa\PQVO\PMK]ZZMV\-5=LWM[-]ZWXMIV+WUUQ[[QWV President JosĂŠ Manuel Barroso believes that â&#x20AC;&#x153;the current crisis KIVVW\JMIVM`K][MNWZVW\KWV\QV]QVOW]ZMNNWZ\[\WZM]VQ\M the European family, notably the Balkan countriesâ&#x20AC;?; however, the worldwide recession coupled with the current European debt crisis has seriously attenuated the economies of several WN \PM[MVI\QWV[+WV[MY]MV\TaL]M\WIPIZ[PMZMKWVWUQKKTQUI\M IVL \PM OMVMZIT LQ[QV\MZM[\ WN  \PM -]ZWXMIV =VQWV QV accepting more members at this time, hopeful members of the -]ZWXMIV=VQWVUIaPI^M\W_IQ\\W[MM\PMQZLZMIU[ZMITQbML -]ZWXMIV=VQWVUMUJMZ[\I\M[\PI\IZMK]ZZMV\TaVW\IXIZ\ WN \PM-]ZWbWVMIZMI\\PMPMIZ\WN \PQ[Ă&#x2026;[KITKZQ[Q[/MVMZITTa QN IVI\QWVQ[XIZ\WN \PM-]ZWXMIV=VQWV\PMaIZMWJTQOI\ML to adopt the euro as soon as their economies are in compliance with the standards established by the Maastricht Treaty and the Stability and Growth Pact; Denmark, Sweden, and the =VQ\ML3QVOLWUIZM\PMWVTa[\I\M[\PI\IZMVW\WJTQOI\ML\W RWQV\PM-]ZWbWVM)[IKWV[MY]MVKMWN \PMK]ZZMV\LMJ\KZQ[Q[ PW_M^MZ-=UMUJMZ[\I\M[\PI\LWVW\JMTWVO\W\PM-5= could observe several changes, both on an international and a national level.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law The primary change that could take place on the international TM^MTQ[\PM\PZMI\WN IVQVKZMI[QVOTaLQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\MV\ZIVKMXZWKM[[ NWZIVI\QWV\PI\_IV\[\WJMXIZ\WN \PM-5=)[UIVa-5= VI\QWV[NIKMLMJ\KZQ[M[\PM-5=UIaUWZMKIZMN]TTa[KZMMV applicants in order to prevent future problems. As Lithuanian Prime Minister AndriusKubilius said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;As long as a country is not a member of the single currency, the Maastricht criteria are applied very strictly, but once you are in, you can do almost what you want.â&#x20AC;? More stringency with regard to applications JW\P\W\PM-=IVL\W\PM-5=XTIKM[IVM`\ZMUMIUW]V\WN  pressure on hopeful nationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; economies, as they are compelled to enact severe austerity measures, including decreasing pubTQK[XMVLQVOIVL_IOM[QVWZLMZ\WUMM\-5=MV\ZaZMY]QZMments. 1V ZM[XWV[M \W I XW\MV\QITQVKZMI[M QV [MTMK\Q^Q\a NWZ MV\ZIVKM \W\PM-5=VI\QWV[PI^M\ISMVLQ[XIZI\MIXXZWIKPM[;WUM []KPI[4Q\P]IVQIIVL4I\^QIPI^MM`XZM[[MLKWV\QV]MLQV\MZM[\QVRWQVQVO\PM-]ZWbWVMQV[XQ\MWN Q\[Ă&#x2026;[KITXZWJTMU[#W\Pers, like Bulgaria, have abandoned plans to become members WN  \PM -]ZWbWVM NWZ I\ TMI[\ \PM VM`\ \PZMM aMIZ[ 5IVa -= member states are even taking pains to avoid joining, as the late governor of the Polish Central Bank Slawomir Skrzypek M`XZM[[ML" šI[ I VWVUMUJMZ WN  \PM M]ZW 8WTIVL PI[ JMMV IJTM \W XZWĂ&#x2026;\ NZWU Ă&#x2020;M`QJQTQ\a WN  \PM bTW\a M`KPIVOM ZI\M QV I way that has helped growth and lowered the current account LMĂ&#x2026;KQ\_Q\PW]\QUXWZ\QVOQVĂ&#x2020;I\QWVÂş President of the Czech :MX]JTQK >nKTI^ 3TI][ MKPWML ;SZbaXMSÂź[ [MV\QUMV\[" š<PM Czech Republic has not made a mistake by avoiding membership in the Eurozone so far. And we are not the only country taking that view.â&#x20AC;?! Carys Johnson is a junior in Timothy Dwight College. Tobias Kuehne is a junior in Branford College.

Ludger Schuknecht, â&#x20AC;&#x153;EU Fiscal Rules: Issues and Lessons from Political Economy,â&#x20AC;? European Central Bank: Working Paper Series no. 421 (December 2004). 2 Graeme Wearden, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Greece Debt Crisis Timeline.â&#x20AC;? The Guardian, May 5, 2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/may/05/greece-debt-crisis-timeline. 3 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Chronologie des Scheiterns,â&#x20AC;&#x153; Welt am Sonntag, May 16, 2010. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Pavan Wadhwa and JPMorgan Securities Ltd., â&#x20AC;&#x153;The European Stabilization Mechanism,â&#x20AC;? European Rates Strategy, (May 14, 2010): 1-10. 7 Pavan Wadhwa and JPMorgan Securities Ltd., â&#x20AC;&#x153;The European Stabilization Mechanism,â&#x20AC;? European Rates Strategy, (May 14, 2010): 1-10. 8 Pavan Wadhwa and JPMorgan Securities Ltd., â&#x20AC;&#x153;The European Stabilization Mechanism,â&#x20AC;? European Rates Strategy, (May 14, 2010): 1-10. 9 Ralph Alexander Lorz, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Weicht das Recht der Politikâ&#x20AC;? Legal Tribune, May 14, 2010, http://www.lto.de/de/html/nachrichten/525/Weicht-dasRecht-der-Politik-/ . 10 Ralph Alexander Lorz, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Weicht das Recht der Politikâ&#x20AC;? Legal Tribune, May 14, 2010, 1

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P\\X"___T\WLMLMP\UTVIKPZQKP\MV?MQKP\LI[ :MKP\LMZ8WTQ\QS  â&#x20AC;&#x153;Treaty Sidesteppedâ&#x20AC;? European Voice5IaP\\X" ___M]ZWXMIV^WQKMKWUIZ\QKTMQUXWZ\ML\ZMI\a[QLM[\MXXML!I[X`  :ITXP)TM`IVLMZ4WZbš?MQKP\LI[:MKP\LMZ8WTQ\QSÂşLegal Tribune5Ia P\\X"___T\WLMLMP\UTVIKPZQKP\MV?MQKP\LI[ :MKP\LMZ8WTQ\QS   š1VLMXMVLMVKM WN  -+* +ITTML 1V\W 9]M[\QWVÂş European Voice5IaP\\X"___M]ZWXMIV^WQKMKWUIZ\QKTM QUXWZ\MLQVLMXMVLMVKMWNMKJKITTMLQV\WY]M[\QWV! I[X`  Wolfgang Plasa (Counsellor in the European Commissionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ,QZMK\WZI\M/MVMZIT NWZ -`\MZVIT :MTI\QWV[ QV\MZ^QM_ _Q\P \PMI]\PWZ2]VM  1JQL  2]MZOMV0IJMZUI[š?QZJZI]KPMV-]ZWXI ÂşDie Zeit, May P\\X"___bMQ\LM-]ZWXI0IJMZUI[  : )TM`IVLMZ 4WZb MUIQT UM[[IOM \W \PM I]\PWZ 2]VM    Jim Brunsden, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Support for Spainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and Portugalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Austerity Plansâ&#x20AC;? European Voice2]VMP\\X"___M]ZWXMIV^WQKMKWUIZ\QKTM[]XXWZ\NWZ[XIQV[IVLXWZ\]OIT[I][\MZQ\aXTIV[ !I[X` ! Jim Brunsden, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Greece Wins Praise for Reformsâ&#x20AC;? European Voice )]O][\   P\\X"___M]ZWXMIV^WQKMKWUIZ\QKTM OZMMKM_QV[XZIQ[MNWZZMNWZU[  I[X`  Constant Brand, â&#x20AC;&#x153;MEPs Call for Greater Say in Economic Governanceâ&#x20AC;? European Voice 2]VM   P\\X"___M]ZWXMIV^WQKMKWUIZ\QKTMUMX[KITTNWZOZMI\MZ[Ia QVMKWVWUQKOW^MZVIVKM  I[X`  Simon Taylor, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Merkel and Sarkozy Agree Tougher Economic Governance Measuresâ&#x20AC;? European Voice2]VM P\\X"___M]ZWXMIV^WQKMKWUIZ\QKTMUMZSMT and-sarkozy-agree-tougher-economic-governance-mea[]ZM[ I[X`  >QVKMV\ .MZVIVLW +.) š5WZOIV ;\IVTMa" ) -]ZWbWVM +WTTIX[M1[6W_.IZ5WZM4QSMTa0MZM)ZM\PM+IVIZQM[\W Watch Out For,â&#x20AC;? Business Insider)XZQTP\\X"___ J][QVM[[QV[QLMZKWUUWZOIV[\IVTMaJIQTQVOW]\OZMMKMUI[sively-increased-the-cahnce-of-a-eurozone-collapse-here-areKIVIZQM[\W_I\KPW]\NWZ  European Central Bank, Eurosystem Statistics Pocketbook (FrankN]Z\/MZUIVa5IZKP  >QVKMV\ .MZVIVLW +.) š5WZOIV ;\IVTMa" ) -]ZWbWVM +WTTIX[M1[6W_.IZ5WZM4QSMTa0MZM)ZM\PM+IVIZQM[\W Watch Out For,â&#x20AC;? Business Insider)XZQTP\\X"___ J][QVM[[QV[QLMZKWUUWZOIV[\IVTMaJIQTQVOW]\OZMMKMUI[sively-increased-the-cahnce-of-a-eurozone-collapse-here-areKIVIZQM[\W_I\KPW]\NWZ  7`NWZL-KWVWUQK[-]ZWbWVM=VQ\a=VLMZ<PZMI\'7`NWZL-KWVWUQK[5IZKP!  :M]\MZ[š*IZZW[W"-]ZWXMIV=VQWV-`XIV[QWV5][\+WVtinue Despite Crisis,â&#x20AC;? Kyiv Post 5Ia   P\\X"___ SaQ^XW[\KWUVM_[_WZTLLM\IQT   š/ZMMKMKZQ[Q[[MVL[KPQTT[W^MZM]ZWbWVMÂź[M`XIV[QWVMI[\Âş EU Business.MJZ]IZaP\\X"___M]J][QVM[[KWU VM_[M]OZMMKMMM]ZWXMX  >nKTI^ 3TI][ š?PMV ?QTT \PM -]ZWbWVM +WTTIX[M'Âş +I\W 1V[\Q\]\MEconomic Development BulletinVW5Ia P\\X"___KI\WWZOX]JGLQ[XTIaXPX'X]JGQL%   ! >nKTI^ 3TI][ š?PMV ?QTT \PM -]ZWbWVM +WTTIX[M'Âş +I\W 1V[\Q\]\MEconomic Development BulletinVW5Ia P\\X"___KI\WWZOX]JGLQ[XTIaXPX'X]JGQL%  

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The Legal Problem of Trade Linkage and Judicial Policy Harmonization in the WTO

Inside the WTO: The Legal Problem of Trade Linkage and Judicial Policy Harmonization Nadia Danford

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he World Trade Organization, or WTO, is the principal international organization dedicated to the preservation of free trade across the world. The WTO was M[\IJTQ[PMLQV!!IVLQ[\PMLQZMK\[]KKM[[WZWN \PM/MVMZIT)OZMMUMV\WV<IZQNN[ and Trade (GATT), a multilateral agreement negotiated in the wake of the Second World ?IZ\WXZM^MV\XZW\MK\QWVQ[\MKWVWUQKXWTQKQM[<WLIa\PM?<7PI[UMUJMZKW]Vtries for which it monitors trade agreement negotiation and handles dispute settlements, IVL\PMaMIZWTL/)<<[MZ^M[I[\PMWNĂ&#x2026;KQIT?<7Z]TMJWWSNWZVWVLQ[KZQUQVI\QWVQV \PMQV\MZVI\QWVIT\ZILMWN OWWL[<PQ[IZ\QKTMM`IUQVM[\PMZWTMWN ?<7IZJQ\ZI\QWVIVL the GATT in the current â&#x20AC;&#x153;trade linkageâ&#x20AC;? debate, especially as member countries attempt \W]\QTQbM\PMNIUW][šOMVMZITM`KMX\QWV[ÂşIZ\QKTMWN \PM/)<<\WQV\ZWL]KM\ZILMZM[\ZQKtions to further their environmental and social agendas, and argues against such judicial activism.

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International Law particular began to look for ways to enforce their social and environmental domestic policies through trade restrictions. <PQ[ MVNWZKMUMV\ _I[ WN\MV IKPQM^ML \PZW]OP \PM /)<< WTO dispute settlement system, by which countries may ]\QTQbM)Z\QKTM@@WN \PM/)<<\WR][\QNa^QWTI\QWV[\PI\IZM either â&#x20AC;&#x153;necessary to protect human, animal, or plant life or PMIT\PÂşWZšZMTI\QVO\W\PMKWV[MZ^I\QWVWN M`PI][\QJTMVI\]ZIT resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption.â&#x20AC;?

Ambassador Ron Kirk visits WTO Geneva (Eric Bridiers) Trade linkage has recently become a major topic of debate among international lawyers and scholars. Since environmental and human rights movements gained momentum and their goals began to be recognized as legitimate policy initiatives in \PMMIZTa![VI\QWVITOW^MZVUMV\[PI^MJMKWUMUWZMIVL more concerned with preserving their social policy even at the M`XMV[MWN NZMM\ZILM<PMZM[]T\PI[JMMVIOZW_QVOKWVĂ&#x2020;QK\ JM\_MMVQV\MZVI\QWVIT\ZILMTI_[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KITTa\PM?WZTL<ZILM Organization) and smaller multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) over the proper course of action for harmonibI\QWV<PQ[KWVĂ&#x2020;QK\PI[JMMVXIZ\QK]TIZTaXWQV\MLQV\PMIZMI WN  TQ\QOI\QWV IJW]\ \PM šOMVMZIT M`KMX\QWV[Âş IZ\QKTM )Z\QKTM @@QV\PM/MVMZIT)OZMMUMV\WV<IZQNN[IVL<ZILM/)<< as countries have become more likely to plead environmental WZPMIT\PKWVKMZV[I[IXZM\M`\NWZQUXTMUMV\I\QWVWN VI\QWVIT policies inconsistent with GATT standards. What is and what [PW]TLJM\PMZWTMWN /)<<)Z\QKTM@@TQ\QOI\QWVQV\PMPIZmonization of new social and environmental policy goals with NZMM\ZILMXZQVKQXTM['1I\\MUX\\WIV[_MZ\PQ[Y]M[\QWVJaM`amining the growth and development of trade linkage over \PMTI[\[M^MZITLMKILM[IVLQ\[KWV[MY]MVKM[NWZ\PM/)<< ?<7IVL\PMZM[\WN \PMU]T\QTI\MZITTMOITNZIUM_WZS)[1 _QTTLMUWV[\ZI\M)Z\QKTM@@TQ\QOI\QWVIVL\PMR]LQKQIT[\Z]K\]ZM WN  \PM /)<<?<7 IZM VW\ []NĂ&#x2026;KQMV\ I[ I UMKPIVQ[U for trade linkage without the support of a legislative attempt at harmonization. 1\Q[PMTXN]T\WJMOQV_Q\PIJZQMN PQ[\WZaIVLLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWVWN \ZILM TQVSIOM;QVKM\PMTI\M![_PMV\PM/MVMZIT)OZMMUMV\WV Tariffs and Trade was negotiated in an effort to reduce trade XZW\MK\QWVQ[UQV\PM_ISMWN ?WZTL?IZ11 there have been numerous multilateral agreements and organizations dedicated to the principles of free trade across national borders, including the GATT, the European Community and eventually the WTO. As the global legal framework evolved into a fragmented, highly compartmentalized system governed by a multitude of different institutions, developed countries in

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Thus follows the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;trade linkage,â&#x20AC;? which refers to the incorporation of moral, environmental or social initiatives into the international trade regime (here, the World Trade 7ZOIVQbI\QWV IVL \PM /)<< 1V \PQ[ IZ\QKTM 1 M`IUQVM \PM development of the so-called â&#x20AC;&#x153;trade and environmentâ&#x20AC;? debate, which has historically encompassed both the protection of human health and the issue of environmental preservation. 1\PMVM`XTWZM\PMKWV[MY]MVKM[WN \PQ[R]LQKQITIK\QWVNWZ\PM /)<<?<7NZIUM_WZSW\PMZQV\MZVI\QWVITJWLQM[IVLLMveloping countries to determine how effective this has been as a mechanism for environmental and social policy harmonization in lieu of operative legislation on the subject. Since the adoption of the GATT and the establishment of the WTO, there have been about ten dispute settlement proceedQVO[QV_PQKP)Z\QKTM@@PI[JMMVM`XTWQ\ML\W[MZ^M\PMš\ZILM and environmentâ&#x20AC;? debate (and only seven of these have been adopted).<PQ[UISM[Q\ZMTI\Q^MTaMI[a\WM`IUQVM\PMTQVMIZ progression of cases in order to determine how the decisions of the Panel and the superior Appellate Body have evolved NZWUJT]V\ZMRMK\QWV[WN \PM)Z\QKTM@@LMNMV[MQV\WIKWUXTQcated system of necessity analysis and balancing. The increasingly active Panel and Appellate Body have been the principal cause of this evolution from strict rejection to accommodating acceptance of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;trade and environmentâ&#x20AC;? linkage. 1V\PMMIZTQM[\M`IUXTM[WN š\ZILMIVLMV^QZWVUMV\ÂşTQ\QOI\QWV )Z\QKTM@@_I[]\QTQbMLXZQUIZQTaI[ILMNMV[MNWZLQ[KZQUQVItory trade measures that often had no particular emphasis on environmental or human health protection. Thus the majorQ\aWN LQ[X]\MXZWKMMLQVO[QVQ\QI\MLXZQWZ\W\PMTIVLUIZS=; ;PZQUX<]Z\TM[ KI[M QV !!  ]T\QUI\MTa ZMRMK\ML \PM ZM[XWVLMV\[Âź )Z\QKTM @@ LMNMV[M[ QV NI^WZ WN  NZMMZ \ZILM UMI[]ZM[ .WZ M`IUXTM QV \PM !  United Statesâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Canadian Tuna !  Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Salmon and HerringIVL!!Thai-Cigarettes cases, the 8IVMT¸LM[XQ\MQVQ\QITTaKWVKMLQVO\PI\\PMXWTQKQM[QVY]M[\QWV LQLWV\PMQZNIKMN]TĂ&#x2026;TTWVMWZUWZMWN \PMM`KMX\QWV[TQ[\ML QV)Z\QKTM@@¸]T\QUI\MTaLQ[KW]V\ML\PMIZO]UMV\[JI[MLWV ILLQ\QWVITQV\MZXZM\I\QWVWN \PMM`KMX\QWVKTI][M[\PMU[MT^M[ 1V United Statesâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Canadian Tuna, the Panel acknowledged that \]VI[\WKSLQLN]TĂ&#x2026;TT\PMšM`PI][\QJTMVI\]ZITZM[W]ZKMÂşKZQ\MZQWVWN @@OJ]\Q\IT[WWJ[MZ^ML\PI\\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[PIL not implemented these measures in conjunction with domestic ZM[\ZQK\QWV[WV\]VIKWV[]UX\QWV#\P][\PMJIV_I[VW\R][\QĂ&#x2026;IJTM]VLMZ\PM[MKWVLKTI][MWN )Z\QKTM@@O Likewise, in Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Salmon and Herring, the Panel again agreed that salmon

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


The Legal Problem of Trade Linkage and Judicial Policy Harmonization in the WTO

Palais Wilson Geneva IVLPMZZQVOZMXZM[MV\¹M`PI][\QJTMVI\]ZITZM[W]ZKM[ºJ]\\PMV KWVKT]LML\PI\ZM[\ZQK\Q^MUMI[]ZM[_MZMVW\R][\QÅIJTM]VLMZ )Z\QKTM@@OJMKI][M\ZILMUMI[]ZM[¹PILto be primarily aimed at \PM KWV[MZ^I\QWV WN  IV M`PI][\QJTM VI\]ZIT ZM[W]ZKM \W JM KWV[QLMZMLI[»ZMTI\QVO\W¼KWV[MZ^I\QWV_Q\PQV\PMUMIVQVOWN  )Z\QKTM@@Oº And in Thai-Cigarettes, although the presiding Panel did concede that smoking constitutes a serious risk to P]UIVPMIT\PQ\ZMRMK\ML<PIQTIVL¼[)Z\QKTM@@JLMNMV[M¸ which claimed that the cigarette import ban was “necessary to XZW\MK\ P]UIV°TQNM WZ PMIT\Pº JMKI][M WN  PIZUN]T \WJIKKW additives in American cigarettes! —on the basis of a least ZM[\ZQK\Q^M UMIV[ \M[\ 1V W\PMZ _WZL[ \PM 8IVMT LM\MZUQVML \PI\ \PMZM M`Q[\ML I TM[[ \ZILM ZM[\ZQK\Q^M UM\PWL \W IKPQM^M the same ends, i.e. educating the public about the dangers of smoking. The Panel also recognized that Thailand’s defense in Thai-Cigarettes was a disguised restriction on international trade because the Thai government had not implemented policies to reduce the country’s domestic tobacco consumption (presumably because of a government monopoly in the Thai cigarette industry). <PMKI[M\PI\NWTTW_ML_I[\PMÅZ[\WN \_WTIVLUIZSZ]TQVO[ \PI\PI^M^QZ\]ITTaLMÅVML\PM¹\ZILMIVLMV^QZWVUMV\ºLMJI\M for most scholars. Though the GATT never formally adopted the Panel recommendation in US-Tuna/Dolphin case—the =VQ\ML;\I\M[IVL5M`QKWPMTL\PMQZW_VJQTI\MZITKWV[]T\Itions and eventually settled the dispute on their own—this KI[MPI[JMKWUMVW\WZQW][NWZQ\[KWV\ZW^MZ[QITKWV[MY]MVKM[ The dispute itself was relatively straightforward; essentially, \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[QUXW[MLIVQUXWZ\XZWPQJQ\QWVWVaMTTW_ÅV \]VI IVL \]VI XZWL]K\[ QV IKKWZLIVKM _Q\P \PM =; 5IZQVM5IUUIT8ZW\MK\QWV)K\_PQKPXZWPQJQ\MLQUXWZ\MLÅ[P

KI]OP\_Q\PKWUUMZKQITÅ[PQVO\MKPVQY]M[\PI\UQOP\ZM[]T\QV “the incidental kill or incidental serious injury of ocean mamUIT[ CLWTXPQV[E QV M`KM[[ WN  =; [\IVLIZL[º 5M`QKW \PMV challenged this trade restriction on the grounds of Articles 111@1IVL@111WN \PM/)<<IVL\PM=;XTMLIV)Z\QKTM @@LMNMV[M<PM8IVMT¼[Z]TQVO_I[MY]ITTa[\ZIQOP\NWZ_IZL" VW\WVTaLQL)Z\QKTM@@JnotM`\MVL\WUI\\MZ[W]\[QLMWN  =;R]ZQ[LQK\QWVJ]\QN \PMJZWILQV\MZXZM\I\QWVWN )Z\QKTM@@ []OOM[\MLJa\PM=;_MZM\WJMIKKMX\ML¹MIKPKWV\ZIK\QVO party could unilaterally determine the life or health protection policies from which other contracting parties could not deviate without jeopardizing their rights under the GATT.” ,M[XQ\M \PM IXXIZMV\ TWOQK WN  \PQ[ LMKQ[QWV \PM [QOVQÅKIVKM of this case must not be overlooked. Tuna/Dolphins was the ÅZ[\LQ[X]\MXZWKMMLQVOQV_PQKP\PMQLMIWN R]ZQ[LQK\QWV_I[ [XMKQÅKITTaILLZM[[MLIVL\PM8IVMTWNÅKQITTaKWVKT]LML\PI\ \PM/)<<Z]TM[LQLVW\ITTW_¹M`\ZI\MZZQ\WZQITQ\aº1VW\PMZ _WZL[/)<<Z]TM[¹CLWEVW\ITTW_WVMKW]V\Za\W\ISM\ZILM action for the purpose of attempting to enforce its own domestic laws in another country—even to protect animal health or M`PI][\QJTM VI\]ZIT ZM[W]ZKM[º This is important primarily JMKI][MI[\PMÅZ[\KI[M\WILLZM[[\PMQ[[]MWN M`\ZI\MZZQ\WZQality, Tuna/Dolphins set a precedent that brought considerable I\\MV\QWV\W\PM¹\ZILMIVLMV^QZWVUMV\ºLMJI\MNWZ\PMÅZ[\ time and infuriated prominent environmentalists by rendering \PM=;5IZQVM5IUUIT8ZW\MK\QWV)K\KWUXTM\MTaQVMNNMKtive as a means of achieving an environmental end. 1V\PMNWTTW_QVOaMIZ[8IVMTIVLUWZM[QOVQÅKIV\Ta\PM)XXMTTI\M *WLa WZ )* _PQKP Q[ \PM MY]Q^ITMV\ WN  IV IXXMIT[ court for disputed Panel decisions) rulings became increas-

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law QVOTaKWUXTM`IVLKWVKQTQI\WZaXZM[]UIJTaL]M\W\PM]XZWIZ over the Tuna/Dolphins decision, whichâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;according to Daniel Estyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;â&#x20AC;&#x153;seemed to put trade obligations on a higher plane than environmental protection.â&#x20AC;? The two cases between Tuna/ Dolphins IVL \PM VM`\ TIVLUIZS LMKQ[QWV US-Shrimp/Turtles, another case concerning marine animal protection) were difNMZMV\OQ^MV\PI\\PM8IVMT_I[UWZMTQSMTa\WĂ&#x2026;VL\PMZM[\ZQK\Q^MXWTQKQM[\WJMKWV[Q[\MV\_Q\P\PMM`KMX\QWV[QV)Z\QKTM@@ 1V US-Gasoline in particular, the AB overturned the Panelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Z]TQVO\PI\=VQ\ML;\I\M[ZMO]TI\QWV[_MZMVW\KWV[Q[\MV\_Q\P )Z\QKTM @@ O IVL QV[\MIL PMTL \PI\ \PW]OP \PMa LQL UMM\ the criteria for the exception clause, they constituted â&#x20AC;&#x153;arbitrary WZ ]VR][\QĂ&#x2026;IJTM LQ[KZQUQVI\QWVÂş ]VLMZ \PM chapeau of Article @@ Thus the AB appeared much more sympathetic to the MV^QZWVUMV\IT WJRMK\Q^M[ WN  \PM =; XWTQKa _PQTM [\QTT UIQVtaining its emphasis on free trade. The US-Shrimp/Turtles ruling was very similar to US-Gasoline QV \PI\ \PM )XXMTTI\M *WLa ZMRMK\ML \PM 8IVMTÂź[ Ă&#x2026;VLQVO[ IVL M[\IJTQ[PML \PI\ \PM LM[QZML MV^QZWVUMV\IT WJRMK\Q^M [I\Q[Ă&#x2026;ML \PM KZQ\MZQI WN  )Z\QKTM @@ O J]\ VW\ \PM chapeau 1V W\PMZ _WZL[ IT\PW]OP \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ TW[\ \PM KI[M NWZ ]VR][\QĂ&#x2026;IJTaLQ[KZQUQVI\QVOJM\_MMVQUXWZ\QVOKW]V\ZQM[Q\LQLnot lose on the grounds of its environmental policy, and in fact \PM)*_I[Y]Q\MILIUIV\\WM[\IJTQ[PQ\[VM_NW]VL_QTTQVOness to support the environmental cause. Yet this case, more than US-Gasoline, effectively overturned the blunt rejection of trade linkage manifested in the Tuna/Dolphins proceedings and opened the door for more lenient interpretations of the Article @@LMZWOI\QWV[ Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the WTO (Jose Cruz) The EC-Asbestos Z]TQVO WN   Q[ I XMZNMK\ M`IUXTM WN  \PM new precedent established by US-Shrimp/Turtles =VTQSM \PM Thai-Cigarettes ruling over ten years earlier, which clearly rejected a health measure in favor of freer trade and less restrictive alternatives for discouraging smoking, in EC-Asbestos, the Panelâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and eventually the Appellate Bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;ultimately upheld Franceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s restrictive import ban on asbestos importation due to human health risk.  ;XMKQĂ&#x2026;KITTa \PM 8IVMT IVL the AB established that France was well within its rights to impose a ban in order â&#x20AC;&#x153;achieve its chosen level of health protection by halting the spread of asbestos-related health risks (emphasis added),â&#x20AC;?\PMZMJaZMVLMZQVOQ\šVMKM[[IZaÂş]VLMZ)Z\QKTM@@ (b). This new dedication to the protection of individual countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; rights to implement domestic environmental and health XWTQKaI\\PMM`XMV[MWN NZMM\ZILM_W]TLPI^M[MMUMLZILQKIT \W\PM8IVMT[\PI\LMKQLML\PMWZQOQVIT)Z\QKTM@@LQ[X]\M[

al regimes always promote cooperation by lowering transaction costs, establishing self-enforcing behavior, and arbitrating disputes (among other things). On the other hand, a considMZIJTMV]UJMZWN M`XMZ\[PI^MIZO]ML\PI\\PM?<7/)<< is and always has been primarily a trade institutionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;not an environmental protection agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and as such it has an obligation not to engage in other forms of political legislation. For these scholars, harmonization with other international bodies might even â&#x20AC;&#x153;dilute the WTO mandate on matters of trade and erode its effectiveness.â&#x20AC;?!)Z\QKTM@@TQ\QOI\QWVNITT[[WUM_PMZMQVJM\_MMV\PM[M\_WM`\ZMUM["_PQTMQ\Q[KMZ\IQVTaVW\ a linkage machine (as evidenced by the slow development of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;trade and environmentâ&#x20AC;? debate), it is judicial mechanism that must inherently lead to some level of harmonization with other issues.

Establishing how the legal framework surrounding the â&#x20AC;&#x153;trade and environmentâ&#x20AC;? debate has evolved in accordance with popular environmental sentiment in the past thirty year makes Q\XW[[QJTM\WLQ[K][[\PMKWV[MY]MVKM[\PQ[\ZILMTQVSIOMPI[ PILNWZ\PM/)<<?<7\PMW\PMZQV\MZVI\QWVITIOZMMUMV\[ _Q\P_PQKPQ\PI[JMMVTQVSMLIVLUW[\[QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\TaLM^MTWXQVOKW]V\ZQM[<ZILMM`XMZ\2W[M)T^IZMbPI[IZO]ML\PI\\PM ?<7Q[JaLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWVITQVSIOMUIKPQVMJMKI][MQV\MZVI\QWV-

.WZ\PQ[ZMI[WV)Z\QKTM@@TQ\QOI\QWVWN \PM\ZILMTQVSIOMLMbate has had and will continue to produce both positive and negative effects on the international legal environment. On a purely theoretical level, the incorporation, or â&#x20AC;&#x153;harmonization,â&#x20AC;? of WTO law and smaller agreements through Article @@[PW]TLTMVLTMOQ\QUIKa\WIVL[\ZMVO\PMV\PMMVNWZKMUMV\ of these smaller institutions, and in turn should strengthen the ?<7NZIUM_WZSQ\[MTN JaKTIZQNaQVOIVLM`XIVLQVOIUM\PWL

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The Legal Problem of Trade Linkage and Judicial Policy Harmonization in the WTO for accurate interpretation of the GATT. This is especially important for the WTO, where pure legislation in the form of negotiation rounds often takes years to complete and judicial IK\Q^Q[UQ[WVMWN \PMWVTaUM\PWL[WN M`XIVLQVOTMOITVWZU[ in a comprehensive way. On the other hand, this politicization WN \PM/)<<?<7[MZQW][Ta]VLMZUQVM[\PMTMOQ\QUIKaWN  the WTO as a trade organization by interjecting anti-trade biases into its legal determinations. Judicial activism is clearly not the best method of clarifying \PMTMOIT[\Z]K\]ZMWN \PM/)<<?<7QVIKWV[Q[\MV\Ta.WZtunately, there are alternative methods of harmonization; for M`IUXTMKWWZLQVI\QWVWN W\PMZ[WKQITXWTQKaQ[WN\MVX]Z[]ML \PZW]OPQVLMXMVLMV\QV\MZVI\QWVITVMOW\QI\QWV[NWZM`IUXTM \PM1V\MZVI\QWVIT4IJWZ7ZOIVQbI\QWV_Q\PTIJWZXWTQKaKWV^MV\QWV[WZ\PM?WZTL0MIT\P7ZOIVQbI\QWV_Q\PPMIT\P[\IVdards). There are a number of international conventions with trade provisions available to the environmental debate \PI\UIaJMMY]ITTaMNNMK\Q^M[]KPI[\PM5WV\ZMIT8ZW\WKWT *I[MT+WV^MV\QWVWZ\PM+WV^MV\QWVWV1V\MZVI\QWVIT<ZILM QV -VLIVOMZML ;XMKQM[ +1<-; _PQKP UIa WZ UIa VW\ JM helpful in harmonizing environmental policy without Article @@1VILLQ\QWV\PM?<7VW_PI[Q\[W_V+WUUQ\\MMWV Trade and Environment to address the issue on the legislative TM^MTIVLI\\PM,WPI5QVQ[\MZQIT+WVNMZMVKMQV?<7 members agreed to negotiations concerning â&#x20AC;&#x153;the relationship JM\_MMVM`Q[\QVO?<7Z]TM[IVL[XMKQĂ&#x2026;K\ZILMWJTQOI\QWV[[M\ out in multilateral environmental agreements.â&#x20AC;? .QVITTa \PMZM Q[ I TMOQ\QUI\M KWVKMZV \PI\ )Z\QKTM @@ TQ\QOItion is particularly detrimental from the perspective of smaller developing countries, which tend to be the targets of environmental trade restrictions. For obvious reasons, only very LM^MTWXMLKW]V\ZQM[PI^M\PMT]`]Za\WLQ[KZQUQVI\MJM\_MMV importers on the basis of their domestic and environmental policies, and therefore poorer countries often end up at the UMZKaWN \PMQZĂ&#x2026;Z[\_WZTLKWUXM\Q\WZ[<PMQVĂ&#x2020;]MV\QITMKWVWUQ[\2IOLQ[P*PIO_I\QM`XTIQV[\PI\\PMTIVLUIZSUS-Shrimp/ Turtles LMKQ[QWV KTMIZTa ZMĂ&#x2020;MK\[ PW_ \PM )XXMTTI\M *WLa _I[ QVĂ&#x2020;]MVKML Ja \PM _MTTĂ&#x2026;VIVKML MV^QZWVUMV\IT TWJJQM[ NZWU \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[\PI\šKW]TLVW\JMUI\KPMLJa\PMZMTI\Q^MTa shoestring legal operations of the four developing country plaintiffs.â&#x20AC;? As he puts it, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the many claimants of linkage PI^M_W]VL]XUISQVOCLM^MTWXQVOEKW]V\ZQM[NMMT\PI\\PMa are about to see the WTO captured to launch an assault on the weak (via the progressive intrusion of nontrade agendas).â&#x20AC;? This clearly runs contrary to the series of WTO concessions IVL [XMKQIT Ă&#x2020;M`QJTM XZW^Q[QWV[ \PI\ PI^M JMMV \ZILQ\QWVITTa aimed at assisting disadvantaged developing countries. <PMTWVOIVLKWUXTM`M^WT]\QWVWN \PMš\ZILMIVLMV^QZWVUMV\Âş Y]M[\QWV QV \PM ?<7 QTT][\ZI\M[ PW_ \PM 8IVMT[ IVL )XXMTTI\M*WLaPI[JMMVQVĂ&#x2020;]MVKMLJaXWX]TIZMV^QZWVUMVtal concern to the point where it has effectively compromised free trade principles and the concerns of developing countries in favor of environmental or health protection. Yet regardless of this radical shift in the legal framework, there are still many

reasons whyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;despite the ethical and theoretical advantages of linking domestic political policy or international environmental agreements to the free trade debateâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;GATT Article @@TQ\QOI\QWVUIanot be the most effective way of achieving harmonization. Perhaps the future will bring an increase in more comprehensive harmonization and trade linkage at the legislative level and a decline in judicial activism and Article @@XZWKMMLQVO[QV\PMš\ZILMIVLMV^QZWVUMV\ÂşTMOITLMJI\M

Nadia Danford is a junior in Ezra Stiles College.

World Trade Organization, Understanding the WTO, 3rd Edition (World Trade Organization, 2007) pp. 15-16. 2 Oren Perez, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Multiple Regimes, Issue Linkage, and International Cooperation: Exploring the Role of the World Trade Organization,â&#x20AC;? University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law (Spring 2006), p. 3. 3 Jagdish Bhagwati and Robert Hudec, editors, Fair Trade and Harmonization: Prerequisites for Free Trade? Volume 2, Legal Analysis (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1996) pp. 1-3. 4 Article XX (b) and (g) of the GATT 1947. Note: these are only two of the ten possible exceptions listed under Article XX. 5 Environmental Disputes in GATT/WTO: http://www.wto. org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/edis00_e.htm, last visited on Apr. 20, 2009. 6 GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement Practice Relating To GATT Article XX, Paragraphs (b), (d) and (g), WT/CTE/W/203, Note by the Secretariat, 8 Mar. 2002. United States â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Prohibition of Imports of Tuna and Tuna Products from Canada (BISD 29S/91), adopted on 22 Feb. 1982, paras. 4.9-4.11. 8 Secretariat, p. 31. 9 Thailand â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Restrictions on Importation of and Internal Taxes on Cigarettes,(DS10/R - 37S/200), adopted on 7 Nov. 1990. 10 Secretariat, p. 34. 11 Secretariat, pp. 34-35. 12 Mexico etc versus US: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;tuna-dolphinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: http://www.wto.org/ english/tratop_e/envir_e/edis04_e.htm, last visited on Apr. 19, 2009. 13 Daniel C. Esty, Greening the GATT: Trade, Environment, and the Future (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1994) p. 29. 14 Secretariat, p. 40 and the chapeau of Article XX of the GATT 1947. 15 United States â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products (WT/DS58/AB/R), adopted by the Appellate Body on 6 November 1998, Rec. 186-187. 1

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International Law European Communities โ€“ Measures Affecting Asbestos and AsbestosContaining Products?<,;)*:ILWX\MLJa\PM)XXMTTI\M*WLaWV5IZ  EC-Asbestos:MK  Jose Alvarez, โ€œThe WTO as Linkage Machine,โ€ The American Journal of International Law !"X ! <6;ZQVQ^I[IVยน<PMN]\]ZMWN \PMOTWJIT\ZILQVO[a[\MU" Doha Round and beyond,โ€ The Future of Globalization: Explorations in light of recent turbulenceML-ZVM[\WBMLQTTW4WVLWV" :W]\TMLOM X *PIO_I\QIVL0]LMKX  -[\aXX   ;ZQVQ^I[IVXX  2IOLQ[P*PIO_I\Qยน)N\MZ_WZL"<PM9]M[\QWVWN 4QVSIOMยบ The American Journal of International Law!"X  *PIO_I\QX   World Trade Organization, Understanding the WTOXX! !! 

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Sharia Law in the International Legal Sphere

Clash of Civilizations: Sharia Law in the International Legal Sphere Mimi Wu

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Hagia Sophia, Turkey (Ken Lyon)

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PMIK\QWV[WN ZILQKIT1[TIUQ[\OZW]X[QV\PMXI[\NM_LMKILM[PI^MTMLUIVaQV\PM West to hold skewed perceptions of both the Muslim world and its legal foundations. The common misconception is that all Muslim states implement Sharia law to the [IUMJZ]\ITLMOZMMQV_PQKPOZW[[P]UIVZQOP\[^QWTI\QWV[IVLIV\QY]I\MLKWZXWZITX]VQ[Pments, such as female genital mutilation or cutting off the hand of a thief, are still sanctioned JaTI_0W_M^MZ\PW]OP\PQ[NWZUWN KTI[[QKIT;PIZQITI_Q[[\QTTMUXTWaMLQVINM_/]TN VItions, the majority of Muslim – and some non-Muslim – states employ Sharia law to a much more varied degree. Egypt, for instance, draws laws both from its secular Constitution and NZWUQ\[1[TIUQKZWW\[*ZQ\IQVWV\PMW\PMZPIVLQ[ILMKQLMLTa[MK]TIZIVL?M[\MZV[\I\M\PI\ PI[ZMKMV\TaQUXTMUMV\ML;PIZQIKW]Z\[NWZQ\[5][TQUUQVWZQ\a1VWZLMZ\WXZWXMZTaI[[M[[\PM XTIKMWN ;PIZQITI_QV\PMQV\MZVI\QWVITTMOIT[XPMZMIVLQ\[IJQTQ\a\WKWM`Q[\_Q\P?M[\MZVTMOIT[a[\MU[_MU][\ÅZ[\]VLMZ[\IVL_PMZM;PIZQIKWUM[NZWU_PI\Q\ILLZM[[M[IVLMV\IQT[ and how it is currently implemented.

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International Law Origins of Sharia Law Sharia, literally the “path” or “way,” is the body of Islamic law developed to deal with all aspects of life for a Muslim. It spans everything from business and contract law to marriage and inheritance to sin and personal hygiene, and derives from two primary sources: the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, and the Sunna, which are the customs and traditions of the Prophet. The Qur’an established the fundaments of Islam as a religion and addressed prominent legal issues of Muhammad’s time, such as slavery and of polygamy. The Sunna, or “trodden path,” is a record of the day-to-day interactions and legal rulings of Muhammad as he established an Islamic regime in seventh-century Arabia. Collected in a body of work called Hadith, the “Sunna is the embodiment of the views and practices of the oldest Islamic community, [and] it functions as the most authoritative interpretation of the text of the Qur’an.”1 Together, these are the immutable pillars of Sharia law; they are not only the basis of all subsequent legal followQVO[ J]\ \PMa KIVVW\ JM UWLQÅML \W IKKWUUWLI\M UWLMZV developments because they are fundamentally divine truths. Although the Qur’an and Hadith are widely accepted, their application in law differs greatly among Muslim sects. The apXTQKI\QWVIVLQV\MZXZM\I\QWVWN ;PIZQITI_KITTMLÅYP¹R]ZQ[XZ]LMVKMºJMOQV[_Q\PQRUI¼\PMKWV[MV[][WN PQOPZIVSQVO Islamic scholars and clerics. Once this ruling religious class PI[Q[[]MLILMKQ[QWVWVI[]JRMK\Q\QUUMLQI\MTaJMKWUM[IKcepted as part of the body of Sharia and is also irrefutable: to \]ZVWVM¼[JIKSWVQRUI¼Q[MY]IT\W\]ZVQVOWVM¼[JIKSWV\PM community as a whole.2 Legal decisions in areas not directly ILLZM[[MLJa\PM9]Z¼IV;]VVIWZ»QRUIQ[QV;]VVQ1[TIU determined by a process called qiyas, or analogical reasoning. The door to independent legal thought has been considered “closed” since the tenth century. Shi’a Islam is more open to development and evolution, and relies on ‘aql, logic or human intellect, to decide on cases where there is no clear scholarly consensus. As a whole, however, Sharia in Shi’a Islam still tends toward the same type of rigidity that exists in Sunni Islam: it is impossible to revise the original divine law, and it is nearly as impossible to amend the laws that have existed since Muhammad’s time. Sharia in Practice The basic incompatibility of Sharia law with the modern legal system, particularly laws concerning universal human rights and ethics, is very evident at the theoretical level: Sharia does VW\ PI^M I UMKPIVQ[U \PZW]OP _PQKP UIRWZ KPIVOM[ KIV be implemented, such as the amendment system for the US Constitution. There is literally no legal way that Sharia can be made to conform to international human rights standards, as punishments such as stoning adulterers are issued by the

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Qur’an and therefore Allah himself. However, this is not to say that the implementation of Sharia is rigid in practice. Countries that apply Sharia law do so in a number of different ways. These can be grouped into the following: Classical Sharia systems: Only a small minority of Muslim nations institute this system, in which national law is almost entirely comprised of and derived from Sharia law. These coun\ZQM[NWZ\PMUW[\XIZ\TIKSKWV[\Q\]\QWV[WZKWLQÅKI\QWVWN TI_[ outside of the Sunna and Hadith. Also unique is the continued authority of the Orthodox religious scholars, or ulama, _PWIZM\PM[W]ZKMWN »QRUIIVL\PMZMNWZMLM\MZUQVIV\[WN \PM law of the land. Even the ruling parties do not have the power to modernize or institute large-scale changes because of the power of the ulama. As it stands, modernization of states with classical Sharia systems can only occur through widespread legal reformation and secularization; on a very fundamental level, these states are unable to coexist or be integrated into a legal system that is based on Western codes and ethics. Œ ;I]LQ)ZIJQI";I]LQ)ZIJQIQ[\PMUW[\_QLMTaKQ\ML example of a state that retains Sharia as the legal system, and Q\ PI[ KWUM ]VLMZ ÅZM QV ZMKMV\ aMIZ[ NWZ \PM P]UIV ZQOP\[ abuses and blatant gender discrimination that remain accepted throughout the land. A case that came to international light in January 2010 involved a Filipina immigrant worker, Camille, who became pregnant after being raped by a co-worker.3 She did not report the crime due to fear of punishment, but her pregnancy was detected as she tried to leave the country. She was imprisoned and scheduled to be lashed 100 times by the government for engaging in extra-marital sexual relations, a punishment prescribed by the Qur’an – even Western law considers her to be the victim of a crime. Another source of incompatibility between the West and a country like Saudi Arabia is the prevalence – and approval for – honor killings. )KKWZLQVO\W;]XVIBIQLQWN 1[TIUQ[\?I\KPIXZWRMK\WN \PM Middle East Forum, “No passage in the Koran discusses honWZSQTTQVO[J]\5][TQUKTMZQK[R][\QNa\PMUIVL[MK]TIZ5][lims do not punish them or pass laws to mitigate punishment NWZ \PMU° PWVWZ SQTTQVO[ IZM R][\QÅML ]VLMZ 1[TIU QV [WUM Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia. For example, tenthgrade textbooks teach Saudi children that it is permissible to kill adulterers.” The recent cases of honor killings make this R][\QÅKI\QWVIXXIZMV\"QV!IJZW\PMZSQTTMLPQ[\_W[Q[\MZ[ for talking to men in public, while their father watched approvingly,4 and in 2008, a father killed his daughter for using Facebook, which a sheikh had denounced as a “door to lust.”5 +TMIZTa\PQ[[WZ\WN ^QOQTIV\MR][\QKMKIVVW\JMKWUXI\QJTM_Q\P Western ideals or the Western legal system, and it illustrates one of the main points of contention between Western and Sharia law. Mixed Sharia systems: most Muslim states have legal systems

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Sharia Law in the International Legal Sphere

is elected through universal suffrage, as are the members of 8IZTQIUMV\ <PM KWLQÅML +WV[\Q\]\QWV IVL TMOIT [a[\MU IT[W help establish rule of law, although that law cannot be anti\PM\QKIT\W1[TIU5WZMW^MZ\PMQVLMXMVLMVKMWN \PMR]LQKQIZa NZWU OW^MZVUMV\ QVÆ]MVKM Q[ OZW]VLML QV \PM +WV[\Q\]\QWV IT\PW]OP\PM;]XZMUM4MILMZUIaQV\MZ^MVMI\IVa\QUM1ZIV is, at this point in time, still a relatively young state based on a mishmash of Sharia and democratic principles. Though not entirely compatible with the Western ideals of justice, it is not MV\QZMTaQVKWUXI\QJTMWZQUU]\IJTa1[TIUQKMQ\PMZ

Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia (Jake) where Sharia still plays a large part, but is not necessarily the sole or even dominating aspect of the justice system. These [\I\M[ WN\MV PI^M _ZQ\\MV KWV[\Q\]\QWV[ IVL I KWLQÅML [M\ WN  laws that may be, at least in part, based on the Western system. <PMKWVKMX\WN Z]TMWN TI_Q[MVNWZKMLIVLVI\QWVITTI_[M`Q[\ to maintain modern standards for human rights and ethics; MTMK\QWV[IVL[MXIZI\QWVWN XW_MZ[UIaIT[WM`Q[\)[IZM[]T\ modernization is often possible and the level of modernization LMXMVL[WV\PM[XMKQÅKZ]TMZ[IVLXWTQ\QKITXIZ\QM[\PI\PI^MI [IaQVOW^MZVUMV\0W_M^MZ[QVKMUQ`ML;PIZQI[a[\MU[[XIV I^MZaJZWILZIVOMQ\Q[LQNÅK]T\\WLM\MZUQVMQN []KPI[\I\MQ[ compatible with international law without further understandQVOQV_PI\_Ia[IVL\W_PI\M`\MV\Q\MUXTWa[;PIZQITI_IVL punishments. Œ 1ZIV"1ZIVQ[WN\MVKQ\MLI[IKTI[[QKIT;PIZQI[a[\MU because it institutes strict corporal punishments for what are KITTMLPILLWNNMV[M[<PM[MÅ^MWNNMV[M[·]VTI_N]T[M`]ITQVtercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consump\QWVWN ITKWPWT\PMN\IVLPQOP_IaZWJJMZa·IZM[XMKQÅKITTa addressed in the Qur’an as crimes against Allah, and therefore KIZZa^MZa[XMKQÅKX]VQ[PUMV\[IKKWZLQVO\W;PIZQITI_[]KP I[[\WVQVOLMI\PNWZIL]T\MZa1ZIV¼[R]LQKQIT[a[\MUQ[IT[WNWZ \PMUW[\XIZ\LM[MK]TIZQbML"¹<WMUXPI[QbM\PMQVLMXMVLMVKM WN  R]LOM[ NZWU \PM OW^MZVUMV\ )Z\QKTM  CWN  \PM 1ZIVQIV KWV[\Q\]\QWVE[\QX]TI\M[\PI\CR]LOM[EIZM»L]\aJW]VL\WZMNZIQV NZWUM`MK]\QVOOW^MZVUMV\ITLMKQ[QWV[\PI\IZMKWV\ZIZa\W1[lamic laws.’” This system leads to discrimination on the basis WN OMVLMZIV\QY]I\MLX]VQ[PUMV\[IVLUIVaW\PMZXWQV\[WN  KWV\MV\QWV_Q\PQV\MZVI\QWVITP]UIVZQOP\[[\IVLIZL[0W_ever, the overall structure of the government as established Ja \PM !! 1ZIVQIV +WV[\Q\]\QWV XZW^QLM[ NWZ I XW\MV\QITTa UWLMZVIVLUWLMZI\MZMTQOQW][[\I\M"IT\PW]OP\PM;]XZMUM Leader is appointed by a religious committee, the President

Œ 8ISQ[\IV" 8ISQ[\IV PI[ TWVO JMMV KWV[QLMZML [MUQ democratic and is currently under the rule of a federal parliamentary system with a popularly elected Prime Minister. The Constitution is the law of the land, and though women are still discriminated against, they have many more rights than in other Muslim nations, if former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto is any indication. Arguably Bhutto’s position was an inherited one – passed down from her father and then taken over by her husband – but nevertheless she became an icon for _WUMV¼[ZQOP\[0W_M^MZ\PQ[LMOZMMWN TQJMZITVM[[PI[[PZ]VS even since a decade and a half ago, due mostly to the power WN OZW]X[TQSM\PM<ITQJIV_PWXZWUW\M1[TIUQ[I\QWV1V! peace deals between President Zardari and the Taliban created what many have called a Sharia mini-state in a region of north Pakistan called the Malakind. The move was prompted by the Pakistani military’s continued loss against the Swat Taliban and fears that the Taliban would renew violence if ;PIZQITI__MZMVW\[QOVMLQV\WMNNMK\0W_M^MZ\PM5ITISQVL Accord has many people – including the President himself – NMIZN]T\PI\8ISQ[\IV_QTT[WWVNITT]VLMZ\PMXW_MZWN 1[TIUQ[\ groups, emboldened by this recent success at bringing Sharia JIKS \W \PM TIVL" IKKWZLQVO \W 2I^ML 1YJIT I ZM\QZML R]LOM [XMISQVO WV 8ISQ[\IVQ \MTM^Q[QWV ¹1\ UMIV[ \PI\ \PMZM Q[ VW\ WVMTI_QV\PMKW]V\Za1\_QTTLQ[QV\MOZI\M\PQ[_Ia1N aW]KWVcede to this, you will go on conceding.” Nations like Pakistan that are under threat of being forced to return to Sharia law are one of the major problems facing the international legal [XPMZM"\PW]OP\PMVI\QWVQ[WZKIVJMUWLMZVQbMLXWTQ\QKIT sentiments are shifting away from modernization or integration with Western legal systems, leading to a potential increase in human rights violations. Œ 1ZIY"<PM1ZIYQKWV[\Q\]\QWVVM_TaQV[\I\MLJaIZMNMZMVL]UQV]VMY]Q^WKITTaI[[MZ\[\PI\1[TIUQ[JW\P\PM WNÅKQITZMTQOQWVIVLI¹N]VLIUMV\IT[W]ZKMWN TMOQ[TI\QWVºQV \PMTIVL)KKWZLQVO\W)Z\QKTMWN \PM1ZIYQ+WV[\Q\]\QWV¹6W TI_\PI\KWV\ZILQK\[\PMM[\IJTQ[PMLXZW^Q[QWV[WN 1[TIUUIaJM M[\IJTQ[PMLº0W_M^MZ)Z\QKTMIT[W[\I\M[\PI\¹6WTI_\PI\ contradicts the principles of democracy may be established,” IVL)Z\QKTMN]Z\PMZI[[MZ\[\PI\¹1ZIYQ[IZMMY]ITJMNWZM\PM law without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, origin, color, religion, creed, belief or opinion, or economic IVL[WKQIT[\I\][º1VM[\IJTQ[PQVO\PMTMOQ\QUIKaWN JW\P?M[\-

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


International Law

MZVXZQVKQXIT[IVL1[TIUQKTI_\PM1ZIYQKWV[\Q\]\QWVZMUIQV[ incredibly ambiguous about which principals will be domiVIV\IVLTMI^M[U]KP\WJMLMKQLMLQV\PMKWUQVOaMIZ[1ZIY could become a very democratic and progressive state, but the JZIVLWN TI_QUXTMUMV\MLKW]TLIT[W[_QVO\W_IZL[\PM1[TIUQ[\ZQOWZKPIZIK\MZQ[\QKWN [\I\M[TQSM1ZIVQN KMZ\IQVXWTQ\QKIT groups are able to gain a foothold in the young government. <PM5IZKPMTMK\QWV[[MMU\WQVLQKI\M\PMNWZUMZQ[\Z]M" \PM1ZIYQaIJTWK_PQKPQ[I[MK]TIZJTWKSKWUXZQ[MLWN JW\P Sunni and Shiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a leaders, won a close majority in Parliament. <PQ[ MTMK\WZIT W]\KWUM _I[ \Z]UXM\ML I[ I š^W\M° IOIQV[\ [MK\IZQIVQ[UÂş Ja )TTI_Q \PM TMILMZWN  \PM 1ZIYQaI JTWK   1N  \PQ[\ZMVLKWV\QV]M[1ZIYKW]TLJMKWUMI[\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ PWXM[ I [W]ZKM WN  QVĂ&#x2020;]MVKM NWZ LMUWKZIKa QV \PM 5QLLTM -I[\0W_M^MZ\PMTMOIT[a[\MUQV1ZIYQ[[\QTTQVĂ&#x2020;]`IVL\PM Ă&#x2026;VIT[\I\][WN ;PIZQITI_QV1ZIYQ[[\QTT^MZa]VKMZ\IQV Secular Muslim states"<PW]OPQV\PMUQVWZQ\a[WUM[\I\M[LMclare themselves to be completely secular, regardless of their XZMLWUQVIV\Ta 5][TQU XWX]TI\QWV <PM[M [\I\M[ M`Q[\ KWUXTM\MTa]VLMZZ]TMWN TI_PI^MKWLQĂ&#x2026;MLTMOIT[a[\MU[IVLIV independent judiciary; religion is deemed to be irreconcilable with the state and is not permitted to interfere with politics WZ\PMTI_0W_M^MZUIVa[MK]TIZ5][TQU[\I\M[PI^MKWUM ]VLMZĂ&#x2026;ZMZMKMV\TaJa1[TIUQ[\XWTQ\QKITOZW]X[_PWTWJJaNWZ the reintroduction of religious law. Â&#x152; <]ZSMaQ[\PMXZQUMM`IUXTMWN \PQ[[WZ\WN 5][TQU [\I\M1\[XWX]TI\QWVQ[!! 5][TQUaM\\PM[\I\MQ\[MTN PI[TWVO been against re-instating Sharia law as it was practiced during the Ottoman Empire. The reforms, instigated by Ataturk in \PM![IQUML\WUWLMZVQbM<]ZSMaIVLXZMXIZMQ\NWZMVtry into a West-dominated system; they included making secularized instruction in schools compulsory, eliminating all reliOQW][KW]Z\[NWZJQLLQVOXWTaOIUaIVLOQ^QVO_WUMVMY]ITQ\a in everything from divorce proceedings to parliamentary elections.! Turkeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tradition of upholding secularism still holds [\ZWVO" QV I  KI[M \ISMV JMNWZM \PM -]ZWXMIV +W]Z\ WN  0]UIV:QOP\[<]ZSMa\WWS\PMXW[Q\QWV\PI\ZMTQOQW][PMIL[carves and other such garments should not be worn in public XTIKM[ []KP I[ [KPWWT[ IVL ]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[ <PM -+0: ]XPMTL <]ZSMaÂź[[\IVKMIVLVW\ML\PI\š[MK]TIZQ[UQV<]ZSMa_I[Âť\PM guarantor of democratic values, the principle that freedom of ZMTQOQWVQ[QV^QWTIJTM\W\PMM`\MV\\PI\Q\[\MU[NZWUQVLQ^QL]ITKWV[KQMVKMIVL\PMXZQVKQXTM\PI\KQ\QbMV[IZMMY]ITJMNWZM \PMTI_ÂźXIZI<PMKW]Z\KWV[QLMZML\PI\]XPWTLQVO\PQ[ notion of secularism might be regarded as necessary for the protection of the democratic system in Turkey.â&#x20AC;? The secular system is most easily compatible with Western ideals, but PI[ZMKMV\TaKWUM]VLMZXZM[[]ZMNZWU1[TIUQ[\OZW]X[<PM current Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, is seen as the TMILMZWN \PM1[TIUQ[\UW^MUMV\QV<]ZSMaIVLPQ[XIZ\a_WV I[\]VVQVOZMMTMK\QWVQVTMILQVO\WUIVaNMIZ[\PI\<]Zkey will soon slide away from its secular tradition. This fear is

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compounded as Turkey has seen a growth in the number of ZMTQOQW][UQOZIV\[_PQKPPMTXMLQV[\QOI\MZM^WT]\QWV[QV1ZIV and Russia. Many women and non-Muslims fear that their rights will diminish if Turkey decides to take the religious ZW]\M#PW_M^MZ<]ZSMaÂź[LM[QZM\WIKKMLM\W\PM-=IT[WIK\[ as a force for secularism, as its membership rests on, among W\PMZ\PQVO[KWV\QV]MLNZMMLWUR][\QKMIVLMY]ITQ\aNWZITT Turkish citizens. Sharia in the West 1[TIUQ[\ UW^MUMV\[ IZM IT[W [XZQVOQVO ]X QV VWV5][TQU countries, pushing for the acceptance of Sharia law as a legal NWZUWN IZJQ\ZI\QWV[MXIZI\MNZWU\PMVI\QWVITTI_1V*ZQ\IQV and Canada, large numbers of Muslims petitioned for the es\IJTQ[PUMV\ WN  I L]IT KW]Z\ [a[\MU 1V  +IVILI Z]TML against the movement to allow civil cases to be tried under Sharia law. According Premier McGuinty, there should be â&#x20AC;&#x153;one law for all Ontarians.â&#x20AC;?1V*ZQ\IQVWV\PMW\PMZPIVL \PML]IT[a[\MU_I[M[\IJTQ[PMLQV #Z]TQVO[QVKQ^QTKI[M[¡ and potentially some minor criminal cases â&#x20AC;&#x201C; by Sharia courts are now enforced with the power of the judicial system. These courts, considered arbitration tribunals, are legally binding, and, according to many critics, will soon lead to the establishment of a parallel legal system in Britain, negating the rule of law. Others also criticize the establishment of these courts on \PMJI[Q[WN \PMQZLQ[KZQUQVI\QWVIOIQV[\_WUMV"QV[Q`ZMKMV\ cases of domestic abuse, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;judges ordered the husbands to take anger management classes and mentoring from commuVQ\aMTLMZ[<PMZM_I[VWN]Z\PMZX]VQ[PUMV\1VMIKPKI[M \PM _WUMV []J[MY]MV\Ta _Q\PLZM_ \PM KWUXTIQV\[ \PMa PIL lodged with the police and the police stopped their investigation.â&#x20AC;?)T\PW]OP;PIZQIKW]Z\[PI^MM`Q[\MLQVNWZUITTaQV British Muslim communities for years, legalizing the courts still may prove to be a dangerous move. Sharia without the power of law can still be kept in check; Sharia with the full force of the British judicial system may have overreaching KWV[MY]MVKM[ QV \PM[M 5][TQU KWUU]VQ\QM[ IVL IKZW[[ \PM VI\QWV0W_M^MZ\PML]ITKW]Z\[a[\MUQ[[\QTT\WWVM_NWZ[]KP KWV[MY]MVKM[ \W JM [MMV IVL XMZPIX[ ;PIZQI IVL ?M[\MZV ideals can both be implemented without the abrogation of religious or human rights. The Place of Sharia in Western and International Law As can be seen in many countries, Sharia law is not entirely incompatible with national or international law; democratic XZQVKQXTM[ IVL ;PIZQI TI_ KIV KWM`Q[\ \W I KMZ\IQV LMOZMM 0W_M^MZ \PMZM IZM [\QTT [WUM [\ZQSQVO IZMI[ WN  KWV\MV\QWV VIUMTaQV\PMĂ&#x2026;MTL[WN P]UIVZQOP\[IVLOMVLMZLQ[KZQUQVI\QWV -^MV QV \PM UW[\ š?M[\MZVQbMLÂş WN  \PM UQ`ML ;PIZQI systems, womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rights cannot be protected under the law and honor killings often go ignored. Only in the truly secular

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


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Muslim states like Turkey can human rights be fully protected, and thus, only these states are truly compatible with the ?M[\LWUQVI\ML QV\MZVI\QWVIT TMOIT [a[\MU \PI\ M`Q[\[ \WLIa -^MVQV[\I\M[_PMZMQV\MZVI\QWVITIVL;PIZQITI_KWM`Q[\\PM [a[\MU Q[ JMOQVVQVO \W JZMIS LW_V" [\I\M[ []KP I[ 8ISQ[\IV which have been considered to a large degree secularized and ?M[\MZVQbMLIZMVW_[]JRMK\\WI[\ZWVO1[TIUQ[\UW^MUMV\ which may potentially strip minorities and women of their current rights. <PMNMIZWN IOZW_QVO1[TIUQ[\UW^MUMV\Q[M^MV[\ZWVOMZQV Western countries such as Britain. Although these courts provide a way for Muslims to regulate their community based on religious ideals, the dual court system could potentially unLMZUQVMZ]TMWN TI_IVLTMOITMY]ITQ\aM[XMKQITTaNWZ_WUMV )T\PW]OP \PMZM Q[ IT_Ia[ [\QTT PWXM NWZ KWM`Q[\MVKM \PM ]Vderpinnings of these two systems are so vastly different that XWTQ\QKIT NWZKM[ []KP I[ 1[TIUQ[U WZ P]UIV ZQOP\[ IL^WKIKa Y]QKSTa_MIZI_IaI\IVa[WZ\WN UQ`ML[a[\MU Mimi Wu is a junior in Berkeley College.

1OVIb /WTLPQbMZ Introduction to Islamic Theology 8ZQVKM\WV" 8ZQVKM\WV=VQ^MZ[Q\a8ZM[[!    IdI\  ยน:QaILP"ZIXM^QK\QUUQOP\JMTI[PML\QUM[ยบAsiaNews, 2IV]IZa  ยน0WVWZSQTTQVOQV;I]LQ)ZIJQIยบCurrent TV2]Ta!  ยน0WVWZ SQTTQVO W^MZ .IKMJWWS QV ;I]LQ )ZIJQIยบ Amboy Times)XZQT   /TWJI4M`ยน)/]QLM\W\PM4MOIT;a[\MUWN \PM1[TIUQK:MX]JTQKWN 1ZIVยบ0I][MZ/TWJIT4I_;KPWWT8ZWOZIUP\\X" ___Va]TI_OTWJITWZOOTWJITM`QZIVP\U  ;IMML ;PIP ยน8ISQ[\IV QUXW[M[ 1[TIUQK TI_ QV <ITQJIV stronghold.โ€ Guardian News and Media.MJZ]IZa! 5WPIUUIL2IURWWUยน=;)UJI[[ILWZ"1ZIYMTMK\QWV[I turning point for democracy.โ€ CNN World News 5IZKP    ! 2IKWJ4IVLI]ยน<]ZSMaJM\_MMV;MK]TIZQ[UIVL1[TIUQ[Uยบ 2MZ][ITMU+MV\MZNWZ8]JTQK)NNIQZ[P\\X"___RKXIWZORT ^XP\U  /TWJIT+IUXIQOVNWZ.ZMM-`XZM[[QWVยน-+0:"4MaTI;IPQV > <]ZSMaยบ )Z\QKTM ! P\\X"___IZ\QKTM!WZOPIVLJWWSR]ZQ[XZ]LMVKMMKPZTMaTI[IPQV^\]ZSMa.html  ยน;PIZQITI_UW^MY]I[PMLQV+IVILIยบBBC News, SeptemJMZ  )J]T <IPMZ ยน:M^MITML" =3ยผ[ ร…Z[\ WNร…KQIT ;PIZQI KW]Z\[ยบ The Sunday Times=3;MX\MUJMZ 

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW ยŒ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Legal Education

Why Study Law at Oxbridge? Tobias Kuehne

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he road to oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law School of choice is long and arduous. A bad grade, a mediocre LSAT score, or simply the overwhelmingly strong competition in oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s applicant pool can decisively mar oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chances of admission. Daunting costs pose an additional challenge to lower and middleQVKWUM [\]LMV\[ 1V []KP [Q\]I\QWV[ ^QIJTM IT\MZVI\Q^M[ IZM paramount. One such alternative could be to pursue a Law LMOZMMI\\PM]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[WN 7`NWZLWZ+IUJZQLOM=3<PQ[ IZ\QKTM[MMS[\WM`XTWZM\PMXZW[IVLKWV[WN [\]LaQVO4I_QV \PM=3\PMUIQVXWQV\[WN KWV\ZI[\JM\_MMV\PM=;IVL=3 approaches to legal education, and what constitutes a competitive application.

1V\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[4I_Q[IOZIL]I\MKW]Z[MWN [\]La_PQKP ][]ITTaMVL[QV\PMIKY]Q[Q\QWVWN I2,LMOZMM7V\PMW\PMZ PIVLQV\PM=VQ\ML3QVOLWUI4I_LMOZMMKIVJMWJ\IQVML as an undergraduate degree, usually abbreviated LL.B. 1V \PM M`KMX\QWVIT KI[M WN  7`NWZL IVL +IUJZQLOM \PM ]VLMZOZIL]I\M4I_LMOZMMQ[I*IKPMTWZWN )Z\[1VW\PMZ_WZL[ Q\\ISM[IUMZM\PZMMaMIZ[QV\PM=3\WWJ\IQVITI_LMOZMM KWUXIZML\WQV\PM=; <PM UW[\ [ITQMV\ LQNNMZMVKM JM\_MMV \PM =; IVL =3 IXXZWIKPM[\WTMOITML]KI\QWVQ[\PI\[\]LMV\[I\=3QV[\Q\]\QWV[ do not go through the four, rather Law-unrelated, years of College that students in America go through. The two respective degrees themselves follow a similar pattern of having a core curriculum, covering areas such as Constitutional Law, Torts, and Criminal Law,  and of leaving room for speKQITQbI\QWV *W\P \PM 44**) IVL \PM 2, \ISM ][]ITTa three years to complete, and each of them can be followed by a yearlong course of study ending in the Master of Laws (LL.M.).+WV[MY]MV\Ta_PQTM\PMTIJMTWN IV]VLMZOZIL]I\M LMOZMMQV4I_UIa[W]VLLM\MZZQVO\WI=;[\]LMV\\PMLQNference seems to be merely in name and convention. Studying 4I_I\7`JZQLOM\PMZMNWZMUIaKWV[\Q\]\MIXW[[QJTMIT\MZVItive for some prospective American Law students. Advantages and Disadvantages of an Oxbridge degree 7N KW]Z[MI4I_LMOZMMQV7`NWZLWZ+IUJZQLOMQ[VW\NWZ

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Oxford University Seal (Zoonabar) everyone. Those seeking to become an attorney-at-law in the =VQ\ML;\I\M[WZXTIVVQVO\WOWQV\W=;XWTQ\QK[IZMJM\\MZWNN  \WOW\W4I_;KPWWTQV\PM=;I[šTI_Q[IR]ZQ[LQK\QWV[XMKQĂ&#x2026;K\[]JRMK\ÂşI[IVILUQ[[QWV[WNĂ&#x2026;KMZWN +P]ZKPQTT+WTTMOM I\ +IUJZQLOM [IQL 0W_M^MZ JMNWZM KWV[QLMZQVO WVMÂź[ \WX KPWQKMTI_[KPWWT[MQ\PMZQV[QLMWZW]\[QLM\PM=;IXZW[XMKtive law student has to obtain a clear perspective on the path he or she wants to pursue, such as where to practice, which \aXMWN TI_\W[\]LaIVLWVMÂź[Ă&#x2026;VIVKQIT[Q\]I\QWVL]ZQVOTI_ school years. Taking these things into consideration shapes oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s idea of where one wants to go, and this article seeks to provide some assistance in this regard. 1N WVMXTIV[\WOWQV\W1V\MZVI\QWVIT4I_PW_M^MZ\PMZMIZM VWKI^MI\[WN \PQ[SQVL<PMKWZMK]ZZQK]T]UWN 7`NWZLIVL +IUJZQLOMQVKT]LM[-=TI_ and the two universities enter\IQVKTW[M\QM[\W-=WZOIVQbI\QWV[IVLTMOITJWLQM[.]Z\PMZmore, since all Law Schools in countries under the common TI_M`KMX\QVO\PM=;I_IZLI*IKPMTWZÂź[LMOZMMQV4I_I *)QV4I_NZWU7`JZQLOMUIaWXMVUWZMLWWZ[QV\MZVI\QWVITTa\PIVI=;2,LMOZMM)V7`JZQLOM4I_LMOZMMQ[

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


?Pa;\]La4I_I\7`JZQLOM'

Trinity College, Cambridge University (David Chan) especially advantageous to those planning on working for the -=6)<7WZ\PM-]ZWXMIVJWLQM[WN \PM=6\PM?<7WZ \PM15.?PI\Q[UWZMIV7`JZQLOMLMOZMMJMQ\QV1V\MZVI\QWVIT4I_WZ[WUM\PQVOMT[MQVQ\[MTN Q[IOZMI\I[[M\QVĂ&#x2026;VLQVO a job. According to Tracey A. Johnson at J.P. Morgan New AWZSš\PMY]ITQ\aWN \PMML]KI\QWVIVLWN \PM[\]LMV\[_QTT be of the same calibre. You're making a comparison between the world's top universities all of which are recognised globITTaIVLILMOZMMNZWUIVa_QTTKWV^Ma\PMWJ^QW][JMVMĂ&#x2026;\WN  name recognition to employers.â&#x20AC;? )VW\PMZIL^IV\IOMWN [\]LaQVO\PM4I_I\7`JZQLOMQ[\PM]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[Âź[QOVQĂ&#x2026;KIV\TaTW_MZ\]Q\QWVNMM[?Q\PIJW]\   XMZaMIZ7`NWZLÂź[IVL+IUJZQLOMÂź[\]Q\QWVKW[\NWZ )UMZQKIV[\]LMV\[Q[INIZKZaNZWU\PM WN AITM4I_ School,WZ\PM  WN =>)4I_;KPWWT

Bodleian library (David Chan) [\]La IVL QVQ\QI\Q^M QV UI\\MZ[ ZMTI\ML \W \PM 4I_ 1V W\PMZ _WZL[I\7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOMWVMIKY]QZM[VW\WVTa\PM knowledge, but also the working and researching skills that are vital for a practicing lawyer. Regardless of where one obtains it, however, â&#x20AC;&#x153;a law degree opens so many doors to you,â&#x20AC;? said Tong Zhao, a current law student at Trinity College in Cambridge. â&#x20AC;&#x153;You can do a lot of things with a law degree because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s highly prestigious in \PM=3Âş 4I[\Ta[\]LaQVO4I_I\7`NWZLWZ+IUJZQLOMWNNMZ[\PMLQ[\QVK\IL^IV\IOMWN M`\MV[Q^MQV\MZVI\QWVITM`XMZQMVKM1N \PM IKY]Q[Q\QWVWN IUWZMOTWJITXMZ[XMK\Q^MIVLK]T\]ZITM`XMZQMVKMĂ&#x2026;O]ZM[QV\WWVMÂź[ML]KI\QWVITXTIV[7`NWZLIVL+IUbridge present themselves as two very attractive options. The Courses of Study

?PI\ Q[ UWZM 7`NWZL IVL +IUJZQLOM IZM ¹\PM WVTa \_W universities in the world that teach students using the tutoZQIT [a[\MUº -TTMV 5WQTIVMV 7`NWZL 4I_ NIK]T\a )KKWZLQVO\W<WVO\]\WZQITKTI[[M[¹TQSM[MUQVIZ[J]\_Q\PWVTa [\]LMV\[IVLWVM[]XMZ^Q[WZCQV_PQKPE_MOM\OQ^MVIZMILQVO TQ[\XMZ[]JRMK\M^MZa_MMS[IVL_MIZMM`XMK\ML\WZMILQ\ and discuss the issues in supervisions. You really have to know \PM[\]NN W\PMZ_Q[MQ\KIVJMY]Q\MMUJIZZI[[QVO º)TWVO_Q\P close contact to the instructor, this system promotes individual

<PM [\]La WN  4I_ I\ 7`JZQLOM WNNMZ[ KTMIZ IVL [ITQMV\ IL^IV\IOM[ W^MZ \PM [\]La WN  4I_ QV \PM =; \W KMZ\IQV \aXM[ of students. This section is intended to provide prospective 4I_[\]LMV\[_Q\PIVQV\MZM[\QV[\]LaQVOQV\PM=3_Q\PIV W]\TQVMWN \PMZMO]TIZKW]Z[MWN [\]LaQV4I_I\7`NWZLIVL Cambridge. )\7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOM[\]LMV\[WN 4I_\ISMKW]Z[M[\PI\

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Legal Education revolve solely around law-related issues. While the scope of WVMÂź[ML]KI\QWVI\7`JZQLOMQ[VW\I[_QLMI[\PMTQJMZITIZ\[ ML]KI\QWVWN IAITM[\]LMV\7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOMLWIQU for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of the 4I_)KKWZLQVO\W3I\M.TQV\ILUQ[[QWV[WNĂ&#x2026;KMZI\,W_VQVO College, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the study of law at an English law school is, as an academic discipline in its own right, enabling the study of the historical, economic, philosophical and sociological implications of the law, as well as international interaction.â&#x20AC;? Both 7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOMIQU\WXZW^QLM\PMQZ[\]LMV\[_Q\PI well-rounded education in Law that does not just teach facts, but provides the necessary understanding and skills to successfully apply the laws. 7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOMIZMVW\WZQW][NWZQV^MV\QVO\PMQZW_V names for common features of educational life. Cambridge calls the course of study for Law the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tripos,â&#x20AC;? which is subdi^QLMLQV\W\PMš<ZQXW[)ÂşĂ&#x2026;Z[\aMIZ\PMš<ZQXW[*Âş[MKWVL aMIZIVL\PMš<ZQXW[Âş\PQZLaMIZ!,]ZQVO\PM<ZQXW[) [\]LMV\[\ISMIĂ&#x2026;`ML[M\WN NW]ZKW]Z[M["+WV[\Q\]\QWVIT4I_ Criminal Law, Civil Law, and Torts, each of which goes across \PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\\PZMM\ZQUM[\MZ[IT[WKITTMLš\MZU[Âş1V\PMNWTTW_QVO \_W aMIZ[ +IUJZQLOM [\]LMV\[ \ISM NW]Z ZMY]QZML aMIZTWVO KW]Z[M[+WV\ZIK\4I_4IVL4I_-=4I_IVL-Y]Q\a\_W in each year.1VILLQ\QWV\PMa\ISM\PZMMMTMK\Q^M[XMZaMIZ _Q\P \WXQK[ ZIVOQVO NZWU 1V\MZVI\QWVIT 4I_ \W 1V\MTTMK\]IT Property to Family Law. 7`NWZLÂź[MY]Q^ITMV\\W+IUJZQLOMÂź[<ZQXW[)Q[Q\[[WKITTML â&#x20AC;&#x153;Law Moderations Course.â&#x20AC;?1\KW^MZ[+WV[\Q\]\QWVIT4I_ Criminal Law, and Roman law, with Torts appearing as a ZMY]QZML KW]Z[M I\ I TI\MZ XWQV\ *MQVO [TQOP\Ta [PWZ\MZ \PIV \PM <ZQXW[ ) \PM 4I_ 5WLMZI\QWV[ +W]Z[M MVL[ IN\MZ \PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\\_W\MZU[<PM[M^MVZMUIQVQVO\MZU[IZM\Q\TMLš.QVIT 0WVW]Z;KPWWT+W]Z[MÂşIVLNMI\]ZMZMY]QZMLKW]Z[M[[]KPI[ Administrative Law, Contract Law, Jurisprudence, Land Law, <WZ\[-=4I_IVL<Z][\[7`NWZLITTW_[Q\[[\]LMV\[\WNZMMTa elect two additional courses. Students already holding an undergraduate degree have the WXXWZ\]VQ\a\WIXXTa7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOMNWZIVIKKMTMZated program of study that ends after two years. Cambridge KITT[UMUJMZ[WN []KPIXZWOZIUš)NĂ&#x2026;TQI\ML;\]LMV\[Âş_PQTM 7`NWZLOQ^M[[]KP[\]LMV\[\PMMXQ\PM\WN š;MVQWZ;\I\][Âş)\ 7`NWZL[\]LMV\[IZMNZMM\WIXXTaNWZMQ\PMZ\ZIKS;\]LMV\[ applying for the three-year course of study may also be offered \PM;MVQWZ;\I\][\ZIKSQN \PMILUQ[[QWV[WNĂ&#x2026;KMLMMU[\PMU XIZ\QK]TIZTa Y]ITQĂ&#x2026;ML ;MVQWZ ;\I\][ [\]LMV\[ I\ 7`NWZL [SQX the Law Moderations Course and compress the seven terms WN \PM.QVIT0WVW]Z;KPWWTKW]Z[MQV\W[Q`;QUQTIZTaI\+IUJZQLOMš)NĂ&#x2026;TQI\ML[\]LMV\[°\ISM\PMUWZMIL^IVKMLXIZ\[WN  the Cambridge undergraduate courseâ&#x20AC;? (Stacey Smith, Trinity Admissions). Cambridge applicants, however, must apply for \PM\PZMMaMIZXZWOZIUIVLWVTaQN \PMILUQ[[QWV[WNĂ&#x2026;KMITlows them to, â&#x20AC;&#x153;they are entitled to graduate with a Cambridge

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B.A. in one year less than the normal length of the course for which they are applying.â&#x20AC;? (Stacey Smith, Trinity Admissions) )VW\PMZXW[[QJTM^IZQI\QWVWN WVMÂź[4I_[\]LQM[I\7`JZQLOM is to spend one year at another European university. Coun\ZQM[ WNNMZML QVKT]LM .ZIVKM ;XIQV /MZUIVa 1\ITa IVL \PM Netherlands.  During that time, one studies the domestic law of the respective country and obtains a comparative view JM\_MMV-VOTQ[P4I_1V\MZVI\QWVIT4I_IVL\PMTI_WN \PM ZM[XMK\Q^MKW]V\Za<PM]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[ZMY]QZMTIVO]IOM[SQTT[J]\ WNNMZPMTXQV\PMQZIKY]Q[Q\QWV 1V \MZU[ WN  []XXWZ\ QV \PM IZMI[ WN  IKILMUQK[ IVL KIZMMZ XTIVVQVO+IUJZQLOMIVL7`NWZLWNNMZI[]XXWZ\Q^M+WTTMOM environment similar to that at Yale. Each College has an adviser (called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Teaching Fellowsâ&#x20AC;? at Cambridge, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tutorsâ&#x20AC;? at 7`NWZLNWZ4I_\PI\[]XMZ^Q[M[\PM[\]LMV\Âź[IKILMUQKXZWcess and functions as a point of contact and source of advice. Teaching Fellows â&#x20AC;&#x153;will set your work, mark them and if you have anything you don't understand, they will be the ones you OM\PMTXNZWUZI\PMZ\PIV\PMTMK\]ZMZ[1VMIKP[]JRMK\_MOM\ a Director of Studies who will monitor your progress through your supervision reports,â&#x20AC;? said Tong Zhao. Pre-Law societQM[[MZ^MI[[W]ZKM[NWZKWV\IK\\WTI_Ă&#x2026;ZU[IVLQV\MZVI\QWVIT organizations. Application Process <PMW^MZITT[\Z]K\]ZMWN \PMIXXTQKI\QWVXZWKM[[\W7`NWZLIVL Cambridge resembles that of American institutions. A typical application consists of an application form, transcripts, two letters of recommendation, a standardized test, and optional additional written work. A point of contrast, however, is \PI\_PQTM=;4I_;KPWWT[ITZMILaPMI^QTaJI[M\PMQZILUQ[sions decision on factors such as academic performance and \M[\ ZM[]T\[ J]\ \ISM QV\W IKKW]V\ M`\ZIK]ZZQK]TIZ IK\Q^Q\QM[ 7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOM[MMU\WJI[M\PMQZILUQ[[QWV[LMKQ[QWV[ VMIZTa M`KT][Q^MTa WV IKILMUQK NIK\WZ[ IVL \W ZMOIZL M`\ZIK]ZZQK]TIZ QV^WT^MUMV\ UQVQUITTa I\ JM[\ +IUJZQLOMÂź[ +P]ZKPQTT+WTTMOM)LUQ[[QWV[[\I\ML\PI\šM`\ZIK]ZZQK]TIZIKtivities are of no weight whatsoever. Academic performance is the decisive factor,â&#x20AC;? while Cambridgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Downing College )LUQ[[QWV[UILM\PMY]ITQĂ&#x2026;KI\QWV\PI\šM`\ZIK]ZZQK]TIZIK\Q^Q\QM[_PQKPZMTI\M\WC\PMIXXTQKIV\Âź[EKPW[MVKW]Z[MWN [\]La KIVLMUWV[\ZI\MCPQ[WZPMZETM^MTWN KWUUQ\UMV\IVLQV\MZest,â&#x20AC;? but nothing more. While this may put some students at a disadvantage, others who are more academically minded and NWK][MLWV\PMQZKTI[[M[UIaJMVMĂ&#x2026;\NZWU\PQ[XWTQKa)[4I_ Q[IĂ&#x2026;MTL\PI\ZMY]QZM[ITW\WN IKILMUQK\ITMV\[\IUQVIIVL dedication to be successful in it, such a policy may be taken as QVKWV^MVQMV\J]\M`XMLQMV\ <PMIXXTQKI\QWVNWZUNMI\]ZM[WVMÂź[JQWOZIXPQKITLI\IM`\ZIcurricular activities, and personal statement. The form is not, however, submitted to the universities themselves, but to

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


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\PM =VQ^MZ[Q\QM[  +WTTMOM )LUQ[[QWV ;MZ^QKM =+); \PM central administrative organ for College applications in the =VQ\ML 3QVOLWU <PM IXXTQKIV\ QVLQKI\M[ \PM ]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[ PMWZ[PM_IV\[\WI\\MVLIVL=+);NWZ_IZL[\PMU\W\PM respective institutions.?PMVIXXTaQVO\W7`NWZLWZ+IUbridge, the applicant also has to choose a particular College to which he or she is applying, as each of them has its own ILUQ[[QWV[ WNĂ&#x2026;KM [WUM\QUM[ _Q\P ^IZaQVO XWTQKQM[ IVL XPQTW[WXPQM[)XXTQKIV\[\W7`JZQLOMIT[WPI^M\PMWX\QWVWN Ă&#x2026;Ting an open application in which one is assigned to a random College. An open application does not put one at a disadvan\IOM?PQTMWVMUIaVW\_IV\\WZMTQVY]Q[P\PMWXXWZ\]VQ\a to make a choice, Tong Zhao contends that â&#x20AC;&#x153;it really doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t make a difference as to which one you apply to. Everyone TW^M[\PMKWTTMOM\PI\\PMaXQKSMLIVL1PI^MVÂź\PMIZLIVaWVM complaining yet.â&#x20AC;? As transcripts are concerned, students applying for a B.A. in 4I_I\7`JZQLOMPI^M\W[]JUQ\VW\WVTa\PMQZ+WTTMOMOZILM[ J]\\PMQZ0QOP;KPWWT\ZIV[KZQX\[I[_MTTOQ^MV\PI\WVMIXplies for an undergraduate course of study. More emphasis will be put on the Yale transcript, however. The submission LMILTQVMNWZIXXTQKI\QWVNWZU[IVL\ZIV[KZQX\[Q[7K\WJMZ of the year preceding oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intended entrance. One therefore has to decide early whether one wants to pursue an apXTQKI\QWV\W7`JZQLOMI[IVIT\MZVI\Q^MNWZ4I_;KPWWTQV\PM =; 1V\PMKI[MWN 7`NWZL7K\WJMZQ[IT[W\PMTI\M[\LI\MI\ which one can register for a National Admissions Test in Law (LNAT) slot. The test itself has to be taken no later than No^MUJMZ<PM46)<Q[I[\IVLIZLQbML\M[\\PI\_I[LM[QOVML Ja 7`NWZL \W JM IJTM \W [QN\ W]\ IUWVO \PM UIVa [\]LMV\[ with competitively high grades and is now widely accepted at ]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[IKZW[[\PM=3<PMZMIZMV]UMZW][\M[\KMV\MZ[ IKZW[[\PM=;[WIVIXXTQKIV\LWM[VW\PI^M\W\ZI^MT\W\PM =3 QV WZLMZ \W [Q\ \PM \M[\ Cambridge does not use the LNAT. Claiming that a study has shown that â&#x20AC;&#x153;within the con\M`\WN \PM+IUJZQLOMILUQ[[QWV[XZWKM[[IXXTQKIV\[ÂźZM[]T\[ in the multiple-choice part of the LNAT do not provide inNWZUI\QWV_PQKPQ[[]NĂ&#x2026;KQMV\Ta][MN]TIVLLQ[\QVK\Q^M\WR][\QNa ZMY]QZQVO IXXTQKIV\[ \W [Q\ \PM \M[\ IVL XIa \PM NMM QV^WT^ML in doing soâ&#x20AC;?! Cambridge recently designed its own test, the +IUJZQLOM4I_<M[\1N QV^Q\MLNWZIVQV\MZ^QM_IXXTQKIV\[ take the test on-site. Furthermore, American applicants who have taken the LSAT may elect to â&#x20AC;&#x153;submit their LSAT result QN \PMa_Q[PQVILLQ\QWVÂş\W\PMQZ46)<[KWZM0IZZQ[5IVKPM[\MZ+WTTMOM)LUQ[[QWV[7`NWZL Letters of recommendation are of importance as well. Again, _PI\7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOMIZMTWWSQVONWZIZMTM\\MZ[\PI\ comment on the applicantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic abilities. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Admissions Tutors are looking for academic ability and potential, motiva-

tion and suitability for the chosen course, commitment and self-disciplineâ&#x20AC;? said Stacey Smith of Cambridgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Trinity College Admissions. Letters of recommendation that underscore the applicantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abilities in these categories are appreciated the UW[\JaILUQ[[QWV[WNĂ&#x2026;KM[ 1N  \PM IXXTQKI\QWV UISM[ Q\ \PZW]OP \PM Ă&#x2026;Z[\ ZW]VL \PM IXplicant is invited to an interview on the campus in December. The interview is an important part of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s overall application, and once more the applicant is probed for his WZPMZIKILMUQKIJQTQ\QM[IVLXW\MV\QIT1N \PM]VQ^MZ[Q\aPI[ ZMY]M[\ML IKILMUQK XIXMZ[ JMNWZMPIVL Q\ Q[ TQSMTa \PI\ \PM IXXTQKIV\_QTTJMY]M[\QWVMLIJW]\UI\\MZ[ZMTI\QVO\WPQ[WZ PMZ _ZQ\QVO š?PMV 1 PIL Ua QV\MZ^QM_ _Q\P +IUJZQLOM 1 was very impressed by the fact that the interviewers seemed to have really read through my Yale senior paper and asked me ^MZaKWVKZM\MY]M[\QWV[IJW]\Q\IVLIJW]\PW_Q\ZMTI\M[\W TI_Âş[IQL2I[WV4MMAITMÂź IVLIK]ZZMV\)NĂ&#x2026;TQI\ML;\]LMV\ in Law at Cambridge. The applicant receives an admissions decision in mid-JanuIZa 1N  \PM ]VQ^MZ[Q\a WNNMZ[ PQU WZ PMZ I XTIKM \PM WNNMZ Q[ XZW^Q[QWVIT]V\QT\PMIXXTQKIV\Âź[OZILM[IZMĂ&#x2026;VIT<PMĂ&#x2026;VITILmissions decision is reached in August. Competitive Applications Answers as to what constitutes a competitive application varQML_QLMTaNZWUš1KIVÂź\KWUUMV\I[ILUQ[[QWV[\W7`NWZL is on a competitive basis so the strength of application varies NZWUaMIZ\WaMIZÂş-TTMV5WQTIVMV7`NWZL4I_.IK]T\a\W š?M\aXQKITTaZMKMQ^MIZW]VLIXXTQKI\QWV[NZWU)NĂ&#x2026;TQI\ML [\]LMV\[ IVL UISM  WZ  WNNMZ[ MIKP aMIZÂş ;\IKMa ;UQ\P <ZQVQ\a)LUQ[[QWV[+IUJZQLOM\Wš?M_W]TLM`XMK\IKWUpetitive candidate to be on-track to achieving a minimum of  /8)Âş ,W_VQVO +WTTMOM )LUQ[[QWV[ +IUJZQLOM <PM answer surely lies somewhere in the middle. At any rate, the V]UJMZ[WN <ZQVQ\aIKKMX\QVOJM\_MMVIVL[\]LMV\[W]\ WN PW^MZJM\_MMV IVL _PQKPQVLQKI\M[\PI\ILUQ[[QWV[ZI\M[WN 7`NWZLIVL+IUJZQLOM+WTTMOM[[PW]TLJM KWUXIZIJTM\WWZPQOPMZ\PIV\PW[MWN \WX=;4I_;KPWWT[ such as Yale, Stanford, and Berkeley.  7`NWZL IVL +IUbridge present themselves as viable alternatives for a variety WN XZW[XMK\Q^MTI_[\]LMV\[[]KPI[\PW[M_PWPI^MM`KMTTML IKILMUQKITTa J]\ PI^M VW\ [KWZML M`KMMLQVOTa PQOP WV \PM LSAT . Tobias Kuehne is a junior in Branford College.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachelor_of_Laws http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_school_in_the_United_ States#Curriculum

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YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMC E


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YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


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XWVI[KMVLQVO\_WĂ&#x2020;QOP\[WN UIZJTMIVLMV\MZQVO I UIOVQĂ&#x2026;KMV\ ZWWU TQVML _Q\P PMI^a oak bookcases and cathedral-like windows, the Lillian S. Goldsmith Memorial Library of the Yale Law School presents itself in the UW[\ I][\MZM IVL [MZQW][ _Ia <PW]OP WVM Ă&#x2026;VL[ V]UMZW][ students hunched over laptops and piles of cases and law JWWS[ 1 LQ[KW^MZML \PI\ TQ\\TM MT[M ZMUIQV[ [W [WUJMZ <PQ[ []UUMZ1PIL\PMXZQ^QTMOMWN _WZSQVOšJMPQVL\PM[KMVM[Âş at the library as the assistant to Teresa Miguel, a Foreign & 1V\MZVI\QWVIT4I_TQJZIZQIVIVLNWZUMZTI_aMZIVL:QKPIZL 0I[JIVaPMILWN .IK]T\a;MZ^QKM[ Though these two departments are housed in entirely separate areas of the Law School Library and address much difNMZMV\VMML[KWUUWVITQ\QM[M`Q[\JM\_MMV\PMU=T\QUI\MTa ITT \PM TQJZIZQIV[ M`Q[\ \W [MZ^M [\]LMV\[ IVL NIK]T\a ITQSM ?PI\1NW]VL[WQUXZM[[Q^MQ[\PI\\PM[M\_WNIK\QWV[IZMIQLML side-by-side by a variety of staff with diverse interests and M`XMZ\Q[MIVL_PQTMXZWNM[[QWVITQ[UQ[UIQV\IQVMLXMZ[WVIT relationships are also forged. ;QVKM1JMOIVI\AITMQV\PMNITTWN  1PI^MJMMV_WZSQVO]VLMZ:QKPIZLš,QKSÂş0I[JIVa]X[\IQZ[_Q\PQV\PMINWZMmentioned Reading Room of the library. Faculty Services is what one might typically attribute to the role of the Law ;KPWWT4QJZIZa,QKS [P]NĂ&#x2020;M[ \PZW]OPZMY]M[\[NZWU NIK]T\a or more often than not from their assistants, as they pop up in PQ[QVJW`0M[WZ\[\PMULM\MZUQVQVO_PI\UI\MZQIT[VMML\W be picked up from which libraries, online, or from who knows _PMZM0M\ISM[\PMTI\\MZIVLQ\Q[UaL]\a\WJMZMILa\W run, whether upstairs for a book on American legal history or downstairs for a volume of European court documents, across Wall Street to Sterling for anything archaic, or to Bass NWZ [WUM\PQVO I TQ\\TM TQOP\MZ 7KKI[QWVITTa \PM WLL ZMY]M[\ Ă&#x2020;WI\[QV1V2]VMR][\INM__MMS[QV\WUa[]UUMZ\MV]ZM_M ZMKMQ^MLIV]ZOMV\VMMLNWZIVIZ\QKTMNZWU\PM! ^WT]UM WN *MPI^QWZIT;KQMVKMI[MZQM[\PI\M`Q[\[WVTaQVIUa\PQKIT _WZTL"\PM5MLQKIT;KPWWTKIUX][*ZIKQVOUa[MTN ¸IVLUa three-inch stilettos â&#x20AC;&#x201D; for a walk across the highway and into \PM]VSVW_V1PQSML\W\PM5MLQKIT;KPWWT4QJZIZaKWXQML \PM[M^MVXIOMIZ\QKTMIVL_ITSMLIVW\PMZUQV]\M[JIKS \W\PM4I_;KPWWTITT\WJM[]ZM\PI\\PMXZWNM[[WZQVY]M[\QWV PIL\PQ[IZ\QKTMQV\QUM\WKI\KPPQ[Ă&#x2020;QOP\\WIKWVNMZMVKM

Most days are far less eventful and revolve merely around the routine. Like any other business or residence, the mail arrives LIQTa_Q\PUIQTNWZTI_XZWNM[[WZ[KWV[Q[\QVOWN \PM>QZOQVQI Law Review and â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Economist.â&#x20AC;? These scholars receive Y]Q\MIJQ\WN ZMILQVOUI\MZQIT"M^MZa\PQVONZWUTI_ZM^QM_[ magazines, legal newspapers, and sometimes The New York Review of Books, just for kicks. Faculty Services is in charge of delivering said material with a smile, keeping those profes[WZ[PIXXa_Q\PJW\P_PI\\PMaM`XMK\LIa\WLIaIVL_PI\ they may need spur of the moment. Some forge relationships with us, greeting Dick as he walks through the halls or smiling I\UMI[1XQKS]XUaUWZVQVOKWNNMMI\IVMIZJaKWNNMM[PWX# others are known merely as a room number and closed door. <PQ[ []UUMZ 1 ILLML .WZMQOV  1V\MZVI\QWVIT 4I_ \W Ua TQJZIZa ZMXMZ\WQZM IVL NW]VL Ua[MTN  QV \PM PQLLMV KWVĂ&#x2026;VM[ WN 4¡\PMTW_M[\TM^MTWN \PM4I_;KPWWT4QJZIZa?PMZMI[ ,QKSZM[QLM[WV4_Q\PKI\PMLZIT_QVLW_[IVL^I]T\MLKMQTQVO[ 4 KWV[Q[\[ WN  [\IKS[ IV WNĂ&#x2026;KM IZMI NWZ \PM TQJZIZQIV[ and their assistants, and a small, windowless cubby known as \PMš.WZMQOV1V\MZVI\QWVIT4I_:MILQVO:WWUÂş5ISMVW UQ[\ISMPW_M^MZ"VW\PQVOQ[[\]NNaWZKWTLIJW]\\PQ[PQLLMV gem. 8MZPIX[ _PI\ UILM \PQ[ []KP I ]VQY]M M`XMZQMVKM _I[ Ua summer boss â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Teresa Miguel, a spunky, athletic, forty-something and former lawyer who entered the librarianship after taking a few years off practicing and fell in love with Spain, her fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s native land. Teresaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s affection for Spain, and her INĂ&#x2026;VQ\aNWZ[WKKMZ_MZMM`XTW[Q^M\PQ[[]UUMZ"\PM?WZTL+]X dominated most conversations for a month or so. We spearheaded a library fan club, posting signs for who was playing and when and setting up an empty classroom for viewing. Students would sneak out of class to catch the score or watch a goal attempt; the circulation staff and some of the research TQJZIZQIV[QV,QKSÂź[WNĂ&#x2026;KMNZMY]MV\TaXIZ\WWSQV\PMN]V1N I Latin American team or Spain were playing, Teresa might JZQVO\ZMI\[QVKMTMJZI\QWVITT\PM_PQTMKTMVKPQVOPMZĂ&#x2026;[\[IVL [PW]\QVOPa[\MZQKITTa\W\PMXWQV\_PMZM\PM,MIVÂź[WNĂ&#x2026;KMNZMY]MV\Ta_WVLMZML_PI\_I[_ZWVO5WZMWN\MV\PIVVW\\PM audience consisted merely of Teresa and me, who had never watched a professional soccer game â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or any soccer game, for \PI\UI\\MZ¡QVUaMV\QZMTQNM1TMN\IKPIVOML_WUIVIVLI soccer fan forever.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Legal Education

Lilian Goldman Library, Yale Law School (Peng Yanan)

1\ _I[ \PQ[ XTMI[IV\ []ZXZQ[M QV Ua VQVM\WÅ^M ZW]\QVM \PI\ illuminated the philosophy of librarian services at the Law School. Just as Teresa left an indelible impression on me and _MTKWUML UM QV\W I _WZTL QV\W _PQKP 1 LIZML VW\ ^MV\]ZM JMNWZM·\PI\WN \PMNIVI\QKIT[WKKMZIÅKQWVILW·\PM[IUMIXplies to the students and professors with whom she interacts _PMVI[[Q[\QVO\PMU_Q\P\PMQZZM[MIZKP1PIL\PMXZQ^QTMOM of meeting an eminent legal scholar from Nigeria, aiding in research on nineteenth-century Germany for a Yale graduate student from the Economics department, and befriending a Ph.D. student from Poland who spent hours a day for weeks scanning book after book after book. No matter what Teresa _I[LWQVO[PMIT_Ia[_MTKWUML[\]LMV\[QV\WPMZWNÅKM[I\ them down, talked to them about their lives, what brought them to the Yale Law School for the summer, and actually got to know them before diving into whatever major project was [\ZM[[QVO\PMUW]\1N \PM[\]LMV\[XWSM;XIVQ[P[PM_W]TL _WZS_Q\P\PMUQV;XIVQ[P#JI[MLWV\PMTI]OP\MZ1PMIZL1 can only surmise that they spent a great deal of time joking and talking about fútbol.

professors alike. Everyone receives individualized attention – not just those writing groundbreaking treatises or well-known faculty, but year-round students, summer students, international students, and even undergraduate students working in the summer just trying to soak it all in.

Lauren Koster is a junior in Timothy Dwight College.

Just as one should not judge a book by its cover, do not R]LOM\PMAITM4I_;KPWWT4QJZIZaJaQ\[NItILMWN UIZJTM wrought iron, oak, and stained glass. Amidst all of this reside the friendliest research librarians, the gentlest circulation staff, and the most compassionate assistants to students and

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YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


Book Review: The Bottom Billion by Paul Collier

The Sejeseje group of the Tanzania Federation of the Urban Poor, composed of mostly poor women living in slums, celebrates the purchase of six acres of land in Dodoma, using their own savings, before they start building their houses (Remi Kaupp)

BOOK REVIEW:

The Bottom Billion by Paul Collier Andrene Dabaghi ?M¼^M[MMV\PM_ZQ[\JIVL[\PMJMVMÅ\KWVKMZ\[\PMUISM]X less celebrities holding malnourished African children in their arms. Emerging from all these cries for help, the underlying point resonates clearly – the developing world needs our monMaIVL_M[PW]TLPIVLQ\\W\PMU?Pa'*MKI][MIKKWZLQVO to these messages, a trivial donation of our wealth translates to a year’s supply of food for a child, vaccinations for an entire family, or some other life-saving article we believe our few LWTTIZ[_QTTXZW^QLM0W_M^MZI[8I]T+WTTQMZ¼[<PM*W\\WU Billion elucidates, the problem runs much deeper than lack WN UWVMa·M^MV_Q\PJQTTQWV[WN LWTTIZ[WN IQLÆWWLQVOQV\W Africa, Latin America and Asia, many of these regions show no signs of improvement with regard to economic development and political stability. Why aren’t our efforts working, IVL_PI\KIV_MNMI[QJTaLW\WPMTX\PM[MKWUU]VQ\QM['8IZ\ of the solution, as suggested in Collier’s book, is potentially

rooted in legal changes on the international level. As evidenced by his clear prose and purposeful omission of footnotes, Collier aims to address the average reader on the plight of one billion people living in abject poverty across the globe. A compelling and highly readable work, it illustrates how this “bottom billion” faces imminent danger of state collapse if the international community fails to act swiftly and QV\MTTQOMV\Ta<WM`XTIQV\PMK]ZZMV\MKWVWUQK[\IOVI\QWVWN  \PM[M KW]V\ZQM[ +WTTQMZ I[[MZ\[ \PI\ NW]Z [XMKQÅK ¹\ZIX[º QUXMLMLM^MTWXUMV\WN \PMJW\\WUJQTTQWV·KWVÆQK\PQOPVI\ural resource endowment, landlocked geography with bad neighbors, and poor governance in small states. As a solution, PMXZWXW[M[UWLQÅMLIQL[\ZI\MOQM[NWZMQOVUQTQ\IZaQV\MZ^MVtions, revisions to international laws and charters, and changes in global trade policy.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Legal Education

velopment. As of now, Africans with the potential to create dynamic change must leave the country in order to do [WI[IKWV[MY]MVKMWN XWWZML]KI\QWVIVLXWTQ\QKITKWZZ]Xtion. This hard truth is evident in the literature on solutions to African poverty â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the most prominent of these authors are either American or European scholars. Although Zambian Dambisa Moyo has climbed to fame with her groundbreaking work Dead Aid, she left the continent to earn degrees at 0IZ^IZLIVL7`NWZL<PQ[NIK\ZM[WVI\M[_Q\P+WTTQMZÂź[XWQV\ on shifting responsibility back onto domestic actors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as long as power rests in the hands of individuals and states outside of Africa, there is no hope for the necessary change from within. Sadly, despite the necessity and practicality of instituting legal reforms, the rampant corruption and political inertia targeted by these changes endangers the feasibility of this plan. With a population unwilling to challenge government leaders due to fear or indifference, African countries cannot embrace and adopt Collierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proposed laws.

Slum Village in India (David Chan) The facets of Collierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s argument regarding international law and global trade policy provide a fresh perspective on the use WN  TMOIT KPIVOM[ \W ITTM^QI\M XW^MZ\a  1V \MZU[ WN  ZML]KQVO political corruption, the book suggests a shift of responsibility away from foreign actors and onto domestic ones. Even if certain governments refuse to sign new conventions that help to monitor criminal activity, Collier argues that simply creating such laws provides reformers inside the state with more TM^MZIOM\WKWUJI\STMX\WKZI\[+WTTQMZ!0MLQZMK\[\PM[M international laws and charters at monitoring four key areas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; natural resources, democracy, budget-transparency, and postKWVĂ&#x2020;QK\ QV^M[\UMV\  .WZ M`IUXTM KQ\QbMV[ IZM IJTM \W PWTL their leaders more accountable when laws demand that foreign banks report deposits by dishonest politicians. Similarly, charters monitoring the use of gold mines, oil wells and other ZI_ UI\MZQIT[ LQUQVQ[P M`XTWQ\I\QWV WN  VI\]ZIT ZM[W]ZKM[ Ja both state and non-state actors. Laws implemented to ensure NZMMLWUWN \PMXZM[[[QUQTIZTaIQLKQ\QbMV[QV\PMQZĂ&#x2026;OP\IOIQV[\ fraudulent governments by ensuring that they possess this vi\IT\WWTNWZM`XW[QVOXWTQ\QKITKWZZ]X\QWV <PQ[I[XMK\WN +WTTQMZÂź[IZO]UMV\XZW^M[TWOQKITIVLZMĂ&#x2020;MK\[ IVQUXMZI\Q^M\ZIV[NWZUI\QWVQV\PMĂ&#x2026;MTLWN QV\MZVI\QWVITLM-

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1V ILLQ\QWV \W \PM[M UWLQĂ&#x2026;KI\QWV[ QV QV\MZVI\QWVIT TI_ <PM Bottom Billion also demands a change in trade policy to promote integration of developing nations into the world market. 7NNMZQVO[]J;IPIZIV)NZQKII[IVM`IUXTM+WTTQMZQTT][\ZI\M[ how relatively low labor wages caused manufacturing to move to Asia, thereby marginalizing African economies and forcing \PMU\WšUQ[[\PMJWI\Âş+WTTQMZ?Q\PXZW\MK\QWVQ[\XWTQcies, he argues, the bottom billion can compete economically and thus successfully enter the international market. To increase Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to contend in the global business world, Collier suggests implementing protectionist policies such as imposing lower tariffs on African imports than those levied on identical Asian goods. While this change would ideally encourage countries to import more goods from Africa than Asia, the nature of Asian versus African market systems casts doubt on the planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s practicability. )T\PW]OP +WTTQMZ M`XTIQV[ \PI\ ZMTI\Q^MTa TW_ TIJWZ _IOM[ caused manufacturing to move to Asia, he fails to discuss the mistreatment of Asian laborers that enabled this to ocK]Z1VUIVaWN \PM[M-I[\)[QIVš<QOMZMKWVWUQM[Âş[_MI\shops that promote child labor, low wages and poor living [\IVLIZL[IZM][ML\WXZWL]KMQVM`XMV[Q^MOWWL[NWZ\PMZM[\ WN  \PM _WZTL  +PQVI NWZ M`IUXTM MV[]ZM[ Q\[ KPMIX TIJWZ by disregarding workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; rights â&#x20AC;&#x201C; striking and organizing into independent unions in the PRC represents a violation of fedMZIT TI_  +WV[MY]MV\Ta QUXW[QVO XZW\MK\QWVQ[\ XWTQKQM[ WV African products would not necessarily compensate for the TW_MZ_IOM[1N PQOPMZ\IZQNN[_MZMQUXW[MLWV)[QIVQUXWZ\[ to make identical African ones more attractive, many Asian economies could ensure their products remain cheaper by lowering wages even further without fear of worker strikes. Thus, given the powerful foothold of these countries in the OTWJITMKWVWUaIVL\PMY]M[\QWVIJTM\IK\QK[JMPQVL\PMQZQVM`XMV[Q^M XZWL]K\[ MVOIOQVO QV I XZQKM _IZ IXXMIZ[ \W JM

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Book Review: The Bottom Billion by Paul Collier

a task much easier said than done for Africa. Competing _Q\P)[QIVXZQKM[_W]TLZMY]QZMU]KPUWZM\PIVI[TM_WN  protectionist trade policies and might entice corrupt African OW^MZVUMV\[ \W QVQ\QI\M [QUQTIZ _WZSMZ M`XTWQ\I\QWV NWZ \PM sake of lower prices on their goods. <P][ I[ ZMÆMK\ML QV \PQ[ JITIVKM JM\_MMV XZWUW\QVO MKWnomic competitiveness and ensuring labor rights, the path to poverty alleviation through new legal measures is no more KTMIZK]\\PIVIVaW\PMZKW]Z[M_MKPWW[M0W_M^MZJaQVforming readers of his theories behind basic problems and possible solutions in international development, Collier’s work provides an enlightening and useful analysis for those trying to understand poverty beyond “save Africa” T-shirts and Bono’s melodious cries for change. While one cannot M`XMK\\PQ[JWWS\WZMXZM[MV\IKWUXQTI\QWVWN IJ[WT]\MNIK\ it would be just as foolish to brush off all of his ideas as unNW]VLML\PMWZQM[=T\QUI\MTa<PM*W\\WU*QTTQWVZMXZM[MV\[ a tool – a mechanism to deepen our understanding of the challenges we face in global development and ultimately provide the groundwork to create innovative solutions of our own. Andrene Dabaghi is a junior in Berkeley College.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Interviews available are numerous.

(Flickr)

!"#$%&'()$*&)+,

!"#$%&'()*#+),* !"#$%&'%()*+,,+&$,-%.#/0#/)%1#2%345&&6 !"#$%"&'(&)%**#+%,&-,#./$&0*"&102#"&3/0* What do you like best about your job as Dean of Admissions at Harvard Law School (HLS)? 1Âź^MWVTaJMMVLWQVOQ\NWZINM_UWV\P[[W\PQ[UIaKPIVOM QVIaMIZNZWUVW_?PI\1ZMITTaMVRWaIJW]\UaRWJQ[OM\ting to travel around and meet so many people who want to KWUM\WTI_[KPWWT1TWWSI\Ua[MTN I[IVQV\MZUMLQIZa?M have this phenomenal law school that has so much to offer in terms of number of courses, journals, research centers, professors, lots of amazing stuff, and (in terms of) people who PI^MLWVMOZMI\\PQVO[QV]VLMZOZIL?PI\1[MMI[UaRWJ Q[ KWVVMK\QVO \PW[M \_W OZW]X[ ¡ Ă&#x2026;VLQVO \PW[M XMWXTM IVL UISQVO \PMU [MM UWZM \PIV \PM JZWKP]ZM ^MZ[QWV WN  04; and putting them in touch with people that they would be interested in talking to. Find someone who is interested in P]UIVZQOP\[NWZM`IUXTMIVL\PMaKIV\ITS\WVW\WVTa2QU Cavallaro, who runs our human rights program and human rights clinic, but also current students who are passionate about human rights and where upon talking to them it would JMKWUMKTMIZ\PI\0IZ^IZLQ[\PMXTIKMNWZaW] What makes HLS the best place to obtain legal education? .QZ[\\PQVOQ[\PM[QbM?PMV1[PW_ML]XQV\PMNITTWN  I[ITI_[\]LMV\1_I[VÂź\[]ZMPW_\PQ[C\PM[QbME_I[OWQVO \WJM1\PW]OP\UIaJMQ\_W]TLJM\WWJQO¡[WUMWVMUQOP\ OM\TW[\1NW]VL\PI\1OW\\PMJM[\WN JW\P_WZTL[W]\WN Q\ *MKI][MWN \PM[QbM_MPI^M\PQ[NIK]T\a\PI\IZMM`XMZ\[QV ITT[]J[XMKQIT\QM[<PMZM_MZMTQSM\QUM[\PMKW]Z[M[\PI\ 1 KW]TL XW[[QJTa \ISM <PMZM IZM  KTQVQK[  RW]ZVIT[   research centers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; anything you want to do you can do there and can do it with world-class people. The opportunities

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7V\PMĂ&#x2020;QX[QLMQ\Q[IK\]ITTaIJ]VKPWN VMQOPJWZPWWL[.WZmer Dean Elena Kagan use to call us the New York City of Law Schools, where you can do everything, but it is actually made up of many small neighborhoods. You show up and Q\Âź[ VW\ IJW]\ aW]Z KTI[[ WN   C[\]LMV\[E J]\ IJW]\ aW]Z XMZ[WV4[MK\QWVCIVLEaW]ZXMZ[WV4ZMILQVOOZW]X that you meet for dinner at your professorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house every few _MMS[IVLLQ[K][[aW]ZQV\MZM[\[1\Âź[IJW]\aW]Z[UITTKTQVQK[ your student organizations that you are a part of. You really K]\Q\LW_VIVLĂ&#x2026;VLaW]ZVQKPMIVL\PM[QbMWNNMZ[[WUIVa opportunities. )NM_W\PMZQUXWZ\IV\XWQV\[\PI\IZMP]OMJMVMĂ&#x2026;\["\PM[]XXWZ\ NWZ X]JTQK QV\MZM[\  1 KIVVW\ QUIOQVM I UWZM X]JTQK QV\MZM[\UQVLML KWUU]VQ\a WN  XMWXTM  >QZ\]ITTa M^MZaWVM _PWKWUM[\W04;[MM[X]JTQKQV\MZM[\I[IVQUXWZ\IV\KWUXWVMV\WN \PMQZKIZMMZC6EW\M^MZaWVMOWM[WVIVLLWM[Q\ N]TT\QUMJ]\\PI\Âź[Ă&#x2026;VMJMKI][M_MLWVÂź\_IV\\PI\[QVKM_M want this diversity with people going into a range of careers. <PMI^MZIOMOZIL]I\QVO[\]LMV\TI[\aMIZLQLW^MZPW]Z[ WN XZWJWVW_WZSL]ZQVO\PMQZ\QUMI\04;?MPI^M\PM7NĂ&#x2026;KMWN 8]JTQK1V\MZM[\)L^Q[QVO_PQKP_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\QV\PMVI\QWV _PMVQ\WXMVMLQV!!?MPI^MXTIKML[WUIVa[\]LMV\[ and graduates in public interest jobs each year. There is now this unparalleled network of public interest alums, who come JIKS \W \PM 4I_ ;KPWWT _PW PMTX XMWXTM Ă&#x2026;O]ZM W]\ _PI\ they want to do, help them get jobs, and are such a great resource for the students here. Then, in there, are the funding XZWRMK\[_PMZM04;_QTTXIaaW]\W_WZSQVX]JTQKQV\MZM[\ over the summer. There is our low-income protection plan _PMZM_PMVaW]OZIL]I\MaW]IZMWVTaM`XMK\ML\WLMLQKI\M a part of your salary for loan repayment. So if you go into X]JTQK QV\MZM[\ IVL \ISM I TW_MZ XIaQVO RWJ 04; _QTT XIa back the vast majority of your loans. Over a fairly short period of time you can get rid of all that debt. 1LWVÂź\SVW_WN IVaW\PMZXTIKM\PI\Q[[\ZWVOMZQV\MZU[WN  QV\MZVI\QWVIT TI_  1\ [\IZ\[ QV \PM KTI[[ZWWU _Q\P W^MZ  KTI[[M[\PI\IZM\I]OP\C_Q\PIVEQV\MZVI\QWVITWZKWUXIZI\Q^M TI_KWUXWVMV\<PMZMQ[IVM_T:MY]QZML-TMK\Q^M_PMZM aW] KPWW[M NZWU WVM WN   QV\MZVI\QWVIT TI_ KPWQKM[  ?M have study abroad opportunities - programs set up with law schools all over the world. You can set up an independent semester abroad program; you can work abroad in the summer _PMZM aW] KIV IT[W Y]ITQNa NWZ LQNNMZMV\ NMTTW_[PQX N]VLQVO and help you get placement as well. Student worked in some KW]V\ZQM[TI[\aMIZLWQVOIUIbQVO\PQVO["6/7[_WZSQVO I\\PM=6_WZSQVOQVP]UIVZQOP\[WZOIVQbI\QWV[ITTW^MZ\PM world. There is also the LLM program, which is made up of foreign practicing attorneys early on in their career who KWUMNWZIWVMaMIZUI[\MZ[XZWOZIUQV=;TI_<PM[MIZM absolutely the best lawyers from all over the world. They KWUMNWZIaMIZIVL[Q\VM`\\WaW]QVKTI[[AW]OM\\WSVW_ \PMUIVLĂ&#x2026;^MaMIZ[TI\MZ\PMaIZMWV\PM[]XZMUMKW]Z\WN 

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Interview: Josh Rubenstein, Dean of Admissions, Harvard Law School vantage. How do you think the new grading system will afNMK\ZMKZ]Q\UMV\NZWU\WXTI_Ă&#x2026;ZU['

Josh Rubenstein, Dean of Admissions, Harvard Law School (AdmissionsDean.com) \PMQZKW]V\ZaWZIKIJQVM\UQVQ[\MZWZZ]VVQVOITI_Ă&#x2026;ZU;W you have this international network that is truly amazing. <PMUW[\XW_MZN]TXIZ\WN \PMM`XMZQMVKMQ[\PMXMWXTM\PI\ 1 _I[ []ZZW]VLML Ja []KP I \ITMV\ML IVL LQ^MZ[M OZW]X QV \MZU[ WN  JIKSOZW]VL QV\MZM[\[ IVL M`XMZQMVKM[ IVL aW] learn so much from your classmates. They are phenomenal people who will push your thinking. Not only do you learn ITW\NZWU\PMU_PQTM\PMaIZM\PMZMJ]\\PMaCIT[WEOWWV\W LWQVKZMLQJTaQV\MZM[\QVO\PQVO[;W\_WXMWXTMNZWUUaT CXMZ[WVE[MK\QWVR][\Ă&#x2026;VQ[PMLKTMZSQVONWZ\PM;]XZMUM+W]Z\ XMWXTMNZWUUaTCXMZ[WVE[MK\QWVNW]VLML\PMQZW_VIXXMTTI\MTI_Ă&#x2026;ZU5IVaIZM_WZSQVOQVX]JTQKQV\MZM[\#UIVa working in the private sector; a few are working internationally. So it is this group that is already doing incredible things IVLQN 1XZWRMK\\PQ[NWZ_IZL\_MV\aaMIZ[PWXMN]TTaNWZ\PQ[ group of people similar to what alums from twenty years ago are doing now. From the supreme court justices, the senators, congressman, governors, people at every level of state and federal government, leaders of the largest and most interestQVOTI_Ă&#x2026;ZU[QV\PM_WZTLXMWXTMTMILQVO\PM_IaQVX]JTQK QV\MZM[\ TI_  NMLMZIT R]LOM[ Q\ Q[ I OZMI\ KWUU]VQ\a WN  people to be a part of.

1LWVÂź\\PQVSQ\PI[QUXIK\WVW]Z[\]LMV\[4QSMIVaKPIVOM employers will need to adjust to it. Part of the reason for this change is to give students the time and to put emphasis on other things outside of the classroom â&#x20AC;&#x201C; journals, independent writing, student organizations and clinics, and work that we \PQVSQ[QUXWZ\IV\\WJ]QTLI_MTTZW]VLML[SQTT[M\1\PQVS MUXTWaMZ[_QTTVW\WVTaTWWSI\aW]ZXMZNWZUIVKMWN Ă&#x2026;Z[\aMIZ WN OZILM[J]\_QTTCIT[WETWWSI\aW]ZQV^WT^MUMV\W]\[QLMWN  \PMKTI[[ZWWU/ZILM[KIVJMI[PWZ\K]\J]\aW]_QTTĂ&#x2026;VL\PM best people when you probe deeper. At the end of the day, it may be more work for them but they will get a better result. The result for our students wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really change. Can you explain a little bit more on the clinics at HLS and what percentage of students participates in them? )JW]\  WN  [\]LMV\[ XIZ\QKQXI\M QV I KTQVQK JMNWZM \PMa OZIL]I\M  <PMZM IZM ! LQNNMZMV\ KTQVQK[ QV ^QZ\]ITTa M^MZa area you can imagine. We have a sports law clinic, Supreme Court litigation court clinic, a semester in a Washington D.C. clinic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; students are doing great things. Clinics are great for a few reasons. They give you an opXWZ\]VQ\a\W\Za\PQVO[W]\1LQLINM_KTQVQK[IVL\PMaZMITTa PMTXMLUMĂ&#x2026;O]ZMW]\_PI\1_IV\MLIVLLQLVW\_IV\\WLW They are also great for helping people and actually having an impact. Through our clinics people are doing amazing \PQVO[1VW]ZP]UIVZQOP\[KTQVQK[\]LMV\[IZM_WZSQVOZQOP\ now on the trial against the former President of Bolivia for crimes relating to indigenous people there. We have an immigration and refugee clinic that just secured asylum for a father and his two sons who feared gang violence in El Salvador (and this is not seen usually as grounds for an asylum case). So this is groundbreaking law, setting precedent after two years of work here with students working as the attorneys. They learn a tremendous amount, positively impacting peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives, and they set new precedent.

<PMZMQ[\PQ[Ua\PWN 0IZ^IZL4I_JMQVO\PQ[^MZaKWUXM\Q\Q^MXTIKM1\_I[VW\\PMKI[M_PMV1_I[\PMZM#Q\_I[QVKZMLibly collegial. Students realize the importance of building relationships and working together and how they will work \WOM\PMZ QV \PM N]\]ZM 1 \PQVS \PM VM_ OZILQVO [a[\MU ZMinforces this as well. Also, people want to do such diverse \PQVO[ IVL 0IZ^IZL 4I_ PI[ QVKZMLQJTM XTIKMUMV\ NWZ Q\[ graduates as well.

?MIT[WPI^MIVMOW\QI\QWVKTQVQK1JMTQM^M_MIZM\PMWVTa [KPWWTQV\PMKW]V\Za_Q\P\PQ[1V\PQ[KTQVQKaW]KIV\ISM what you learn in the clinic and apply it to work all over the _WZTL<PMa_WZSQV)NZQKICIVLE+PQVIIVLOW\ZIQV[\ISMholders in different issues on how to use these tactics. They have helped get the different sides to sit down and negotiate. So there are amazing opportunities to get involved and have real impact.

1 LWVÂź\ SVW_ _PW 1 _W]TL OM\ ZQL WN  QV \PI\ KTI[[ WN    <PW[M XMWXTM IZM MIKP []KP OZMI\ XMWXTM \PI\ 1 IU OTIL 1 OW\\WSVW_1\MVL\WĂ&#x2026;VL\PM[QbM\WJMI\ZMUMVLW][IL-

Do you think that HLS will move into the 3 year accelerated MBA program?

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Interviews 1\PI[JMMV\ITSMLIJW]\I[W\PMZ[KPWWT[PI^M[\IZ\ML\WQUXTMUMV\ \PQ[  1 \PQVS aW] [IKZQĂ&#x2026;KM MVW]OP NZWU [IKZQĂ&#x2026;KQVO \PMaMIZ[\WIVL[W[Y]MMbQVO\PI\QV\WaW][\IZ\TW[QVO \WWU]KP<PMZMQ[[WU]KPaW]KIVLWI\0IZ^IZL4I_\PI\ aW]KIVVW\LWQVaMIZ[1]VLMZ[\IVLXMWXTMÂź[LM[QZMNWZI aMIZLMOZMMJ]\QV\MZU[WN OM\\QVO\PMUW[\W]\WN aW]Z M`XMZQMVKM 1 \PQVS aW] UQ[[ W]\ WV XIZ\[ _Q\P I [PWZ\MVML XZWOZIU  ;W 1 LWVÂź\ \PQVS 04; Q[ XTIVVQVO WV \PQ[ QV \PM near future. 5IVaNZM[PUMVPI^MKWUM]X\WUMI[SQVOÂť1SVW_1_IV\ \W OW \W TI_ [KPWWT _PI\ Q[ \PM JM[\ XI\P 1 [PW]TL \ISM \W OM\ QV\W I \WX [KPWWT'Âź 1 ZM[XWVL \PI\ \PMZM Q[ VW [M\ XI\P and they should follow their passions and see where it takes them. What do you think is the best response to these types WN Y]M[\QWV[' Life is way too short to spend your time doing something because it will lead you to something else. College is such a ]VQY]M\QUMIVLQ\Q[WVMWN \PMNM_\QUM[QVaW]ZTQNM\PI\aW] KIVLMLQKI\MaW]Z[MTN \W\PQVO[aW]_IV\\WM`XTWZM1\PQVS it would be a shame to plan three steps ahead to try and get in to law schools. Beyond that, there is no particular path that we are looking for. So there is nothing you can do to try IVLKPMKSWNN \PMJW`M[JMKI][M\PMZMIZMVÂź\ZMITTaJW`M[\W KPMKS1\PQVS\PMUW[\QV\MZM[\QVOIXXTQKIV\[IZM\PW[M\PI\ PI^MNWTTW_MLIXI[[QWVIVL1[MMPW_\PMaPI^M[XMV\\PMQZ \QUMQV\PMQZ[]UUMZ[CIVLE_PI\\PMaPI^MLWVMQV\MZU[WN  M`\ZIK]ZZQK]TIZIK\Q^Q\QM[<PW[MIZMWN\MV\PMUW[\QV\MZM[\QVO IXXTQKIV\[ ¡ [WUMWVM _PW PI[ M`XTWZML \PMQZ XI[[QWV[ IVLVW_NMMT[\PI\TI_[KPWWTQ[_PI\_QTTOM\UM\W_PMZM1 _IV\\WOW\WN]TĂ&#x2026;TT\PQ[ What types of summer experiences do you think are helpful for an undergrad who may potentially want to pursue a law degree? 1PI^M[MMVXMWXTM\ISQVOITT\aXM[WN XI\P[8MWXTM_PWPI^M [WUM XI[[QWV IVLKPI[MIN\MZQ\\WĂ&#x2026;O]ZMW]\_PI\ aW]TQSM IVL_PI\aW]_IV\\WLW1N aW]PI^MIVQLMI\PI\aW]UIa be interested in law, try out something relating to law to see QN \PQ[Q[_PI\aW]_IV\\WLW<PQ[KIVPMTXaW]Ă&#x2026;O]ZMW]\ _PI\aW]_IV\\WLW1LWVÂź\\PQVS\PMZMQ[IVa\ZILQ\QWVIT path. Doing something that you like is great, but there is no one path. How do required courses work at HLS? 0IZ^IZL4I_PI[IT_Ia[JMMVI\\PMNWZMNZWV\WN LM^MTWXQVO \PMTMOITK]ZZQK]T]U:MKMV\Ta_MKPIVOMLW]Z4K]ZZQK]lum. We added a case on legislation and regulation, which is a very important part of a legal curriculum. The second \PQVO XMWXTM IZM M`KQ\ML IJW]\ Q[ I KTI[[ WV XZWJTMU [WT^QVO<PQ[KTI[[\ISM[XTIKML]ZQVOW]Zš2IV]IZa_MMS\MZUÂş where you spend most of your time just in this course. We focus on how lawyers answer problems. Lawyers typically

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PI^MIXZWJTMU\PI\IKTQMV\JZW]OP\\W\PMUIVLC\PMaEVMML \WĂ&#x2026;O]ZMW]\PW_\WLMIT_Q\PQ\IVLOM\[\IZ\MLWV[WT^QVO this problem. There is an elective on international law. This Q[ ITT WV \WX WN  W]Z [\IVLIZL  KW]Z[M[ WN  KQ^QT XZWKML]ZM criminal law, torts, property, and contracts, and there is a legal research and writing course that results in a moot court competition at the end of the year. <PMV4IVL4aMIZ[IZMXZM\\aU]KPWXMVNWZaW]ZKPWQKM We found that people were consistently asking about similar \PQVO[¡Âť1ÂźUQV\MZM[\QVOQVTI_IVLJ][QVM[[WZQV\MZVI\QWVIT TI_#_PI\KTI[[M[[PW]TL1\ISM'Âź¡[WW]ZNIK]T\aQV^M[\MLITW\ of time to create programs of study that are suggestions of PW_KW]Z[M[IVLKTQVQK[UQOP\Ă&#x2026;\\WOM\PMZ\WĂ&#x2026;\\PQ[QV\MZM[\ People use it as guidance on choosing how to pursue their law degree. Of course, GPA and LSAT score play a critical role in the selection process -- but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not just about the numbers. So, without revealing any big secrets, can you give a little insight on what the admissions committee is looking for? <PMJQO[MKZM\Q[\PI\\PMZMIZMVWJQO[MKZM\[1\Âź[\_WUIQV things we are looking for. We are trying to get a sense of what your academic potential is and how youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re going to contribute to the intellectual community, and we are trying to get a sense of what leadership potential you have and what type of impact you have in the greater world, going forward. So for academic potential, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mainly the things you think, right. We want to look at how youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve performed in academic environments in the past. So we look at your transcripts, your ^IZQW][\ZIV[KZQX\[IVLVW\R][\aW]Z/8)V]UJMZ1TQSM\W TWWSI\PW_aW]ZXMZNWZUIVKMPI[KPIVOMLW^MZ\QUM0I^M aW]\ISMVQVKZMI[QVOTaUWZMKPITTMVOQVOKW]Z[M['0I^MaW] LMKQLML\WKWVKMV\ZI\MQVI[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KIZMI'0W_PI[aW]ZXMZNWZUIVKMLQNNMZMLQVaW]ZKWVKMV\ZI\QWV\PIVW]\[QLMWN Q\' Things like that are really informative in telling us how you might do well, going forward. )KILMUQKZMKWUUMVLI\QWV[IZMSMa;W1TW^M\WZMILZMKommendations, because hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s someone who can comment pretty knowledgeably on how youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve performed in this type of environment. You know, the best recommendations are ones that compare you to other students and talk about how you do in comparison to your peers or in comparison to other people who have gone on to study the law. They can also comment pretty substantively on your research and writing IJQTQ\aCIVLEaW]ZIJQTQ\a\WKWUUMV\QVKTI[[<PI\\MVL[\W be really useful. The third thing we look at is the LSAT. The LSAT has the ZMX]\I\QWVWN JMQVO\PMMVLITTIVL\PMJMITT1\Âź[VW\1\ XTIa[ I ZWTM QV \PM XZWKM[[  1 WN\MV Ă&#x2026;VL Q\ UW[\ ][MN]T I[ I KWVĂ&#x2026;ZUI\WZa^IZQIJTM0MZMÂź[[WUM\PQVO\PI\[Ia[Âť\PMZMÂź[IV

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Interview: Josh Rubenstein, Dean of Admissions, Harvard Law School

upward trend in your performance over time’ and if you did _MTTWVaW]Z4;)<Q\IT[WPMTX[KWVÅZU[\PI\aW]ZIKILMUQK potential is actually what you are showing in your senior year and less what you are showing in your freshman year. .WZTMILMZ[PQXXW\MV\QIT1KIV¼\W^MZMUXPI[QbM\PMQUXWZtance of this. Dean Minow, when she came in this summer, \ITSML I TW\ PW_ [PM _IV\[ 04; \W JM I XTIKM WN  \ZIQVQVO graduates, leaders, and people who are going to have an imXIK\ IVL KZMI\M KPIVOM IKZW[[ I _QLM ZIVOM WN  ÅMTL[ )VL so we’re looking for people who have already demonstrated \PMIJQTQ\a\WLW\PQ[XMWXTM_PWPI^MQV\PMQZ_WZSIVLM`tracurriculars, in classroom or in their personal background, have taken on leadership roles, have taken on challenges, and have an impact, and have driven real change.

or something like that and, you know, what they say to me is \PI\\PMZMQ[ITW\WN IV`QM\aIVLITW\WN Y]M[\QWV[\PI\1¼L TW^M\W\Za\WIV[_MZ;W\PI\¼[_Pa1ÆQX\PZW]OP\PMU\WÅO]ZMW]\_PI\¼[WVXMWXTM¼[UQVL[IVL_PI\1KIV\ITSIJW]\\W ITTM^QI\M[WUMWN \PW[MIV`QM\QM[IVLUISM\PMXZWKM[[UWZM transparent. But you look at it and you are certain that your LSAT and your GPA will determine whether you get in or now, and it’s not that simple and not true.

So that’s it. No secrets. No magic to it. We’re looking for people who have demonstrated all of that and it loops back ITQ\\TMJQ\\W\PMY]M[\QWVWN _PI\[PW]TL1LW\WXZMXIZMNWZ law school. You look at those things and you realize that they OMVMZITTa KWUXTa _Q\P ^QZ\]ITTa IVa XI\P ZQOP\  1\¼[ UWZM what you do within that path that is the subject matter that you should use to impress. And so, there’s no one path to take, but there are certain thing you can do – taking on leadMZ[PQXZWTM[IVLM`KMTTQVOIKILMUQKITTaIVL\PW[M\PQVO[IZM great. How does an applicant’s undergraduate institution NIK\WZQV\W\PMXZWKM[['0W_LWAITQM[ZIVSQV\PQ[ system? (Flickr) 1_Q[PQ\_MZMI[[QUXTMI[ZIVSWZM^MV1KW]TLÅTTI[\IKSWN  applications from Yale and consider all those together. And it’s not, in part since it’s rolling applications and we consider them as they come in, but in part because we’re looking at every application individually and reading for a couple of characters, and things let us know that is no silver bullet. We’ve a general sense of how challenging and competitive each undergraduate program is, and so when we’re accessing your academic potential, we’ll look at your performance today in light of that sense and in light of that understanding that Yale is a very challenging place with a lot of talented XMWXTM  6W_ 1 _Q[P 1 KW]TL [Ia aW] KW]TL PI^M \PQ[ /8) PMZMIVL\PQ[/8)\PMZM#Q\¼[R][\VW\\PI\[QUXTM1\¼[QV\MZM[\ing because everyone is always asking and curious about the V]UJMZ[  »?PI\¼[ aW]Z \P XMZKMV\QTM /8) TI[\ aMIZ'¼ WZ »_PI\¼[aW]Z\PQ[XMZKMV\QTM4;)<¼[WWVIVL[WNWZ\P)J[Wlutely we end up taking in people who at the top of their class IVL_PWPI^M[KWZML^MZa^MZa_MTTWV\PM4;)<1\PQVSI lot of that is correlation rather than causation. There are plenty of people who have a great GPA and who do very well on the LSAT, but who do not meet some of the characteristics we are looking for in admission and are ultimately not offered admission. And so those things just aren’t the perNMK\XZMLQKI\WZ[\PI\XMWXTM\PQVSIVL[W1_WZZa[WUM\QUM[ _PMV1ÆQX\PZW]OP[WUMWN \PMTI_[KPWWTUM[[IOMJWIZL[

What would you say, if any, are some general “do’s” and “don’ts” for the personal statement? >MZaOMVMZIT°1\PQVS\PMJM[\XMZ[WVIT[\I\MUMV\NWZMIKP XMZ[WV Q[ SVW_V ^MZa LZIUI\QKITTa  1\¼[ IJW]\ \MTTQVO aW]Z [\WZa*aaW]Z[\WZa1UMIVVWVÅK\QWV<PMJM[\XMZ[WVIT statements are those that get across why law school is the ZQOP\VM`\[\MXNWZaW]IT\PW]OPUIVaWN \PMULWV¼\LW[W M`XTQKQ\Ta  1\¼[ QUXTQKQ\  ) TW\ WN  \PMU _QTT _MI^M \WOM\PMZ aW]Z XI[\ M`XMZQMVKM[ WZ aW]Z JIKSOZW]VL WZ JW\P QV\W something that walks me through the evolution of thinking that you’ve had that then brings you to law school. Those IZM^MZaXZMKQ[M\PQVO[\PI\1ZMILQ\IVL[Ia»1¼^MTWWSMLI\ aW]Z ZM[]UM 1¼^M TWWSML I\ aW]Z \ZIV[KZQX\ 1¼^M ZMIL aW]Z TM\\MZ[WN ZMKWUUMVLI\QWV[1\PQVS1SVW_aW]TQ\\TMJQ\\PQ[ (the personal statement) ties it in altogether for me and helps me understand this is who you are and this is why you make sense for me. ,W¼[IVLLWV¼\[°\PMZMIZM^MZaNM_LWV¼\[1_W]TL[IaWVM Q[M^MZaWVM¼[[\WZaQ[TQSMTa\WJMXZM\\a]VQY]MIVLWVM\ZW]JTMQ[\W\ISM]XINWZUI\\PI\¼[_WZSMLQVTI_[KPWWTM[[Ia[ that many people don’t remember at all or in whatever many books out there that says that’s a good format. That isn’t

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMC E


Interviews

being pretty transparent and that is not problematic in and WN Q\[MTN1LWV¼\UQVLQN OWQVO\WaW][WUMWVMMT[M¼[M[[IaNWZ Q\[1\¼[R][\\PI\XMWXTMWN\MV[MTT\PMU[MT^M[[PWZ\NWZLWQVO \PI\IVLJa\ZaQVO\WÅ\\PMQZ[\WZaQV\WINWZUI\\PI\_WZSML NWZ[WUMWVMMT[M1\LWM[V¼\_WZSI[_MTT[W1\PQVS\PI\KIV JMXZWJTMUI\QK)VW\PMZXTIKM1¼^M[MMVXMWXTMOM\QV\W\ZW]JTMQ[_PMV1UMV\QWVaW]KIV\MTTaW]Z[\WZaQUXTQKQ\Ta·1 \PQVS\PI\¼[OZMI\1¼^M[MMVXMWXTMWN\MVOWWNN _Q\P\PI\IVL write something that’s so heavy on metaphor that it’s hard to say what they’re talking about, like about a caterpillar, a KI\MZXQTTIZLWQVO[WUM\PQVO1LWV¼\OM\_PI\\PMKI\MZXQTTIZ Q[[]XXW[ML\WJMLWQVOQ[\PMTMIN \PMTI_[KPWWT')VL[W \PI\¼[\ZQKSa1LW_IV\\WOM\[WUM\PQVOW]\WN Q\IVL1_IV\ \W]VLMZ[\IVL_PI\aW]¼ZM\ITSQVOIJW]\;W1SVW_\PI\¼[I TQ\\TM^IO]MJ]\1PWXM\PI\¼[PMTXN]T General guidelines on what makes a great letter of recommendation? Choose people who know you really well and who are able to KWUUMV\JM[\8MWXTM_PWIZMZMITTaM`KQ\MLIJW]\aW]IVL aW]ZXW\MV\QITIVL\PI\KWUM[\PZW]OPQV_ZQ\QVO1IT_Ia[ ÅVLQ\JMVMÅKQITIVL1KIV\MTT_PMVXMWXTMLWQ\QV\PMQZTM\ters) to sit down with the person who is going to write your recommendation and remind them of who you are. So as _MTTI[aW]\PQVSaW]SVW_IXZWNM[[WZI[_MTTI[1\PW]OP\ 1SVM_XZWNM[[WZ[\PMaSVW_ITW\WN [\]LMV\[IVL1¼U[]ZM that they have good feelings about you, but they may rememJMZM`IK\Ta_PaIVL[WZMUQVLQVO\PMU\PI\1KIUML]ZQVO WNÅKMPW]Z[WV\PM[MWKKI[QWV[PMZM¼[_PI\_M¼^MLQ[K][[ML 1¼^M_ZW\MIXIXMZWV\PI\PMZM¼[aW]ZXIXMZ_Q\PaW]ZKWUUMV\[\PQVO[TQSM\PI\IZMOWQVOOM\ITW\UWZM[XMKQÅK[NWZ your recommendation letter, and it’s so much more persua[Q^MIVL\ITS[UWZM[XMKQÅKITTa1_W]TLVW\[]OOM[\ZMITTaVW\ X]\\QVO[WU]KPMUXPI[Q[WV_PW_ZQ\M[\PMTM\\MZ1\PQVS many people invest a lot of time in taking big lecture classes with well-known professors so you’d get a letter from that XMZ[WV1N \PI\XMZ[WVSVW_[aW]_MTT\PMVOZMI\\PI\¼[XPMnomenal. But often the best recommendations come from a teaching assistant who taught your small group section on something, or a more junior professor who might have spent more time with you and whom you’ve got to know a bit better. Picking the people who know you well and can say [WUM\PQVO[]J[\IV\Q^MQ[U]KPUWZMQUXWZ\IV\\PIVÅVLQVO someone with a well-known or prominent name. And that IXXTQM[NWZ_WZSM`XMZQMVKMI[_MTT7N\MV\QUM[XMWXTM_WZS WV+IXQ\WT0QTTIVL1¼U][QVO\PI\I[IVM`IUXTMJMKI][M 1¼^M _WZSML \PMZM IVL \PM JM\\MZ ZMKWUUMVLI\QWV[ VW\ QV every case, but in many cases, often comes from your immediate supervisor and not necessarily a congressman or sena\WZ\PI\aW]¼^M_WZSNWZ1\¼[VW\VMKM[[IZQTa\Z]MQN aW]OM\IV IXXTQKIV\_PWPILI[MVQWZTM^MTXW[Q\QWVIVL[]J[MY]MV\Ta worked for a member of congress or with the governor, then that may be a great recommendation. But it’s always dangerous to get a recommendation from someone who does not know you that well.

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Final words of advice for those applying to HLS in the future? My biggest advice is that there is actually no prototype for a candidate. There is no one thing we are looking for. There is [WZ\WN VWXMZNMK\KIVLQLI\MXZWÅTM\PI\aW]KIV[\IZ\NZM[PUIVaMIZIVLJ]QTL]X\PI\XZWÅTM?M¼ZMR][\TWWSQVONWZI talented and diverse group of people. We’re looking for people who have demonstrated that talent, demonstrated leadership, and demonstrated impact. We love people who have a passion, who have a strong interest, have sort of an established reason why law school make sense for them and what they are going to do something with that degree. You know 1\PQVS\PI\¼[OZMI\IVLQ\KIVJMIVa\PQVO1VNIK\_M¼ZMM`cited when it’s anything. Not everyone has to be the most ]VQY]M\PQVOQV\PM_WZTL5IaJMaW]_IV\\WLW[WUM\PQVO that’s fairly established and that’s great too. But show that you’re going to be a leader and show that you’re trying to change. Show that this is something you’re passionate for and why it’s important to you. There is no one right answer, and if you think law school is the right answer for you, then apply. Every year there are people who thought they had no chance of getting in, get in, and so again, there is no one proÅTM;W1\PQVS\PMZMIZMITW\WN XMWXTM_Q\PIOZMI\KPIVKM NWZ04; Jennifer Bright is a sophomore in Davenport College. David Chan is a junior in Silliman College.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UM


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Joe Calve

+PQMN 5IZSM\QVO7NĂ&#x2026;KMZI\5WZZQ[WV.WMZ[\MZ448 Interview by Katherine Giaccone  +IZMMZ[QV\PMTI_OWNIZJMaWVLXZIK\QKQVOI\\WZVMa[XWTQ\QKQIV[R]LOM[IVLTI_XZWNM[[WZ[-^MZaQVL][\ZaZMY]QZM[XZWNM[[QWVIT[_Q\PIXZIK\QKITSVW_TMLOMWN TMOITKWLM[1V\PQ[KWT]UV\PMReview_QTTM`XTWZM]VKWV^MV\QWVITKIZMMZ[QV\PMTI_\PZW]OP QV\MZ^QM_[_Q\PTMILMZ[QVI^IZQM\aWN Ă&#x2026;MTL[  4I_Ă&#x2026;ZU[TQSMM^MZaW\PMZJ][QVM[[M[VMML\WOZW_\PMQZKTQMV\MTM=[QVO[\ZI\MOQM[\PI\QUXZW^MJ][QVM[[LM^MTWXUMV\IVL KWUU]VQKI\QWV[TMOITUIZSM\QVO[XMKQITQ[\[IZMPQZML\WM`XIVLZMTI\QWV[PQX[_Q\PM`Q[\QVOKTQMV\[IVL\WJZQVOQVVM_WVM[<PW]OP [UITTĂ&#x2026;ZU[UIaWVTaJMIJTM\WINNWZLXIZ\\QUMUIZSM\QVO[XMKQITQ[\[TIZOMZĂ&#x2026;ZU[\aXQKITTaUIQV\IQVIN]TT\QUMN]TT[MZ^QKM[\INN These professionals research the competition and markets (â&#x20AC;&#x153;competitive intelligenceâ&#x20AC;?), develop and promote the brand, and devise new strategies to use in an ever-changing marketplace. The Review[XWSM_Q\P2WM+IT^M\PMK]ZZMV\+PQMN 5IZSM\QVO7NĂ&#x2026;KMZI\QV\MZVI\QWVITĂ&#x2026;ZU5WZZQ[WV.WMZ[\MZ448)N\MZ practicing law for a short time, Calve followed his interest in legal journalism and began a career as a reporter, editor and busiVM[[M`MK]\Q^M_Q\PAmerican Lawyer Media. Fifteen years later, Calve shifted careers, leading the global business development team I\?PQ\M+I[MJMNWZMUW^QVO\W8ZW[SI]MZ:W[M448QV=VLMZPQ[TMILMZ[PQX8ZW[SI]MZ\WXXMLMarketing the Law Firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s IVV]ITTQ[\WN \PMJM[\UIZSM\QVOIVLKWUU]VQKI\QWV[\MIU[QV\PMKW]V\ZaNWZ\PZMMaMIZ[QVIZW_1V.MJZ]IZaWN \PQ[aMIZ+IT^M became the CMO at Morrison & Foerster, better known by its notorious nickname â&#x20AC;&#x153;MoFo.â&#x20AC;?  +IT^M[PIZMLPQ[M`XMZQMVKM[LQ[K][[MLQVL][\Za\ZMVL[IVLW\PMZ_Q[MLQ[PML]X^IT]IJTMIL^QKMWVTMOITUIZSM\QVO" Were you ever a practicing attorney?

How did you get started in legal marketing?

1XZIK\QKMLTI_JZQMĂ&#x2020;a¡^MZaJZQMĂ&#x2020;a1VM^MZ_IV\ML\WJMIXZIK\QKQVOI\\WZVMa1_MV\\WTI_[KPWWT[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KITTa\WOM\QV\WRW]ZVITQ[U

1UILMITQ[\WN I\\ZQJ]\M[WN \PM\aXMWN Ă&#x2026;ZU1_W]TL_IV\\W _WZSNWZ1SVM_1_IV\ML\WJMI\IPQOPTaOTWJITĂ&#x2026;ZUAmerican LawyerPILI^MZaVI\QWVITNWK][[W1_IV\ML[WUM\PQVO different, something more in tune with where the market was OWQVO1IT[W_IV\MLIĂ&#x2026;ZU\PI\_I[QV\PM\WX\QMZIVL\PI\ _I[[\IZ\QVOW^MZQV\MZU[WN UIZSM\QVO1Ă&#x2026;O]ZML\PMZM_W]TL JMITW\WN WXXWZ\]VQ\aIVL1_IV\ML\WUW^MIPMILY]QKSTa ?PQ\M+I[MPILM^MZa\PQVO1_I[TWWSQVONWZ"Q\Âź[IOTWJIT =;Ă&#x2026;ZU\PI\_I[ZMLWQVOQ\[UIZSM\QVOLMXIZ\UMV\KWUXTM\MTa1\Q[IT[WLMĂ&#x2026;VQ\MTa\WX\QMZ

If you were interested in journalism, why law school? Why not journalism school? ?PMV1[XWSM\WXMWXTMQV\PMĂ&#x2026;MTL¡XMWXTM_PWSVM__PI\ they were talking about â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they told me that it would be better \WOM\IVM`\MVLMLTQJMZITIZ\[ML]KI\QWV\PIV\WOW\WRW]ZVITism school. From there, they told me to go to business or law [KPWWT1KPW[MTI_[KPWWTJMKI][M\PMĂ&#x2026;MTLWN TMOITRW]ZVITQ[U was starting to take off. Why did you make the leap to legal marketing? 1 WVTa M^MZ _IV\ML \W _WZS NWZ American Lawyer, which was founded by a Yale law grad and true visionary in the legal [XIKM ;\M^MV *ZQTT 1 OW\ \PI\ WXXWZ\]VQ\a )N\MZ 1 ZMIKPML \PMTM^MTWN ^QKMXZM[QLMV\1SVM_1_I[VÂź\OWQVO\WOWU]KP N]Z\PMZI\)U4I__PQKPPILJMMV[WTL\WIXZQ^I\MMY]Q\a Ă&#x2026;ZU IVL \PM J][QVM[[ MV^QZWVUMV\ _I[ OM\\QVO ^MZa \W]OP NWTTW_QVO\PMLW\KWUJ][\1[I_\PMPIVL_ZQ\QVOWV\PM_ITT IVLUILMIJZMISNWZIVM_KIZMMZ;W1TWWSMLQV\WIVW\PMZ TI\MZITĂ&#x2026;MTL

AW]TMN\8ZW[SI]MZ:W[MIN\MZPMTXQVOQ\PWTL\PM\WX spot on Marketing the Law Firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s annual list for three years running. What strategies did you implement while you were there and why did you move on \W5WZZQ[WV.WMZ[\MZ' 5aĂ&#x2026;Z[\aMIZI\8ZW[SI]MZ_MUILM\PM\WX\MV_PQKPPIL never happened before. Then we were number one for three aMIZ[<PMUIQVZMI[WV_MOW\\PMZM_I[\PMĂ&#x2026;ZUÂź[_QTTQVOVM[[ \WLW_PI\Q\\WWS\WJZQVOQVPQOPY]ITQ\a[\INN<PMĂ&#x2026;ZUOI^M UMITW\WN TMM_IaIVL[]XXWZ\1LQLVÂź\QUUMLQI\MTaOWQV\W \PM Ă&#x2026;ZU IVL [Ia \PI\ _M VMML \W KWVKMV\ZI\M WV JZIVLQVO VM_ KWTWZ[ WZ ZMUISM \PM _MJ[Q\M 1V[\MIL _M _MZM OWQVO top photo by Larry Bodine

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Interviews

WJ^QW][OQ^MV\PMĂ&#x2026;ZUÂź[VIUM*]\_PMV\PM_MJKIUMITWVO š5W.WÂş_I[IVI\]ZIT=:4)VLQVUIVa_Ia[\PMUIZSM\ brands you. There was a bit by Jay Leno about an advertisement we were running a few years ago the included â&#x20AC;&#x153;MoFo,â&#x20AC;? IVLQ\PMTXMLXZWXMT\PM5W.WUWVQSMZ1N aW]\PQVSIJW]\Q\ â&#x20AC;&#x153;MoFoâ&#x20AC;? is one of the most recognized legal brands there is. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pretty fortuitous, in my view. You canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t buy that kind of recognition. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Mofoâ&#x20AC;? is also featured in a Trivial Pursuit question. What sort of impact has the media attention had on \PMĂ&#x2026;ZU' AW]ÂźZMOWQVO\WOM\aW]Z[PIZMWN RWSM[J]\1\PQVS\PMĂ&#x2026;ZU handles it well. We try not to take it too seriously, but we take W]Z_WZSM`\ZMUMTa[MZQW][Ta*ZIVLZMKWOVQ\QWVQ[PIZLQV\PQ[ QVL][\Za1V\PM*QO4I__WZTLLQNNMZMV\QI\QWVQ[\W]OP ?PI\W\PMZ[\ZI\MOQM[LWM[5WZZQ[WV.WMZ[\MZ][M'

Headquarters of Morrison and Foerster LLP, San Francisco (Wikicommons) to concentrate on business development, increasing our competitive intelligence, and making sure that the staff who deal UW[\LQZMK\Ta_Q\P\PMXZIK\QKMIVLĂ&#x2026;ZUTMILMZ[IZMXZW^QLQVO knock-your-socks-off support. Once you get that traction, then you can think about branding and other stuff. What is the difference between a strategy based on business development and one based on marketing? 1VTI_Ă&#x2026;ZU[aW]PI^M\WJMKIZMN]TJMKI][MXMWXTM_MIZITW\ WN PI\[=VTQSMQVIKWZXWZI\QWVN]VK\QWV[QVIĂ&#x2026;ZUIZMVW\ totally separated. For business development professionals, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s IJW]\]VLMZ[\IVLQVO\PMXZIK\QKM[PW_\PMĂ&#x2026;ZU_WZS[LM^Q[ing strategies, targeting clients, knowing marketing generally, and marshaling support strategies. The communications func\QWV[IZMMY]ITTaQUXWZ\IV\J]\\PMa[MZ^M\W[]XXWZ\\PMJ][Qness development strategies. Everyone has to work together to integrate all the elements of business development and communications into a coherent go-to-market approach. 5WZZQ[WV  .WMZ[\MZ QVNIUW][Ta ZMJZIVLML \W â&#x20AC;&#x153;MoFoâ&#x20AC;? a few years ago. Why that name? 1ÂźUVW\[]ZM_PaWZ_PWKIUM]X_Q\P\PI\\PW]OPQ\Âź[SQVLWN 

CE

5W[\WN \PM[IUM\IK\QK[][MLJaW\PMZĂ&#x2026;ZU[XT][INM__ZQVkles, such as the iPhone app we recently launched. But basiKITTa\PMZMQ[I[WZ\WN SQ\\PI\MIKPĂ&#x2026;ZUPI[\W_WZS_Q\P;WUM Ă&#x2026;ZU[MUXPI[QbMWVMIZMIUWZM\PIVIVW\PMZTQSMIL^MZ\Q[QVO W^MZJ][QVM[[LM^MTWXUMV\*QVOPIUNWZM`IUXTMX]\ITW\WN  time, effort and resources into advertising. Direct business development, which involves meeting with cliMV\[IVLSVW_QVOPW_\W\IZOM\[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KQVL][\ZQM[IVLKTQMV\[ Q[OQ^MVITW\I\\MV\QWVI\W\PMZĂ&#x2026;ZU[5W[\Ă&#x2026;ZU[LWIUQ`IVL 1\PQVS_MPI^MIOWWLUQ`WN UIZSM\QVO\IK\QK[IVLJ][QVM[[ develoopment. Your tactics are going to vary a lot based on OMWOZIXPa\PM[QbMWN aW]ZĂ&#x2026;ZUaW]ZK]T\]ZM7]Z\IK\QK[IZM OWQVO\WJMLQNNMZMV\\PIV\PW[MWN W\PMZĂ&#x2026;ZU[#J]\\PM\WWT[ in everybodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s kits are going to be similar. We just use them differently. What are some of the trends in the industry right now? With the economic downturn, there has been a decided shift away from traditional marketing communications and branding toward direct business development. Business development is more about research and thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a perception that it â&#x20AC;&#x153;makes the cash register ring.â&#x20AC;? The tactics that you use now are part of longer-term strategies. Some people think that turning away from branding is a mistake, and the pendulum may well swing back. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s also a better use of technology, with more tools out there and more coming every day. What advice would you give to undergraduates who want to prepare ourselves to do what you do? Should

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Interview: Chief Justice Margaret Marshall they concentrate on marketing, law, business, all of the above?

TMOITUIZSM\QVOKWUU]VQ\a_PQKPQ[OWWL1\UMIV[\PI\\PMZM is a growing respect for the industry.

1N  1 KW]TL OQ^M WVM XQMKM WN  IL^QKM Q\ _W]TL JM \W TMIZV how to write. A lot of what we do is communications, and there’s an increasing need for people who are really good communicators, orally and in writing. Being a good writer KIVLQ[\QVO]Q[PaW]QV\PQ[ÅMTL

Katherine Giaccone is a junior in Pierson College.

Also, steep yourself in the industry. That doesn’t mean that aW]PI^M\WJMITI_aMZ1¼UITI_aMZIVL1LWV¼\SVW_QN  that makes me any better or worse than anyone else in the ÅMTL1LWV¼\\PQVS[W1VNIK\1SVW_XMWXTM_PWIZMVW\ TI_aMZ[_PWIZMOZMI\I\TMOITUIZSM\QVO1IT[WSVW_[WUM XMWXTM_PWIZMTI_aMZ[_PWIZMVW\^MZaOWWLI\Q\1\LMpends. This is an industry, it’s multifarious. To really steep yourself in it, read the trades and blogs and keep up on what’s being written and you’ll get a good idea of trends; you’ll build your knowledge of marketing tactics. And if you’re looking to be a functional specialist, such as a media ZMTI\QWV[XMZ[WVOM\M`XMZQMVKM\PZW]OPIVIXXZMV\QKM[PQX in media relations.

YULR INTERVIEW:

Massachusetts Chief Justice Margaret Marshall Interview by Samuel Gamer +WV\IK\" 5[ >QZOQVQI <P]ZTMZ >QZOQVQI\P]ZTMZ([RK[\I\M ma.us

You also need a high level of emotional intelligence. Law ÅZU[ IZM LQNÅK]T\ MV^QZWVUMV\[ IVL VI^QOI\QVO ZMTI\QWVships with the partners, who are all owners and have a claim on your time and attention, takes a certain kind of JITIVKM1LWV¼\SVW_QN \PI\Q[I[SQTT\PI\KIVJMTMIZVML but try to have it. 7VMUWZMTQ\\TM\PQVO\PI\¼[PMTXN]T"TMIZVIVLXZIK\QKMIKtive listening. That is a skill that can be developed, and it’s very important in the legal marketing space. People in legal marketing tend to move from one ÅZU\W\PMVM`\IN\MZWVTaINM_aMIZ[_PI\LWM[ that mean for job security? Do you think that trend might change? 1 \PQVS Q\¼[ KPIVOML ITZMILa <PM \MV]ZM PI[ TMVO\PMVML <PQ[Q[VW\IVM_ÅMTLJ]\Q\¼[VM_QVQ\[K]ZZMV\[PIXM1\ was not surprising that people moved around years ago. ?PMV 1 OW\ QV\W \PM ÅMTL \PI\ UW^MUMV\ _I[ R][\ [\IZ\ing, everybody was hiring, making “misstarts,” and starting over. At that time, the biggest opportunity to increase your [\I\]ZMIVL[ITIZa_I[\WUW^M<PMÅMTLPI[OZW_VIVLQ\¼[ LMÅVQ\MTa[\QTTOZW_QVO)[\PMÅMTLPI[UI\]ZML\PMU][Qcal chairs aspect has died down. What changes do you see for the industry down the road? 1[MMQVKZMI[ML[XMKQITQbI\QWVI\\PMXZIK\QKMTM^MTIVLN]VK\QWVITTM^MT<PMZMIZMUWZMIVLUWZMXMWXTMQV\PMÅMTL who have come from other professional industry backgrounds. There’s a growing appreciation of strategic input that really good business development people can bring to \PMQZÅZU[.QZU[IZMPQZQVOKPQMN [\ZI\MOaWNÅKMZ[NZWU\PM

Chief Justice Marshall taken at a Court Symposium on Excellence in Judicial Administration at the John Adams Courthouse, Boston, MA (Bostonbar)

While an undergraduate at the University of Witswatersrand, you led the university anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. How has that experience shaped your current worldview? )\\PM\QUM\PMUQL![;W]\P)NZQKI_I[Z]TML]VLMZIV apartheid system, which really was a perversion of the rule of law. Law was used as an instrument of oppression. At the \QUM1PILVWQLMI1\PI\1_W]TLJMKWUMITI_aMZ)VL1 KMZ\IQVTaPILVWQLMI\PI\1_W]TLJMKWUMIR]LOM5aM`periences, however, taught me about the importance of the rule of law, correctly interpreted, as we understand it today QV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ So you were not always sure you wanted to become a lawyer?

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Interviews _Pa1\PQVSITMOIT\ZIQVQVOKIVJMI_WVLMZN]TXTI\NWZUNZWU which to move into a variety of directions. Looking back, UW[\WN _PI\1SVM_IJW]\TI_IVL\PMXZIK\QKMWN TI_1PIL OTMIVML NZWU \PM 8MZZa 5I[WV [PW_ 1 \PW]OP\ 1 _W]TL JM ILMNMV[MTI_aMZQVIKZQUQVITXZIK\QKM1[XMV\\PM[]UUMZ I\\PMMVLWN UaĂ&#x2026;Z[\aMIZ_WZSQVONWZI_WVLMZN]TKZQUQVIT LMNMV[MI\\WZVMaQV*W[\WV1LMKQLMLI\\PMMVLWN \PM[]UUMZ\PI\Q\_I[VW\ZMITTaIVIZMIWN XZIK\QKM\PI\1NMT\1KW]TL \PZQ^MWZM`KMTQV)VL\PI\WN\MVQ[Ua[MKWVLXQMKMWN IL^QKMVIUMTa"\WSMMXUW^QVOaW]_QTTSVW__PMVaW]PI^M found the right place in which to work as a professional. How has the legal profession changed since you graduated from law school in 1976? Massachusetts State House (Emmanuel Huybrechts) 1 PIL VW QLMI \PI\ 1 _W]TL JMKWUM I TI_aMZ 1 KIUM \W \PM =VQ\ML;\I\M[QVQ\QITTa\PQVSQVO1_I[OWQVO\WLWILWK\WZIT XZWOZIUQVIZ\PQ[\WZa7VMXQMKMWN IL^QKM1PI^MOQ^MVUIVa \QUM[\W]VLMZOZIL]I\M[Q[\WM`XTWZMI[U]KPI[aW]KIVIN\MZ aW]Z]VLMZOZIL]I\MM`XMZQMVKMJMNWZM[M\\QVOW]\WVIXIZ\QK]TIZKIZMMZXI\P°1MV\MZMLAITM4I_;KPWWT_PMV1_I[! 1VILLQ\QWV\WUaM`XMZQMVKM[OZW_QVO]XIVLJMQVOML]KI\ML QV;W]\P)NZQKI1^MZaU]KPMVRWaML\PMXMZQWLJM\_MMVUa college degree and national student activity in South Africa IVLMV\MZQVOTI_[KPWWT1\PQVS1JMVMĂ&#x2026;\\MLNZWUIVLMVRWaML UaTI_[KPWWTM`XMZQMVKMNIZUWZMJMKI][M1]T\QUI\MTaZMKWOVQbML\PI\\PI\_I[_PI\1_IV\ML\WLW;WQVW\PMZ_WZL[ if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t yet know what you want to do, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t panic. Now, \PMZMIZM[WUMXMWXTMNWZM`IUXTMTQSMUaP][JIVL_PWQ[ IRW]ZVITQ[\0M\MTT[UM\PI\PMSVM_NZWUKPQTLPWWL\PI\PM IT_Ia[_IV\ML\WJMIRW]ZVITQ[\<PI\Âź[Ă&#x2026;VM[WUMXMWXTMR][\ know they want to be a lawyer or opera singer or physician WZ RW]ZVITQ[\ 1 VM^MZ PIL \PI\ IL^IV\IOM 1 \PQVS \PMZM IZM many undergraduates who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know with certainty which LQZMK\QWV\PMa_IV\\WOW1WN\MVPI^M\PMNMMTQVO\PI\]VLMZOZIL]I\M[ [MTMK\ TI_ [KPWWT JMKI][M \PMa IZM VW\ Y]Q\M []ZM of their direction, and they think it may be a good bridging M`XMZQMVKM_PQKPQ\UIaJM*]\1\PQVSXMZPIX[IUWZM^IT]IJTMJZQLOQVOM`XMZQMVKMQ[\W\PMM`\MV\\PI\aW]KIV\W_WZS or travel before your start graduate school, whether that is QV TI_ WZ IVa W\PMZ LQ[KQXTQVM )VL KMZ\IQVTa IT\PW]OP 1 NMT\ somewhat older than many of my fellow law students at Yale, 1LWVÂź\\PQVSQ\PI[QVPQJQ\MLUaKIZMMZQVIVaZM[XMK\JaVW\ OZIL]I\QVO]V\QTIOM When you entered law school, did you have any particular goals that you saw yourself using law school for? 1SVM_VWTI_aMZ[QV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[1PILWVMNZQMVLNZWU ;W]\P)NZQKI_PWPILUW^ML\W\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[_PW_I[ ITI_aMZ1SVM_^MZaTQ\\TMIJW]\\PMZIVOMWN WXXWZ\]VQ\QM[ that are available to people who have a law degree. That, of KW]Z[MQ[WVMWN \PMOZMI\IL^IV\IOM[QV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[IVL

CE

One of the dramatic changes in law has been the increasing QV\MZVI\QWVITM`KPIVOM[IUWVOR]LOM[R]LQKQIT\PMWZQ[\[IVL QV\PMLM^MTWXUMV\WN \PMTI_1\PQVS\PI\PI[JMMVNWZ\_W ZMI[WV[<PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\Q[WJ^QW]["\PM1V\MZVM\AW]KIV[Q\QV\PM TQJZIZa I\ AITM WZ 1 KIV [Q\ QV Ua KPIUJMZ[ I\ \PM ;]XZMUM Judicial Court and, with almost no effort, we can have access to the judicial opinions of courts around world, and many decisions even in non-English speaking countries are translated into English or can be easily translated into English. <PM [MKWVL Q[ I UWZM 1 \PQVS KWUXTQKI\ML WVM \W M`XTIQV .WZ [W TWVO QV \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ JMOQVVQVO _Q\P \PM ILWX\QWVWN \PM5I[[IKP][M\\[+WV[\Q\]\QWVQV IVL\PMV\PM =VQ\ML;\I\M[+WV[\Q\]\QWVQV \PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ITUW[\ ]VQY]MTaX]Z[]MLI[a[\MUWN R]LQKQITZM^QM_Y]Q\MLQNNMZMV\ NZWUNWZM`IUXTMKW]V\ZQM[TQSM-VOTIVL_PMZM8IZTQIUMV\ Q[ []XZMUM 1V \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ JW\P WN  \PM KWV[\Q\]\QWV[ =;5I[[IKP][M\\[IVLITTW\PMZ[\I\MKWV[\Q\]\QWV[PI^MI charter of rights, and judges may, with enormous constraints, from time to time, declare a statute that is enacted by the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s representatives inconsistent with the constitution. <PI\[a[\MUQ[Y]Q\MLQNNMZMV\NZWUI[a[\MUWN XIZTQIUMV\IZa []XZMUIKa1V-VOTIVLR]LOM[MVNWZKML_PI\M^MZTI_[8IZTQIUMV\MVIK\ML<PW]OP\PMJ][QVM[[WN R]LOQVOQV\PM=VQ\ML States was different in kind than the business of judging in -VOTIVLWZ+IVILI\PI\KPIVOMLNWZ\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\\QUMQV!  when a constitutional court was established in Germany, that KW]Z\XTIaQVO\PM[IUMZWTMI[W]Z=VQ\ML;\I\M[KW]Z\XTIa[" assessing laws that were enacted by the German parliament QV I KWV[\Q\]\QWVIT NZIUM_WZS 1VKZMI[QVOTa I[ _M UW^M \W MVLWN \PM\PKMV\]Za^QZ\]ITTaITTVM_LMUWKZIKQM[[]KP I[QV;W]\P)NZQKI_PQKP1NWTTW_ML^MZaKTW[MTaPI^MUW^ML \W_PI\1KITT\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[UWLMTVIUMTaKWV[\Q\]\QWVIT democracy in the sense of a written bill or charter of rights that are enforced by independent judges whose role is not simply to enforce the laws passed by Congress or legislatures or Parliament. As more and more countries have moved to \PI\ UWLMT QVKT]LQVO NWZ M`IUXTM +IVILI _PQKP ILWX\ML IKPIZ\MZWN ZQOP\[QV! M^MVQV-VOTIVLVW_JMKI][MWN  \PM -]ZWXMIV +WV^MV\QWV WV 0]UIV :QOP\[ _M IZM XTIaing a somewhat similar role. When you talk about something TQSM[\)UMVLUMV\ZQOP\[WZ\P)UMVLUMV\ZQOP\[WZ\P Amendment rights, they are comparable to similar rights in

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Interview: Chief Justice Margaret Marshall the new charters of other countries. Your generation , of necessity, will automatically function in a far more global legal _WZTL\PIVUaOZIL]I\QVOOMVMZI\QWVLQL° Do you think my generation is naturally prepared for this new global legal environment? 1LWVÂź\\PQVSaW]IZMVI\]ZITTaXZMXIZMLJ]\1\PQVSaW]PI^M \WJM)VL1\PQVSKMZ\IQVTaIAITM+WTTMOM]VLMZOZIL]I\MM`perience with the great emphasis on the importance of in\MZVI\QWVITM`XMZQMVKMIVLQV\MZVI\QWVITI_IZMVM[[_QTTUISM aW] ^MZa _MTT XZMXIZML 1 \PQVS Q\Âź[ VW\ I ^MZa ]V][]IT WJservation to say that all of you will be functioning in global MKWVWUa .WZ M`IUXTM WVM Q[[]M I\ \PM UWUMV\ \PI\ NIKM[ UIVa [\I\M[ Q[ \PM ILUQ[[QWV \W XZIK\QKM TI_ 1V \PM =VQ\ML States, that matter, namely the license to practice law, is a state issue. The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts decides QN aW]IZMY]ITQĂ&#x2026;ML\WXZIK\QKMQV5I[[IKP][M\\[6W_PW_ever, lawyers are representing clients who are global. People UW^MIJW]\\PM_WZTL^MZaY]QKSTa1_I[\PM/MVMZIT+W]V[MT WN 0IZ^IZL=VQ^MZ[Q\a0IZ^IZL_I[MVOIOMLQVM`KPIVOM[ running programs, hiring faculties, and recruiting students NZWUIZW]VL\PMOTWJM<PMZMPI[VÂź\JMMVIĂ&#x2026;VITZM[WT]\QWV WN _PQKPMV\Q\aLMKQLM[_PWQ[Y]ITQĂ&#x2026;ML\WXZIK\QKMQV_PI\ IZMI[IVL_PMZMQV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[ Are there certain qualities of private practice that you have missed since your appointment to the Court? 1KMZ\IQVTaUQ[[\PMIL^WKIKa?PMV1[MMJZQTTQIV\IL^WKIKa _PQKP1LW1IT_Ia[ILUQZM\PI\I[I[SQTT<PMZMQ[[WUM\PQVO compelling about being a lawyer and being approached by a client, whomever the client is, with a problem and being asked \WI[[Q[\QVIZM[WT]\QWVWN \PMXZWJTMU;WUM\QUM[\PI\M`Q[\[ QVITQ\QOI\QWVKWV\M`\1VIVQVPW][MKW]V[MTKWV\M`\Q\Âź[NIZ more advice and counsel than it is litigation tactics and trial M`XMZQMVKM;W1LWUQ[[JW\P\PMIL^WKIKaI[XMK\WN JMQVOQV private practice and the counseling aspect. AW]_ZW\M\PMUIRWZQ\aWXQVQWVQV\PMKI[M/Wodridge v. MA Dept of Public Health, which legalized gay marriage in Massachusetts. That decision has been criticized as an example of judicial activism. As the most visible member of the Court, how do you manage criticism of your decisions? 4QVO]Q[\QKPIVLTM[TQSM\PM\MZUÂťR]LQKQITIK\Q^Q[\Âź1PI^MVM^MZ NW]VLXIZ\QK]TIZTaUMIVQVON]T1\Q[OMVMZITTa][MLJaXMWXTM who criticize a particular decision. Second, all public servants in our democracy are accountable to the public and because we have the protections of freedom of speech and freedom WN \PMXZM[[1_MTKWUMKZQ\QKQ[UWZIVaSQVL[WN KWUUMV\[ WVR]LQKQITWXQVQWV[\PI\Q[[]MNZWU\PQ[KW]Z\1KIZMLMMXTa about the reputation of the court. One hopes, even if people disagree with the outcome of a particular case, whatever the case may be, that there is recognition that it is based on inter-

XZM\I\QWVWN \PMTI_IVLVW\WVIVaM`\ZIVMW][XWQV\[WN ^QM_ 1V W]Z [a[\MU R]LOM[ LMKQLM MIKP KI[M JI[ML NIK\[ IVL \PM law as applicable to that case. We are constrained to decide \WOZIV\ZMTQMN LMXMVLQVOWV_PI\\PMXIZ\QM[I[S][\WLW1V [WUM_Ia[_MIZMY]Q\MTQUQ\MLQV_PI\_MKIVLWLMXMVLQVO on the facts of each case and applicable law. Are there often divisions among the justices? There are no factions on the court. After each case has been argued, the Justices meet to decide, tentatively, in which diZMK\QWV \PMa IZM TMIVQVO *MNWZM MIKP WN  \PW[M LQ[K][[QWV[ 1 really cannot anticipate which way my colleagues will lean, JMKI][M I[ 1 [IQL \PMZM IZM VW LMMX LQ^Q[QWV[ QV \PM KW]Z\ 1N  aW] TWWS I\ \PM LQ[[MV\QVO WXQVQWV[ NZWU Ua MTM^MVaMIZ tenure, it would be impossible to say who lines up with whom. Certainly, the Supreme Judicial Court is a very collegial court, IVLKWTTMOQITQ\aQ[^MZaQUXWZ\IV\\W][1PI^MOZMI\ZM[XMK\NWZ UaKWTTMIO]M[WV\PMKW]Z\1\PQVS1TMIZVMLIOZMI\LMITWN  that at Yale Law School. )[INWZUMZIK\Q^Q[\LWaW]Ă&#x2026;VLQ\LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\\WZMUIQV an impartial justice? If so, how do you maintain your personal passions separate from your public duties? 1 LW VW\ Ă&#x2026;VL \PI\ LQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\ <PM QUXIZ\QITQ\a WN  R]LOM[ Q[ [W central, so important to our system of the rule of law that _PMVWVM\ISM[\PMWI\PWN WNĂ&#x2026;KM1\PQVSITUW[\I]\WUI\Qcally one learns to put aside oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personal prejudices or views WZJMTQMN[8MZPIX[JMKI][MWN UaM`XMZQMVKMOZW_QVO]XQV ;W]\P )NZQKI _PMZM 1 [I_ \PM TI_ JMQVO ][ML \W QUXTMUMV\ \PMWZQM[WN XZMR]LQKMIVLWXXZM[[QWV1\ISMXIZ\QK]TIZTa[MZQW][Ta\PMZMY]QZMUMV\\PI\R]LOM[JMQUXIZ\QIT.WZM`IUXTM ITT L]ZQVO \PM TI[\ XZM[QLMV\QIT KIUXIQOV 1 KMZ\IQVTa _W]TL VM^MZ [Ia IVa\PQVO X]JTQKTa IJW]\ \PM KIUXIQOV J]\ 1 IT[W never said anything privately. One never knows. So, as a R]LOMaW]ZMITTaLWVÂź\PI^M[\)UMVLUMV\ZQOP\[1\Q[UWZM important that everyone in front of a judge know that the R]LOMKWUM[_Q\PW]\IVaXZMKWVKMQ^MLQLMI[1\Âź[[QUXTaILQ[KQXTQVM\PI\WVMTMIZV[IVLIKKMX\[1\Q[I[UITTXZQKM\WXIa for the strengthening of the rule of law. <PM   5I[[IKP][M\\[ +WV[\Q\]\QWV XZW^QLM[ NWZ the lifetime appointment of justices. How do you view that provision? <PM   5I[[IKP][M\\[ +WV[\Q\]\QWV Q[ \PM WTLM[\ _ZQ\\MV KWV[\Q\]\QWVQV\PM_WZTL[\QTTJMQVOMVNWZKML)T\PW]OP1LW [WUM\QUM[PI^MILQ[IOZMMUMV\_Q\P\PM+PQMN 2][\QKMWN >QZOQVQIÂź[;]XZMUM+W]Z\WV\PI\XWQV\J]\1SVW_1IUKWZZMK\ The Constitution was drafted by John Adams and became the [\Z]K\]ZITUWLMTNWZ\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[+WV[\Q\]\QWVI\TMI[\QV the non-federal aspects, including the appointment of judges. Federal judges have lifetime appointment because the federal constitution has not been amended to provide for mandatory ZM\QZMUMV\I\IOM<PMXMWXTMWN 5I[[IKP][M\\[ILWX\ML UIVLI\WZaZM\QZMUMV\I\IOMQV!<PM5I[[IKP][M\\[

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Interviews [a[\MUPI[_WZSMLM`\ZMUMTa_MTT1JMTQM^MNWZ\PMXMWXTMWN  Massachusetts. Do you see risk in the states that elect their Supreme Court justices? -TMK\MLR]LOM[ZMITTaJMKIUMIXIZ\WN \PM!\PKMV\]ZaXZWOZM[[Q^MUW^MUMV\_PQKP_I[\PMร…Z[\\QUM\PI\R]LOM[_MZM elected. The election of judges was essentially a very sleepy affair for a very long period of time. Typically the governor _W]TLร…TTIVM`Q[\QVO^IKIVKaIVL\PI\R]LOM_W]TLJMITUW[\ automatically reelected again and again and again. So judiKQITMTMK\QWV[NWZI^MZaTWVO\QUM_MZMY]Q\MLQNNMZMV\NZWU other kinds of elections. That has changed dramatically over \PMTI[\\WaMIZ[1\PQVS\PMZMIZMKI][M[NWZKWVKMZVL]M \WIKW]XTMWN LM^MTWXUMV\["\PM^I[\IUW]V\[WN UWVMaVW_ being poured into judicial elections in some states together with the challenge to judicial codes of ethics which have been upheld in a number of cases. The delivery of justice is important, but no less important is the appearance that justice Q[LWVM)VL1\PQVS\PMZMIZM[WUMKI][M[NWZKWVKMZVI[WVM TWWS[I\_PI\Q[PIXXMVQVOIKZW[[\PMR]LQKQITTIVL[KIXM1_I[ the President of the Conference of Chief Justices, which is \PMUMM\QVOWN \PMKPQMN R][\QKM[WN ITTWN \PM[\I\M[IVL \MZZQ\WZQM[1KIV[Ia\PI\UaNMTTW_KPQMN R][\QKM[IVL1PI^M more in common than we have in different, no matter our system of selection. The function of the chief justice is pretty U]KP \PM [IUM QV M^MZa [\I\M <PI\ [IQL 1 \PQVS \PMZM IZM reasons to be concerned about the changes in the system of the election of judges. AW]PI^M[XWSMVX]JTQKTaIJW]\\PMVMMLNWZOZMI\MZ female and minority representation in government. Drawing on your own experiences as a leader, do you have any advice for women or young people aspiring to similar positions of leadership? .QZ[\ 1 \PQVS \PI\ LQ^MZ[Q\a QV R]LQKQIT JZIVKP Q[ VW TM[[ QUportant than diversity in the other two branches of government. We have made remarkable strides in Massachusetts in \PMR]LQKQITJZIVKPNZWU\PM\QUM_PMV1_I[ร…Z[\ILUQ\\ML \W XZIK\QKM 1V [WUM _Ia[ \PI\ Q[ JMKI][M [MY]MV\QIT OW^MZnors, both Republican and Democratic, have made an effort to reach out to wide variety of communities to make sure that there is representation on the bench, so that the bench in 5I[[IKP][M\\[TWWS[TQSM\PMXMWXTMWN 5I[[IKP][M\\[1\PQVS \PW[MMNNWZ\[PI^MJMMVY]Q\M[]KKM[[N]T<PM;]XZMUM2]LQKQIT+W]Z\Q[ aMIZ[WTL<PMร…Z[\_WUIV_I[IXXWQV\MLQV !!1_I[[MKWVL_WUIVIXXWQV\MLQV!!>MZa[WWVINter, there were four women on the seven-justice court, and we now have three. So, clearly, there has been some movement on that score. On the other hand, in that same period of time, \PMZM PI[ JMMV WVTa WVM OZIL]I\M WN  \PM AITM 4I_ ;KPWWT" Ua[MTN;W1\PQVS_MVMMLITQ\\TMUWZMLQ^MZ[Q\aQVIVW\PMZ I[XMK\)VL1[Ia\PI\_Q\PI[UQTMWVUaNIKM Samuel Gamer is a junior in Silliman College.

CE

YULR PROFILE

Not Your Typical Lawyer: Marc Wasserman By Christopher Lee Do you have a passion for the performing arts but also seek to UISMILMKMV\TQ^QVOWVaW]ZW_V' 1N [WUMM\5IZK?I[[MZUIVยทITI_aMZWV\PM[QT^MZ[KZMMV but not on Law and Order. A self-proclaimed โ€œpassionate ร…TUUISMZ_PWUISM[PQ[TQ^QVOI[IVI\\WZVMaยบ5IZKZ]V[ a production company and private practice out of the same WNร…KM*a_ZQ\QVOPQ[W_VXTIa[IVLร…TU[_PQTM][QVOPQ[XZIKtice to fund his productions, he has found his happy medium between work and play. Currently living in Orange County, California, Marc has JMMV I XZIK\QKQVO TI_aMZ [QVKM !! ;QVKM MIZVQVO PQ[ 2, NZWU ?M[\MZV ;\I\M =VQ^MZ[Q\a +WTTMOM WN  4I_ QV !! PM PI[LMIT\_Q\PQ[[]M[ZIVOQVONZWU,=1KI[M[\WKQ^QTIVLJ][QVM[[TQ\QOI\QWV0Q[ZMITXI[[QWVPW_M^MZTQM[_Q\P\PMKWUXIVaPMยผ[L]JJMLI[ยน:M[1X[I8ZWL]K\QWV[ยบ?Q\PQ\[I_IZL _QVVQVOQVLMXMVLMV\ร…TU[ยน.ITTQVO,W_VยบIVLยน<MZUQVITยบ :M[1X[IQ[NWZ5IZK\PM[]KKM[[N]TKIZMMZPMXIa[\WX]Z[]M while still affording a comfortable lifestyle. For Marc, building his acting career has been a lifelong jourVMa;\IZ\QVO_Q\PPQ[ร…Z[\XMZNWZUIVKM[JIKSQV!I\IOM  PM [XMV\ PQ[ aW]\P J]QTLQVO PQ[ IK\QVO [SQTT[ IVL MV\MZML =+1Z^QVMI[I<PMI\MZ)Z\[UIRWZ*]\IVMIZLMI\PJW]\WN  meningitis led him to drop out of college and hit the paveUMV\QV0WTTa_WWL_PMZMPMMVLML]XQV^IZQW][<>[PW_[ commercials and plays. Growing tired of rejection, he wrote, XZWL]KML LQZMK\ML IVL IK\ML QV PQ[ ร…Z[\ NMI\]ZM I\ IOM  .W]ZaMIZ[TI\MZQV!!_Q\PVWUWVMa\WN]VLPQ[XZWL]K\QWV[PMLMKQLML\WPMIL\WTI_[KPWWT0MOZIL]I\MLQV!! IVL JMKIUM TQKMV[ML \W XZIK\QKM QV !! 0M XZWL]KML PQ[ ร…Z[\XTIaR][\IaMIZIN\MZPMJMOIV\WXZIK\QKMTI_IVLXZWL]KML ยน<MZUQVITยบ NWZ \PM ร…TU NM[\Q^IT KQZK]Q\ R][\ \_W aMIZ[ later. Now married with two sons, he can proudly point to his JM[\IK\QVOI_IZL[IVLVW\M\PI\\PM)K\QWVWV.QTU1V\MZVI\QWVIT.QTU.M[\Q^ITPI[IVI_IZLVIUMLR][\NWZPQU"\PM ?I[[MZUIV-`KMTTMVKMQV.QTU)_IZL Law was never Marcโ€™s passion, but rather a means to pursue it. Calling law โ€œthe perfect vehicle to help obtain your dream of making your art,โ€ he encourages students and interns to KWV[QLMZ XZQ^I\M XZIK\QKM I[ I UMIV[ WN  ร…VIVKQIT NZMMLWU And yet, he still draws much of his inspiration from the stoZQM[PMOM\[NZWUPQ[KTQMV\[I\\PMWNร…KM1VPQ[UW[\ZMKMV\ _WZSIXQTW\NWZ\PMKIJTM<>[PW_ยน;I\Q[ร…MLยบ5IZKJ]QTL[ \PMXTW\IZW]VLIVI\\WZVMaLMITQVO_Q\PPQ[ILLQK\QWV\W[M` and drugs.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW ยŒ1[[]M>WT]UM


A=4:8ZWÅTM"5IZK?I[[MZUIV

Marc might not be the only attorney pursuing an unconventional career outside of the law, but perhaps his story can [MZ^M I[ IV M`IUXTM WN  PW_ I KIZMMZ QV TI_ KIV ILL \W I [MMUQVOTa]VZMTI\MLKIZMMZ5IaJM\PMXQTW\NWZ¹;I\Q[ÅMLº would have been less relevant without Marc’s own perspec\Q^M I[ I XZIK\QKQVO I\\WZVMa /ZIV\ML \PM \aXQKIT 4 [\]LMV\UQOP\VW\JMTWWSQVO\WJMQV[XQZMLNWZIÅTUIVLTI_ [KPWWTILUQ[[QWV[WNÅKMZ[UQOP\VW\JMXIZ\QK]TIZTaQVKTQVML towards candidates whose passions lie outside of the legal _WZTL .WZ \PM IZ\Q[\QKITTa UQVLML N]\]ZM ÅTUUISMZ [\Z]OOTQVO\WÅVLI_Ia\WUISMMVL[UMM\PW_M^MZOM\\QVOITI_ degree and entering into private practice just might be a path worth considering. Christopher Lee is a junior in Branford College.

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Œ1[[]M>WT]UMCE


Yale Special Feature

Arrest in London (Southbank Steve)

YALE SPECIAL FEATURE:

8WTQKQVOIVL;MIZKPQVOI\AITM" The Rise of Discrimination Against Students Will Robles

~

The least likely to be victimized by police discrimination and the abuse of stop and [MIZKPXW_MZ[QV\PMUWLMZVQVL][\ZQITQbML_WZTLIKKWZLQVO\W*IZJIZI0]L[WVQ[\PM [WUM\PQVOMKWVWUQKITTa[\IJTM_PQ\MUITM_Q\PI_QNMKIZMMZIVLKPQTLZMV. Young IL]T\[I[\PMa[PIZXTaLM^QI\MNZWU0]L[WVÂź[[\IVLIZL[QUXTaL]M\W\PMQZIOMWN\MVĂ&#x2026;VL themselves wondering if they may be the victims of unlawful police actionsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;especially [\WX[IVL[MIZKPM[)[Q[M^QLMVKMLJaZMKMV\WKK]ZZMVKM[aW]VOIL]T\[IZMWN\MVIKY]Qescent when faced by a police force that is willing and capable of utilizing its intimidating nature, whether this stems from fear, ignorance, or unwillingness to respond on the part of the youths. Even students at a university as prestigious as Yale are not immune from \PMXW\MV\QITWN Y]M[\QWVIJTMXWTQKQVO*aM`IUQVQVO\PMTI_N]TZQOP\[WN aW]VOIL]T\[IVL M^IT]I\QVO[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KQV[\IVKM[WN XWTQKMIK\QWV[WVM]VKW^MZ[I\ZMVLQVIOOZM[[Q^MXWTQKQVO stemming from moral panics, ultimately falling into the discrimination and unfair treatment of college students in recent years. RECENT OCCURRENCES )ZW]VL \PM =VQ\ML ;\I\M[ KWTTMOMIOML [\]LMV\[ IZM MVKW]V\MZQVO NWZU[ WN  XWTQKQVO \PMaĂ&#x2026;VLLQ[KWVKMZ\QVO1V7K\WJMZ!QV4MMTIVI]+W]V\a5QKPQOIVTWKITXWTQKMMVacted the practice of entering homes without a warrant, waking up sleeping college-aged students, and demanding that they take breathalyzer tests   <PM )+4= PI[ _ZQ\\MV I NWZUITKWUXTIQV\WVJMPITN WN \IZOM\ML[\]LMV\[KQ\QVOĂ&#x2026;^M[QUQTIZQVKQLMV\[WN ]VTI_N]T ]VLMZIOMLQ[KZQUQVI\QWV7VMM`IUXTMZMIL[" 1V2]VM!+W]Z\VMa5WWZM!I\\MVLMLIXIZ\aI\I4MTIVLPWUM+W]Z\VMa PIL JMMV I[TMMX NWZ UWZM \PIV  PW]Z[ _PMV I LMX]\a JIZOML QV\W \PM CE

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Policing and Searching at Yale: The Rise of Discrimination Against Students

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nounced. She was ordered to get dressed and take a breath test, as were her seven NZQMVL[IT[WXZM[MV\1VILLQ\QWV\PMLMXuty threatened that if the young people did not take the breath test they would be ticketed for refusing the breathalyzer. 1VIVW\PMZQV[\IVKMLMX]\QM[MV\MZMLIZM[QLMVKMJaIJIKS LWWZIVLLMUIVLMLQLMV\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWVWN ITT\PW[MXZM[MV\¸ITT WN _PWU_MZMW^MZ7VM^QK\QU+W]Z\VMa5WWZM[\I\ML š5a PMIZ\ _I[ XW]VLQVO IVL 1 _I[ \MZZQĂ&#x2026;ML  1 SVM_ \PMa KW]TLVÂź\LW\PQ[J]\1IT[WLQLVÂź\SVW__PI\\WLWÂş Some current cases of possible abuse police searching powers Q[NW]VLI\\PMW\PMZ_Q[M]\WXQIV1^a4MIO]MKWTTMOMKIUX][ WN AITM=VQ^MZ[Q\a<PMAITM=VQ^MZ[Q\a8WTQKM,MXIZ\UMV\ QUXTMUMV\MLI[\WXIVL[MIZKPXWTQKaQV!_PMZMQVWNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[_IQ\MLY]QM\TaW]\[QLMWN IVMIZJaTQY]WZUMZKPIV\IVL [\WXXML\WY]M[\QWVIVaXMZ[WV_PWM`Q\MLWZ_ITSMLVMIZJa IXXMIZQVO \W JM I [\]LMV\ WN  \PM =VQ^MZ[Q\a  <PQ[ JMKIUM a well-known occurrence on campus by offenders and nonWNNMVLMZ[ITQSM#\PMAITM,IQTa6M_[ZMIL[š7N [\]LMV\[ QV\MZ^QM_ML[IQL\PMaPILM`XMZQMVKMLWZPMIZLWN XWTQKM [MIZKPM[NWZITKWPWTIVLQLMV\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWV;\]LMV\[ZMKW]V\ML [\WZQM[WN WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[IXXZWIKPQVO\PMUJMKI][M\PMa_MZMVMIZ I TQY]WZ [\WZM WZ _MZM KIZZaQVO TIZOM JIO[â&#x20AC;? Some locals announce that the practice is an instance of responsible lawN]TVM[["š°6M_0I^MVJI[MLLMNMV[MTI_aMZ?QTTQIU,W_ 111Âź[IQLC\PMXZIK\QKMQ[EXMZNMK\TaTMOITÂť1N \PMXWTQKMPI[ reasonable suspicion of illegal activities, they have the right \W[\WXIVLQVY]QZMÂźPM[IQL.â&#x20AC;? One girl interviewed on the subject thought the Yale police were â&#x20AC;&#x153;just doing their job.â&#x20AC;? Many Yale students have recently been left wondering if police powers were abused on the early evening of October )AITM,IQTa6M_[IZ\QKTMNZWU\PM[IUMLIaIVVW]VKM[" Armed with what witnesses said were assault ZQĂ&#x2020;M[IVL_MIZQVO_PI\IXXMIZML\WJM;?)< OMIZ \PM WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[ [\WZUML QV\W \PM +ZW_V ;\ZMM\ KT]J -TM^I\M I\ " IU aMTTQVO I\ students to hit the ground, shut up and get out \PMQZ 1,[ °<PM ZIQL \WWS IXXZW`QUI\MTa IV PW]Z\WKWUXTM\M°1V\PMPW]Z[NWTTW_QVO\PM raid, students made their way back to campus QVĂ&#x2026;\[IVL[\IZ\[;WUM_MZMLM\IQVMLJMKI][M \PMaKW]TLVW\TWKI\M\PMQZ1,[° <PQ[ZIQL_I[XTIVVMLI[\PM6M_0I^MV8WTQKM,MXIZ\UMV\ noted that they announced the raids a week in advance. The police force also conducted raids at other nearby clubs as part of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Operation Nightlife,â&#x20AC;? so discrimination cannot be fully

linked to college-aged students only, but to any club-goers who happened to be in the area. Many students were also concerned with the possibility of police brutality, as the same Yale Daily News article also states that one student was â&#x20AC;&#x153;jumped on and beaten in the UQLLTMWN \PMLIVKMĂ&#x2020;WWZJaI\TMI[\NW]Z6M_0I^MVXWTQKM WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[ÂşIN\MZJMQVO<I[MZML9]M[\QWV[WN XZQ^IKa^QWTI\QWV also arise, such as whether the police have the right to enter a nightclub and stop a party in a preplanned strategy, whether the police legally single out nightclubs in an effort to patrol high-crime areas, and simply whether the police can ask an MV\QZMZWWUN]TTWN XMWXTM\W[PW_\PMQZ1,[ The Legality of Police Searching The Fourth Amendment dictates that no forced police search WKK]Z]VTM[[šXZWJIJTMKI][MÂşKIVĂ&#x2026;Z[\JMM[\IJTQ[PML<_W LMĂ&#x2026;VQ\QWV[ NWZ šXZWJIJTM KI][MÂş IZM KWUUWVTa IKKMX\MLQV UWLMZV )UMZQKIV TI_" šI ZMI[WVIJTM JMTQMN  \PI\ I XMZ[WV has committed a crime,â&#x20AC;? or â&#x20AC;&#x153;a reasonable amount of suspiKQWV[]XXWZ\MLJaKQZK]U[\IVKM[[]NĂ&#x2026;KQMV\Ta[\ZWVO\WR][\QNa a prudent and cautious personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s belief that certain facts are probably true .â&#x20AC;? <PMKI[MWN <MZZa^7PQW! WNĂ&#x2026;KQITTaLMKTIZML\PI\IV WNĂ&#x2026;KMZU][\PI^MšZMI[WVIJTM[][XQKQWVÂş\PI\IKZQUMPI[Q[ or is about to commit a crime!, which is slightly different. Reasonable suspicion dictates that any reasonable person in the same situation would merely suspect that a crime may have been, is, or will be committed. <PQ[ITTW_[NWZ\PMWNĂ&#x2026;KMZ\W[\WX\PMXMZ[WVLMUIVL\PMXMZ[WVÂź[VIUMIVLY]QKSTaNZQ[S\PMXMZ[WVQN \PMWNĂ&#x2026;KMZJMTQM^M[ a weapon may be hidden; however, the person may leave un TM[[XZWJIJTMKI][MKIVY]QKSTaJMM[\IJTQ[PMLIVL\PMZMQ[VW VMML\W[PW_QLMV\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWVI\\PQ[XWQV\. Only if probable cause (the idea that a reasonable person would actually believe that the suspected crime was, is, or would be committed soon) is established, then the police may search, arrest, and LMUIVLQLMV\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWVWN \PM[][XMK\ Beverly Rice writes that there are seven instances in which a XWTQKM[\WXQV\PM=VQ\ML;\I\M[Q[KWV[QLMZMLTI_N]T. A per[WVUIaJMTI_N]TTa[\WXXML_PMV\PM[][XMK\" )XXMIZ[VW\\WĂ&#x2026;\\PM\QUMWZXTIKM 5I\KPM[\PMLM[KZQX\QWVWVIš?IV\MLÂşĂ&#x2020;aMZ )K\[[\ZIVOMTaWZQ[MUW\QWVITIVOZaNMIZN]TWZQV\W`QKI\ML 4WQ\MZQVOWZTWWSQVONWZ[WUM\PQVO :]VVQVOI_IaWZMVOIOQVOQVN]Z\Q^MUW^MUMV\[ 8ZM[MV\QVIKZQUM[KMVMIZMI 8ZM[MV\QVIPQOPKZQUMIZMIVW\[]NĂ&#x2026;KQMV\JaQ\[MTN  or with loitering).

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMC E


Yale Special Feature

When armed with these standards and understanding of the law, one can reevaluate the interactions between Yale students and the police from a legal standpoint. <PMI^MZIOMaW]\PM`Q\QVOIVITKWPWT^MVLQVOUMZKPIV\VMIZ \PMAITM+IUX][_W]TLVW\UMM\IVaWN \PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\[Q`[\IVLIZL[[M\W]\Ja:QKMJ]\WVTa\PM[M^MV\P_PQKP[PMQ[Y]QKS \W XWQV\ W]\ Q[ šVW\ []NĂ&#x2026;KQMV\ Ja Q\[MTN°º NWZ XWTQKM [\WX[ <PQ[Q[IT[W\Z]MWN \PMUWZMZMKMV\KI[MQV_PQKPWNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[QV IKITK]TI\ML[\ZQSMLMUIVLML1,[NZWUM^MZaWVMI\ILIVKM XIZ\aQVIPQOPKZQUMIZMI1VNIK\M^MVQN \PMXWTQKMWVTa found club-goers that a reasonable person would have suspected were guilty of a crime, the stops were not brief, as some students were detained for an hour, and yet others could VW\TMI^M\PM[KMVMJMKI][M\PMaKW]TLVW\Ă&#x2026;VL\PMQZ1,[. THE RISE OF DISCRIMINATION )/)16;<A)4-;<=,-6<; )KZW[[\PMXWVL\PM=VQ\ML3QVOLWU0WUM7NĂ&#x2026;KM_MJ[Q\M M`XTQKQ\Ta[\I\M[šAW][PW]TLVW\JM[\WXXMLWZ[MIZKPMLR][\ JMKI][MWN aW]ZIOMZIKMOMVLMZ[M`]ITWZQMV\I\QWVLQ[IJQTity, religion, the way you dress or because youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve committed a crime in the past.â&#x20AC;? This can be applied to the case of Yale =VQ^MZ[Q\aIVLQ\[8WTQKM,MXIZ\UMV\Âź[\IZOM\QVOWN ITTaW]\P[ M`Q\QVOITWKITTQY]WZ[\WZM<PMTWOQK_W]TL[]OOM[\\PI\JMKI][M \PM [WUM\PQVOaMIZWTL UMV IZM VW\ [\WXXML IVL JMKI][M\PMZMQ[VWZMI[WVIJTM[][XQKQWV\W[][XMK\I[XMKQĂ&#x2026;K juvenileâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deviant behavior, one would consider such police acts as stopping any passerby due to perceived age as illegitimate. Similarly, police have abandoned the practice (or generally admit the despicability) of pulling over Black citizens _Q\PW]\ZMI[WVJMaWVL\PMQZZIKQITQLMV\Q\a1N []KPIKWVKMX\ I[šŸ°QN aW][MMNW]ZJTIKSaW]\P[QVIKIZQ\Âź[_WZ\POQ^QVO them a pull, as at least one of them is going to be guilty of something or other,â&#x20AC;&#x2122;â&#x20AC;? is not acceptable, then neither should JM[MIZKPQVONW]ZAITQM[PWXQVO\WĂ&#x2026;VLWVMWN \PMU]VLMZ _Q\PITKWPWT According to scholars Coretta Philips and Benjamin BowlQVOš,Q[KZQUQVI\QWVQ[UW[\TQSMTa"_PMZM\PMZMIZMVWKTMIZ O]QLMTQVM[WZKZQ\MZQINWZLMKQ[QWVUISQVOC[]KPI[ITIKSWN I [\WXIVLQLMV\QNa[\I\]\MQV\PM[\I\MWN +WVVMK\QK]\E ; where decisions depend on subjective judgments rather than (or in ILLQ\QWV\WWJRMK\Q^MKZQ\MZQIC[]KPI[UMZMTaTWWSQVOaW]VOE# where decision-making criteria are not strictly relevant to decisions and have a disproportionately adverse impact on KMZ\IQVOZW]X[C[]KPI[QVVWKMV\aW]VOIL]T\[E#_PMZM\PMZM Q[KWV[QLMZIJTM[KWXMNWZ\PMM`MZKQ[MWN QVLQ^QL]ITLQ[KZM\QWV C[]KP I[ I KIUX][ WZ KQ\a \PI\ PI[ []NNMZML UIVa ITKWPWT ZMTI\ML QVKQLMV\[ QV \PM ZMKMV\ XI[\E# _PMZM \PMZM Q[ VW ZMY]QZMUMV\\WZMKWZLWZUWVQ\WZLMKQ[QWV[WZLMKQ[QWVUISQVO process; and where local and organizational cultural norms ZI\PMZ\PIV\PMZMY]QZMUMV\[WN [MZ^QKMLMTQ^MZa[\ZWVOTaQV-

C!E

Ă&#x2020;]MVKMLMKQ[QWVUISQVO.â&#x20AC;? Essentially, the policing methWLWN [\WXXQVOITTaW]VOTWWSQVOXMWXTMNZWUITQY]WZ[\WZM Q[IOMLQ[KZQUQVI\QWV:IQLQVOITQY]WZ[\WZMQVIXZMXTIVVML way is also discrimination, simply because the police decide \W \IZOM\ ZI\PMZ \PIV ZM[XWVL \W I [XMKQĂ&#x2026;K ^MV]M [QUXTa because the area is known to have a high amount of crime. Both of these police actions seem to target youths and Yale students, regardless of guiltiness, reasonable suspicion, or probable cause. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;MORAL PANICSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; BEGET A SHIFT IN POLICE FORCE TACTICS +ZQUQVWTWOQ[\[ QV \PM =VQ\ML 3QVOLWU PI^M ZMKMV\Ta \ZIKSMLQV\PM=VQ\ML3QVOLWU_PI\PI[JMMVL]JJML\PM shift from limited â&#x20AC;&#x153;investigative powerâ&#x20AC;? to invasive â&#x20AC;&#x153;social orderâ&#x20AC;? power . The practice of police searching becomes VW\WVTaIVMNNWZ\\WKW]V\MZ[XMKQĂ&#x2026;KQVLQ^QL]ITKZQUM[J]\I [\ZI\MOa\WLM\MZIVaWNNMVLMZNZWUKWUUQ\\QVOIKZQUM1V utilizing â&#x20AC;&#x153;social orderâ&#x20AC;? power, police attempt to create an environment so inhospitable to criminals that people simply Y]Q\\ZaQVO\WKWUUQ\KZQUM[W]\WN NMIZWN OM\\QVOKI]OP\ IVLOM\\QVOX]VQ[PML>QI\PQ[\IK\QKXWTQKMUIaI\\MUX\\W institute a culture of fear of authority in an attempt to dissuade potential offenders. ?PI\KI][M[\PQ[[PQN\'8MZPIX[KZQUQVWTWOQ[\5QKPIMT<WVZaKIVXZW^QLMMVTQOP\MVUMV\"šŸ5WZITXIVQK[Âź IZMXIZ\WN  the answer. They typically occur when horrifying or notorious events galvanize public emotion, and produce concern, [aUXI\Pa MUW\QWV IVL W^MZZMIK\QWV°C5EWZIT XIVQK[ ZMlating to crime lead to poorly considered and overly harsh ZMIK\QWV[1VZMKMV\LMKILM[UWZITXIVQK[PI^MUIOVQĂ&#x2026;ML the effects of longer term changes in values and attitudes!.â&#x20AC;? 6MIZ AITM =VQ^MZ[Q\a \PM 6M_ 0I^MV 8WTQKM ,MXIZ\UMV\ has traded in its traditional practice of â&#x20AC;&#x153;walking the beatâ&#x20AC;? for what has been dubbed as â&#x20AC;&#x153;targeted community policingÂş  _PQTM \PM =VQ^MZ[Q\a XWTQKM PI^M JMMV [\ISQVO W]\ I [XMKQĂ&#x2026;K TQY]WZ UMZKPIV\ IVL LMUIVLQVO QLMV\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWV from students who have already presented it to the carding merchants1VY]QZaUM\PWL[LM^MTWXMLNWZ\PMXWTQKM\W investigate probable crimes in progress are now utilized in an effort to make a police force so known and dreaded that KZQUM Q\[MTN  Q[ LM\MZZML  1V 6M_ 0I^MV +WVVMK\QK]\ \PM local police force acknowledges its practice of â&#x20AC;&#x153;aggressivelyâ&#x20AC;? X]TTQVOW^MZ^MPQKTM[\WLM\MZKZQUM"š8MWXTMXZMaQVOWVW]Z KWUU]VQ\aPI^MWVM\PQVOQVKWUUWV"<PMaPI^M\W][M\PM public roadwaysÂş  M`XTIQVML )[[Q[\IV\ +PQMN  WN  7XMZItions, Kenneth Gillespie. 7VM XWTQKM WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ QV \PM 6M_ 0I^MV 8WTQKM LMXIZ\UMV\ boasts that this strategy has done such a fantastic job at scaring criminals that many choose to drive many miles around \PMQZKQ\aQV[\MILWN XI[[QVO\PZW]OPNWZNMIZWN 6M_0I-

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UM


Policing and Searching at Yale: The Rise of Discrimination Against Students

^MVÂź[ZMTMV\TM[[WNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[. All this comes in a city that has â&#x20AC;&#x153;by far the highest crime rateâ&#x20AC;? of the three biggest cities in Connecticut, but has seen as steady and steep decrease in KZQUMQV!. Thus, one could postulate that the moral XIVQKKTQUI\MQ[XMZNMK\\WM`XMK\\PI\XWTQKM_W]TLLM[QZM\W deter crime, and it is undeniable that recent efforts have indeed been successful in decreasing crime and were intended to do so. Though the police assure the public that the new tactics are aimed at not just relocating crime, but solving it, one resident notes that the new practices â&#x20AC;&#x153;have ushered in a new mistrust WN \PMXWTQKMIUWVO6M_0I^MVaW]\P_PQKPLQLVW\M`Q[\  aMIZ[ IOWâ&#x20AC;? This translates to the efforts of the Yale =VQ^MZ[Q\aÂź[XWTQKMLMXIZ\UMV\Âź[MNNWZ\[\WLM\MZKZQUMI\I time that immediately follows the highest number of alcoholrelated incidents in recent history. These efforts, however, home been met with some distaste. An anonymous comUMV\NZWU6W^MUJMZWN !WV\PMAITM,IQTa6M_[Âź_MJ[Q\M ZMIL[ š?PMV 1 _I[ I NZM[PUIV \PM A8, _I[ \PMZM \W protect you, now theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve turned themselves into the enemy. All they will do is drive drinking underground where it is unregulated and unsafe .â&#x20AC;? -IZTa QV \PM ! [KPWWT aMIZ \PM V]UJMZ WN  PW[XQ\ITQbI\QWV[L]M\WITKWPWTZMTI\MLQ[[]M[ITZMILaM`KMMLML\PM\W\IT V]UJMZ NZWU  !. Yale administration issued multiple notices to its students over a concern for safety jeopardized by alcohol-related practices. Many postulate that the severe increase in policing alcohol vending merchants and â&#x20AC;&#x153;party bustsâ&#x20AC;? are in response to alcohol-related incidents earlier in the year, though the Police have recently come out denying their conduct was due to student behavior. Two separate UMZKPIV\[PI^MZMXWZ\ML\PI\XWTQKMIZMNZMY]MV\Ta_IQ\QVO for students to purchase alcohol. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re always out there,â&#x20AC;? notes Sanjay Patil, the manager of College Wine. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s never not a police car watching us and keeping an eye on anyone we sell toÂş1\IXXMIZ[\Z]M\PI\\PMKWV[\IV\\PZMI\ of police intervention can be the eye that dissuades unlawfulness. 1\ Q[ VW\ KTMIZ \PI\ \PM K]ZZMV\ IK\QWV[ WN  XWTQKQVO QV 6M_ 0I^MV+WVVMK\QK]\IZMMV\QZMTaTI_N]T<PM[\WX[WN ! for underage alcohol purchases angered some students, but were not totally upsetting. The more recent occurrence at the Elevate club, however, may be more problematic, since a youth was actually physically harmed due to the raid and JMKI][MITIZOMOZW]XWN W^MZ[\]LMV\[M`XMZQMVKML\PM XWTQKMNWZKM[QU]T\IVMW][Ta1\ZMUIQV[]VKTMIZ_PM\PMZ\PM youth deserved being Tasered and then beaten by at least NW]ZXWTQKMWNĂ&#x2026;KMZ[IKKWZLQVO\W_Q\VM[[ZMXWZ\[J]\Q\LWM[ appear clear that the raid itself was far from obviously lawful. =V\QT\PM[MIK\QWV[KIVJMILMY]I\MTaM`XTIQVMLWZZMK\QĂ&#x2026;ML \PMZM_QTTTQSMTaM`Q[\IPQOPIUW]V\WN [\]LMV\LQ[[I\Q[NIK\QWV and distrust with the policing of Yale students. Will Robles is a senior in Morse College.

________________________________________________  0]L[WV*IZJIZIš,Q^MZ[Q\a+ZQUMIVL+ZQUQVIT2][\QKMÂş<PM7`NWZL 0IVLJWWS WN  +ZQUQVWTWOa  7`NWZL =VQ^MZ[Q\a 8ZM[[ =;)#  MLQ\QWV   š4MMTIVI] ,MX]\QM[ 5][\ ;\WX -V\MZQVO 0WUM[ IVL ,MUIVLQVO *ZMI\PITabMZ<M[\[?Q\PW]\?IZZIV\[)+4=<MTT[;PMZZQNN QV4M\\MZÂş  )+4= 4M\\MZ \W ;PMZQNN  5QKPIMT 7\MZ[LWZN  $P\\X"___IKT]UQKP WZO[Q\M[LMNI]T\Ă&#x2026;TM[Ă&#x2026;TM4MMTIVI]TM\\MZXLN&  ;\M\[WV/ZM\IIVL:W[[+WTQVš8WTQKMKZIKSLW_VWVTQY]WZ[\WZMXI\ZWV[ÂşAITM,IQTa6M_[!6W^!  1JQL  DiBenedetto, Egidio and Ross, Colin. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Police Conduct Questioned Af\MZ:IQLWV5WZ[M;\QTM[;KZM_ÂşAITM,IQTa6M_[7K\WJMZ  Âť4MK\ZQK4I_4QJZIZa_MJ[Q\M)KKM[[ML)XZQT 0IVLTMZ2/*ITTMV\QVMÂź[4I_,QK\QWVIZa"4MOIT)[[Q[\IV\-LQ\QWV)TJIVa",MTUIZ8]JTQ[PMZ[!!XO ! š<MZZa^7PQWÂş+WZVMTT=VQ^MZ[Q\a4I_;KPWWT;]XZMUM+W]Z\+WTTMK\QWV!,MK!$P\\X"___TI_KWZVMTTML][]XK\P\UT PQ[\WZQK[=;;+G+:G!GGB;P\UT&  0QQJMT^;Q`\P2]LQKQIT,Q[\ZQK\+W]Z\  :QKM*M^MZTaš?PMVKIV\PMXWTQKM[\WXIVLNZQ[SaW]WV\PM[\ZMM\'Âş 4MOIT BWWU ;]XZMUM +W]Z\ )Z\QKTM[  $P\\X"___TMOITbWWUKWU TMOITIZ\QKTM[_PMVXWTQKMNZQ[SaW]P\UT&,MK!  1JQL  DiBenedetto, Egidio and Ross, Colin. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Police Conduct Questioned )N\MZ:IQLWV5WZ[M;\QTM[;KZM_ÂşAITM,IQTa6M_[7K\WJMZ  $PWUMWNĂ&#x2026;KMOW^]S&MUXPI[Q[ILLML  Phillips, Coretta and Bowling, Benjamin. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Policing ethnic minority KWUU]VQ\QM[Âş   1V" 6M_J]ZV <QU ML 0IVLJWWS WN  XWTQKQVO ?QTTIV8]JTQ[PQVO+]TTWUX\WVXX   ,IQOTM-ZQK8š4MOIT=XLI\M";\I\M^)TWQ1V\MZNMZQVONWZ.IQT]ZM\W 8ZW^QLM 1LMV\QĂ&#x2026;KI\QWVÂş $P\\X"___PITTWZIV[IOMKWU6M_[[\WZa I[X`'[\WZaQL%&  8PQTTQX[+WZM\\IIVL*W_TQVO*MVRIUQV#TQVS[\W\PMAITM=VQversity case are original additions  1JQL ! <WVZa 5QKPIMT 0  <PQVSQVO IJW]\ +ZQUM" ;MV[M IVL ;MV[QJQTQ\a QV )UMZQKIV8MVIT+]T\]ZM7`NWZL=VQ^MZ[Q\a8ZM[[1VKWZXWZI\ML  DiBenedetto, Egidio and Ross, Colin. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Police strategy has skeptics.â&#x20AC;? AITM,IQTa6M_[!6W^!  1JQL  ;\M\[WV/ZM\IIVL:W[[+WTQVš7NĂ&#x2026;KQITTQVS[ITKWPWTKZIKSLW_V\W IJ][MÂşAITM,IQTa6M_[6W^!  ,Q*MVMLM\\W-OQLQWIVL:W[[+WTQV!6W^!  1JQL  Kaempffer, William. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Statistics show crime decreasing incity.â&#x20AC;? New 0I^MV:MOQ[\MZ )]O!  +WUUMV\ \PZMIL WV $P\\X"___aITMLIQTaVM_[KWUVM_[]VQ^MZ[Q\aVM_[!!XWTQKMKZIKSLW_VTQY]WZ[\WZMXI\ZWV[ KWUUMV\[&!6W^!  ;\M\[WV/ZM\IIVL:W[[+WTQVš8WTQKMKZIKSLW_VWVTQY]WZ[\WZM XI\ZWV[ÂşAITM,IQTa6M_[!6W^!   1JQL ! Scott, Sarah and Zoe Gorman. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Police not targeting students, chief [Ia[ÂşAITM,IQTa6M_[!6W^!  1JQL  1JQL

YALE UNDERGRADUATE LAW REVIEW Â&#x152;1[[]M>WT]UMC E

Yale Undergraduate Law Review, Issue 1, Volume 1  

The first issue of the Yale Undergraduate Law Review.

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