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STUDIO AIR 2017, SEMESTER 1, Moyshie Yu Fang 860020

Table of Contents

I am Yu Fang. Currently, I am in Bachelor of Environment and major in Architecture. Architecture is the way I choose to make money for life before I find what I really enjoy to do which seems not even exist. I want to make good money which means I need to be a good architect by making great efforts on my subjects. So, Hail Architecture!























With the development of technologies and economuy under the antheropocentric mode, sadly human beings is leaded to the path to autodestructive which has been exposed as the over consumption of resources and deteriorating natural environment.1 Desgin is regarded as a force which can be used to shape the world , which needs to get rid of the consenus of democracy desgin and unsustainability, so the remake of design is the first step of redirection towarding to sustainability. 2 This change of design(redirection) can lead to the change of value that people might used to be familiar with. 3 Generally speaking, the way to achieve sustainablity for designer is to think out of the existed frame and still based on the realism at the same time.

Combination of parametric and algorithmetic method with building design has been done for years such as grasshopper. I think the next level that exposed by the Blur Building is to make the sysem run the building and further manage some aspects of people’s life though the building. The building in the future may not only be a terminal but also an agent and plate between people and data.

The precdents used are Blur Building by Diller Scofidio + Renfro (DS+R) in 2002 and the Hopfengaertner’s Belief Systems (2009) (although it is not an architectural design, I think it has stong connection with my firt precedent and ispiration for the overall argument). The Blur Building is a temporary pavillion built for the Swiss EXPO 2002. The Blur Building can be regarded as a experiment of redirection of design in architecture. Instead of focusing on structure, the Blur Building aims to emphasis the atmoshpere of created by the building . The perimary material of this building is water, whcih is shooted through 31500 high-pressure mist nozzles to make the artificial cloud around its structure as shown in Fig1,24. Because the building is covered by mist and noise of shooting water, visitor’s visual and aucustic sense is wiped out. Visitors will rely on the “barincoat” which tracks their location and send it back to the smart system. 5 Then the smart system will based on the research for the visitors to change the color of coat to show the degree of attraction or repulsion when viosiots pass ecahothers. In Blur Building, the research paper done by visitors found the data base of smart system. Then the system releases digital signal after processed the informations, which makes the building runs based on data-based system, which can be developed to include muti-aspects of life and become a possiblity of building form in the future.

Speak of dark design,it means to try the possibilities that beyound the general limitation of emtional and physical experiences. Dark design could be used to remind people that the possibilities of reality includes the scary parts.7 My second precedent is a definately dark design which searchs the possibility of making machine/system to read human mind by micro expression on human face. 8 The theory is called Bernd Hopfengaertner’s Belief Systems (2009). However, this system seem to be the ultimate version of input method for the “braincoat” system in the future, which also proves the value of thinking out of the frame and dark design which I think could be discribed as a part of design redirection. Although those changes of desgin in the future might have potential dangers such as the insecurity of people’s privaty , I think it worth to try to find the possibility to achieve sustainability by discovering a kind of parametric pattern of life. The nuclear boom has been invented for 73 years and I am still alive, so I think we should have some faith on ourselves.

1. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg),p2 2. Tony, Desgin Futuring, p10 3. Tony, Desgin Futuring, p10 4. Blur Building, Michael Brooks, Designing Buildind Wiki, 15/5/2018, 5. Blur Building, arcspace, 19/7/2012,




Further more, the feeling that the Blur Building created is also different with traditional way. It intend to make the atomosphere of unknowing which most likely bring the visitors into fear and chaos,6 which can be reagrded as the dark design.

In conclusion, the deisgn of Blur Building and Hopfengaertner’s Belief Systems indicate the possibility of parametric and algorithmtic world in the future, which is helpful to use the resource more reasonable and efficient. 6. Blur Building, arcspace, 19/7/2012 7. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) p38 8. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona, Speculative Everything, p38




Bernd Hopfengaertner’s Belief Systems




Computer has been involved into design area for a few decades. Design is disribed as the pross of problem solving to change current situation to desired situation when the solution is not obvious.1 Based on my understanding, I’d like to define “design” as the solution-finding process. Designer’s job is to combine the insufficient informations with their talent t to achieve goals. Computer has been used as a analytical engines which is faster and with less mistakes, however the old way to use computer in design process is just as drafting and modeling system whcih can not help designer to test the mutiple possible solution and make a rational estiamation. 2 The next step of that is to bring parametric and algorithmtic way into design which results two of my precedents. The first one is the Londen City Hall(Fig5) which is designed by Norman Foster and built from 1998 to 2003. 3 The design of this building is considered to minimize the area of its facade exposed under solar radiation. In order to achieve this, a sphere is introduced to its desgin which can give a minium perimeter of the building. The building is deconstructed into a single ellipse on the XY-plane, which is repeated along the Z-axis. The basic transformations applied to the starting twodimensional shape are movement and scaling along the X- and Z- axes.4The movement of the shape is producing the nine-storey building. The logical relationship of parts and whole within parametric design system can be seen. Results can be varity(Fig) and can be selected throguh software to perfect the solution. 5 The shape of building is created in parameteric way to bring environmental benefits. In this project, non-orthogonal gemoetry has benn greatly used(window frames and steel frames) which can be regarded as the evidence that the parameteric design redefine and combine with the material system. With parametric and algorithmtic design, textlie tectonic is given new possiblity.6



1. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), p3. 2. Kalay, Yehuda E,Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design.p4 3. Vassileios Kourkoutas, Parametric Form Finding in Contemporary Architecture,2007, p19 4. Vassileios Kourkoutas, Parametric Form Finding in Contemporary Architecture,2007, p19. 5. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), p3 6. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), p5



Metropol Parasol By J. Mayer H

A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION BEIJING National Stadium, “The Bird’s Nest” By Herzog and de Meuron


Architecture now is shifting from drawing to algorithmic method. The computation is described as : ‘the processing of information and interactions between elements which constitute a specific environment; it provides a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets of information, with the capacity to generate complex order, form, and structure.’ 2 For the relationship between man and computer,gerneally speaking, insteading of drawing the building on software, it’s about to design a system that designs the building, which is also called generative desgin. 3 Of course, the generative design is algorithm based. It uses structural, material, environmental features as the parameters to create architectual forms that can be simulated also through computer. Furthermore, the logical algorithmic system is able to track the performance of building during the occupation of the building, where feedback between users, building and environment is updated in the digital model and reflected in changes in the building and its performance, which matches my furture thinking about Blur Building in A1 to some degree.4 1


The Metropol Parasol is the biggest wooden building in the world. it is built for fill a under-used city space. This building is located in in Sevilla, Spain conceived in 2004.1 The feature of parametric design is very obviously shown by its structure. The parametric method imporve the possibility of material. Although the mega timber pavillion is impressive and generated through parametric way, it is still considered as the “old” by me. Compared with London City Hall, the parametric design of Metropol Parasol didn’t try to achieve a certain goal ( for example, to minimize the solar radiation gain for London City Hall). In another words, Metropol Parasol didn’t have the uniqueness because it didnt be given a certain standard to give the designer or computer to use to select from various results. Based on the description in Theories of the Digital in Architecture: “While the digital in architecture does support the emergence of certain distinctive geometric preferences and aesthetic effects it cannot be said to be deterministic with respect to architectural form.”, the Metropol Parasol maybe can not be called digital architecture but the digital art in architecture.2 For the future, beyond the material, parametric and algorithmtic, the biological influence maybe the next element that will join in the process to create a second nature. 3 As can be seen, the parametric design is developoing from generating various possible solutions( Metropol Parasol) to involving into the selection of best solution( London City Hall) and further towards to finding and creating the order of second nature. 1. Metropol Parasol, australian design review, Dec, 1, 2011, metropol-parasol/ 2. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), p7 3. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), p8 8


The precedent here is the BeiJing National Stadium, which is desgined by Herzog and de Meuron and built in for 2008 BeiJing Olympic Games.5 It is a great example of generative desgin through algorithmic method. The parametric and algorithmic desgin through computer helps to work out the sightlines, the bowl geometry, airflow to keep the grass in good condition, seismic studies and the design of the external envelope.6 Although the frame looks a complex, it is


1. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83,p10 2.Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, p11 3. Angus W. Stocking, L.S., Architecture Gets an Upgrade: Generative Design Expands Design Possibilities, viewed 8/8/2018, . 4. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83,p14. 5. Michael Webb, National Stadium in Beijing by Herzog and de Meuron , the architectural review, 2/11/2015, 6. Beijing National Stadium, ‘The Bird’s Nest’, Design Build, viewed 8/8/2018, https://www.designbuild-network. com/projects/national_stadium/


actually based on a serious algothms which is impossible to be calculated out by human force due to its scale. Software was used to make sure that the web of twisting steel sections fitted together, as they have to twist and bend to follow the surface accurately.1 Parts of building desgin( layout, connection, material) is becoing an entirety in algothrimic desgin. 1.Beijing National Stadium, ‘The Bird’s Nest’, Design Build, viewed 8/8/2018, https://www.designbuild-network. com/projects/national_stadium/ COMPOSITION/GENERATION 9



In conclusion, I am really into the algorithmic design which uses a serious algorithms to analyse parameters to generate the building form. It is revolutionary and changing the position of architecture. For the past decades, architects has been released from drwaing on paper and move forward to draw on computer. The next stage of architects with algorithmic design is to think the relationship and logical connection between parameters and algorithms. Furthermore, it not only change the way of design, but also effects the result of design process. Through this way, building could be given a better performance in fitting certain environment and clients. The significance of algorithmic design should not be limited just in architecture. Without any doubt, we can make the world more efficient which means less consumption which means design futuring. With the development of technologies, maybe one day algrithmic design parameterize every relevant features on the earth to simulate and provide us the new way of living with the longest future.

JYVÄSKYLÄ MUSIC AND ART CENTER is desgined by OCEAN NORTH. This project starts from 1997 and continous to be developed in 2004. 1The geometric, spatial, material and ambient articulation have been redesigned based on its original conception. “OCEAN NORTH devised an iterative morphogenetic process that grows the project bottom-up. The scripted growth process evolves primary, secondary and tertiary lattice systems and is informed by rules pertaining to 1] the location, orientation and density of the struts that make up the lattice systems; 2] structural, light, acoustic and other functional requirements; 3] phase 01 design guidelines”2 which shows how the digital infromation can echo with the change of environment and how implementation of digital morphogenesis has emerged as a prominent model of informed performative design in architecture.3 Also can be seen from this project, the parametric method re-define the practice through providing simulations for various situations.4

and technolog.


1. The situation that we are facing, we are no longer just design to satisfy our clients in the future. As a designer, it is our reponsibility to design futuring. 2. I had a new and clear understanding about parametric and algorithmic design. I used to think they are just another way to design. Now, I know they are superior of traditional way and the algothmic design indicates new possiblity to achieve better design. 3.Part A learning help me build a basic understanding of algothms and parameters and introduce me some basic skill of grasshopper. I am going to think the logical relationship between parts of the project rather than just simply design visually.

Through Beijing National Stadium and JYVÄSKYLÄ MUSIC AND ART CENTER, the advantages of algorithmic desgin are obvious. Firstly, it is much efficent and accurate to design building with enormous scale, because algorithms is able to generate the building. Secondly, compared with the traditional desgin process, systems of a building which involves constructural and engineering aspects are considered as parameters that effects the building performance. Thirdly, parametic systems and algorithic methd allow designers to simulate various possiblities and selcet the one that fits the environment best. On the other hand, the defects of algorithmic design is that not all functions are algorithmically describable which is proved by TURING 1936 and the problems due to deficiency of buildability, budget 1. Jyväskylä Music and Art Center, achimmenge, viewed 8/8/2018/ 2. Jyväskylä Music and Arts Center , Ocean design research association, viewed 8/8/2018, 3.Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture [London; New York: Routledge, 2014], pp.1-10 ,p7. 4. Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 [2013], p11 10










BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCE 1. OCEAN, Jyväskylä Music and Arts Center [OCEAN Design Research Assocaition, 2004] <> viewed 8/8/2018 2. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert, Theories of the Digital in Architecture [London; New York: Routledge, 2014]

IMAGES Coverpage, Planet Design, Black abstraction, ua/gallery/wallpaper-of-the-week-black-abstraction/, viewed 8/8/2018. Fig1, Modlar, Blurbuilding, photos/1736/blur-building-exterior/, viewed 1/8/2018. Fig2, Archidaily,Blur building, https://www.archdaily.

3. Peters, Brady, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 [2013]


4. Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice [Oxford: Berg, 2008]

Fig3, Berndhopfengaertner, bernd hopfenggaertner’s belief systems, http://

5. Dunne, Anthony and Raby, Fiona, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction and Social Dreaming [MIT Press, 2013]

Fig4, Fosterandpartners, Development of London City Hall, https://www.

6.Kalay, Yehuda E. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2004)

architecture?ad_medium=gallery, viewed 1/8/2018., viewed 1/8/2018., viewed 8/8/2018. Fig5, London City hall,

7. Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press 1999)

projects/city-hall/#development, viewed 8/8/2018.

8. Menges, Archim, Jyväskylä Music and Arts Center [archimmenges, 2004]

media/news/projects/metropol-parasol-seville-spain,viewed 8/8/2018.

9. Australian design review, Metropol Parasol, Dec, 1, 2011, https://www. (viewed 8/8/2018)

Fig 7,Exploded Axonometric of the Site Source: http://alog.

10.Angus W. Stocking, L.S., Architecture Gets an Upgrade: Generative Design Expands Design Possibilities, portfolio/magazine-article-written-for-bentley-systems/ viewed 8/8/2018.

Fig6, Metropol Parasol, W2mhkSgzbt8, viewed 8/8/2018 Fig 8,Thousand Wonders, Beijing National Stadium, https://www.

11. Michael Webb, National Stadium in Beijing by Herzog and de Meuron , the architectural review, 2/11/2015, https:// viewed 8/8/2018, viewed 8/8/2018.

12.Beijing National Stadium, ‘The Bird’s Nest’, Design Build, https://www., viewed 8/8/2018.

stadium-case-study-gsapp-adr-i-13/, viewed 8/8/2018.

13. Vassileios Kourkoutas, Parametric Form Finding in Contemporary Architecture,2007, 07/06/2007, viewed 8/8/2018.

14. Michael Brooks, Blur Building, Designing Buildind Wiki, 15/5/2018, https:// viewed 1/8/2018. 15. Arcspace, Blur Building,19/7/2012, https://arcspace. com/feature/blur-building/ viewed 1/8/2018.


Fig9,Algorithmic Boogie, Beijing Olympic stadium, https://libertecture., Marjia, Jyväskylä Music and Arts Center, http:// north-achim-menges/, viewed 8/8/2018. Fig11, OCEAN, Jyväskylä Music and Arts Center,https://www. architecture-mainmenu-40/jyvylainmenu-68, viewed 8/8/2018.


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