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An Academic Report

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The Future of Fast Fashion

Redefining your relationship with your clothes


An Academic Report

The Future of Fast Fashion


The Future of Fast Fashion


An Academic Report

Contents: 04 06

Introduction

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Evidence 1: The Rise of Fast Fashion

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Evidence 2: Ethical and Environmental Consequences

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Case Analysis 1: Corporate Responsibility

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Case Analysis 2: Consumer Behavior

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Conclusion

Thematic Development: The Why of Fashion

Bibliography

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The Future of Fast Fashion

Introduction Fashion is a significant part of our daily life. Fashion is not only something we wear to cover ourselves; it helps us to establish our identity and to distinguish ourselves from others. The term “fast fashion” describes a strategy to bring into stores cheap clothing that mimics current luxury fashion trends with great frequency (Joy et al., 2012). Fast fashion helps young consumers to keep up with fast-changing fashion trends at an affordable price, but at the same time frequently remind them the need to renew their wardrobe to stay “fashionable”. As human beings, we have the intrinsic urge to replace the new with the newest even if purchasing never appeased our hunger but only stimulate our desires. Alarmingly, the current model of fast production and cheap clothing have caused not only significant ethical and environmental issues but also an unhealthy relationship between consumers and their clothes. This essay investigates consumer behavior regarding fast fashion products, addresses the social and ecological problems caused by the fast fashion industry and examines alternative ways to balance consumers’ needs for style with their commitment to ethical causes and sustainability. 04


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Fashion, … is implied. We know not why they are made, or how long they will endure, but only that they must be followed; and that the quicker the obedience the greater is the merit. -- John Flügel

Fig. 1. Hilltop Maxiskirt in Waterflower. (2013) Madewell, a womenswear brand that produces “effortlessly cool styles”. 05


The Future of Fast Fashion

The Why of Fashion If we think carefully about how and why we purchase a piece of garment in a fashion chain store, we are likely to find ourselves influenced by “trends” -- styles we see in advertisements, on streets, in social media feeds, etc. As we accumulate more and more material possessions, we are buying not necessarily because of the physical function of a piece of garment, but because of our psychological needs to stay fashionable. After all, clothes and fashion are different concepts and entities (Fletcher and Grose, 2012). While clothing is the material production, fashion is the symbolic production (Fletcher and Grose, 2012, p.119). According to psychologist J.C. Flugel, author of The Psychology of Clothes, it is a fundamental human trait to imitate those who are admired or envied (1950). Traditionally, a fashion trend is spread top-down from higher to lower social classes. As clothes have always been a means to distinguish our individual identity and social class, the aristocrats are naturally unwilling to abandon the signs of their superiority. To retain their sartorial distinctiveness, they would either establish sumptuary laws to forbidden others to acquire 06

As we accumulate mo material possessions, not necessarily becau function of a piece of because of our psycho stay fashionable.stay their style or adopt a new form of dress to re-establish the desired distinction (Flugel, 1950). Sumptuary laws have proven to be ineffective, and thus, fashion trends were born. Today, fashion has been completely democratized, yet our motivation to imitate desired styles and adapt to social norms remains the same. The paradox of fashion is that everyone is trying to be like, and to be unlike (Flugel, 1950). Inasmuch we feel the need of conformity to the social norms and fashion trends set by a mysterious authority, we are trying to distinguish ourselves from the crowd through the way we dress. Thus “the essentially unstable nature of fashion becomes apparent” (Flugel, 1950, p.


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ore and more , we are buying use of the physical garment, but ological needs to y fashionable. 140). This instability also contributes to our identity in modern times as we update our wardrobes more frequently following shifting trends. Through quick cycles of buying and abandoning, our individual identities also transform quickly following one style to another. Once fast fashion clothes are out of trend, they become disposable goods that can no longer contribute to our desire to stay fashionable.

Fig. 2,3,4: Garments from Topshop, Zara and Mango Summer 2016 collections. (2016) Apparently blue and white stripes is a popular pattern of the season. 07


The Future of Fast Fashion

The Rise of Fast Fashion Fast fashion is not possible without the outsourcing manufacturing processes. What best illustrates the development of outsourcing and the race to the bottom of fashion is the case of China’s economic growth in the past two decades. China apparel imports to the United States have more than doubled from 2005 to 2012 and account for an astounding 41 percent of imported clothing. In certain categories, China totally dominates, making 90% of American’s footwear, 71% of their ties, 55% of their gloves, and roughly 50 percent of their dresses (Cline, 2013, p.164). The full-packaged factories in China can take care of everything from fabric sourcing, clothing manufacturing, washing, embroidering, printing, packaging and even clothing design, which are especially convenient for fast-fashion retailers, who operate on speed and trendiness (Cline, 2013, p.166). Although basic t T-shirts and sweatshirts can be made in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Vietnam, and other developing countries, more fashionable garments such as party dresses, trendy coats and shoes are very often made in China (Cline, 2013, p.165).

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Fig. 5,6. Dongguan, China: Cashmere Knitting Factory. (2013) Cashmere knitting factory in Dongguan, China, that produces for Everlane. Everlane is an online fashion retailer based in San Francisco known for its radical transparency about its supply chains.

The full-packaged factories in China can take care of everything from fabric sourcing, clothing manufacturing, washing, embroidering, printing, packaging and even clothing design, which are especially convenient for fast-fashion retailers, who operate on speed and trendiness (Cline, 2013, p.166).

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The Future of Fast Fashion

As a matter of fact, global fashion chains have heavily relied on the manufacturing labor and skills of Chinese factories. Due to the shrinking labor force and the economic development in China, however, “China” is becoming increasingly expensive and unaffordable for brands. When labor price is rising, brands either have to raise their price or cut down on quality. Facing the fierce competition in the fashion industry, brands are unwilling to raise the price in case consumers might turn to other brands that can offer a lower price for a similar piece of garment. In the fall of 2010, according to Washington’s post, clothing prices were up an average of 10 percent from the year before. Retail analysts who examined Abercrombie & Fitch’s redesigned 2012 jeans, which cost about $10 more than usual, reported that the denim was thinner and of cheaper quality (Cline, 2013, p.186). Alternatively, if brands switch to cheaper labor in less developed countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh, the quality is still likely to decrease. Consequently, the rising manufacturing cost overseas is causing the quality of clothes to continue to fall and an even quicker cycle of buying and abandoning. An unhealthy race to the bottom can produce a series of harmful effects: for example, detrimental ethical 10

and environmental consequences in developing countries as well as our negative relationship with our clothes.


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Fig. 7. A Day of Mourning for Murdered Garment Workers. (no date). The Rana Plaza incident is the the deadliest garment factory disaster in known history.

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The Future of Fast Fashion

Ethical and Environmental Consequences Some argue that the merits of the globalization of production are that it promotes economic development in developing countries and increases efficiency by encouraging states to exercise their comparative advantage in a global market. It is true that the globalization of production chain has created lucrative job markets in developing countries -- but with the price of environmental degradation and exploitation of garment workers. Many factory owners and managers in China and the developing world have become middle-class thanks to foreign direct investment and global trade; but it is the sewing-machine operators beneath them who are barely scraping by (Cline, 2013, p.162). As consumers, the living and working conditions of the remote garment workers almost never came to our mind us when we enjoy the comfort of buying cheap fashion products. The garment workers in manufacturing factories, often women, have to endure long working hours, unfair pay, sexual harassment and sometimes even hazard 12

Fig. 8. Rana Plaza Survivor Rikta. (2015) Rikta, 27, who worked on the third floor of Rana Plaza, had her right arm amputated inside the rubble when she was rescued nearly 72 hours after the building collapsed.

working environment. The Rana Plaza incident was a wake-up call for the fast fashion industry and many consumers. On 24 April 2013 in the Savar Upazila of Dhaka, Bangladesh, an eight-story commercial building named Rana Plaza collapsed, causing 1,130 dead and more than 2,500 injured. It is reported that the factory owner of Rana Plaza sent his workers back to the building just one day after it had been


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evacuated over safety concerns (The Fifth Estate, 2013). The factory owner also revealed that his biggest client, Joe Fresh, paid the manufacturer only $15 - $16 per dozen for shorts, demanded shipment on time, and workers were working 8 am to 8 pm, seven days a week (The Fifth Estate, 2013). After the catastrophic collapse, the government has blamed the owners and builders for the eight-story complex for using shoddy construction materials and not obtaining the necessary clearances (The Fifth Estate, 2013). While these are all valid accusations, the workers would not have had to rush back to the unsafe building if they were not under tight deadlines for massive amounts of garments. The “origin” of the sin is within the fast fashion industry, the consumers; that is almost all of us. Aside from labor issues, the environmental impact is also not accounted into the low prices of fast fashion products. When we throw our cheaply made clothes in a discard bin, we are also wasting the amount of land, water, and other natural resources and were consumed to produce them. On the global scale, over 80 billion pieces of clothing are produced every year, and after its short lifespan, three out of four garments will end up in landfills or be

incinerated. US and UK are now the two biggest exporters of used clothes (Rodgers, 2015). In 1991, the average American bought 34 items of clothing each year. By 2007, they were buying 67 items every year, which means a new piece of clothing was purchased every four to five days (Chung, 2015). Americans only recycle or donate 15 percent of their used clothing, resulting 10.5 million tons of textile going into landfills a year (Cline, 2014). The situation in the UK does not appear to be better. The Waste and Resources Action Program’s report shows that the annual footprints of a household’s new and existing clothing are equivalent to the water needed to fill over 1,000 bathtubs, and the carbon emissions from driving an average modern car for 6,000 miles (2013). Many of us think that donating used clothes is the best we could do. In fact, only 10-30% of the garments that are given to charity shops are sold in the UK; the rest are exported overseas to destinations like Poland, Ghana, Pakistan, Ukraine and Benin (Rodgers, 2015). Second-hand clothes from an array of developed countries dominate local market stalls in subSaharan Africa, which, in turn, inhibits the development of local industries. The cheap clothes from global chain stores are not only stifling alternatives in 13


The Future of Fast Fashion

developed countries, but also emerging, local businesses at places where they appear as second-hand products. It is evident the current fast fashion model is not sustainable; labors in developing countries and nature are paying the actual cost to the cheap garments we buy today. The following case studies examine ways through

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which big corporations and consumers can make an impact to change the situation for the better and their effectiveness. The core to alleviating the ethical and environmental conditions in the fast fashion industry, it seems, is simply to produce less, consume less and abandon less.


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Fig. 9. Manila Residents Face Rubbish Ban. (2013) Residents are seen at their hut near a dump site in Manila, Philippines.

It is evident the current fast fashion model is not sustainable; labors in developing countries and nature are paying the actual cost to the cheap garments we buy today. 15


The Future of Fast Fashion

Corporate Responsibility Facing rising consumer awareness of the negative impact of the fast fashion industry, big corporations finally have started to pay attention to sustainability and ethical conduct over the past decade (Joy et al., 2012). But the effectiveness of their promises and campaigns can be in doubt. Swedish retailer H&M plans to play a fair living wage to all of its suppliers by 2018, although the brand has not given a specific rate of what a “living wage” would be (H&M: Our supply chain, no date). According to the company’s website, H&M monitor all their first-tier suppliers’ compliance with Sustainability Commitment, while only 50% of the products from the second-tier suppliers have made it to the company’s sustainability assessment by 2015. H&M current sources from 1,800 first and second supplier factories (Warburton, 2013), which in total employee about 1.6 million people (H&M: Our supply chain, no date). Facing increasing criticisms of the brand’s negative ecological impact, H&M also launches World Recycle Week on 18 April. It plans to collect 1,000 tons of unwanted clothes during 16

the week by inviting consumers to drop off old clothes. In return, they will get vouchers to use at H&M. The brand also launched an elaborate music video featuring M.I.A for its environmental impact (Siegle, 2016). What is marketed as an environmental campaign seems more like another sales strategy to encourage consumers to abandon old clothes to get new ones. What is disturbing about the campaigns and promises from big corporates, however, is not only that they don’t seem to solve the real problems at the end of the day. With the massive scale of H&M’s production and the complicated structure of the production chain, it is going to be extremely tough for the company the monitor every single product and all steps of the production chain. H&M’s recycling campaign seems more like a distraction from its intrinsically unsustainable business model. Because of technical issues with commercial fiber recycling, only a small percentage of recycled yarn can be used in new garments (Siegle, 2016). What is more alarming is that even if 1,000 tons is recycled, that is roughly the same amount of clothes a brand of this size pumps out into the world in 48 hours (Siegle, 2016). If this glamorous World Recycle Week


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Because of technical issues with commercial fibre recycling, only a small percentage of recycled yarn can be used in new garments (Siegle, 2016). Even if 1,000 tons of clothing is recycled, that is roughly the same amount of clothes a brand of this size pumps out into the world in 48 hours (Siegle, 2016). If this glamorous World Recycle Week only fuels more consumption of cheap clothes, how does it address the real problem?

Fig. 10. H&M World Recycle Week. (2016)

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The Future of Fast Fashion

only fuels more consumption of cheap clothes, how does it address the real problem? While corporate “greenwashing” seems to be just another marketing strategy, the more effective approach might be to provide with garment workers necessary knowledge for them to build a better future. The young, undereducated women mostly in Asia and Central Africa who moved from rural areas to cities for jobs were found to be suffering from poor hygiene, sexual violence, exposure to infections and illness (What is HERhealth?, no date). To bridge the gap between civil society organizations and women artwork in factories, HERproject was created in 2007 by Business of Social Responsibility to increase women’s health awareness and access to health services through sustainable workplace programs and is now implemented in more than 250 factories (What is HERhealth?, no date). The program works with local NGO to reach employees through peer mentoring for member companies such as Levi’s H&M, and Timberland. The program proves to be valuable for individuals involved as interviews have shown. However, the program is only a start of a bigger initiative that requires serious 18

While corporate “greenwashing” seems to be just another marketing strategy, the more effective approach might be to provide with garment workers necessary knowledge for them to build a better future. commitment from business and NGOs; the workshops covered 250,000 women compare to the roughly 34 million female garment workers worldwide (What is HERhealth?, no date). On a positive note, although the big fast fashion brands are hugely profiting from their use of cheap labor in developing countries, they also represent a great opportunity for change. If the big corporates use their influence to call for change and benefit their workers, a positive change can happen from within the industry rather than driven by outside forces.


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Consumer Behavior From the customers’ point of view, with the rapid shifts in fashion trends, fashion has become something that feeds insecurity, peer pressure, consumerism and homogeneity (Fletcher and Grose, 2012). For many of us, it becomes hard to picture images of ourselves without trendy clothes, because so much of how we define ourselves and how others see us are based on our regularly updated outfits. With 97% of the clothes in the US are now made overseas, the 40 million garment workers are now out of the sight of the first-world consumers and therefore, out of their mind. When consumers become aware of how their clothes are made, however, they are more likely to think carefully about their purchasing decisions. What we need in the fashion industry is to re-connect consumers and makers, a relation that has been lost in the process of global trade. The Fashion Revolution movement encourages consumers to take a selfie with their clothes and make sure the label is visible, then post the selfie on a social media platform with the hashtag #whomademyclothes. The movement conveys a positive message that we, as

consumers, together can make fashion an industry which “values people, the environment, creativity and profits in equal measure” (Fashion Revolution, no date). Aside from campaigns, we also have documentaries like The True Cost and The Cotton Road, books like The Overdressed and independent blogs such as “Refashionista”, all serve the purpose of educating consumers about hidden scenes in the fashion industry and re-imagining the future of fashion. These self-initiated movements all call for a change, and if we actually want to re-shape the relation between consumers and our clothes in the future, we all need to be educated and take actions ourselves. Consumers need to demand more transparency from big corporates and start to change their buying habits. Instead of being dominated by industry-determined trends, we should utilize fashion as means to express our self-identity by wearing things that we truly love. Aside from the mainstream fast fashion, we can instead pursue what is called “slow fashion”. We don’t necessarily have to make every piece of garment we wear, but we can certainly be more thoughtful with the clothing we purchase with the mindset that they will be a part of our evolving identities. Right now, our everyday relationships with clothes are 19


The Future of Fast Fashion

Fig. 11. Fashion Revolution Campaign Poster. (2016) During the Fashion Revolution 2016, individuals took over the global media by asking the question ‘Who made my clothes?’

likely to be passive because formula fashion produced uniformed styles and expected experiences in stores. Slow fashion differs in many ways because the emphasis is on “creating pieces that are not trend drive and are instead unique enough not to really date” (Cline, 2013, p.209). After all, with our 20

a reduction in consumption, we cannot find a solution to the problems we are facing that are collectively resulting in the decline of the natural environment and making garment workers suffer in other countries. Once the facts are known to us, we cannot pretend to be ignorant of the true cost of fast fashion.


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Conclusion

Fashion lovers, cutting down our consumption of fast fashion products does not mean that we can no longer stay fashionable. Trends change so rapidly now that we either have to “surrender” and change our outfits like a “manically flickering light switch” (Cline, 2013,p.210) or we can take more risks with our clothes to develop our looks. As consumers, we have to be responsible for the negative ethical and environmental consequences as a result of our lifestyle. We cannot deny the joy that is associated with novelty and change, but we should also pursue a deeper sense of satisfaction that comes with being sensible, responsible consumers. After all, material possession can only bring us so much happiness, and much more of our personal identity lies in our spiritual development. As Andrew Morgan, the director of the fashion documentary the True Cost said, “Let’s back off this endless, constant purchasing and invest in clothes we love” (Morgan, 2015). 21


The Future of Fast Fashion

Bibliography Chung, S.-W. (2015) Fast fashion is ‘drowning’ the world. We need a fashion revolution! Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/Blogs/makingwaves/fast-fashiondrowning-world-fashion-revolution/blog/56222/ (Accessed: 28 May 2016). Cline, E.L. (2013) Overdressed: The shockingly high cost of cheap fashion. New York: Portfolio/ Penguin. Cline, E.L. (2014) Where does discarded clothing go? Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/ business/archive/2014/07/where-does-discarded-clothing-go/374613/ (Accessed: 28 May 2016). Fashion Revolution (no date) Fashion revolution. Available at: http://fashionrevolution.org/ (Accessed: 27 May 2016). Fletcher, K. (2007) Sustainable fashion and textiles: Design journeys. London: Earthscan/James & James. Fletcher, K. and Grose, L. (2012) Fashion and sustainability: Design for change. London, England: Laurence King Publishing. Flugel, J.C. (1950) The psychology of clothes (International Psycho-Analysis library). Edited by Ernest Jones. 5th edn. London: The Hogarth Press. Gyamfi, F. (no date) Fast fashion. Available at: http://www.fastfashion-dieausstellung.de/en/ konsum (Accessed: 27 May 2016). H&M: Our supply chain (no date) Available at: http://sustainability.hm.com/en/sustainability/ commitments/choose-and-reward-responsible-partners/supply-chain.html (Accessed: 27 May 2016). Joint Economic Committee United States Congress (2016) The Economic Impact of the Fashion Industry. Available at: https://maloney.house.gov/sites/maloney.house.gov/files/documents/ The%20Economic%20Impact%20of%20the%20Fashion%20Industry%20--%20JEC%20 report%20FINAL.pdf (Accessed: 31 May 2016). Joy, A., Sherry, J.F., Venkatesh, A., Wang, J. and Chan, R. (2012) ‘Fast fashion, sustainability, and the ethical appeal of luxury brands’, Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, 16(3), pp. 273–296. doi: 10.2752/175174112x13340749707123. O’Hara, E. (2014) How global brands are (finally) investing in factory workers. Available at: http:// www.csmonitor.com/World/Making-a-difference/Change-Agent/2014/0912/How-global-brandsare-finally-investing-in-factory-workers (Accessed: 27 May 2016). Rodgers, L. (2015) Where do your old clothes go? — BBC News. Available at: http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/magazine-30227025 (Accessed: 28 May 2016). Siegle, L. (2016) Am I a fool to expect more than corporate greenwashing? Available at: http://www. theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/apr/03/rana-plaza-campaign-handm-recycling (Accessed: 28 May 2016).

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An Academic Report Strijbos, B. (2016) Global fashion industry statistics - international apparel. Available at: https:// fashionunited.com/global-fashion-industry-statistics (Accessed: 27 May 2016). The Fifth Estate (2013) Interview with jailed Rana Plaza factory owner Bazlus Samad Adnan. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/fifth/blog/interview-with-jailed-rana-plaza-factory-owner-bazlus-samad-adnan (Accessed: 28 May 2016). The True Cost (2015) Directed by Andrew Morgan [Film]. Warburton, S. (2013) H&M pledges fair living wage to suppliers. Available at: http://fashion. telegraph.co.uk/columns/sophie-warburton/TMG10475853/HandM-pledges-fair-living-wage-tosuppliers.html (Accessed: 27 May 2016). What is HERhealth? (no date) Available at: http://herproject.org/herhealth# (Accessed: 27 May 2016). WRAP (2013) Valuing our clothes, the true cost of how we design, use and dispose of clothing in the UK. Available at: http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/valuing-our-clothes (Accessed: 31 May 2016).

List of Figures Figure 1. Madewell. (2013) Hilltop maxiskirt in waterflower. [Photograph.] Available at: https:// www.madewell.com/uk/madewell_category/ONLINEEXCLUSIVES/dressesskirts/PRDOVR~61629/61629.jsp (Accessed: 28 May 2016). Figure 2. Topshop. (2016) Tall striped bow midi dress. [Photograph.] Available at: http:// www.topshop.com/en/tsuk/product/clothing-427/dresses-442/tall-striped-bow-midi-dress5545234?bi=80&ps=20 (Accessed: 31 May 2016) Figure 3. Mango. (2016) Striped cotton espadrilles. [Photograph.] Available at: http:// shop.mango.com/GB/p0/woman/accessories/shoes/flat-shoes/striped-cotton-espadrilles/?id=73090281_56&n=1 (Accessed: 31 May 2016) Figure 4. Zara. (2016) Midi poplin dress. [Photograph.] Available at: http://www.zara.com/uk/en/ woman/dresses/midi/midi-poplin-dress-c718502p3559024.html (Accessed: 31 May 2016) Figure 5. Everlane. (2013) Dongguan, China: Cashmere Knitting Factory. [Photograph.] Available at: http://china.everlane.com/post/56434089162/dongguan-china-cashmere-knitting-factory (Accessed: 31 May 2016). Figure 6. Everlane. (2013) Dongguan, China: Cashmere Knitting Factory. [Photograph.] Available at: http://china.everlane.com/post/56434089162/dongguan-china-cashmere-knitting-factory (Accessed: 31 May 2016). 23


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Figure 7. United Students Against Sweatshops. (No date) A Day of Mourning for Murdered Garment Workers. [Photograph.] Available at: http://usas.org/files/2013/04/h_50804486.jpg (Accessed: 27 May 2016). Figure 8. Frayer, K. (2015) Rana Plaza survivor Rikta. [Photograph.] Available at: http://blogs. ft.com/photo-diary/tag/rana-plaza/ (Accessed: 28 May 2016). Figure 9. Celis, Noel. (2013) Manila Residents face rubbish ban. [Photograph.] Available at: http://blogs.r.ftdata.co.uk/photo-diary/files/2013/06/litter.jpg (Accessed: 31 May 2016). Figure 10. H&M. (2016) H&M World Recycle Week. http://www.brandchannel.com/wp-content/ uploads/2016/04/hm-world-recycle-week-2016-coupon.jpg (Accessed: 31 May 2016). Figure 11. Smith, Stephanie. (2016) Fashion Revolution Campaign Poster 2016. https://greenstilettosdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/frd_poster_landscape_red_closeup1.jpg (Accessed: 31 May 2016). Figure 12. Zara. (2016) Contrast Trench Coat. [Photograph.] Available at: http://www.zara.com/ uk/en/woman/outerwear/view-all/contrast-trench-coat-c719012p3185712.html (Accessed: 1 June 2016)

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The Future of Fast Fashion Editorial and Design: Yuchun Bian Font: Futura PT Minion Pro Paper: Muken Polar 120g/m² Muken Polar 240g/m² Digital Printing: Online Reprographics, London, UK This publication was made as a part of Unit 8 project at the Graphic and Communicatin Design Department of Central Saint Martins, London. June 2016. www. yuchunbian.com


The Future of Fast Fashion

The Future of Fast Fashion

The Future of Fast Fashion  
The Future of Fast Fashion  
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