Yorkie Wagging Tales Yorkshire Terriers Club of Gauteng Magazine December 2012
in this issue BIS BISS CH (CAN/USA/SA)
Rigair Marshal Gzada #1 Yorkshire Terrier 2012 as per Animaltalk Top 100 rating KUSA National Showdog of the Year
Editors: Rene Potgieter, Carol Campbell and Francesca Dalla Vecchia Editorial Contributors in this issue: Beate Ackermann Heidi Rolfes HenriĂŤtte van der Zwaan Dr Tim Hepplestone Design and Layout: Ornella Trinco Dictum Publishers Advertising: Rene Potgieter and Carol Campbell email@example.com Subscription: Yorkshire Terrier Club of Gauteng firstname.lastname@example.org Yorkie Wagging Tales welcomes your input. Please send your contribution for the next issue of Yorkie Wagging Tales to: email@example.com
BREED TALES 6 Colour 8 Breed Standard
CARING & REARING TALES 10 PRA-prcd testing 28 Liver shunt
CHATTING TALES 5 Quotes from yorkie lovers
GROOMING TALES 13 Wrapping 17 Taking care of a yorkie coat
OUT AND ABOUT TALES 20 History 26 Showcasing the results of members
The views or opinions expressed in this magazine or content of advertisements are those of the contributors and correspondents concerned and do not reflect the views of the Yorkshire Terrier Club Of Gauteng, the editors or publisher, who do not accept responsibility for errors of interpretation or fact in subject matter or advertisements contained herein.
SWAGGING TALES 25 Photo competition
Advertisements are inserted in the form received from advertisers. Where these include descriptions of dogs and are at variance with the recognised description or make as to its achievements, the editors, published and Yorkshire Terrier Club of Gauteng do not hold themselves responsible.
Muttering about…. Welcome to the first issue of Yorkie Wagging Tales. The Yorkshire Terrier Club of Gauteng was formed in the beginning 2011. We endeavour to protect the breed and breed standard; to promote and encourage quality in the breed; and to educated the public, breeders and judges. The club feels very strongly about the colours of Yorkshire Terriers . There is only one correct colour combination for a Yorkshire Terrier according to the breed standard. People who are breeding and selling anything different, advertised as rare or exotic are compromising the gene pool and exploiting the breed. There should be only one reason to breed, and that is to continuously improve the breed, according to the standard. It is not for profit, or personal gain, it is purely for the love of the breed. Puppy buyers – please be aware of what a Yorkshire Terrier should be, and ensure that you purchase your puppy from a reputable breeder. Please do not be fooled by terms such as rare and exotic, for if these breeders really cared about the breed they would not be producing these incorrect colour combinations, and charging a premium for them. In this issue we are covering various tales under breed; grooming; caring and rearing; out and about. Hope you will enjoy these articles. Thank you to the contributors. We received a big entry for the photo competition. They were all winners but unfortunately Pat de Coning had to choose only one winner. The winning photo and some of the photos that she short listed can be seen on the swagging tales pages. The winning photo will receive a hamper of Wampum products kindly sponsored by Heidi Rolfes from Wampum products. Get your camera’s ready for the next issues competition. Also read the tips on how to photograph a new puppy in tail-end. Please send your letters to be included in the chatting tales for the next issue to firstname.lastname@example.org. The winning letter will receive a hamper sponsored by Wampum products. Let us know what you would like to see in future issues.
René Potgieter Chairman
Carol Campbell Vice-Chairman
Francesca Della Vecchia Secretary
why is yorkies so popular...
C h a t t i N g
t a L e s
colour Over the past 5 years, the highest number of registrations of all the breeds has been the Yorkshire Terrier. The popularity of the breed unfortunately has resulted that there are people out there who only breed for the quantity and not to produce quality, healthy dogs. Reputable breeders have a big responsibility to protect their breed and their breed standard. They invest time to do research, to gain knowledge about their breed before commencing breeding. They should make sure that they reduce the chances of producing offsprings with inherited disorders. Good breeders also need to know as much as possible about any health or genetic disorders in the pedigrees of the dogs they are breeding so they can avoid doubling up on any genetic concerns that may be present in the pedigrees of both parents. It is seen more and more that people are breeding dogs with colours Chocolate, Brown, Liver, Gold just to name a few. One of the outstanding characteristic of an adult Yorkshire Terrier is its long dark steel blue and tan silky coat. This is also the only recognised colour combination according to the breed standard. Every responsible breeder should strive to avoid breeding incorrectly coloured yorkies, as it could be a genetic defect that my affect the dogâ€™s health. Some of the health problems that might occur, include but are not limited to, are colour dilution alopecia, severe skin problems, allergies, total hair loss and in some cases long-term illness.
extremely dark blue all their lives, there are also dogs that broke their colour much later and they became far lighter than the preferred steel blue. As for the tan this should be a rich golden tan that keeps darkening, up to about the age of 3 years. The correct colour for the Yorkshire Terrier should always be steel blue and tan or steel blue and gold as an adult. When it comes to genetics there is always some confusion, often people assume that black is a dominant colour in Yorkies. Per Malcolm Willis' "Genetics of the Dog" the genetic makeup of a Yorkshire Terrier is B/ T, which is a recessive colour to black, it is not a matter of simple dominant black. B/T is the only gene the Yorkie should be carrying for pattern, the blue colouring is created at another loci altogether. Whereas a solid black dog carries the genes AA or A, the B/ T carries a(s)a(s), which is the B/T with a saddle. Anytime an upper case letter is shown that's the dominant gene and the lower case is the recessive. a(s)a(s) shows this as a recessive colour. As we proceed remember the Yorkie is a B/T dog, but since we are talking about achieving blue colour vs black colour, for ease of writing and understanding we will drop off the tan.
What creates the trademark steel blue in the Yorkie is achieved only if they are carrying the Graying gene. Now geneticists refer to it as graying, but in our breed we call it the achieved colour blue. This is the gene that affects the blue colour on breeds that are born one colour and turn blue later in These undesirable colours can at times ap- life. GG will give you a blue dog and Gg will pear because of genetics. Let us explain give you a blue dog, but is carrying the resome of the basics. A Yorkshire Terrier is cessive for non blueing and gg will give you born Black & Tan (B/T) but as the puppy a black dog, as this is the non blueing gene. matures the coat should change from an all Some confusion comes from people not black body to the trademark dark steel blue understanding how they get a black soft by the time he is an adult. The coat may coated dog from a breeding of two blue silk begin to change colour any time after 8 dogs. If you are breeding together two dogs weeks. Some people believe that early that are both Gg then they are both carrying breakers tend to have a lighter blue, howthe recessive gene for non blueing and if ever this is not the case. We have seen the two gg genes for non blueing get todogs break blue by 12 weeks and stay an gether it will result in a black dog. When the 6
dog is Gg, the dog will be blue as the dominant gene is G which is what causes the colour blue and will exhibit that colour. When the dog is gg, the only gene they have is the non blueing gene, so they also can only exhibit that colour which will be the black colour. Dogs that are born blue carry the dilute gene of dd, which should also not be in the Yorkshire Terrier breed, although that is what would cause the Blue born puppies.
Recessive genes are wonderful if they're for the quality you want. In two generations you can totally lock something in your line (such as long hair). The problem can be with dominants, you can breed for it, but you almost always have to continue breeding for it or those little recessives keep sneaking in there. As mentioned with the Brussels Griffon story, they can be passed along for many generations before they actually appear or get the chance to appear.
When you breed together two Gg dogs, your chances of mostly blue dogs is very good. Since the dogs in question are blue dogs as they are Gg, G being the dominant and the dogs exhibit that colour, but carrying the g which is a recessive they are able to pass that recessive on to the resulting puppies from the mating. The chances of the g sperm from one dog getting with the g egg from the other are not going to be really high but it will occur. Most times the G of one will end up with the g of the other and you still end up with a blue dog. Not to say that the odds are not against you and you end up with a litter of soft coated black puppies. We all know from breeding dogs that nothing holds true 100%.
The density of the shade of blue can be bred for, by selecting dark steel blue whenever possible. This does seem to be a quality that you can lock into with fairly much regularity. As with all the other things in breeding dogs though, when you expect something, always be prepared for something else. A responsible breeder will not intentionally breed for undesirable traits. On very rare occasions, a breeder will have a puppy born with a colour which could be brown. These puppies should be spayed or neutered and placed in a pet home. DNA testing should be done to see who the carrier of the incorrect gene is and those dogs should not be use for breeding again.
Many people breed their black Yorkies, because they feel they have many benefits. This is fine, but it is best to only breed one to a blue dog. Keep in mind that the blue colour is dominant here and the black recessive. A black dog can only throw a recessive gene and if bred to another black dog the resultant puppies will also be black.
To assist responsible breeders KUSA in future will include on all new printings of registrations for Yorkshire Terriers, the colour as declared by the owner â€“ not only for the dog in questions, but for its parents and grand parents. We believe this may help the situation in that people will be aware if a colour is not one accepted by the breed standard.
A breeder should not sell or promote the dogs of Here is an example of a Brussels Griffon litter. The such deviations in colours as desirable, exotic or breeder bred two rough coated Griffs together. She rare. knew the sire had a smooth parent which meant he was carrying the recessive smooth gene. In 6 generations on the bitches pedigree there was no smooth coat and therefore assumed she didn't carry the smooth gene. When the pups were born there were 2 smooths out of 3. So the bitch was carrying a recessive that was passed along for at least 7 generations unseen and finally popped up under the right circumstances. The same can be true of blue silk dogs. You can breed along for many generations assuming you have locked in the colour and texture, until one day out pops a black soft coated puppy. Resources: The recessives were there hiding within those two parents and finally came together. Cher Hildebrand 7
yorkshire terrier breed standard GENERAL APPEARANCE Long-coated, coat hanging quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from nose to end of tail. Very compact and neat, carriage very upright conveying an important air. General outline conveying impression of vigorous and well proportioned body.
CHARACTERISTICS Alert, intelligent toy terrier.
EYES Medium, dark, sparking with sharp intelligent expression and placed to look directly forward. Not prominent. Edge of eyelids dark.
TEMPERAMENT Spirited with even disposition.
EARS Small, V-shaped, carried erect, not too far apart, covered with short hair, colour very deep, rich tan.
COLOUR Dark steel blue (not silver blue) , extending from occiput to root of tail, never mingled with fawn, bronze or dark hairs. Hair on chest rich, bright tan. All tan hair darker at the roots than in middle, shading to still lighter at tips.
MOUTH Perfect, regular and complete scissor bite i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Teeth well placed with even jaws
COAT Hair on body moderately long, perfectly straight (not wavy), glossy; fine silky texture, not woolly. Fall on head long, rich golden tan, deeper in colour at sides of head, about ear roots and on muzzle where it should be very long. Tan on head not to extend on to neck, nor must any sooty or dark hair intermingle with any of tan. 8
FOREQUARTERS Well laid shoulders, legs straight, well covered with hair of rich golden tan, a few shades lighter at ends than at roots, not extending higher on forelegs than elbow..
SIZE Weight up to 3.2 kgs (7 lbs).
NECK Good reach.
HEAD AND SKULL Rather small and flat, not too prominent or round in skull, nor too long in muzzle; black nose.
BODY Compact with moderate spring of rib, good loin. Level back.
GAIT/MOVEMENT Free with drive; straight action front and behind, retaining level topline.
TAIL Customarily docked to medium length with plenty of hair, darker blue in colour than rest of body, especially at the end of tail. Carried a little higher than level of back.
HINDQUARTERS Legs quite straight when viewed from behind, moderate turn of stifle. Well covered with hair of rich golden tan, a few shades lighter at ends than at roots, not extending higher on hindlegs than stifles. ÂŠ Booth Photography
FAULTS Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on health & welfare of the dog.
FEET Round; nails black.
NOTE Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. 9
c a r i n g & r e a r i n g t a l e s
PRA-prcd testing for yorkshire terriers in south africa Inqaba Biotec was established in 2001 by South African, Swiss and American scientists. The main service areas of this genetic laboratory are oligonucleotide synthesis and DNA sequencing. Our clients include universities and other research institutions. Inqaba has since grown in leaps and bounds and during 2009 expanded to provide animal genetic testing. Canine genetic disease testing was the first area explored as there was no local service provider. One of the tests offered is PRA-prcd, an eye disorder that occurs in Yorkshire terriers, amongst other breeds. PRA-prcd is caused by a single base pair substitution in the PRCD gene on the canine chromosome 9 and the mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. This mutation alters the reading frame of the gene and could ultimately lead to blindness. The test indicates the genetic profile of the gene and classifies the dog as clear, carrier or affected for the causative mutation. A clear dog carries no mutant copies of the gene, will not display the symptoms of the disease and will not pass the mutant copy to its offspring. A carrier dog has one copy of the mutant gene and one wild type copy. This dog will not display the symptoms of the disease but may pass the mutant copy to its offspring. The third category is affected dogs and these dogs have a greater probability to display the symptoms of the disease (although not all will go blind), and will pass the mutant copy to its offspring.
Breeders should utilize results of the genetic test as a tool to improve their breeding lines. Preferably all mating should be performed between two clear dogs. In the case that a dog is a carrier or affected for the causative mutation but carries other desirable traits to be manifested in the continued breeding line, different mating scenarios could be considered (refer to Table 1). For example, a dog that carries the PRA-prcd mutation with other desirable traits could be mated to a clear dog and each puppy will have a 50% chance to be clear and a 50% chance to be a carrier. These puppies should then be tested and in return be mated to clear animals and thereby leading to the subsequent eradication of the mutation from the lines. It must be stressed that a mating between two carriers should be avoided at all cost, as affected puppies can be born from this mating.
Table 1: Possible breeding scenarios Parent 2 genotype Parent 1 genotype
50% Carrier Carrier
The price structure of the test is indicated in Table 2. When testing one or two dogs the price is R456 (incl Vat) each, and we offer a 15% discount when testing 3 – 7 dogs, and 30% discount when testing 8 or more dogs. We also offer a courier service that will collect any number of samples from anywhere in South Africa at a price of R57 (incl Vat). Table 2: Price structure of the PRA-cord1 test Number of dogs tested
Price for each dog (incl VAT)
1 or 2
8 or more
We offer two sampling methods. Firstly 1-2 ml whole blood can be collected by the owner’s veterinarian and sent to us via courier. We can arrange the courier to collect the sample from the veterinarian’s practise. The second method is the use of FTA filter papers. We send the owner the papers together with a needle and full instructions via registered post. The owner can take the sample themselves. The dog’s ear is pricked and one or two drops of blood are blotted on the paper. The paper is then sent back to us via mail or courier. For more information please contact Henriëtte van der Zwan
Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of DNA with defined chemical structure (sequence). The technique is extremely useful in laboratory practice as it provides a rapid and inexpensive access to custom-made oligonucleotides of the desired sequence. (Ref: www.wikipedia.com)
2 DNA sequencing refers to sequencing methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases in a molecule of DNA. (Ref: www.wikipedia.com) 3 A mutation is the altering of the DNA sequence of a gene. The change in the sequence can be due to an insertion of nucleotides, deletion of nucleotides or single nucleotide substitutions. 4 A gene is the basic unit of heredity. Each animal has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Different variants of a gene are called alleles. A gene is always found on the exact same place on the same chromosome, and that place is called a locus. 5 All DNA is packed into chromosomes. A dog has 39 chromosome pairs (one chromosome of each pair inherited from each parent). 38 pairs are autosomal or body chromosomes of which males and females have the same chromosomes. One pair is called sex-chromosomes of which males have one X and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes. 6 Autosomal recessive means only one gene is involved and males and females are affected equally.
Inqaba biot ec
7 The Wild type gene copy refers to the normal or healthy copy of the gene.
Henriëtte van der Zwaan
wrapping Showing your own Yorkshire Terrier can bring great pleasure and satisfaction. Whether in the regular classes, or perhaps even in the junior handling class (for the younger members of the family), this is something you and your whole family can enjoy. A Yorkshire Terrier with his coat in peak condition – gorgeous ground length beard reflecting a golden three shaded tan, and brilliant steel-blue coat, belongs without a doubt to the most impressive stars at any dog show, anywhere in the world. It is little wonder that the Yorkshire Terrier always attracts more than it’s share of the public’s interest at any exposition. About 10 years ago, it was decided in Germany that grooming (and all that went with it) should no longer be done at shows, in full view of the public. Irrespective of the reasons for this, or whether there was general agreement or disagreement, this is now a regulation. Of course, there are always two sides to every coin. While grooming in full view of other exhibitors and the public opens up criticism and fault finding with the techniques used, the downside is that newcomers to the breed can no longer learn by observing exhibitor-professionals, perhaps picking up some tips and tricks for their own use. This is to the detriment of the newcomers, as they are then at a disadvantage. This leaves only one option: LEARNING BY TRYING AS YOU GO… Please note that this commentary is not meant to be a speech in defence of wrapping! Remember, though, that top models, throughout their careers, undergo several “extras” to attain and preserve their beauty. If this beauty treatment makes our small stars shine, then wherein lies the problem? Wrapping is certainly not a hindrance to the Yorkie – if anything, a wrapped yorkie is able to enjoy his life with total freedom!
The following basic items will help you to help yourself! 2 brushes (a real bristle brush & a brush with metal pins (rounded on top) for smooth combing through) 1 metal comb with a wider and a finer side. 1 very fine comb for the delicate hair round the muzzle (can be made from horn or metal) oil for wrapping – for example: mink oil plus a spray bottle that is able to finely spray the oil wrapping paper - This paper must be free of acid and chlorine, and must be extremely soft. It can be purchased at the larger expositions and also special shops. Latex bands for fixing the wraps in place. 13
g r o o m i n g t a L e s
REMEMBER: Every exhibitor has their own personal preferences, and every Yorkshire Terrier has individual needs. No two are the same. Therefore there is no single “all round recipe”
HOWEVER: Generally you should never put a dog in wraps unless he has been oiled. Only after our future “wraps-candidate” has had a thorough bath and has been completely blow dried, can wrapping-oil be sprayed – very lightly – all over the coat. Do not spray on the skin, and take extra care around the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. Work the oil into the coat with the bristle brush. Once the oil has been evenly distributed, you can begin with the wraps. Start at the head. The dog should lie down during this (which Yorkies mostly do). .
TIP: It is a good idea to fold the wrapping papers before you start to wrap the dog
Using the metal comb, divide the hair into sections. The partings should be exact, taking into account the anatomy of the dog, and the direction of the hair growth. Hold the parted hair portion and place the hair in the middle section of the wrapping paper, which will have been folded beforehand into three equal sections (diagram a). The two outer parts of the paper are then folded inwards, in order to seal the hair in (diagram b & c). The wrap is folded in half, so that the start and end meet (diagram d). Repeat this until there is a square package. The package is then fixed into place with a special band (diagram f).
The width of each package should be the same as the width of the parted hair. Special care must be taken when putting in the wraps that the dog does not feel restricted in his movement. (If the wraps restrict the movement of the dog, his coat will break) The only advice that we can offer to anybody new to this procedure is to practise the first few wrapping sessions under the watchful eye of an experienced exhibitor. Remember, also to allow your dog time to get used to this new experience. This is achieved by introducing the wraps step by step.
Start with 3 or 5 wraps. The head and tail are a good place to start. Once your dog is totally comfortable in the wraps, you can begin to put the body hair into wraps. The dog should stand upright while the body wraps are done. Use the picture below to determine the partitions of the wraps, once again taking extreme care that the wraps do not interfere with the natural movement of the dog, either at play or at rest.
When you are done, donâ€™t forget to give your Yorkie an extra treat or reward for his patience! The wrappers must be removed and replaced when dirty, damaged or out of place, but completely new wraps should be done at least once or twice a week. Once you have mastered the art of wrapping a Yorkie coat, the procedure should not take longer than about 30 minutes. This is a small price to pay to achieve the coat that dreams are made of!
Text page & pictures ÂŠ by Beate Ackermann, first 1999, new 2003
taking care of a yorkie coat Yorkshire Terriers are exceptionally popular pets. To behold them in their full glory, their long coats need daily care and attention. Life for their owners can also be made so much easier if they use the right products. Wampum has a range of products especially developed for Yorkie coats (long or short). Let me explain, in order, how a Yorkie coat should be cared for.
may never touch the skin of the dog. Work away from the skin, hold the hair on your fingers, work against your own hand and fingers. If you cannot do this, do not use a slicker brush.
THE BATH Before you start: Take a Wampum Dilution Bottle and dilute 100ml of Wampum Conditioning Shampoo Concentrate with 400ml of luke-warm water.
Rule Number 1: Never hurt a dog when grooming If you hurt a dog once, they will never lie still for you and it will make their grooming a taxing event for both you and the dog. Make the grooming like caressing so the dog starts to enjoy it and look forward to it.
Rule Number 2: A dog must be bathed at least once in 10 days Clean coat grows. In addition, a Yorkie coat must be brushed through daily. Before a bath, all mats must be removed from the coat as they will contract on contact with water and it will become even more difficult to remove them. To do this, we suggest saturating the knots with Wampum Silk Spray or Wampum Miracle Spray (Double strength), leaving this in for a minute, and then teasing the knots apart with a face comb. Always hold the knot firmly next to the skin when you work at it so as not to hurt the dog when you pull hairs. Once the knot has been teased sideways, use a pin brush or soft slicker brush, work AWAY from the skin of the dog, and in straight lines perpendicular to the skin, try to brush the knot out. Then repeat the process. Pull the knot apart parallel to the skin of the dog with the face comb, then take the pin brush or soft slicker and work in straight lines away from the skin of the dog.
Take another Wampum Dilution bottle and prepare a rinse of 25ml Wampum Conditioning Rinse Concentrate into 500ml of warm water.
Step 1: Set diluted Shampoo and Conditioner down next to the bath. Place the dog on a secure rubber mat in the bath. Rinse through the coat with luke-warm water. Apply the diluted shampoo and work through the coat. Rinse very well until all shampoo residue has been rinsed from the coat. Apply the conditioning rinse by squirting it through the coat with the dilution bottle. DO NOT RINSE THIS OUT! Wrap the dog in a dry towel and dry it out. Take a second dry towel, remove the wet towel, wrap the dog in the new dry towel and move to the blow dryer. Step 2:
Rule Number 3: A slicker brush 17
Lie the dog down on your lap (or on the
table in front of you, whatever you prefer). Open the towel to the first section you want to dry. Keep the rest of the dog wrapped in the dry towel to keep it warm. Take a section of coat, mist it well with Wampum Miracle Spray. Using a pin brush, blow dry the coat in sections, brushing in the direction you want the hair to lie. Once a section is completely dry, feel through it carefully with a large comb. Continue until the dog is completely dry. Stand the dog up on the table, on a secure rubber mat, make the parting and brush through to check the coat is dry everywhere. Now lie the dog facing you, down on the table with its head on a small pillow. Use the face comb to do the top knot and secure it with a soft elastic band. Now we check teeth and apply Wampum Antibacterial mouth spray. Then check ears, nails and do a little trimming if required.
hard bits to soften. Then use the face comb to remove them. Now comb and dry the whiskers, or let them dry naturally. Wampumâ€™s recommended list of products: 1 x Wampum Conditioning Shampoo Concentrate 1 x Wampum Conditioning Rinse Concentrate 2 x Wampum Dilution Bottles 1 x Wampum Miracle Spray (Double Stength) 1 x Wampum Silk Spray (OPTIONAL) 1 x Wampum small or medium pin brush 1 x Wampum Face comb 1 x Wampum Greyhound comb 1 x Wampum Small soft slicker brush (OPTIONAL) 1 x Wampum Self Rinse Shampoo These products (and many others) can all be seen and ordered at www.wampum.co.za Happy grooming!
If your Yorkie has a particularly difficult coat, you can apply Wampum Silk Spray to the coat when drying (at the same time as applying the Miracle Spray (Double Strength). It will make the coat slightly oily but will prevent matting on woolly coats.
Heidi Rolfes Director: Wampum Grooming Products
If you do this properly, you will not have any knots before the next bath. For daily face cleaning we use Wampum Self Rinse Shampoo. Wet the whiskers under the eyes carefully with a cotton wool ball soaked in Wampum Self Rinse Shampoo. Wait a minute for any
yorkshire terriers in south africa Yorkshire Terriers became the most popular breed in South Africa for more than 10 years. Unfortunately the breed’s popularity is causing indiscriminate breeding. Many breeders are only interested in the puppies they are going to sell and not to improve the breed and breed to the breed standards. The Yorkshire Terrier Club of Gauteng was formed in February 2011 by a group of interested people in the Yorkshire Terrier breed. The main objective to protect the breed and KUSA approved breed standard; to promote and encourage quality in the breed and to educate the public, breeders, judges and veterinarians. The Yorkshire Terrier Club is the only Yorkshire Club in South Africa that is affiliated to KUSA. Research covering the last 30 years has shown that only two Yorkshire Terriers that won Best in Show at an All Breed champions show in South Africa, Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece and Rigair Marshal Gzada . Before we introduce you to some of the statistics of the current Yorkshire Terrier in the show ring, we have to mention the mentors and breeders who have laid the foundations for the current breeders and exhibitors. Eric and Di Dunstan from Mountmorris Kennels began to show in the 1960’s. They imported from Yadnum, Progresso and Johnstounburn Kennels and were on of the leading kennels in South Africa. Ch Typros Devil
May Care was a consistent winner. He also went BIS in 1985 at the Pretoria Toy Dog Breeder’s Club Show. Ch Progresso Golden Sunset sired at least 9 champions. Di Dunstan made up 21 Champions over the years before retiring from the show ring. After having shown locally bred Yorkies in the late '60's, a small kennel named Graelor was founded by Lorraine Coleman during the 70's and based on imports from Deebees, Beechrise & Astolat lines, their progeny becoming Champions. The most well known import was SA CH Deebees Princess Florinda. Later Graelor introduced the Ozmilion line & combined with Deebees produced more SA Champions. Gwen Measham was a winner in the show ring for many years with her dogs from Streamglen and Dundry kennels. Sandra Braude from Regent Kennels was also another well-know name in the 1970’s and 1980’s. She imported from the Ozmilion line. Connie Suddaby from Pennylane Kennels immigrated to South Africa in 1972 with her two Yorkies and a Bearded Collie. Connie does not show anymore but she is regularly ring stewarding at Championship shows. Stella Parks from Porchester Kennels first imported David Stroud, Mastrouds kennels and later imported dogs during the ’80 from Ronny Engelen (of Millmoor). Liz Edmonds from Hlalala Kennels imported Swedish Ch Footprints memory make who quickly became a South African champion.
of event in the past 11 years were: Johann Bosch and Dave Keytel were the owners of the Vihoven Kennel. Johann was one of the best handlers. He has done very well with Ch Primnproper of Petituchien who was a grandson of Ozmilion Hearts delight imported by Ellen Parkin from Petituchien Kennels. Ch. Primnproper of Petitunchien was the top Yorkshire Terrier in 1990, 1991 and 1992. Johann also imported from Ozmilion. In 1994 Johan campaigned Ozmilion My Flirtation with Vihoven and missed being Top Toy that year by one point. The following are some of prestigious events where yorkies have excelled:
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Durrer’s Copyright at Barker Brolea Creative Dream Jankeri Ambassaor of Yorkems Brolea Royal Ambition Hassendean Royal Addition of Brolea Brolead Royal Ambition Xamner’s Africandream Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea
Two yorkies had to honour be the KUSA National Toy Dog. In 2008 it was awarded to Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece and in 2010 to Naomy of Padawi with Brolea.
The Dog of the Year: Ch Vihoven Might Max, a son of the famous Ch Primnproper of Petitunchien, bred by Johann Bosch was awarded 6th place in 1996 at this prestigious event. KUSA National Yorkshire Terrier: The winners
The winner of the Toy Group at the Supa 7s in 2011 was Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece.
The following Yorkies also featured in the KUSA Showdog of the Year ratings: 2012 Name
Rigair Marshal Gzada
Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea
Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea
Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece was the Top Toy in the The Animaltalk Top 100 rating in 2008. Here are the statistics for the Yorkshire Terriers featured in the past 6 years: 2012 Ranking 6
Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea
Rigair Marshal Gzada
2011 Ranking 18
Naomy of Padawi’s with Brolea
Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
2010 Ranking 21
Name Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
2009 Ranking 48
Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
2008 Ranking 16
Name Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
2007 Ranking 97
Name Durrer’s Classical Masterpiece
The Showdogs Breed Leaderbaord is a rating system that recognises consistent achievement at breed level. The Yorkshire Terrier Leaderboard: 2011 Name
DURRER'S CLASSICAL MASTERPIECE
NAOMY OF PADAWI'S WITH BROLEA
RIGAIR MARSHAL GZADA
BROLEA MI HEART D'SIRE
2010 Name DURRER'S CLASSICAL MASTERPIECE NAOMY OF PADAWI'S WITH BROLEA BROLEA HE'S KY-LASH NICNAK'S EXCLUSIVE OF COUNTRYBLU BROLEA CASINO BLUEMOON BROLEA DIVINE DESTINY
Owner POTGIETER DALLA-VECCHIA/BROWN BROWN
Points 256 94 19
BROLEA MI HEART D'SIRE
DURRER'S CLASSICAL MASTERPIECE
The following kennels are currently actively involved in showing their Yorkshire Terriers: Bellmoral Yorkies (Tyrone Goode) Brolea Yorkshire Terriers (Pam Brown) Celaeno Yorkies (Madeleine Anderson) Countryblu Yorkshire Terriers (Carol Campbell) DargentoYorkies (Francesca Dalla-Vecchia ) Demlyn Yorkshire Terriers (Cheryl Lynne Ellis) Enrichetta Yorkshire Terriers (Ansa de Jager) Janivie Yorkies (Janine Visser) Maupe YorkshireTerriers (Pamela Pelser) Treu Vision (Selina Vickerman-Prince) Xamner Yorkshire Terriers (Rene Potgieter) Yorkems Yorkshire Terriers (Louise Powell)
and the winner is ….
S w a g g i n g
t a l e s
Judge: Pat de Coning Prize for the winning photograph donated By Wampum Products
showcasing the results of members during 2012 2 x CC (Goldfields KC & Roodepoort KC)
Countryblu Exclusive Jewel Owner: Carol Campbell
5 x CC (Jubilee Toy Dog Club, Northern Tshwane KC,
Countryblu Indigo Magic Owner: Carol Campbell
East London KC, Port Rex KC, KUSA, ) 1 x RCC (Pretoria Toy Dog Breeders Club)
Countryblu Just a Jester
1 x Best of Breed (Pretoria KC) 4 x CC (Vereeniging & Districts KC, Pretoria KC, Wit-
Owner: Carol Campbell
watersrand KC, Eastern District KC) 1 x RCC (Transvaal Midlands KC)
5 x CC (Pretoria KC, Queenstown KC, Grahamstown KC,
Countryblu on the Catwalk Owner: Carol Campbell
Sasolburg KC, TKC KC) 8 x RCC (Transvaal Midlands KC, Northern Tshwane KC, East London KC, Port Rex KC, KUSA, KZN Junior KC, Northern Natal KC, Roodepoort KC, )
Enrichetta Ariel Atom of Janivie
2 x CC (George KC, Outeniqua KC) 3 x RCC (Breede Rivier KC, Western Province KC, Hotten-
Owner: Janine Visser
Enrichetta Good Luck Charm of Janivie
2 x CC (Breede Rivier Vallei KC, Western Province KC) 1 x RCC (Cape Town KC)
Owner: Janine Visser 4 x Best Puppy (Queenstown KC, Grahamstown KC,
Enrichetta True Blue Love
Breede Rivier Vallei KC, Victory Toy Dog Club) 5 x RCC (Queenstown KC, Grahamstown KC, Breede Rivier Vallei KC, Victory Toy Dog Club, Hottentots Holland KC)
Owner: Ansa de Jager
3 x RCC (Kennel Association, Liesbeek KC, Outeniqua KC)
Foolish Love V.H. Polanerduin Owner: Ansa de Jager
2 x Best Puppy (Transvaal Midlands KC & Witwatersrand
Georgy Girl de la Pam’Pommeraie
Owner: René Potgieter
1 x CC (Transvaal Midlands KC) 2 x RCC (Walmer & Suburban KC, Port Elizabeth KC)
Heidi Orlando Island
2 x Best Puppy (George KC, Outeniqua KC)
Onwner: Ansa de Jager Owner: Pamela Pelser
2 x Best Puppy (Western Gauteng KC, KUSA ) 1 x RCC (Sasolburg KC)
4 x Best Puppy (Port Elizabeth KC, Junior KC, Natal Toy
Maupa Lady Liz
Dog Club, Durban & District KC) 5 x RCC (Durban & District, Natal Toy Dog Club, KUSA, Western Gauteng KC, Uitenhage KC
Owner: Pamela Pelser
Nicnakâ€™s Drummer Boy
7 x Winners Dog (3 x Seaway KC, 2 x Arnprior Canine Asso-
Owner: Carol Campbell
ciation, 2 x Aurora & District KC, ) 4 x Best of Winners (Seaway KC, Arnprior Canine Association, 2 x Aurora & District KC) 5 x RCC (Goldfields KC, Roodepoort KC, Queenstown KC, Grahamstown KC, Sasolburg KC)
Rigair Marshal Gzada
2 x Best in Show (Witwatersrand KC and Queenstown KC) 1 x Reserve Best in Show (Grahamstown & District KC) 10 x Best in Group (Transvaal Midlands KC, Witwatersrand
Owners: Rene Potgieter, Betty Anne Durrer, Ilonoa Rodionova)
Xamner Vibrant Banjo Owner: Rene Potgieter
KC, Western Gauteng KC, East London KC, Port Rex KC, George KC, KZN Junior KC, Roodepoort KC, Queenstown KC, Grahamstown KC) 29 x Best of Breed (Kennel Association, Liesbeek KC, Vereeniging & Dist KC, Transvaal Midlands KC, Witwatersrand KC, Port Elizabeth KC, Walmer and Suburban KC, Toy Dog Breeders Association, Pretoria Toy Dog Breeders Club, Western Gauteng KC, East London KC, Port Rex KC, FCI Africa International Show, George KC, Outeniqua KC, Junior KC of Gauteng, Durban & District KC, Pietermaritzburg KC, KwaZulu Junior KC, Zululand KC, Northern Natal KC, Roodepoort & District KC, Queenstown KC, Grahamstown & District KC, Sasolburg JC, TKC FCI International, TKC KC, Breede Rivier KC, Western Province KC) 5 x Reserve Best of Breed (Uitenhage KC, Highway KC, Natal Toy Dog Club, KUSA, SALKA) 2 x CACIB (FCI Africa International Show, TKC FCI International)
1 x Reserve Best of Breed (Kennel Association) 2 x Best Puppy (Kennel Association, Liesbeek ) 2 x CC (Kennel Association, Liesbeek KC) E &OE
Hereditary conditions of the Yorkshire Terrier c a r i n g
Liver shunt — why the fuss? The term “liver shunts” is an old term used to refer to a variety of blood vessel abnormalities. These so called shunts are now termed porto systemic vascular anomalies (PSVA). The Yorkshire terriers have been reported to be predisposed to PSVA’s with studies showing that they have a risk of having a PSVA that is 35.9 times more breeds put together.
a microscopic level in a condition known as microvascular dysplasia (MVD). In dogs with MVD the abnormal communications between intestinal and systemic communication occurs at a microscopically. MVD may be present as an isolated condition or may be present along with other shunts.
EFFECTS OF A SHUNT
& r e a r i n g t a l e s
SO WHAT IS A PSVA OR SHUNT?
Figure . Diagram illustrating single shunt outside the liver. i.e. extrahepatic. In the normal dog blood from the intestine flows through the liver before entering the general circulation. In the liver potential toxins are removed, nutrients are taken up for metabolic purposes such as production of proteins, glucose and blood clotting factors. In an animal with a PSVA some of the blood from the intestine bypasses the liver (via the abnormal blood vessels) and enters the systemic circulation via the portal vein. As a result, multiple metabolic derangements can occur. Different types of shunts may be seen, varying from a single large abnormal blood vessel connecting the intestinal circulation with the systemic circulation (the most common for in the Yorkie), to multiple shunting blood vessels either outside or inside the liver tissue. Another form of shunting occurs at 28
Probable the most devastating effects of a shunt are those that occur in the brainwhat we refer to as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic encephalopathy refers to a complex neurophsychiatric syndrome that is seen when liver function is compromised. Neurotoxic compounds that are normally filtered by the liver can have a dramatic effect on the central nervous system as well as other organs. Over 20 different compounds have been found to be elevated in patients with compromised liver function. Of these ammonia is probably the most important because increases in ammonia levels trigger the events leading up to hepatic encephalopathy in rats, humans and dogs. Other compounds of importance include fatty acids and endogenous benzodiazepams (similar to valium). Other effects include chronic liver failure and bladder stone development due the precipitation of ammonia biurate crystals in the urine (related to the high blood ammonia levels).
SYMPTOMS Symptoms most commonly begin before 1 to 2 years of age (although can onset as late as 7 to 10 years). The three organ systems most commonly affected are the central nervous
system (CNS), intestinal tract and urinary system. CNS signs include a wobbly gait, behavioural abnormalities, seizures, blindness and coma.
Medical management of shunts is often used to stabilise patients prior to surgery, or to treat patients where surgery is decline or not possible (e.g. MVD). Medications such as oral antacids, lactulose and metranidazole can significantly reduce symptoms in dogs with shunts. While surgical attenuation is undoubtedly the first choice, some dogs do achieve long term survival with good quality of life on medicines alone.
Gastro-intestinal signs such as vomiting, inappetence and diarrhoea occur in about 30% of dogs. Occasionally ascites (build up of fluid in the abdomen) may be seen. Up to 50% of dogs have signs related to bladder stones (bloody urine, straining to urinate or urinary tract obstruction. PSVAâ€™s may occur with other hereditary defects such as undescended testicles (cryptorchidism).
Thoughts around breeding
DIAGNOSIS Blood tests to evaluate liver function as well as analysis of urine samples often raise the suspicion of a shunt. In our experience the presence of ammonia biurate crystals in the urine and elevated serum bile acids in the blood are often the most reliable indicators that a shunt may be present. Definitive diagnosis of a shunt requires diagnostic imaging. Several modalities may be used including ultrasound scans, specialised x-ray techniques and more recently computed tomography (CT scan). Liver biopsy may be needed to detect MVD.
TREATMENT The ideal treatment for a shunt is surgical attenuation of the abnormal vessel. This is most feasible in dogs with large, single vessel shunts. Recent developments of surgical implants which slowly attenuate the shunt over a period of time seem to significantly reduce complications. 70 to 90% of dogs with single extra hepatic shunts can be expected to have an excellent outcome.
Recent research has shown that it is quite likely that many dogs with milder defects, and thus few, if any symptoms do exist. Therefore, while no universally accepted recommendations exist, a screening program to identify these dogs and remove them from the breeding pool could hold tremendous potential for reducing the incidence of these diseases. Screening tests such as serum bile acids (a routine blood test) represent a simple way of potentially identifying such dogs. Prof. Sharon Center and her colleagues at Cornell University are currently investigating the possibility of identifying genetic markers for these illnesses. If they succeed we could potentially identify carriers of the abnormal genes by analysing the DNA of a potential breeding dog, thus allowing for better genetic selection of our breeding dog population.
Dr Tim Hepplestone BVSc (Hons).
Figure : Ameroid Constrictor device placed around shunting blood vessel. 29
how to photograph a new puppy 1. Remove film from box and load camera. 2. Remove film box from puppy’s mouth and throw in trash. 3. Remove puppy from trash and brush coffee grounds from muzzle. 4. Choose a suitable background for photo. 5. Mount camera on tripod and focus. 6. Find puppy and take dirty sock from mouth. 7. Place puppy in pre-focused spot and return to camera.
t a I l e n d
8. Forget about spot and crawl after puppy on knees. 9. Focus with one hand and fend off puppy with other hand. 10.Get tissue and clean nose print from lens 11.Take flash cube from puppy’s mouth and throw in trash. 12.Put cat outside and put peroxide on the scratch on puppy’s nose 13.Put magazines back on coffee table. 14.Try to get puppy’s attention by squeaking toy over your head. 15.Replace your glasses and check camera for damage.
16.Jump up in time to grab puppy by scruff of neck and say, “No, outside! No, outside” 17.Clean up mess. 18.Fix a drink. 19.Sit back in Lazy boy with drink and resolve to teach puppy “sit” and “stay” the first thing in the morning! 31