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Have you enjoyed reading Young Scientists Journal?

Read on for some ideas about how to get involved!

www.ysjournal.com First of all, who are these “Young Scientists”? They are…YOU! All our articles are written by – and, perhaps even more unusually, EDITED - by young people aged 12-20. The journal was founded in 2006 by a group of students at The King’s School, Canterbury but now we have authors and editors from high schools all over the world, communicating across the globe by email, Skype,Facebook, etc. The team is managed by the Chief Editor, a student usually in her/his last year at high school. It is the only peer review science journal for this age group, the perfect journal for aspiring scientists like you to publish research.

What if I’d like to write something for the journal? Perhaps you’ve done a science project, coursework, holiday placement, competition or presentation in science which made you proud? It is easy to submit your contribution by uploading it online at www.ysjournal.com and we can accept submissions in a variety of different forms, including pictures, videos and presentations. We are also keen to receive shorter, review articles, and also other material such as news items, competitions, videos or cartoons for the website.

Can I help to run Young Scientists? Yes! We love to hear from students aged 12-20 who would like to join our team, editing articles, managing the website, graphic designing, helping with publicity. You gain unique experience of working on an open-access, peer-reviewed, ISSN-referenced journal while still at school, learning editing and journalism skills which will impress any university. Send an email to our Chief Editor, Fiona Jenkinson: editor@ysjournal.com or find out more by visiting the Young Scientists Facebook page. And if you are a scientist, science communicator or teacher and would like to know more about how to support the work of the journal, please contact Christina Astin, at cma@kings-school.co.uk


Young Scientists Journal

Volume 6 | Issue 13 | Jan - Jun 2013

Editorial Board Chief Editor: Fiona Jenkinson, UK Editorial Team Members Team Leader: Chloe Forsyth, UK Louis Wilson, UK Louis Sharrock, UK David Hewett, UK Mei Yin Wong, Singapore Ben Lawrence, UK Tim Wood, UK Robert Aylward, UK Savannah Lord, UK Emily Thompsett, UK Natalie Cooper-Rayner, UK Rachel Wyles, UK Emma Copland, UK Fiona Paterson, UK Alex Lancaster, UK Gilbert Ch’ng, Singapore Arthur Harris, UK

Arian Atae, UK Matt Harrison, UK Kiran Thapa, UK Hannah Morrison, UK Anne de Vitry, France Muna Oli, USA Clarissa Ching, Malaysia Chloe Atkinson, UK George Topaloglou, UK Sam Slattery, UK Toju Iluyomade, UK Aimee Serisier, UK James Rand, UK Diego Paz, Peru

Technical Team Team Leader: Jea Seong Yoon, UK Mark Orders, UK

Young Advisory Board Steven Chambers, UK Malcolm Morgan, UK Tobias Nørbo, Denmark Arjen Dijksman, France Lorna Quandt, USA Joanna Buckley, UK Jonathan Rogers, UK Lara Compston-Garnett, UK Otana Jakpor, USA Pamela Barraza Flores, Mexico Muna Oli, USA

International Advisory Board Team Leader: Christina Astin, UK Ghazwan Butrous, UK Sam Morris, UK Anna Grigoryan, USA/Armenia Sir Harry Kroto, UK Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III, UK Baroness Susan Greenfield, UK Thijs Kouwenhoven, China Lee Riley, USA Paul Soderberg, USA Vince Bennett, USA Corky Valenti, USA Tony Grady, USA Mike Bennett, USA Charlie Barclay, UK Ian Yorston, UK Andreia Alvarez Soares, UK Joanne Manaster, USA Armen Soghoyan, Armenia Alom Shaha, UK Linda Crouch, UK Mark Orders, UK John Boswell, USA Anthony Hardwicke, UK Debbie Nsefik, UK Prof. Clive Coen, UK This magazine web-based Young Scientists Journal is online journal open access journal (www.ysjournal.com). It has been in existence since June 06 and contains articles written by young scientists for young scientists. It is where young scientists get their research and review articles published. Published by MEDKNOW PUBLICATIONS AND MEDIA PVT. LTD. B5-12, Kanara Business Center, Off Link Road, Ghatkopar (E), Mumbai - 400075, INDIA. Phone: 91-22-6649 1818 Web: www.medknow.com


Young Scientists Journal All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the editor. The Young Scientists Journal and/ or its publisher cannot be held responsible for errors or for any consequences arising from the use of the information contained in this journal. The appearance of advertising or product information in the various sections in the journal does not constitute an endorsement or approval by the journal and/or its publisher of the quality or value of the said product or of claims made for it by its manufacturer. The Journal is printed on acid free paper. Web sites: www.ysjournal.com E-mail:editor@ysjournal.com

Volume 6 | Issue 13 | Jan - Jun 2013

Contents... Editorial Fiona Jenkinson.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Interview Interview with Cleodie Swire Fiona Jenkinson.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Review Articles Stem cells: The future of medicine? Max Crean, Shiv Mahboobani.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Senescence, cancer, and immortality Alex Joseph .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Lift generation: Some misconceptions and truths about Lift Federico Bastianello.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Discussion IBM Watson: Revolutionizing healthcare? Kunal Wagle.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Original Research Artificial photosynthesis Takamasa Suzuki .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Research on light pollution by using a sky quality meter Sobue Hideaki.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Binchotan: The future battery Haruno Murakami, Kentaro Asai, Tatsuhiko Watanabe, Naoko Oyobe, Mio Oe, Yuya Hiramatu .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Seven kinds of light by chemical reaction chemiluminescence by oxalate ester Yumi Sato, Yuri Tokushige, Atsuki Nishikawa, Kazuya Sato, Mineki Yamamoto.. .. .. 27 Why does the Blue Grotto appear blue? Yuki Hara, Yuki Matsuoka, Ken Ohashi, Shuji Yamada.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 The mystery of why the fish tank is always clean Megumi Muramatsu, Tomoya Shigyo, Karin Watanabe.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 The habits of Mosquitoes Nana Asakura, Oishi Kenta, Suzuki Aki, Kato Asuka, Taniguchi Keina.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 The effect of omotehama environment on incubation of Loggerhead sea turtles Ryuto Kimura, Tomohiko Sato, Yumi Sato, Natsuki Sugiura, Erika Kodama, Mami Sibata, Haruka Ogura, Shota Inoue.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .35 A study of aphid behavior resulting in: A method of aphid repellence, the discovery of a strange descent of aphid, and variations in nourishment in development in kinds of aphid larvae Satoyo Ohya, Mako Kawai, Kimiko Oota.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37

Published by MEDKNOW PUBLICATIONS & MEDIA PVT. LTD. B5-12, Kanara Business Center, Off Link Rd, Ghatkopar (E), Mumbai - 400075, INDIA. Phone: 91-22-6649 1818 Web: www.medknow.com

Water repellance of leaves Miyako Ishio, Tamami Katsu, Nanaka Horii.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Can we find out the natural abundance of biodiversity of the dandelion? Masatoshi Suzuki, Shunsuke Fujita, Takahiro Hanebuchi, Masataka Sugiyama, Daiki Yamauchi.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 Crystal self-organization Arisa Okumara.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .46 Using ultrasound technology and computational analysis to develop an automated champagne pourer Rajiv Dua .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54


Editorial The Young Scientists Journal is proud to present issue 13 - a special issue on the St. Paul’s Anglo-Japanese Science Conference, 2012. This issue includes an unusually high proportion of original research articles which is refreshing as well as a selection of review and discussion articles. On the 9th March, 2012, a team from Young Scientists Journal, including myself, Cleodie Swire (Former Chief Editor), Ben Lawrence (Editor), and Christina Astin (co-founder of YSJ), set out to attend the first Anglo-Japanese International Science Conference for Students at St. Paul’s boys’ School, London. The conference opened with welcoming speeches by Dr. Ken Zetie (Head of Science, St Paul's School, London), Mr Hayashi Takaki (Principal of Jishukan High School, Aichi Prefecture) and Mr Tsuchiya Daisuke (Deputy Director of Japan Information and Cultural Affairs at the Embassy of Japan). These made those in attendance realize what a brilliant opportunity this was to meet others our age with an interest in Science. The rest of the day consisted of a series of PowerPoint presentations given by both English and Japanese students and, in a similar manner, poster presentations for smaller research projects. I think everyone was highly impressed by the high standard and variety of topics presented that day. This included the majority of those from Japan for whom English was a foreign language. It was inspiring to see such effort dedicated to communicating ideas, research, and observations. We invited those who gave presentations to adapt them to article format for this Special Issue in the hope of sharing this experience with more Young Scientists. With this year’s Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine being awarded in this area, Max Crean and Shiv Mahboobani begin by exploring stem cells and how cells increase in diversity of function from zygote to adult. Conveniently complementary, Alex Joseph explains the causes of aging and potential cures for cancer with an article on telomeres. Moving from medical research to a potential to revolutionize health-care: The uses of IBM Watson, a super-computer, has been discussed by Kunal Wangle. For a different use altogether, Rajiv Dua tries to use technology to solve the problem of glass overflow when Champagne is poured. Modern technologies from super-computers to nanobots require energy to function. A study on Biochotan battery is published in this issue which explores ways of increasing efficiency and material usage. Another group turns to the use of natural resources by researching the use of the commonly problematic green algae as a biofuel. Although they show that it helps keep aquatic waters clean, if conditions are right, an algal bloom can form killing most life in its habitat through eutrophication. Photosynthesis is common to green algae and plants. Growing in swampy areas, mud can block the sunlight from lotus leaves but, as shown in our water repellence article, these plants have some adaptations to prevent this problem. On the molecular level, the chemical pathways behind photosynthesis are studied using an alternative, simple chemical model by Takamasa Suzuki. Chlorophyll itself has the property of Chemiluminesence and emits energy in the form of red light if too much is present to be efficiently used. The light emitted by this and other fluorescers is studied in ‘Seven Kinds of Light by Chemical Reaction’. The way that light behaves in water may hold the answer to the research into ‘why does the Blue Groto appear blue?’ But as marvellous as light is, it is also polluting our skies and affects the habits of light-sensitive species. Sobue Hideaki calibrates the Sky Quality Meter to measure light pollution levels around Japan. There are also a few bioconservation articles: The effect of temperature on Loggerhead turtle eggs and how the biodiversity of the Dandelion is influenced by its environment. Some species and populations we strive to conserve, others, however, we struggle to control. Studying the habits of mosquitoes is the way one group hopes to learn more about reducing their numbers. An observation of the color variety in green peach aphids by Satoyo Oya, Aya Oonishi, Mako Kawai, and Kimiko Oota has led to the discovery of a method by which an aphid colony escapes absolute death when their host plant dies. Some misinterpretations about the force that causes birds and planes to fly, lift, seem to be common, so Frederico Bastellano distinguishes the science from the myth. Shapes are important for aerodynamics and Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

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having found mathematical patterns in nature, Arisa Okumara tests the properties of self-organizing crystals such as snowflakes and metal leaves in several imaginative experiments. Finally, we also are including an interview with our former Chief Editor, Cleodie Swire. Cleodie made so many contributions to this journal throughout her time working on it. With the journal being entirely student-run, I think it is only right to include this as an example of what it can mean to help run the journal. A great thank you to all in the Editorial and Technical Teams who made this issue possible. As well as a Special Mention to Chloe Forsyth, who is doing well in her new role as Editorial Team Leader and thanks is in order to Samuel Slattery, an Editor who helped coordinate international communications with us.

Fiona Jenkinson The King’s School Canterbury, UK. E-mail: 08flvj@kings-school.co.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107608

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Interview

Interview with Cleodie Swire Fiona Jenkinson The King’s School Canterbury, UK. E-mail: 08flvj@kings-school.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Former Chief Editor, Cleodie Swire, shares with us some of her experiences while working on Young Scientists Journal. Cleodie is now studying Medicine at Clare College, Cambridge. We wish her all the best for her future.

What would you say is your biggest personal contribution to Young Scientists Journal (YSJ)? When I first started, we did not have very many editors and there wasn’t an Editorial Team Leader as such. So I think that there has been a revamp of the way the editing works since I’ve been working on the journal as I was the Editorial Team Leader at that time. Now we have more more editors and there is a lot more communication between the Leadership Team and the editors, whereas, earlier the editors would upload the articles back themselves, we now do it through the Editorial Team Leader so this keeps a check on the quality and the time scale and making sure people aren’t slacking. Describe your role as chief editor for young scientists journal It’s probably easier if I describe it in comparison with the Editorial Team Leader. Head of Editorial Team deals with the beginning of the Editorial system: The articles when they come in and sending them out to the editors. The Chief Editor is the one who ties up all the ends not just with articles but with everything else, checking everything has been properly done. I am currently the one who gives the articles a final check before they are sent to the publishers and then check the proofs when that comes back from the publishers – tying up the ends, just chasing people up. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Do you think you have gained anything from it? One of the most important things that I’ve learnt is how to deal with people when you need to get something from them. For example, when we need to get photos etc., from authors, the way you need to show them how it could benefit them, in fact, to help you by making them aware of the benefits of publishing their own article. The best way to approach it is to make it clear that it’s serious but still being polite because you don’t want to be the one bossing them around. What would you say is the hardest thing about being chief editor? Probably the fact that whenever there is loads of work, it happens to coincide with lots of work at schoolthe whole thing of balancing time. Another thing I’ve learnt is how to manage while working on the journal; probably that’s one of the hardest things. Could you estimate how much time you spend working on young scientists journal? Before there was the Editorial Team Leader and the Chief Editor, and the Chief Editor wasn’t local so it was very difficult to work with her. I was doing most of the roles of the leaders–a lot of time! Whereas now, probably in a normal week, I’d spend an hour and a half that we do on a Thursday and probably an hour in addition to that, and then when it is getting 3


towards the publication time, I’d probably spend two hours each day on YSJ. What advice would you give then to help organize your time for ysj as you evidently are very busy at times? Well, for me, instead of taking breaks, I kind of have different types of work. For example, Maths is quite different than doing a more comprehensiontype Chemistry homework and I compartmentalize it like that. So I do a bit of homework, then a bit of YSJ, then when I’m fed up of YSJ, I go back to homework. I find that each type of work uses your brain and your energy in a different type of way! You just got gold standard in duke of edinburgh award; do you think your work on young scientists journal helped contribute to that? It definitely has because I used it as a service. It wasn’t really something we used to do when I first joined the journal. We do a lot more outreach now–actually going to schools and finding the editors other than waiting for willing people to come to us because it seems that when people can ask questions face to face, they seem a lot more willing to become editors. A lot of these people did actually know about the journal before and were aware that we were recruiting editors but it seems that actually being there persuaded them that it was a good idea. So that’s what I used as my service part of my Duke of Edinburgh award. Would you assign any particular qualities to the sort of people who may benefit from getting involved in the journal? For someone who is heavily involved, someone who is naturally organized would be at an advantage– that’s not to say it’s something you necessarily have: If you’re not organized, you must be aware of that and be willing to compromise by making lists, etc. Also, you must want to do it (for whatever reason) because it does involve commitment and time when you would rather be doing something else. Furthermore, you’re working as a team and in some ways, if you’re the one slacking; you’re letting the whole team down.

Do you think young scientists journal is potentially something that would look very good on a UCAS form or CV? Yes – I put it on my University application form. I wasn’t actually asked about it in the interview but I think it is a very impressive thing to do and there are some people who have gone to the University and told people there that they work on it and they have actually recognized the name. So I think that more and more it is something that Universities do know about, and even if they don’t, it is impressive to have experience in the areas that you handle during your time working on YSJ, and if you can explain it, it shows that you are actually very involved. In retrospect or if you had more time working on the journal, is there anything more you would want to do? Definitely–because I was organizing the editing system, I do feel that I, as a Chief Editor, was over my ears in this and haven’t contributed so much to the other aspects of the journal. Obviously the articles are the main feature, so that is what I focused on at that time but there are other things that I think could have exploited more such as the media like videos and blogs. There are local schools that do interesting projects and we definitely could have pushed to have some good blogs on there. Also, commissioning of artwork, which is something I have attempted every now and then, that definitely could have more of a push I think. How do you think you will contribute to ysj when you go on to become a young iab member? Initially, I will definitely liaise with the people who have taken up the leadership roles following me because I have been working on the journal for quite a long time and there are things that I’ve been naturally doing and perhaps have never told anyone but are necessary to do, and if little things start to fall through, I’m definitely willing to help and show people what it is that I’ve been doing. Have you learnt a lot from the articles we publish? It’s always interesting learning about what others of our age find interesting in Science. The majority of the best original research articles we receive are from abroad; they quite often have the most original ideas.

About the Author Fiona Jenkinson, Current Chief Editor, is 17-years-old and goes to The King’s School Canterbury where she is currently studying for her A Levels. She is studying Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Further Maths and has already taken as French. In her free time she enjoys art, music, photography, and reading. She wants to study Natural Sciences at the University. 4

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Review Article

Stem cells: The future of medicine? Max Crean, Shiv Mahboobani St Paul’s School. E-mail: MahbooK@StPaulsSchool.org.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107610

ABSTRACT

Stem cells are one of the brightest hopes for the future of modern medicine. It is thought that it is possible to use them to cure a vast array of illnesses and disorders, ranging from diabetes, to Parkinson’s disease and even to help the sufferers of trauma, such as those with spinal damage. Stem cells are unspecialized cells which have the potential to specialize into many different types of cell. The number of different cells into which they can specialize depends on their potency, with embryonic stem cells having the most potential (totipotent). These embryonic stem cells are first formed when a sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell. From this single cell all the cells in your body are descended.

Stem cells are different from all the other cells in our body. Specialized cells, for example red blood cells, are known as differentiated cells - they have a particular function. Stem cells, however, are undifferentiated and thus do not have a particular role in the body. They have three general properties: • T hey are able to divide (proliferate)/renew themselves for long periods. • They are unspecialized. • They give rise to specialized cells. Stem cells start development when a sperm and an egg meet. This produces a ‘special’ stem cell that has the potential to grow into a human being and a placenta that will feed the embryo as it grows. When the cell starts to divide each cell is still undifferentiated. However, after a certain point of development a series of signals limit each cell’s potential. This is when differentiation has begun [Figure 1]. One week after fertilization, the embryo is known as the blastocyst. The cells on the outside Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

of the wall will form the placenta, and the cells on the inside (the inner mass) will form all the cells in the body.[1] Two weeks after fertilization, the cells of the embryo organize into three layers. Cell signals restrict the potential of these cells even further; each layer will produce a different set of cell types. After a few weeks each layer forms the following: • Ectoderm (outer layer) becomes the skin, nervous system, and parts of the face and neck • The mesoderm (middle layer) becomes muscle, blood, blood vessels, bones, and connective tissue. • T he endoderm (inner layer) becomes the digestive and respiratory tracts and the glands that feed them - including the pancreas and liver. After being born, we still maintain areas of stem cells; these somatic stem cells play a very important role in growth, maintenance, and repair. Figure 2 indicates the areas where these stem cells are found in the body. 5


Adult stem cells mostly remain dormant, waiting for a signal to tell them to divide. But some stem cells are constantly replacing the cells that are lost every day. The somatic (adult) stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as under normal conditions they can only produce a few cell types. For example, the bone marrow produces blood cells, like red blood cells. Bone marrow has many somatic stem cells next to many differentiated cells.

In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka, in Japan, discovered induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); these cells were created from ordinary skin cells. By using embryonic stem cells, he localized the particular genes that had to be switch ‘on’ to make stem cells. Each cell in our body has the same 20,000 genes but a heart cell is different from a liver cell due to which genes are switched on and switched off. This is known as cell programming.

Multipotent, Pluripotent, Totipotent and Unipotent Stem Cells

Yamanaka reduced these several million possibilities to just four genes after three years of research. He did this by testing each gene’s ability to make pluripotent stem cells. This achievement allowed him to turn adult cells, like skin cells, into stem cells. However, there are still some problems with this method: • The virus used to transfer the four genes into a skin cell can mutate the whole DNA and cause cancer. • One of the four genes is a gene that is known to cause cancer. • A high percentage of the mice used to test this gene did develop cancer.

Pluripotent cells have the ability to make all the different cell types in the body; however, they cannot make extra embryonic tissues like the placenta. Multipotent cells have the ability to develop into more than one cell type in the body. Totipotent cells have the ability to develop into all the cell types in the body including those embryonic tissues like the placenta. Unipotent cells have the ability to differentiate into only one cell type, for example: hepatocytes in the liver.[2]

The Concerns and Controversy Surrounding the Use of Stem Cells The main controversy surrounding stem cells are that one must use an embryo to obtain stem cells.[3] Clearly, there are many moral implications associated with using egg cells. Some believe that potential life is effectively being killed to help save someone else’s. There are other methods like iPSC, which are still in the early developing stages.[4]

Figure 1: The development of an embryo [Available from: http://www. learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells]

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However, research has been done to remove this cancer-causing gene immediately after it had served its beneficial purpose of creating pluripotent stem cells. This method has been tested and cured mice with sickle cell anemia. There is still a lot of controversy surrounding this method and, therefore, the preferred method is to use embryonic stem cells.

The Use of Stem Cells Further research into stem cells has the potential to open up a wide range of exciting new possibilities,

Figure 2: Where are stem cells found in the body? [Available from: http://www.learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/scintro/]

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both within the medical world and in other areas.[5] Their unique properties allow them to be used in a variety of different ways to cure a wide range of illnesses, ranging from diabetes to leukemia.[6]

the issue of the original problem, that of the immune system mistakenly attacking the beta cells, can still occur. Perhaps this defeats the purpose of using a method that attempts to avoid organ rejection.

Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes is caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is the hormone that is involved in the regulation of glucose levels within the blood. It works by binding to an insulin receptor on a cell (mainly in adipose tissue and striated muscle), which causes a cascade of reactions that causes more GLUT4 (Glucose Transporter Type 4) proteins to move to the plasma membrane. This, in turn, allows for a greater rate of transport of glucose into the cell, thus taking glucose out of the blood. It can also lead to the synthesis of glycogen from glucose molecules to act as a form of energy storage. When the beta cells are attacked, this leads to depletion of insulin, which prevents glucoregulation from taking place. This can lead to glucose levels in the blood rising to dangerous, and possibly fatal, levels. Current treatment for diabetes involves consistent injections of insulin and the regulation of diet to maintain a healthy level of glucose in the blood. Another form of treatment would be a pancreas transplant to give the patient new beta cells. However, there is currently a shortage of pancreases available for transplant, and there are also other issues involved with transplants such as the need for antirejection drugs.

Trachea transplant The principle of growing organs from stem cells can be extended to many different organs other than the pancreas. One highly successful operation is that of the trachea transplant. An artificial structure of the windpipe of the patient can be made, or a donor trachea can be stripped of the cells, leaving only the cartilaginous structure behind. This structure can then be coated with the patient’s own stem cells, which grow on the structure to form a fully functioning transplant. The advantage of using an artificial structure is that it requires no donor at all, and the replacement trachea can be made within days.

Research into stem cells could yield the exciting new possibility of being able to grow a new pancreas from embryonic stem cells. This would solve the issue of lack of organ donors, since the organs could be grown to meet the demand. Another potential would be to use induced pluripotent stem cells. This involves reprogramming the patient’s own somatic cells into becoming pluripotent stem cells, which can then be used to grow a new organ. This would solve the problem of organ rejection since the pancreas would have been grown from the patient’s own cells and so would not be viewed by the immune system as being foreign. This would mean that immune-suppressant drugs would no longer be necessary and so there would no longer be the problem of increased susceptibility to infection that is the inevitable result of a suppressed immune system. Much research has been carried out in this area, however, these types of pancreas that are implanted into mice are shown to produce less insulin than pancreases that have been transplanted normally, from a donor. There is also Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Leukemia Stem cells are already used in the treatment of leukemia. It involves the transplant of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow into the patients that can go on to produce new white blood cells. The nervous system Stem cells can be used to regenerate nerve tissue damaged by trauma. A person with a broken back may be able to be treated so that they can walk again. This would be achieved by growing nerve cells from the patient’s cells to reconnect the severed ends of the spinal cord. There is also the potential for a cure to Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s damages a single, wellidentified, dopamine-producing cell in the brain. These are located in a specific part of the brain known as the substantia nigra. Stem cells could be transplanted into this region, and being able to produce dopamine, could relieve the patient of the debilitating effects of the disease. Growing meat Recently, there has been talk of scientists being able to encourage stem cells to grow into muscle cells that could be used for food. If the process were to be made cheaper and faster, then, this could be an effective form of food production and could also appeal to vegetarians since no animals would be harmed in the process. However, if you want a burger made from these stem cells anytime soon you are going to have to start saving up approximately £200,000![5] 7


References 1. The Nature of Stem Cells. The Nature of Stem Cells; 2012. Available from: http://www.learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/ tech/stemcells/scintro/. [Last accessed on 07 February 2012]. 2. 2012. Available from: http://stemcells.nih.gov/staticresources/ info/basics/SCprimer2009.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Feb 7]. 3. Nova stem cell research - YouTube. Nova stem cell research - YouTube; 2012. Available from: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=Q7hOi_1HBZw. [Last accessed on

2012 Sep 11]. 4. NOVA|Stem Cells Breakthrough: Q and A. NOVA|Stem Cells Breakthrough: Q and A; 2012. Available from: http://www. pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/daley-stem-cell.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Sep 11]. 5. BBC. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk. [Last accessed on 2012 Feb 22] 6. Benefits of Stem Cells - Explore Stem Cells. Benefits of Stem Cells - Explore Stem Cells; 2012. Available from: http:// www.explorestemcells.co.uk/BenefitsOfStemCells.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Feb 7].

About the Authors Max Crean and Shiv Mahboobani are in year 13 and are currently students at St. Paul’s School. Max plays the piano and enjoys playing tennis. He is currently hoping to study Biology at University. Shiv plays violin and enjoys playing cricket. He hopes to study medicine at University.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Review Article

Senescence, cancer, and immortality Alex Joseph St. Paul’s School, London, UK. E-mail: JosephA@stpaulsschool.org.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107611

ABSTRACT

Telomeres are found at the end of chromatids and prevent chromosomes from deteriorating as they are replicated. As these run out in the human body, the amount of times that cells can duplicate is limited. They therefore can so control the lifespan of the organism. Tumours can activate Telomerase making them biologically immortal and able to replicate rapidly. This allows the tumour to thrive without ageing. This article investigates the potential of using Telomeres in the fight against cancer and the eventual possibility to slow down the ageing process of the human body.

Telomeres and Ageing The definition of senescence is the scientific term for biological ageing; the definition of which is the change in the biology of an organism once it has reached maturity. Senescence progresses through cell divisions and in order for DNA in a chromosome to remain undamaged, it needs telomeres as shown by the white caps in Figure 1. A telomere is DNA that does not code for anything, but is merely ‘a repetitive nucleotide sequence’, and this prevents the damage that would otherwise happen to the chromosome.[1] During cell division, when DNA is being replicated, Okazaki fragments (strands of RNA containing 1,000-2,000 nucleotides) need to be connected together to form DNA after the last RNA primer has attached. Unfortunately, in order for the Okazaki fragments to connect together, bits of the RNA need to be cut off.[2] Therefore, over time, telomeres or, meaningless DNA that codes for nothing, have evolved so as to prevent useful DNA from being left out. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

These telomeres have the code TTAGGG repeated many times.[3] However, over time the number of telomeres in the body decreases. Humans begin with around 7,000-10,000 nucleotides worth of telomeres,

Figure 1: A photo of chromosomes (grey) with lighter telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes [Available from: http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/File:  Telomere_caps.gif (lhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File: Telomere_caps.gif (Last accessed on July 2012)]

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but due to cell duplications in every cell, humans lose around 31 each year. This means that over time the body begins to run out, which limits the number of times a cell can divide. Consequently, in older people, the cells cannot duplicate when tissue needs to be repaired, and as a result, healing is slower and the body deteriorates as cells age and reach apoptosis or cell death. For this reason, the longer an animal’s telomeres are, the longer its lifespan is. The (whatever damage it is) damage to DNA is most often caused by free radicals and as humans age, less can be done to repair the DNA and, therefore, life-threatening mutations can persist.[4]

The Senescence Exceptions This is a photo of a hydra [Figure 2]; it is the only known eukaryotic organism that definitely does not biologically age. Hydras continually divide on a cellular level and this helps to remove flaws in the DNA, as the proteins involved in the cell-replication can find flaws in the DNA and thus remove them. However, what is most significant about hydras is the fact that they can produce telomeres and maintain their length. Therefore, hydras are biologically immortal. This process also occurs in tumors.[5] These rogue cells activate telomerase and due to the cip/kip gene, which makes the p53 protein (which blocks cell duplication) being faulty, these cells produce rapidly and do not age either.[6] The greatest example of this is the HeLa cell line. These cells were taken from the tumor of a woman in the 1950s. Her cells

Figure 2: A photo of a Hydra [Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/File: Hydra001.jpg (Last accessed on July 2012)]

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have replicated so much over time that there is now 400 times her body weight in cells worldwide. These cells have not aged at all and can in essence be replicated indefinitely. This is purely down to excellent telomerase which replaces the lost telomeres and thus means that cell division does not get obstructed. As a result, it draws comparisons to prokaryotic cells. In Prokaryotes, while the cells do die (like in the HeLa cell line), the colony line theoretically never ends as cells have an unlimited ability to replicate.[7] There are also others within the animal kingdom that could theoretically live indefinitely, including lobsters and jellyfish. The latter uses a different technique called trans-differentiation, which in essence is the creating of embryonic stem cells and using these to replace the old cells and add a new cell line. However, this is a different type of biological immortality and it is not known to definitively produce immortality, but does allow the jellyfish/lobster to not age during its brief lifespan whilst continuing to get larger.[8]

The Late Life Mortality Plateau This is the mortality graph for a type of fly [Figure 3], but the vague model is applicable to most eukaryotes. As humans age and telomeres get shorter, chance of death increases from mutations causing a problem with bodily functions or even death. Mortality rate appears to go up exponentially until inexplicably it reaches a plateau, even if it is at a high rate. In humans, at the age of 110, the chance of surviving another year is around half and the chances of dying will not

Figure 3: A graph to show the mortality rate of fruit flies [PNAS December 24, 1996 vol. 93 no. 26 15249-15253 Copyright (1996) National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A]

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


fluctuate.[9] This is relatively inexplicable, but some believe the telomerase is re-activated and produces just enough to keep the body working. This is because, at such late ages, no evolutionary selection will have occurred so no more selective mutations can occur. Therefore, the chance of death will not increase and the person will continue to live. Theoretically, this plateau will never reach 100% mortality.[5]

Telomerase and a Cure for Cancer Tumours activate telomerase which helps them to divide in large quantities without ageing. However, it does put the tumor at a risk. If humans were able to design a telomerase inhibitor that prevented tumors from negating the shortening of telomeres, the tumor would die by dividing excessively and causing apoptosis. By doing this, further duplication could be prevented after a maximum of eight duplications, thus halting the process of cancer. The tumor would become vulnerable to chemotherapy, or in the case of a brain tumor, the cells could be prevented from advancing any further.[6]

A Cure for Ageing? Activating telomerase in human cells is not a practical solution to ageing as it greatly increases one’s chances of getting cancer. Therefore, we are probably (unless cancer becomes better understood) not going to be able to use this method as it presents too high a risk for the patient so it is not viable.[6] However, some argue that there could be several methods to lengthen telomeres and naturally induce longer life spans. In a population where people have children before the age of 25, like in most of the very early civilisations, genetic diseases that cause death or prevent childbirth at the age of 30 would have remained in the gene pool. When people have children at older ages the genes for these mutations and shorter life spans are removed. This was tested

using the Methuselah fly. Researchers bred the oldest living flies in each generation and managed to double their lifespan from 60 days to 120 days, with the breeding taking place where the death would have usually occurred. However, this method is impractical and unethical with humans, although people are naturally having children later.[5] Theoretically, there is also the use of trans-differentiation of stem cells, such as in jellyfish. Replenishing the existing stock of cells in the human body with new cells that contain telomeres that have not been shortened, could only have hypothetical success in an organism as complex and with as many cell types as humans, so it may be some time before humans can live forever.

References 1. Pedro de Magalhães, Cellular Senescence; 1997. Available from: http://www.senescence.info/cell_aging.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul 27]. 2. Colm G. Okazaki fragments; 2012. Available from: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okazaki_fragments. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 3. Zheng L, Shen B. Okazaki fragment maturation: Nucleases take centre stage; 2011. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030970/. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 4. Cawthon R. Are Telomeres the key to Aging and Cancer? Available from: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/ traits/telomeres/. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 5. Callaway E. Telomerase reverses ageing process; 2010. Available from: http://www.nature.com/news/2010/101128/ full/news.2010.635.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 6. Greider CW, Blackburn EH. Telomeres, Telomerase and Cancer Available from: http://www.genethik.de/telomerase.htm. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 7. Biosystems A. Hela cell line. Available from: http://helatransfection.com/. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 8. Bai N. The curious case of the immortal jellyfish. blogs. discovermagazine.com; 2009. Available from: http://blogs. discovermagazine.com/discoblog/2009/01/29/the-curiouscase-of-the-immortal-jellyfish/. [Last accessed on 2012 Jul]. 9. Mueller L, Rose M. Evolutionary theory predicts late life mortality plateaus. Available from: http://www.pnas.org (late life mortality plateau). [Last accessed on 2012 Jul].

About the Author Alex Joseph attends St. Paul’s School and plans to study Geography. He enjoys photography in his spare time; his favorite areas of Science are biodiversity and ecology.

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

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Review Article

Lift generation: Some misconceptions and truths about Lift Federico Bastianello St. Paul’s School, London, England. E-mail: bastiaf@stpaulsschool.org.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107612

ABSTRACT

To maintain an aircraft in air during steady and level flight, an upwards force to support its weight must be produced. Such a force is commonly known as lift. Many contradictory theories have been developed about the possible ways through which lift is generated and the debate still remains widely open. The common explanation, which seems to give the correct answer, uses incorrect physical arguments and wrongly appeals to the Bernoulli’s equation. A more correct explanation of the lift relies on the idea that along curved streamlines a difference in pressure exists, which provides an explanation for lift.

Introduction When the World War II (WWII) Lancaster bomber flew over Buckingham Palace on the day of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations, many of those watching may have asked themselves how such a large aircraft, moving so slowly, could possibly stay up in the air. Children probably thought that the plane was “leaning” on its wings, whereas the Bernoulli Principle[1] most likely sprang to the minds of those with some General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) (or higher) Physics background. Both categories were probably satisfied with their own explanation, as well as the Jubilee celebrations. But were they right? Some common misconceptions To maintain an aircraft in the air during steady and level flight, an upward force must be produced to support its weight. Such force is commonly known as lift. So, while it is true that lift can be generally described as an upward force at right angles to the direction of motion,[2] many contradictory theories 12

have been developed about the possible ways through which lift is generated and the debate still remains widely open. Lift is generated by a difference in pressure between the upper and the lower part of the wing, but the two common beliefs of why this is so are generally wrong. The first is an assumption that the difference in distance that particles have to travel on the upper and lower surface of a wing will lead to a difference in velocity as particles are assumed to “meet up” again at the trailing edge (i.e., they take the same time to travel different distances). The second relates to the Bernoulli’s principle, which states that a change in speed requires a change in pressure, which in turn generates lift.[1] The first misconception relates to the “equal time” argument. Particles within an airflow splitting at the leading edge are believed to then meet up again at the trailing edge [Figure 1]: Since the upper surface is curved, particles traveling along it must travel a greater distance and, therefore, travel faster to Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


“keep up” and “make it”. What is wrong with this argument is the belief that the difference in velocity is due to the fact that particles on the upper surface travel a longer distance than particles on the lower surface, taking the same time to do so. Babinsky (2003) showed through an experiment,[3] in which an aerofoil was immersed in a flow and smoke particles were injected, that particles do not “meet up” at the trailing edge [Figure 2]. Another proof that the difference in the distance traveled is not what generates lift is the way sails work; the distance traveled by particles moving along the outer and the inner surface is the same, but lift is still generated [Figure 3].[4] The “same time/greater distance” argument is, therefore, wrong. The second misconception derives from a faulty application of the Bernoulli’s principle, i.e., that it is the change in the velocities of particles that generates a difference in pressure, which in turn creates lift. This misconception is based on the observation that if we blow along the upper surface of a curved sheet of paper [Figure 4], it will lift upwards. Hence, it is assumed that the velocity of the air particles flowing along the upper surface (blown air) is greater than the velocity of the particles under the sheet of paper (undisturbed air) and consequently, because of the relationship described in Bernoulli’s equation, the change in speed generates a change in pressure,

Figure 1: A diagram of the main characteristics of an aerofoil [Available from: http://www.dreesecode.com/primer/airfoil2.html]

which leads to lift. However, if we blow down the side of a sheet of paper hanging vertically [Figure 5], no lift will be generated, thus demonstrating that it is not the difference in velocity that causes lift. The reason why the Bernoulli Principle is often thought of as being the main cause of lift is that Bernoulli’s relationship can be used to calculate the lift force on an aerofoil. However, this is not sufficient for it to be considered the cause of lift itself, as it doesn’t explain whether it is the velocity difference that causes the difference in pressure or whether it is the difference in pressure between the upper and the lower surface of the airfoil that causes the difference in velocity.

The “Truth” About Bernoulli and Some Truths About Lift Underlying assumptions The key to understanding fluid flow around an object is examining the forces acting on individual fluid particles (this term refers to a very small but finite volume of the fluid, not individual molecules) and applying Newton’s laws of motion.[5] There are some basic assumptions we need to make before we can start analysing fluid motion: • We neglect most forces acting on a fluid particle such as surface tension and gravity: The only relevant forces are pressure and friction but at this stage friction can also be neglected as it is relevant only in a small region close to solid surfaces (the boundary layer). • The flow has to be steady. By analyzing the forces acting on the particle and by applying Newton’s second law (the resulting force acting on a body causes acceleration) we can derive the laws governing fluid motion.

Figure 2: Smoke particles flowing along a lifting aerofoil section [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

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Figure 3: Flow along the cross section of a sail [Available from: Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

Figure  5: A  straight piece of paper doesn’t move when air is blown along one side [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

Figure 4: Paper lifts when air is blown along its upper surface [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

Bernoulli’s Equation We now imagine a fluid particle traveling in a straight line as shown in Figure 6 (it is often overlooked that Bernoulli’s equation [6] applies only along a straight line) where v is the direction of motion: If the particle is in a region of varying pressure and if the particle has finite size ‘l’ then the front of the particle will be experiencing a different pressure from the rear. If the pressure is greater at the back, then the object will experience a positive net force and, as stated in Newton’s second law, the object will accelerate and the particle’s velocity will increase as it moves along the streamline. Conversely, if the pressure increases at the front, then the particle will decelerate. This means that if the pressure drops along the streamline, the velocity increases and vice versa (this is the real significance of Bernoulli’s equation).

Lift The simple experiment we referred to in Figures 4 and 5, which often leads to the second misconception we 14

Figure 6: Fluid particle traveling along a straight line [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

discussed in the initial part of this paper, can also provide us with a hint of how the difference in pressure and, therefore, lift is generated. The fact that no lift is generated if we blow down a sheet of paper which is hanging vertically, and that if we hold that same sheet of paper at an angle and blow along its upper surface, it will lift, would suggest that lift has something to do with curvature. If we now look at a particle traveling at a constant velocity along a curved streamline, we should agree that there has to be a centripetal force acting at a normal to the direction of motion to keep such particle along its path [Figure 7]. This force can only arise from pressure differences, which implies that the pressure on one side is greater than the on the other. If a streamline is curved, there must then be a pressure gradient across the streamline, with the pressure increasing away from the centre of curvature. (Note: The pressure gradient is the “rate of decrease of pressure in space at a fixed time or it is simply the magnitude of the gradient of the pressure field”).[7] Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


We can now apply this theory on aerofoils to explain lift. By looking at Figure 8, at point A the air is undisturbed and hence the streamlines are parallel: This implies that the pressure is atmospheric. As we move perpendicularly to the streamlines from A towards the aerofoil surface, the curvature of the streamlines increases and hence there must be a pressure gradient across the streamlines. From the direction of curvature, we can deduce that the pressure drops as we move downwards. Therefore, the pressure at A is greater than the pressure at B (pAtm > pB). Similarly, at point C the air is also undisturbed and consequently the streamlines are parallel, implying that at point C the pressure is atmospheric too. If we now move from C to D, we will notice that the curvature of the streamline increases: This time the pressure increases as we approach the aerofoil surface (pAtm < pD).

Figure 7: Fluid particle along a curved streamline at constant velocity [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

Hence, pD> pAtm > pB: The pressure at D is greater than the pressure at B (pD > pB): This generates a resultant pressure force on the aerofoil, acting upwards, i.e., lift. We can draw an interesting conclusion, which is empirically supported by the very simple experiment involving the sheet of paper that we mentioned above: Any shape that introduces a curvature into a flow field generates a difference in pressure and, therefore, lift. Hence, the greater the curvature, the greater the lift generated.

Figure  8: Streamlines around a lifting curved plate [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

By looking at Figure 9, the angle of attack can be increased until it gets to the point where the flow is no longer capable of following the curvature of the surface. In this case, the flow separates from the surface and the lift effect ceases: This phenomenon is known as stall. We can conclude that in the end all in the crowd watching the Lancaster bomber fly over Buckingham Palace were right; the children thinking the bomber was “leaning” on its wings were correct because there was an upward force “pushing” the plane up from underneath its wings; and the adults with a Physics GCSE (or higher) background were also correct, because there was an upward force “lifting” the plane’s wings. Although, of course, both were “wrong”, because for lift to occur the two must go together. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Figure 9: How stall arises [Available from: Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497]

References 1.

Airfoil Properties. Available from: http://www.bogan.ca/soaring/ Airfoil_Property.PDF. [Last accessed on 2013 Jan 31].

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2. Airfoil wings. Available from: http://www.dept.aoe. vt.edu/~lutze/AOE3104/airfoilwings.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Jan 31]. 3. Airplane basics. Available from: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/ WWW/K-12/airplane/right2.html. [Last accessed on 2012  Jan 31]. 4. Babinsky H. How do wings work? Phys Educ 2003;38:497.

5. Lift. Available from: http://www.pilotfriend.com/training/ flight_training/aero/lift.htm. [Last accessed on 2012 Jan 31]. 6. Bernoulli’s Principle. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Bernoulli’s_principle. [Last accessed on 2012 Jan 31]. 7. The Effect of Pressure Gradient. Available from: http://web.mit. edu/fluids-modules/www/highspeed_flows/3-5press-grad.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Jan 31].

About the Author Federico Bastianello is currently studying at St Paul’s School, Barnes and next October he will start his final year there. He is a very keen chess player, holding an international ranking. To constantly improve his game, he spends quite a bit of time reading books about chess. He plays golf off a 9 hcp and is also a fan of playing tennis. He is planning to apply to study Engineering at the University.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Discussion

IBM Watson: Revolutionizing healthcare? Kunal Wagle St Paul’s School, London, UK. E-mail: kunal.wagle@spsblackandwhite.co.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107613

ABSTRACT

At the International Science Conference in March, Kunal presented a poster about the new supercomputer developed by IBM called Watson and discussed the possibility that it could in fact revolutionize the way we view the current healthcare system. In this paper, he discusses what Watson is, how it works, how it rose to fame, and its possible uses for the future, as well as how this machine, or any other supercomputers of the future, can alter the healthcare system for ever.

Watson is a supercomputer, which was developed by IBM. The accepted definition of a supercomputer is a computer that is at the high end of processing capability.[1] To provide an example the K Computer, developed by Fujitsu, is thought to be the fastest computer in the world at the moment – it has a total of 88,128 processors, and isn’t completed yet. It can run at an estimated speed of 10.51 petaflops[2] (the equivalent of 1.051 × 1016 flops). To put the little used unit “flops” into context, the biggest Mac Pro (the desktop version, and therefore the most powerful computer that Apple sells) runs at a speed of 102 gigaflops.[3] That means that the K Computer is roughly 100,000 times faster than the most powerful of Apple’s computers. In fact the speed of Watson can’t even compare to that of the K Computer. Watson can run at a speed of 80 teraflops, according to IBM, using a total of 2,880 POWER7 (a 3.55 GHZ chip) processors. However, it isn’t the processing speed that makes Watson what it is. IBM Watson is extremely prominent in the world of supercomputers because of its sheer size. Watson boasts 90 IBM Power 750 servers, thus giving it 15 terabytes of memory, as well as 20 terabytes Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

clustered on disk.[4] This aids Watson in its purpose as it means that it can store all the information of all the encyclopedias of the world. This means that Watson doesn’t need to be connected to the Internet to access all the information that it needs. However, it isn’t just the server size where Watson is prominent. For years the aim of supercomputer architects has been to design a computer that can understand and process natural language. Those who have the most recent iPhone would have noticed this with Siri’s capability to take what we say in plain language and break it down to find out what we really want. However, there is a key point that makes the design of Siri easier. There are a limited number of questions that it can be asked, as it is optimized to perform the operations of an iPhone, rather than solve equations or answer questions at a high speed in a pressure environment. The other drawback to Siri compared to the capabilities of a supercomputer, particularly Watson, is that it needs to connect to the Internet to find the answer to a question, even if the command was as simple as “play some Smooth Jazz”. 17


Watson has the capability to complete a cycle of processes that all designers of supercomputers strive to emulate. Watson can: Understand natural language and speech of humans, adapt and learn from user selections and responses, and generate and evaluate hypotheses for better outcomes. For example, if someone was to ask Watson the question, “Welch ran this?” Watson would sift through all the data that has been stored on its servers until it finds something relevant to Jack Welch, such as the text below, from Jack Welch and the GE Way by Robert Slater: “If leadership is an art then surely Jack Welch has proved himself a master painter during his tenure at GE”.[5] From this Watson picks out the keywords: Leadership, Welch, and GE. It then deduces that the answer to the question is obviously “GE”. This entire process takes Watson less than a second.[6] So how has Watson caught the public eye? Well, in February 2011 IBM Watson beat the previous two record holders at a game of Jeopardy, which is a popular U.S. game show. [7] Jeopardy is a game show where candidates are provided with an answer to a question and have to provide an answer beginning with “What is”. Watson was loaded with all the encyclopedias of the world and came up with the three most likely answers and an independent percentage chance of each of them being correct. If no other candidate had answered the question by this time Watson would answer with the most likely answer. Out of all the questions Watson answered, only two of its answers were incorrect. The night had proved to be a sensational success. Last year, when discussing the possible uses for Watson, IBM said that we would benefit most from Watson being in a situation where it would be needed to analyze unstructured data as well as provide prioritized recommendations and the evidence upon which that has been based.[8] So where could these uses lie? Well, an obvious answer (as is the case with many supercomputers of the current generation) is in the financial sector.[9] Watson could theoretically be used to detect fraud. How? Well, Watson could compare a purchase on a credit card with the previous regular purchases, the location of the purchase, and the amount of money spent compared to previous months. It 18

would then present a percentage chance that the most recent purchase indicated fraudulent behavior. However, Watson goes one step further than other supercomputers. It can also be used to predict the security of an investment, or when retirement planning. IBM has also provided other possible uses for Watson including: Government use to determine public safety and security, as well as consumer insight services within the call centre industry. However the jewel in the crown of the capabilities of Watson is clearly in its potential in the healthcare industry, specifically, in diagnosis.[10] Watson would use its understanding of natural language to draw out information from a conversation between a general practitioner (GP) and a patient. It would then split the information into the following categories: Symptoms, Family History, Patient History, Current Medications as well as the results of a urine test provided at the appointment. It would then use these to present a list of three likely ailments and their independent percentage chance of being correct. The GP would then choose the ailment that appears most likely and prescribe treatment for that. Here is a hypothetical example: Bob goes to his GP complaining of a fever, difficulty swallowing and increased thirst, as well as frequent urination. His family medical history includes bladder cancer and Graves’s disease. Bob’s own medical history includes earlier treatment for osteoporosis and urinary tract infections. His medications included pravastatin for Esophagitis, the side effects of which could potentially include urinary tract infections. The urine sample tested positive for nitrites. Watson’s final results suggested a 95% confidence that the ailment was a urinary tract infection and 40% confidence in diabetes. The patient took medication for a urinary tract infection and felt better within days. Watson was correct, but provided all other options so that the GP could be sure that it wasn’t a disease, such as meningitis or fever that could have hidden symptoms. It has to be stressed that we are still far off making a computer as intelligent, or at least intelligent in the same ways, as a human. This is because for the foreseeable future at least, a computer will always be dependent on a human programming it. But don’t be surprised if in five years time you are sitting in a GP’s office and you are taking advice from a computer. And don’t worry too much. Watson is right almost all of the time. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


References 1. Available from: http://www.techterms.com/definition/ supercomputer. [Last accessed on 2013 Jan 31]. 2. Available from: http://www.top500.org/. [Last accessed on 2013 Jan 31]. 3. Available from: http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/ The_Fastest_Mac_Compared_to_Todays_Supercomputers/. [Last accessed on 2013 Jan 31]. 4. Available from: Beyond Jeopardy: Applying WATSON to Financial Services. IBM Research.

5. Jack Welch and the GE Way, Robert Slater. 6. IBM Research. 7. A v a i l a b l e f r o m : h t t p : / / w w w . b b c . c o . u k / n e w s / technology-12491688. [Last accessed on 2013 Jan 31]. 8. Putting IBM Watson to Work, IBM Research. 9. Available from: http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/ watson-for-a-smarter-planet/industry-perspectives.html. [Last accessed on 2011 Sep 21]. 10. Available from: http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/ watson-for-a-smarter-planet/industry-perspectives/healthcare. html. [Last accessed on 2011 Sep 21].

About the Author Kunal Wagle is a 17-year-old budding Computer Scientist who studies Maths, Further Maths, Physics, and Computing at St Paulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s School, London. Amongst other things advancing technology, and more specifically IBM Watson, is something he takes a keen interest in and researches in detail in his spare time. His other hobbies include cricket, tennis, and playing on the school bridge team, as well as being Editor of the school magazine.

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Original Research

Artificial photosynthesis Takamasa Suzuki Okazaki Senior High School, Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: iptaka@gmail.com DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107614

ABSTRACT

We decided to study the process of converting light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis. To do this, we made a three-layer artificial model containing a reducing agent, a photocatalyst, an electron transfer chemical, and an oxidizing agent. The oxidizing agent was only reduced when benzoquinone alone was used in the middle layer. A potential difference across the layers was only measurable when this experiment was performed in light. We can, therefore, conclude that in our model, benzoquinone plays a role in photo catalysis and electron transfer.

Introduction We focused on the ability of photosynthesis to convert light energy into chemical energy efficiently. In order to investigate this, we agreed to study an artificial model of the reaction under laboratory conditions. The experiment was done using a three-layer system [Figure 1]. The upper layer is a reducing agent. The middle layer contains a photocatalyst and an electron transfer chemical. The lower layer is an oxidizing agent. By separating into three layers, the reaction becomes similar to plant photosynthesis, and that makes it easier to investigate which layers react. We used oxalic acid in aqueous solution as a reducing agent, zinc porphyrin (ZnP) in cyclohexane solution as a photocatalyst, benzoquinone (Q) in a solution of chlorobenzene as an electron transfer chemical, and phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) aqueous solution as an oxidizing agent. 20

When light hits the three-layer system, zinc porphyrin, which is a photocatalyst, becomes excited and loses electrons. Benzoquinone, which is an electron transfer chemical, receives electrons from the photocatalyst and protons (H+ ions) from the reducing agent, and, as a result, changes to hydroquinone. Electrons then move from the reducing agent to zinc porphyrin, returning it to its previous state. Finally, hydroquinone passes hydrogen atoms to Phosphomolybdic acid. Phosphomolybdic acid changes color from yellow to green when it is reduced. This is summarized as follows: 2ZnP→2ZnP++2eQ+2e-→Q2-, Q2-+2H+→H2Q 2ZnP++2e- → 2ZnP H2Q+PMo →Q+H2PMo Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Materials and Methods Since four chemicals are used in the middle layer, it was difficult to specify the reaction pathway. For this reason, we decided to simplify the middle layer, and we prepared two hypotheses. One was that only zinc porphyrin is needed in middle layer. Although the time for which zinc porphyrin remains excited is very short, but if it gets excited near the surface of separation, it will probably emit electrons to the lower layer. The alternative hypothesis was that only benzoquinone is needed in the middle layer. Through preliminary experiments, it was found that benzoquinone gets excited when illuminated. From this, we thought that benzoquinone could be used as a photocatalyst and an electron transfer agent in our three-layer system. We experimented to verify these hypotheses. To verify the hypotheses, the following procedure was used: • Test tubes were prepared and labeled 1 to 6, varying the presence of zinc porphyrin andbenzoquinone. In addition, we shone a light on the odd-numbered test tubes (Table 1 shows the conditions in each test tube). • If phosphomolybdic acid changed its color from yellow to green, we can conclude that the reaction occurred. • If the reaction is confirmed, we connected the upper layer and lower layer with a salt bridge [Figure 2] and measured the voltage across the layers with a voltmeter.

Figure 1: Image of the three-layer system

Figure 2: Image of salt bridge

Results and Discussion As aforementioned, phosphomolybdic acid changes its color from yellow to green when reduced. Figure 3: Photograph of the appearance of the test tubes

As seen in Figure 3, the solutions in test tubes 1, 2, 5, and 6 remained yellow. Test tube 3 turned a dark green while test tube 4 turned a light green. Hence, I concluded that the test tubes in which a reaction occurred were test tubes 3 and 4. These were the test tubes with only benzoquinone and a solvent. Therefore, we can conclude that benzoquinone plays a role in photo catalysis and electron transfer. Next, we measured the voltage across the layers. Test tube 3 gave rise to a voltage of 0.10 V and test Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Table 1: The different conditions present in the test tubes Light Upper layer Middle layer Lower layer

Zinc porphirin Benzoquinone

1 

2

  

  

3 

4

 

 

5 

6

tube 4 resulted in zero voltage. So, the reaction which occurred without light (the reaction in test tube 4) can be ignored. 21


It looked like the reverse reaction had occurred in test tube 1 between benzoquinone and zinc porphyrin.

Conclusion We can, therefore, conclude that in our model,

benzoquinone plays a role in photo catalysis and electron transfer. In future experiments, we hope to use benzoquinone and solvent, and we hope to examine why test tube 4 reacted without light. Finally, we hope to experiment with water as occurs in plant photosynthesis.

About the Author Takamasa Suzuki belongs to Super Science High School Club, and he and his friends are investigating ‘’Artificial Photosynthesis’’. He wants to be a scholar as soon as possible.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

Research on light pollution by using a sky quality meter Sobue Hideaki Ichinomiya Senior High School, Japan. E-mail: ken-ichi.s@ozzio.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107615

ABSTRACT

Visible from space, the light from our cities pollutes our night skies. Sobue decided to measure the light levels at night around Japan using a Sky Quality Meter (SQM). He tried to determine the reliability of SQMs and accuracy of his results by comparing the measured light pollution levels with electricity consumption statistics and light pollution guidelines. He then calculated the altitude at which the majority of light causing light pollution is reflected: Between 2-3 km above ground level and verified that light pollution is greater near heavily populated areas.

Introduction Light pollution is an environmental problem caused by artificial light. It brings about some problems, for example, the decrease in number of light sensitive species and bad effects to star gazing. We researched the present levels of light pollution through observation with a Sky Quality Meter (SQM) [Figure1] and prediction by using our simulation.

Experiments Research 1 Preliminary experiment We did preliminary experiments to check if the measurements from SQMs were reliable. 1. Comparing measurements between cooledCCD camera and SQMs 2. Finding the variance among SQMs 3. Finding the effect of the moon and season

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Research 2 Making the “Brightness map” [Figure 2] We gave SQMs to elementary/high school students and made observations. When: 8pm~9pm, July 30~August 13, 2010. 8pm~10pm, July 25~August 4, 2011. Where: 2010, 19 places across Japan. 2011, 25 places across Japan. Research 3 The simulation of the night sky’s brightness Hypothesis: We proposed that the main light which causes light pollution was at the city hall, and the brightness of places was proportional to the population. The formula is[1]: L=

L0 - Ds e D2

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reliable device. Measuring the variances among SQMs, we are able to compare the measurements from different SQMs under the same standard. We also found that the effect of the moon can be ignored if the moon is darker than the half moon. So we carried out the observation when the moon was darker than the half moon. Research 2 The nearer the observation place is to a large city, the brighter it gets.

Figure 1: Sky quality meter

Research 3 We were able to predict the night sky brightness accurately.[2,3] Also, we changed our estimate of the altitude at which the light is reflected and found out from the formula that lights are reflected at the altitude of 2~3 km.

Conclusion

Figure 2: Brightness map

L: The brightness, L0: The brightness of the light, e: The natural logarithm, D: The distance from cities, σ: The extinction coefficient (6 × 10−5). We used the formula above, considering the effects from the cities near the observation place and simulated the brightness from it.

Results and Discussion Research 1 The measurements of SQM and that of cooled-CCD were proportional. So, we regarded the SQM as a

From research 1, we found the reliability of SQMs and its character. With these experiments, we found the most accurate way to research light pollution. Hereafter, we would like to observe at more places in a wider area than those of research 2. In research 3, our results were close to the true value. Also, we found out the altitude of where the light reflects. Using a similar method, we would like to find out each weather factor effects the night sky and finally make our own forecasts of the starry skies.

Acknowledgments Heartpier Anpachi observation place, people who helped us measure places, Nagoya University - Professor Shibata.

References 1. The way to value the measures from SQMs. Ichinomiya Senior High School; 2008. 2. Guideline of Light Pollution “Ministry of the environment”. 3. The data of the usage of electricity. Federation of Electricity Power Companies.

About the Author Sobue Hideaki likes to take photographs and to read books, especially any related to History. This meant that he was very excited to see historical architecture when he came to England and visited the British Museum. He is currently studying Astronomy and Physics and hopes to major in Physics at University. He loves Science and believes in its potential, so he would like to become a Scientist to be able to use Science to protect our civilization. 24

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

Binchotan: The future battery Haruno Murakami, Kentaro Asai, Tatsuhiko Watanabe, Naoko Oyobe, Mio Oe, Yuya Hiramatu Jishukan Senior High School, Toyohashi, Japan. E-mail: tamapoti@mx3.tees.ne.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107616

ABSTRACT

This group of students aimed to develop a more efficient type of binchotan battery. They did this by setting up several batteries and changing one of the electrolytic solution, the electrode material or the material of the conducting wire. They plotted graphs of voltage against time as each variance discharged. The higher the voltage and the longer it endured, the better the material. They found the binchotan battery works best using sodium sulphate as the electrolytic solution, platinum wire, and binchotan wrapped in visking tubes.

Introduction

Experiment

Based on past research by seniors, this project aims to develop a more efficient binchotan (traditional oak wood charcoal) battery.[1] When a direct current (DC) is passed through the electrodes, electrons flow through the electrolytic solution from the anode to the cathode. As they pass through water molecules, the water molecules are electrolyzed to form hydrogen and oxygen through the following reactions:

The basic experimental set up was solid binchotan, wrapped in visking tubes, was used as electrodes, aqueous sodium sulphate was used as the electrolyte, and copper was used for the conducting wire [Figure 1]. Charging time for the setup was three minutes under fixed conditions. Effectiveness was determined by plotting voltage against time as the battery was subsequently discharged, where a higher voltage for a longer duration meant that the battery was more effective. The experiments varied composition of electrolytic fluid, electrode material, and conducting wire material to find the optimal combination. i) Varying Electrolytic solution: For this setup, electrolyte solution was varied from sodium sulphate, trisodium phosphate, and phosphoric acid. ii) Varying Electrode:

2H2O + 2 e- → H2 + 2OH 2H2O → 4H+ + 4e- + O2 (O’Leary, 2000)[2] This is how a binchotan battery works. Current flows through the wires connected to the terminals to complete the circuit for the reaction to proceed. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

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Figure 1: A schematic diagram of a Binchotan battery

Figure 2: A graph of potential difference against time as the battery discharges with different electrolytic fluids

Graphite as an electrode was compared to carbon sticks. iii) Varying Conducting Wire: Copper wire was compared against stainless steel wire, enamel wire, and platinum wire.

Results and Discussion In experiment i, sodium sulphate and disodium phosphate showed good results [Figure 2]. In experiment ii, binchotan was shown to be better than graphite sticks [Figure 3]. During these experiments, it is worthwhile to note that after many charges, the conducting wire began to corrode. Hence, we compared some materials in the experiment iii for conducting wire. As a result, platinum showed the best efficiency [Figure 4].

Figure 3: A graph of potential difference against time as the battery discharges with different electrodes

Figure 4: A graph of potential difference against time as the battery discharges with different conducting wire

Conclusion The binchotan battery works best using sodium sulphate as the electrolytic solution, platinum wire, and binchotan wrapped in visking tubes. However, platinum wire is expensive, so a low-cost conducting wire like copper would be more desirable than platinum.

References 1. Based on a research on fuel cells in Jishukan High School in 1997. 2. Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Leary, D. (2000). Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions. Retrieved from University College Cork: http://www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/ dolchem/html/dict/electrol.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Feb 2]

About the Authors Yuya Hiramatsu wants to be a doctor and helps injured and sick people. Mio Oe and Naoko Oyobe want to be pharmacologists and hope to make new and useful medicines. Tatsuhiko Watanabe and Kentaro Asai want to be scientists. Tatsuhiko likes the idea of discovering something new, whereas Kentaro wants to devote himself to improvements in modern science. Haruno Murakami hopes to be an engineer. She wants to develop new materials that are useful and ecofriendly. 26

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

Seven kinds of light by chemical reaction chemiluminescence by oxalate ester Yumi Sato, Yuri Tokushige, Atsuki Nishikawa1, Kazuya Sato, Mineki Yamamoto2 Meiwa Senior High School, 1Gojo Senior High School, 2Toyota-nishi Senior High School, Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: stuym-16.39@wh.commufa.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107617

ABSTRACT

This group became interested in the light that is given off in chemiluminescent reactions and by chlorophyll. The intensity, wavelength, and quantity of light was measured from several chemical reactions and compared with the light given off by chlorophyll. They found that the properties of the emitted lights are different for each fluorescer. Fluorescers which can emit light have several aromatic rings such as chlorophyll.

Introduction The reaction of oxalate ester with hydrogen peroxide makes peroxyoxalate, which contains a lot of potential chemical energy. A fluorescer converts this chemical energy to visible light.[1] Our interest was in the properties of this light. First, different kinds of fluorescer were used for this study and the properties of the light given off examined. Next, we assumed that chlorophyll emits light as a fluorescer – to release excess chemical energy from photosynthetic inefficiencies in the form of light.[1] Red light emitted by chlorophyll has been so far observed.

Materials and Methods Experiment with different fluorescers A solution was made from bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenol) oxalate (TCPO) and fluorescer and was added to a solution composed of hydrogen peroxide and sodium salicylate. Dimethyl phthalate and tert-butyl alcohol were used as solvents. The temperature of solution was approximately 30 degrees Celsius. Then we took measurements of the intensity and Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

the quantity of light with an optical sensor. The maximum wavelength was measured by means of a spectrophotometer. Experiment with chlorophyll We employed chlorophyll as a fluorescer extracted by tert-butyl alcohol from dogwood leaves, measuring the maximum wavelength of the emitted light with a spectrophotometer.

Results and Discussion Table 1 shows that the intensity, the quantity of light, Table 1: Experiment 2.1 Fluorescer

Intensity Quantity of light Max wavelength [lx=lm∙m‑2] [102∙lm∙s∙m‑2] [nm] Anthracene −* −* 408 9,10‑Diphenylanthracene 6 0.53 438 Perylene 102 21.00 477 Naphthacene 48 5.70 520 9,10‑Bis (phenylethynyl) 28 2.70 512 Anthracene Rubrene 134 27.00 564 Rhodamine 6G 4 0.26 579 Rhodamine B 7 1.30 592 *Impossible to measure

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and the maximum wavelength of light are different from fluorecser. Figure 1 shows that chlorophyll emits red light.

Conclusion Properties of the emitted lights are different for each fluorescer. Fluorescers which can emit light have several aromatic rings and chlorophyll has rings including a metal atom. In future experiments, we will try to find natural dyes that emit light and the optimal conditions for the maximum intensity and quantity of light. Figure 1: (Experiment 2.2) The maximum wavelength was 678nm

Acknowledgment We thank the Laboratory of Photo-bioenergetics (Department of Physics, Nagoya University) for their generous support of measurement with a spectrophotometer.

Reference 1. Maxwell K, Johnson GN. Chlorophyll fluorescence: A practical guide. J Exp Bot 2000;51:659-68.

About the Authors Everyone in this group is studying Chemistry, Physics, English, Japanese classical literature, modern Japanese, and Maths. Since it is compulsory, they study these at their School. Mineki Yamamoto hopes to be a Japan Air Self Defense Force pilot and enjoys bicycling, reading books, and star gazing. Kazuya Sato also hopes to be a pilot but for an international airline and plays billiards and golf. Yuri Tokushige is interested in Biology, Chemistry, and Nutrition and would love to study Lye. Yuri would like to work in Science. Her hobbies include reading and making sweets. Yumi Sato wants to be a doctor and enjoys reading, listening to music, watching movies, and cooking. Atsuki Nishikawa likes cooking and reading detective stories and science fiction. “I’d like to major in Chemistry at University,” says Atsuki. His dream is to be a professor of Chemistry.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

Why does the Blue Grotto appear blue? Yuki Hara, Yuki Matsuoka, Ken Ohashi, Shuji Yamada1 Ichinomiya Senior High School, 1Kariya Senior High School, Japan. E-mail: brilliancefield@yahoo.co.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107618

ABSTRACT

This team of young Japanese scientists were interested in why the Blue Grotto in Italy was blue and thought it may be to do with the light transmissivity properties of water. They, therefore, carried out several experiments modeling the water in the grotto as water in boxes. They found that percentage of light absorbance was dependent on the dimensions of the container and the reflective properties of the container wall. In all cases, red light was absorbed the most and this was especially significant across large depths of water. They concluded that this was why the Blue Grotto appears blue and hope to establish a relationship between transmissivity and volume.

Introduction Why do Blue Grottos, such as the one in Capri, Italy, appear blue? This question is interesting as it concerns why water appears blue so I will study this by calculating its transmissivity.

Experiments The experiment to calculate transmissivity of water Equipment A foam polystyrene box (35 × 20 × 20 cm3) and a black wooden box (180 × 20 × 20 cm3) were used. A halogen lamp, when the foam polystyrene box was used, and a fluorescent light, when the wooden box was used, were used as the light source. Method The light inside each container was analyzed and the transmissivity was calculated. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

The experiment to check the water absorbs all red light Equipment Three foam polystyrene cubes (5, 10, and 20 cm on each side) and a drum whose inner part was covered with foam polystyrene were used. A halogen lamp, in the experiment of the foam polystyrene boxes, and sun light, in the experiment of the drum, were used as the light source. Method The lights inside each container was analyzed and the transmissivity was calculated.

Results and Discussion Figures 1 and 2 show the percentage transmittance against wavelength. As Figure 1 shows, water absorbs a lot of red light and little green and blue lights regardless of container or light source. As Figure 2 shows, transmissivity can be almost zero, if 29


Figure 1: The Blue Grotto in Capri, Italy. Available from: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: Grotta_azzurra.jpg

you have a large amount of water as a drum. Larger volumes may absorb a larger spectrum of light.

Conclusion Water absorbs red light and has potential of making blue similar to the Blue Grotto. In the future, to clarify the relationship between transmissivity and volume, I’ll experiment with higher precision. Since the 1st Anglo-Japanese Science Conference, we have further explored this area. Below is a summary of our further work in order to achieve greater precision: We believe that F(l) = s(l)*a(l)d holds. λ: Wavelength. Unit is usually nm. F(λ): Strength of light whose wavelength is equal to λ. Various units such as W/cm ^2 are used. s(λ): Strength of light used as a light source whose wavelength is equal to λ. Various units such as W/cm ^2 are used. a(λ): Transmissivity of light whose wavelength is

Figure 2: How transmittance varies across wavelengths for each dimension of the boxes (above) and cubes (below)

equal to λ. d: Distance light goes through water. Unit is usually meter. After identifying transmissivity (a(λ)), we can calculate the water’s colour (F(λ)) only by deciding the distance between our eyes and the light sources (d) and what to use as the light source (s(λ)). Therefore, by calculating with a computer, we can analyze the light of the Blue Grotto only if we measure its spectrum. However, we have not yet had a chance to measure it in Italy!

About the Authors Yuki Hara was born in Aichi, Japan in 1996. He has studied about the Blue Grotto for two years since he succeeded to his predecessors and in 2012 he received some awards and joined the science conference at St.Paul's School. He is very interested in economics and his ambition is to be a greater entrepreneur than Mark Elliot Zuckerberg, the president of Facebook. Yuki Matsuoka, Ken Ohashi and Shuji Yamada also attended the science conference at St.Paul's School.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

The mystery of why the fish tank is always clean Megumi Muramatsu, Tomoya Shigyo, Karin Watanabe Jishukan Senior High School, Toyohashi, Japan. E-mail: k412098h@m2.aichi-c.ed.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107619

ABSTRACT

Green algae have become the target of extermination, because they cause eutrophication and damage to aquatic environments. However, this group noticed that the fish tank in their biology laboratory containing green algae was cleaner than the one that did not. They decided to test whether green algae had a purifying effect on the water by measuring nitrate and ammonium levels in the water. They found that both ammonium and nitrate ion concentrations were significantly reduced by green algae and reached a level of equilibrium when growing with goldfish. Finally, they explored the idea of creating biofuel from green algae and concluded that it could be a useful resource.

Introduction We noticed a difference between two fish tanks in the biology laboratory [Figure 1]. From the study last year, we found that green algae had a high purification capacity. However, green algae have become the target of extermination, because they cause eutrophication and damage to aquatic environments. So, we have considered how green algae could be used as a natural resource.

The results of this research are shown in Figure 2. We assumed that green algae have a tendency to absorb NH4+ before absorbing NO3− since levels of nitrate ions only start to significantly fall on the second day of observation by which time the concentration

Methods and Results The experiment on purification capacity The tank on the left contains green algae and is always clean. We hypothesized that it had some purifying effect, which is working in the tank. We researched the changes in the concentrations of NO3− and NH4+ by putting green algae in tank A and putting Egeria densa in tank B [Figure 1], and putting no plants in tank C. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Figure 1: The two fish tanks in the Biology Lab. The tank on the left contains green algae

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Figure 3: Graphs showing the changes in ammonium (left) and nitrate (right) concentration levels in the fish tanks over time with two goldfishes living in them

Figure 2: Graphs showing the change in concentration of ammonium and nitrate ions over time for the three tanks

of ammonium ions is negligible. How to use green algae Utilization for controlling water quality Three tanks were again set up: One containing Egeria densa, one containing green algae, and a control tank of nothing except water. All tanks were in all other aspects identical and kept in the same controlled conditions. We had put two goldfishes in each tank. We examined the concentrations of NH4+, NO3−, and the results are shown in Figure 3. As a result of this experiment, there was a significant decrease in the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3− in the tank containing green algae compared to the other two and this final concentration remained stable.

Utilization of green algae for bioethanol We tried to synthesize some bioethanol using green algae. Green algae are broken down into sugar by cellulase, and the solution is filtered and fermented by using dry yeast. We measured the concentrations of CO2 and ethanol by using a detector tube after the fermentation.

Conclusion We have found that green algae have a high ability of water quality purification and that we can make use of green algae as a resource. The disaster of green algae is caused by the eutrophication of water, but water may be purified—thanks to green algae. The most important issue is how to dispose green algae. If we can use the green algae as a resource, we will find a major solution for environmental problems.

About the Authors Megumi Muramatsu, Tomoya Shigyo and Karin Watanabe are a group of students who attended the Anglo-Japanese Science Conference at St. Paul's boys school London in March this year. They all attend Jishukan Senior High School and study Biology.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

The habits of Mosquitoes Nana Asakura, Oishi Kenta, Suzuki Aki, Kato Asuka, Taniguchi Keina Jishukan Senior High School, Toyohashi, Japan. E-mail: sp544vn9@flute.ocn.ne.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107620

ABSTRACT

A group of students want to study mosquitoes and their larvae. They hypothesised that colour may affect how frequently mosquitoes land on an object and that CO2 may cause mosquitoes to swarm since they are usually attracted to animals which all respire, releasing CO2. They found that mosquitoes landed on darker colors the most frequently and although they swarmed about a human hand, high levels of CO2 did not cause them to swarm. The team hope to study other habits which may be useful in helping reduce mosquito populations.

Introduction We often work in the fields as part of biology club. In the summer, many mosquitoes breed and we are bitten all over by them. We want to reduce mosquitoes in our school, so we started researching their habits.

Methods and Results Observation of mosquitoes and mosquito larvae Larva of the mosquito Mosquito larvae breathe on the surface of the water with their respiratory organs at the end of the abdomen.[1] The larvae dive quickly into the water when they sense shadows on the water. There is a crouching mosquito in a pupaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s head. Mosquitoes As shown in Figure 1, mosquitoes raise their hind legs like antenna. Perhaps, these are used as

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Figure 1: Picture of a mosquito [Available from: http://office.microsoft. com/ja-jp]

sensory organs. These insects can rest on the ceiling or vertical place made of glass perhaps because they have fine hairs on their legs. When the glass is knocked from inside, they do not seem to react.

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Reaction to color

Table 1: A table showing the number of mosquitoes landing on the different coloured cylinders in 5 minutes

Method

Color Total number of mosquitoes at the times of counting in five minutes

We made five paper cylinders of different colours (black, blue, red, white, and yellow), and put them in the breeding box. We counted mosquitoes on the cylinder, four times, for five minutes.

Table 2: A table showing mosquito behaviour with variations in CO2 in the environment

Results As shown in the [Table 1], mosquitoes have a tendency to gather around dark colors, especially black.

A response to carbon dioxide Methods and Results We measured concentration of CO 2 using a Datalogger in the breeding box. The concentration at the beginning of the experiment was 350 ppm. We observed the movement of the mosquitoes for five minutes, while measuring carbon dioxide concentration under conditions of (1)~(3). The results are shown in Table 2. What makes mosquitoes get close to mankind and other animals may have something to do with the materials except CO2.

Conclusion We could get to know the habits of mosquitoes

black 26

blue 4

Prerequisite The highest density of CO2 We put our hand into 400 ppm the box We blew CO2 into the 700 ppm box We made CO2 (HCl and 600 ppm CaCO3) in the box

red 15

white 0

yellow 2

Result Mosquitoes swarmed within a minute Mosquitoes did not swarm Mosquitoes did not swarm

and mosquito larva. We want to find out a cause of making mosquitoes swarm because it would be convenient to lure mosquitoes in order to catch them. From our results, it seems CO2 does not attract mosquitoes but human hands do. Darker colors are landed on more frequently than lighter ones. We want to know why mosquitoes resting on glass do not go away when we knock on the outside of the glass. We are going to make studies of breeding mosquitoes even in winter to see the effects of cold on breeding.

Reference 1. Araki O. Science of mosquito (interesting science), Nikkan industry newspaper company, 2007.

About the Authors Nana Asakura, Oishi Kenta, Suzuki Aki, Kato Asuka and Taniguchi Keina are a group of students who attended the Anglo-Japanese Science Conference at St. Paul's boys school London in March this year. They all attend Jishukan Senior High School and study Biology. The team have gone on to study the breeding of mosquitos in winter but are finding it a challenge since it is very difficult to collect mosquitoes and mosquito larvae in winter as their lives are short.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

The effect of omotehama environment on incubation of Loggerhead sea turtles Ryuto Kimura, Tomohiko Sato, Yumi Sato, Natsuki Sugiura1, Erika Kodama1, Mami Sibata2, Haruka Ogura2, Shota Inoue3 Yutakagaoka Senior High School, 1Gamagori Senior High School, 2Toyotanishi Senior High School, 3Ko Senior High School, Nagoya City, Japan. E-mail: sp544vn9@flute.ocn.ne.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107621

ABSTRACT

Loggerhead Sea Turtles are a currently endangered species. This team wanted to investigate whether environmental changes such as temperature variations affected their breeding rates. The team studied 29 breeding places for a year and calculated the hatching rate with temperature. They found that the best temperature to lay and hatch eggs is 24 to 33°C. And they concluded that if the temperature in their local beech where to change, this would affect the turtle population.

Introduction Omotehama is a beach in the south of Central Aichi in Japan. It is 57 km long, and is one of Japan’s sea turtle laying grounds. Loggerhead Sea Turtles live in subtropical and temperate seas around the world and they come to the beach to lay eggs from May to August. They have T.D.S. (temperature-dependent sex determination) as they become female, if the sand temperature is less than 29oC, and male, if the temperature is more than 29oC.[1] Therefore, we think that the relationship between turtles and temperature is strong. We began this study to research the Omotehama environment and the biology of Loggerhead Sea Turtles.

Hatch examination We dug up the already-hatched nests and checked the number of the remaining husks and unhatched eggs, after which, we calculated the hatching rate. We researched 29 places between 2009 and 2010.

Results and Discussion This chart [Figure 1] shows the average air and sand temperature and the quantity of laying in a month.

Materials and Methods

Hatching and the sand temperature The best temperature to lay and hatch eggs is 24 to 33oC. During July and August, there was a lot of laying, and the sand temperature was maintained at about 24 to 33oC.

Temperature examination We measured two places each 20, 40, and 60 cm from the surface with Temperature Date Logger.

The air temperature and sand temperature Omotehama is good for keeping warm. According to the air and sand temperature graph, although

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the sand temperature was changed by the air temperature, the sand maintained about 24 to 33oC.

Conclusion Temperature is important for Loggerhead Sea Turtles to lay eggs and hatch. There is a possibility that the beach environment will change under the influence of global warming. If this is the case, we think turtles may also be affected. In the future, we would also like to research about the effect of the plants that live in Omotehama and humidity in the sand on Loggerhead Sea Turtles.

Acknowledgment We received generous support from Omotehama Network.

Figure 1: Graph showing the effect of temperature on the population of turtles over time

Reference 1. Imamura K, Tanaka Y, Aoki S. Environmental factors of sandy beaches influencing the reproductive activity of loggerhead sea turtles. J Japan Soc Civil Eng Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering) 2009;B2-65:1141-5.

About the Authors Haruka Ogura belongs to her school science club. She enjoys reading books and listening to music such as the Beatles. She is interested in Biology and is considering a career in it. Yumi Sato is currently interested in Biotechnology. She would like to be a scientist and help to solve environmental problems. Erika Kodama’s favorite subject is Biology and she hopes to study abroad. In her spare time, she likes watching movies and listening to music. Natsuki Sugiura’s favorite subject is English. She is interested in world culture and hopes to travel the world. Tomohiko Sato is currently studying Genetic engineering and Ocean engineering. He has a great interest in Marine Biology and is especially interested in studying seaweed and its potential medical applications. His hobbies include growing plants and reading comics. Shota Inoue is also studying Biology, hopes to travel world-wide, and enjoys reading. Mami Shibata hopes to become a scientist and is studying Maths, Chemistry, Biology and English. Her hobbies are reading books and listening to music. Ryuto Kimura enjoys Organic Chemistry and hopes to be a scientist and work abroad. He plays the clarinet, guitar, and piano.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

A study of aphid behavior resulting in: A method of aphid repellence, the discovery of a strange descent of aphid, and variations in nourishment in development in kinds of aphid larvae Satoyo Ohya, Mako Kawai1, Kimiko Oota1 Asahigaoka High School, 1Toyohashi Higashi High School, Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: o-satoyo@rf6.so-net.ne.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107624

ABSTRACT

Aphids are very troublesome for farmers. However, pesticides often have an unexpected influence. In the first series of experiments, the team tested aphidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responses to odours and colours. They found crushed orange peel to be the most effective repellent and yellow to be the best attractive color. From this, they designed a simple method of keeping aphids away from plants. This team also noticed variation in larval body colors of a descent of aphids. In their second series of experiments, they discovered that this resulted in an asexually reproducing, winged adult and that larval nourishment requirements, survival rates, and ability to withstand fasting of this variation were different to other individuals of the same descent. They concluded that this adaptation had come about to enable the descent to survive even if the hosting plant is killed.

Introduction Aphids are small insects that feed on the sap found in the phloem of plants. They are infamous for being harmful to agriculture. However, they are expected to be used as a model organism, as the genome of the pea aphid was deciphered in 2010. They have many interesting features. For example, body colors of pea aphids are modified by a certain symbiotic bacteria,[1] and they are creatures of polyphenism. In this paper, we report two of our discoveries: There is a strange descent, in which larvae change their body colour as they grow. Larvae of winged aphids take in nourishment in earlier stage than larvae of wingless do.

Designing an Aphid Catcher In this research, we tried to make an aphid catcher by researching their behavioral patterns through Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

experiments and observations, which have not been widely considered.

Experiments and Results (Lipaphis erysimi) Two groups of 20 aphids were prepared. One group was put on leaves, the other on a sheet of flat, white paper. Their responses were recorded. The results show that feeding aphids wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t move [Table 1]. Colonies were left with wasabi, a dead aphid, crushed orange peel, and so on. One day later, the number of escaped aphids was counted. The results show that orange peel is very offensive to them [Table 2]. Colour choice test (using apterans aphid species) Aphids were made to walk on sheets of colored 37


Table 1: The differences in the behavior between aphids on leaves and aphids on paper On Leaf On Paper

Don’t Move 18 aphids 1 aphid

Walk Away 2 aphids 19 aphids

Table 2: About aphid’s offensive smell Source of Offensive smell Orange peal Wasabi A dead aphid Control experiment

Percentage of escaped aphids 98% 4% 4% 3%

paper. Although I did vary the motive to start to walk including humidity, brightness, and inclination, preferences of colours were not found. Color choice test 2 (using alatas aphid species) Thirty aphids were left in the box with conditions of 17L, 22oC. They were left to choose between green and yellow paper for 10 minutes [Figure 1]. The sheet of yellow paper was landed on 11 times, the green paper was not at all landed on.

Figure 1: The methods used in the experiments

Discussion In nature, apterans need not to move from their host plants. The results of experiment 1, 3 can be reflected. The nature of being attracted to yellow (experiment 4) is well known in the case of many other insects like whitefly and thrips.

Figure 2: Our idea of an aphid catcher

Through these results, we can suggest one way of aphid control [Figure 2]. 1. Spray orange essence. 2. Hang a sticky yellow sheet above the host plant as an aphid catcher.

Conclusions A sticky yellow sheet is on the market mainly as a countermeasure to whitefly. But, it’s declining because it’s not a decisive measure. Now, to improve it, we will experiment to find some scents which attract aphids.

Discovery of a strange descent of aphid We found a strange descent of green peach aphid in Nagoya city, Aichi prefecture [Figure 3]. (The word “descent” is used to express a group of 38

Figure 3: The colony of the descent

individuals with the same genes.) In this descent, all larvae are born with green bodies, but around the third instar stage, some of them turn red. The red aphids grow up to be winged and asexual. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


While the other larvae, which kept their body green, grow up to either be winged and sexual, or wingless of either asexual varieties [Figure 4]. A descent of green peach aphids in which body colours differ between larvae of winged and larvae of wingless like this descent has not been reported. Larvae of winged aphids take nourishment in earlier stage than larvae of wingless do When we grew the descent, we noticed that the fourth instar larvae of winged aphids tended to stay on dead and dry leaves while others migrated to new ones. So we performed an experiment to examine if the fourth instar larvae of winged need nutrition.

Materials and Methods We prepared 20 aphids from each of six types from

the descent. The six types are adults, the fourth instar larvae and the third instar larvae from both wingless (green) and winged (red) aphids. We left them in cases without food. Every day, we counted the number of living, dead, and newly emerged aphids.

Results Graphs 1 and 2 show the death with time of winged and wingless adult aphids. All red larvae of the fourth instar could emerge and fly without food. In eight days, none of them died [Graph 3]. Graph 4 shows the green larvae in the fourth instar which can be contrasted as a control to the red larvae in Graph 3. While red larvae in the fourth instar strongly resist fasting, in the third instar, they are much weaker at fasting than their wingless counterparts [Graphs 5 and 6].

Discussion Why is there such a big difference in the ability to survive without food between the fourth and the

Figure 4: The scheme of the descent

Figure 5: The results of fasting test on Lipaphis erysimi

Graphs 1-6: The number of Living (green), Newly Emerged (Blue) and Dead (Orange) Aphids over time

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common to all aphid species. However, we made the same experiment with three types of Lipaphis erysim: Adults of both wingless and winged aphids and the fourth instar larvae of winged. And we also got results which show that it is larvae of winged aphid that are the most strongly resist fasting too [Figures 5 and 6].

Conclusion

Figure 6: Lipaphis erysimi

third instar of red larvae? Our hypothesis is that larvae of winged aphids in around the third instar need a much greater amount of food to survive the fourth instar period without feeding. Therefore, around third instar, they are more sensitive to fasting because they need more nutrition than their wingless counterparts. This hypothesis is also rational from an evolutionary strategical point of view. It is known that winged aphids are born when a colony becomes crowded or the host plant becomes aged.[2-4] So, there is always a danger that the host plant withers when larvae of winged aphids grow. We think larvae of winged aphids bring forward feeding time, anticipating the host plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death. We cannot conclude that these phenomena are

Survival strategy of aphids is more ingenious than we have expected The results of this experiment tell us that if we pull vegetable damaged by aphid and pile them, winged aphids fly from the pile a few days later. I think to investigate ingenious strategy of this interesting creature would make a contribution to development of agricultural technology.

References 1.

Tsuchida T, Koga R, Horikawa M, Tsunoda T, Maoka T, Matsumoto S, et al. Symbiotic bacterium modifies aphid body color. Science 2010;330:1102-4. 2. Kawada K. Polymorphism and morph determination. In: Aphids: Their biology, natural enemies and control. World Crop Pests, In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, editors. Vol. 2 A. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1987. p. 255-66. 3. Lees AD. The production of the apterous and alate forms in the aphid Megoura viciae Buckton, with special reference to the role of crowding. J Insect Physiol 1967;13:289-318. 4. Johnson B. Wing polymorphism in aphids 3. The influence of the host plant. Entomol Exp Appl 1966;9:213-22.

About the Authors Satoyo Ohya is from Asahigaoka High School and is studying Maths, Physics, Chemistry, and English. She hopes to contribute to growth of agricultural technology in developing countries. Her hobbies include reading books and growing plants. Mako Kawai is from Toyohashi Higashi High School and is studying English and Japanese. She hopes to learn not only English but also English sign language to be an interpreter. Her hobby is to play the piano. Kimiko Oota attends Toyohashi Higashi High School and studies Japanese, Maths, English, Social Studies, and above all, Science. She wants to become a Biology teacher and convey the fun of Science to everyone.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Original Research

Water repellance of leaves Miyako Ishio, Tamami Katsu, Nanaka Horii Meiwa High School, Nagoya, Japan. E-mail: ishi-mya@fdb.so-net.ne.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107622

ABSTRACT

Some plants have been found to have hydrophobic surfaces and the properties of these were studied. The angle of contact of water droplets was measured under a microscope and compared for different species of plants. It was concluded that perhaps it was an effective adaptation for the lotus plant to wash mud off its leaves to maximize light exposure for photosynthesis.

Introduction

What is an Angle of Contact?

Water repellence is used for various things, such as an umbrella [Figure 1] or a frying pan, in our daily lives. There are some plants such as the Lotus[1] [Figure 2] that also have water repellence. In this experiment we studied the effect of water repellence in plants and why it occurred.

The angle of contact is the angle where a liquid interface meets a solid surface. The angle of contact is recorded and used to deduce the water repellence of the leaf [Figure 6].

Experiment We conducted the experiment using leaves from lotus and taros plants because these are said to be water repellent. We also observed the leaves of hydrangeas and bamboo which are considered to be non-water repellent. We observed the surface of leaves with a microscope [Figures 3 and 4] and then dribbled water on the surface of leaves to investigate the angle of contact [Figure 5]. Finally, we compared the results of the experiments for the different leaves. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Results Our results showed that water repellant plants such as Taros and Lotus plants had angles of contact greater than 150 degrees. Hydrangea and Bamboo however, which are nonwater repellent, have angles of contact less than 80 degrees. Lotus was the most water repellent and bamboo the least from the plants tested. Lotus Taro Hydrangea Bamboo

Appearance Small particles on Surface Small Projections on Surface Dotted with very small cells Smooth and white spots

Angle of Contact (O) 157 154 78 64

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Discussion

Summary

The effect of water repellence on a leaf, such as a lotus, is called the “self-purification effect”, and repels not only water but dirty water as well. Lotuses can grow in the mud; however, their leaves have to photosynthesize. Perhaps, this water repellence is an adaptation so that mud is washed off a leaf to maximise the quantity of light available for photosynthesis.

This experiment has helped me to further understand the effectiveness of the water repellence as we can

Figure 4: Surface of Hydrangea under a microscope

Figure 1: Water repellence is useful for umbrellas. Teflon in this case is the water-repellent material [Available from: http://global.rakuten. com/en/store/maxshare/item/a06360_sale] Lotus

Bamboo

Figure 2: Finding the angle of contact of a water droplet on a leaf

Figure 3: Surface of lotus under a microscope

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Taro

Hydrangea

Figure 5: Water repellence of (from left to right): Lotus, taro, bamboo, hydrangea

Figure 6: The lotus effect [Available from: http://www.balconette. co.uk/articles/self-cleaning-glasses.aspx]

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see its practical effect. This experiment could be taken further by experimenting on various leaves to understand their structure which could be used to create water repellent products.

Reference 1. Tsujii K. Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic. Yoneda publisher; 2009.

About the Authors Miyako Ishio She likes reading books. Her favourite book is Harry Potter. She wants to read it in English some day. Her dream is to research on Japanese society and culture. She is most interested in religion in Japan and about Japan's relations with foreign countries. Therefore, she studies Japanese, society, and English a lot. Nanaka Horii Her dream is to be a doctor and she wants to help children in developing countries. So she studies a lot, especially in Maths and English so that she can enter a university. She learned from this project that she should continue even if she felt as though she couldn't finish it. Therefore, she'll never give up and she believes that she will carry on until her dream comes true. Tamami Katsu She is currently studying for her entrance exams in January and February at the start of 2013. She is studying many subjects including Maths, Chemistry, Social Studies and English. She hasn't yet decided what kind of work she will do, but she hopes that she will be able to work abroad and with people from different countries. She would also like to do something helpful. She likes to watch British or American movies because they are more interesting than Japanese ones. She often goes to the cinema several times a month. She also likes to listen to music, especially One Direction.

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Original Research

Can we find out the natural abundance of biodiversity of the dandelion? Masatoshi Suzuki, Shunsuke Fujita, Takahiro Hanebuchi, Masataka Sugiyama1, Daiki Yamauchi2 Okazaki Senior High School, 1Zuiryo Senior High School, 2Gojo Senior High School, Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: dandelion.map@gmail.com DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107623

ABSTRACT

These students decided to investigate whether biodiversity of the dandelion varied with environment type around their school. To do this they used 5 m2 quadrats and recorded the position of certain types of leaves. However, they found that there was no correlation between certain types of leaves and the environment. They hope to target other inherited features in future studies.

Introduction There are three kinds of dandelions around our school; The Japanese Dandelion, the Dandelion, and the Rock Dandelion. Japanese Dandelions are native species, Dandelions and Rock Dandelions are naturalized species. As shown in Figure 1, we can distinguish dandelions easily by appearance. Furthermore, it has been said that native species prefer growing in suburbs and naturalized species prefer growing in urban areas, which means that they can be used as environmental indicator species. However, we found that dandelions are not suitable as an environmental indicator species because mongrelization is advancing between native species and naturalized species. During the fieldwork, we found that the population and form of their leaves differed greatly from place to place. This led us to hypothesize that there is a relationship between the differences of the dandelions and their environmental state. Then we started this research for the purpose of making 44

the standard for new environment assessment by dandelions.

Materials and Methods 1. We looked for the research area of 5 m2, and divided it into 100 meshes. 2. We plotted the positions of all dandelions in the research area, and took each leaf. 3. We took photographs of their leaves and classified the type from the form of the leaves.

Figure 1: The species of dandelion around the school and how to identify them

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Figure 3: The positions of the dandelions and their types of leaves Figure 2: The different types of dandelion leaves collected in the study and their corresponding key for the resultant plots

4. We extracted DNA of dandelions and classified the type from differences of several areas of DNA.

Results and Discussion We classified the type of dandelions from the form of their leaves as shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows the position of each dandelion and the type of their leaves. It was expected that the same type of dandelion would be growing in the same place, but, in reality, each type was distributed widely,

and the frequency with which each type occupies was different depending on research areas. We think the environment of each area made that difference.

Conclusion Environmental conditions appear not to affect the presence of dandelion species but may affect their population density. Now we are conducting the gene analysis of dandelions. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll classify the type by differences of several areas of their DNA, which will help us create a new standard of environmental assessment.

About the Authors Masatoshi, Shunsuke, Takahiro, Masataka and Daiki became interested in the Biodiversity of Dandelions around their school. After studying it, they decided to make a poster presentation at the St. Paul's Anglo-Japanese Conference 2012.

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Original Research

Crystal self-organization ArisaOkumara Okumura Arisa Asahigaoka Senior High School, Nagoya Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: u4ppccn4@wh.commufa.jp DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107625

ABSTRACT

After taking an interest in the lamella ridge structure of morpho butterfly wings, I investigated the self-organisation of crystals. Experiments were carried out by growing snow crystals and metal leaves, and analysing the shapes formed for fractal properties. It was found that both chosen examples displayed fractal properties and that for metal leaves, deposition rate increased with time and decreased with increasing thickness of the upper fluid layer, and fractal formation is dependent on the surface tension between the two fluids. These properties may have applications in both natural and artificial materials.

Introduction “Self-organization” means that regular and complex patterns are formed naturally from a chaos. There are some self-organized crystals whose shapes are fractal. Snow crystals and metal leaves are said to be the examples of “Self-organization of Fractals” [Figure 1]. These metal leaves are thin layers of zinc. They are deposited at the interface between the two liquids by electrodeposition [Figure 2]. The main branch was cut off from the metal leaf and enlarged by a 1.5 magnification. They seem to have similar shapes as shown in these photos. So, metal leaves are considered to self-organize with their similar branches [Figure 3]. A “fractal” is defined as “a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts each 46

of which is a reduced-size copy of the whole,” a property called self-similarity. For example, the shape of kinds of artificial fractal is a Koch Snowflake.[1-4] It begins with an equilateral triangle and then replaces the mid-third of every segment with a pair of line segments that form an equilateral “bump.” Therefore, the ratio of two sides of before and after division is equal. The feature of fractal is that the volume approaches to a certain level, while the surface area increases steadily as the figure has gotten more complicated [Figure 4]. My hypothesis is that if the shapes of catalysts become fractal, the rate of chemical reactions increases and products are made in a shorter time. In this paper, the study of the fractal nature of snow crystals and metal leaves has been chosen to examine the growth mechanisms in different boundary conditions. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Figure 1: Examples of self-organization of fractals. Snow crystal (left), metal leaf (right). We can notice the rules of shapes of crystals, which are formed naturally from a chaos Figure 3: The branches of zinc metal leaves are cut off and each picture is magnified 1.5  times. Note how the shapes are similar at each magnification

Figure 2: Zinc metal leaves

Experiments and Results Growth patterns of snow crystals The first experiment was the making snow crystals to observe the growth of “self-organized structure”.

Figure 4: The bumps of Koch Snowflake are cut off and each picture is magnified 1.5  times. Note how the shapes are similar at each magnification

On the right side, secondary dendrites appeared and the number of fine branches increased. On the left side, the branches had become long and they looked like needles [Figures 6 and 7].

The materials required for this experiment were: (1) A styrofoam box with a lid, (2) A PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle (500 ml), (3) A fishing line (diameter: 0.3 mm, length: 60 cm), (4) Dry ice (weight: 1~2 kg), (5) A drinking straw (length: 6 cm), (6) Paper clip, (7) Gummed tape.

Each angle between the six dendrites was 60°. The dendrite length ratio was almost constant. One of the features of fractal figures is the fractionalization proceeding in a geometric ratio. The results agree with the feature, and so, snow crystals seem to be fractal. This morphology is one of the phenomena of “self-organization” [Figure 8].

An apparatus to form snow crystals was designed by referring to Mr. Hiramatsu’s[5] way [Figure 5]. A fishing line was put into the PET bottle, and water vapor was introduced into it by my breath. To cool the PET bottle, dry ice was put into the box.

Growth patterns of zinc metal leaves The second experiment involved making metal leaves to observe the growth of “self-organized structure” formed at the boundary of two liquids.

The results of the experiment are as follows: The temperature was -59.8oC. After 4 minutes, there were a lot of dendrites on the fishing line. Dendrites grew radially and became a snow crystal with six long branches. After 43 minutes, different patterns of growth in opposite directions were seen.

Materials for this experiment were: Petri dish (made of glass, diameter: 16 cm), ZnSO 4 (aq) (concentration: 2 mol/l, 100 ml), Methylene Blue (5 ml), n-CH3COO(CH2)3CH3(40 ml), a graphite wire (diameter: 0.5 mm, length: 8 cm), zinc plates (thickness: 0.2 cm, width: 2.5 cm, length: 50 cm), a battery, and a torch.

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Figure 5: The inside of the PET bottle is supersaturated with vapors

Figure 7: The snow crystal after 43 minutes

Figure 6: The snow crystal after 15 minutes

The solution of zinc sulfate with methylene blue was used, and acetic acid butyl ester was added into the solution. Because of the difference of density between the two liquids, they separated from each other. A graphite wire was fixed at the boundary of the two liquids as a cathode, and a zinc plate ring inside the petridish as an anode. Finally, the voltage was adjusted with 5V or 8V and the growth of the metal leaves was observed [Figures 9 and 10]. Under 5V, metal leaves continued to grow. After 2 minutes, each leaf became approximately 0.85 cm [Figure 11]. When the voltage was increased from 5V to 8V, fine dendrites had grown from the tip of a metal leaf. The growing speed of dendrites under 8V was twice or three times as rapid as that under 5V [Figure 12]. To confirm the figure is fractal, it is necessary to show the figure has a certain complexity and fractionalization with a fractal dimension. For example, the fractal dimension of Koch Snowflake, which is a typical example of fractal, is measured by scale transformation. The scale transformation is 48

Figure 8: The branches appear in almost regular ratio, and so snow crystals seem to be fractal

one of the well-known methods of calculating fractal dimension. I, therefore, prepared a Koch Snowflake figure and counted the number of each scale between two apices A and B. The results were plotted on a log-log graph, and the linear relationship was obtained. It is shown that a fractal figure has a certain dimension [Figure 13]. The fractal dimension of metal leaves was measured by scale transformation in the same way. First, I inspected each branch of the metal leaves as a line from the cathode to the tip of the branch [Figure 14], and next, chose the branches which had grown preferentially by the effect of the electric shielding. Finally, the values measured by scale transformation were plotted on a log-log graph [Figure 15]. Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


Figure 9: The apparatus for making zinc leaves

Figure 12: The metal leaf under 8V

Figure  10: The cross section of the experiment apparatus. The transparent upper layer is acetic acid butyl and the blue lower layer is the solution of zinc sulfate with methylene blue. This method of making “zinc” metal leaves is written in books such as “Physics of Fractal” (Mitsugu Matsushita), but I thought this up myself. For example, methylene blue was used to color only the solution of zinc sulfate because it made the boundary of the two liquids where the metal leaves grew distinguishable. Moreover, methylene blue doesn’t become denatured when an electric current flows in the solution of zinc sulfate

Figure  13: The slope of the graph became a fixed value. This value means fractal dimension, so it is concluded that Koch Snowflake have a uniform fractal dimension and the shapes of Koch Snowflake are fractal

Figure 11: The metal leaf under 5V

The lines’ slope became parallel, and so it shows that the branches of the metal leaves self-organize with self-similarity. Moreover, the fractal dimension of these metal leaves was calculated by box counting.

D = log N

log 1r

[2-4,6]

D – The fractal dimension.

Figure 14: The branches of the metal leaves were looked upon as a line

r – The amount of element for which D is being calculated. Here r is the length of measurement. N – The number of times r goes into the element. The result was 1.653. The fractal dimension of zinc metal leaves has been reported as 1.66 ± 0.33 by some researchers. The calculated results agreed with this.

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Figure 15: The slope of each graph line became a fixed value and the lines of this figure are parallel

Dependence of growth rate on electric field I traced the branches of the metal leaves on a section paper [Figure 16]. This is assumed as one of the typical examples of the metal leaves. Although there is no precise explanation for the way of metal leaf growth, it is necessary to observe common features of precipitation of metal leaves. Because of the random movement of zinc ions in the solution, the growth of metal leaves is dominated by the probability of collision between the metal leaves and zinc ions. It is considered that the longest branch extends preferentially because the metal leaf grows toward the opposite electrode, and zinc ions precipitate at the tip of the metal leaf according to a distribution of the electric current intensity.

Figure 16: The branches of metal leaves were traced on a section paper, and then the data was input into a computer to make the model of metal leaves

So, I decided to carry out an experiment to observe the unidirectional growth of metal leaves [Figure 17]. This picture shows a result. The metal leaf grew straight along the scale [Figure 18]. This graph shows the rate of the longest metal leaf growth [Figure 19]. The rate was almost proportional until 1,100 seconds, and then the rate increased because of the effect of the electric field when the tip of the metal leaf approached the anode. The reason for this is that the zinc metal leaves are electrical conductors. As the precipitation proceeds, the branch of the metal leaf grows toward the opposite electrode and the distance between the two poles decreases. When the distance between the cathode and the anode is small, the gradient of the voltage in the electric field increases and hence the electric current is gathering force. 50

Figure 17: The anode of a zinc plate is left, and the cathode of a graphite wire is right

Dependence of growth rate on the surface tension between the two liquids I assumed that the cause of the complex shapes of metal leaves becoming fractal was the state between Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


the two liquids, so first, I changed the quantities of acetic acid butyl of each sample. These figures show the differences between Sample A and B. When the amount of acetic acid butyl was small such as Sample A, it showed rapid growth and when there was the larger amount of acetic acid butyl, the growth of the metal leaves stopped after a while [Figure 20]. Therefore, the thicker the upper layer, the harder it is for the branches of metal leaves to grow. The thickness of upper layer changes hydrostatic pressure on metal leaves and so the amount of acetic acid butyl controls the growth of metal leaves.

Figure  18: The metal leaf which extended from the cathode to the anode along a straight line

Because of this result, the surface tension, the power between the two liquids, was considered to change. Moreover, many kinds of liquid in the upper layer have their own different natures including the sizes of the surface tension [Figure 21]. So, I decided to see the effect of changing the surface tension between the two liquids. I placed a surface-active agent to the solution of zinc sulfate for Sample C to reduce the surface tension. The precipitation behaviour of Sample C was different from that of Sample A. The shape of deposition became thin and irregular [Figure 22]. The growing speed of metal leaves of each sample was different. When a surface-active agent was added between the two liquids, the metal leaves grew filmy and more rapidly because the surface tension between the two liquids had decreased [Figure 23].

Figure 19: The rate of the longest metal leaf was proportional to the time until 1100 seconds, and the rate increased because of the effect of the electric field when the tip of the metal leaf came near to the anode

Therefore, the surface tension between the two liquids has an effect to the growth and figures of metal leaves.

Summary The figures of crystals such as snow crystals and metal leaves have the feature of fractal. Furthermore, their figures repeat complication through their growth. The amount of deposition increases as time passes because the stronger the electric field is, the more electronic current flows in the solution of zinc sulfate. When metal leaves grow and get long, the tip of the cathode get closer to the anode of the zinc plate, so the electric field becomes stronger as time passes.

Figure 20: The amount of acetic acid butyl was changed under 8V. In Sample A, 30 ml. In Sample B, 50 ml

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Moreover, the growth of metal leaves is influenced by the electric field and the longest branch extends preferentially. This is the factor of the difference of the length of dendrites, which have grown like a concentric circle at the beginning of the experiment. About metal leaves, when the amount of the liquid of the upper layer is large, the speed at which the metal leaf lengthens decreases, on the other hand, when the amount is small, the lengthening speed increases. Although the weight of the liquid in the upper layer presses the boundary of the two liquids uniformly, it seems to control the way of deposition of the branches which grow along the direction of the electric field. There is the surface tension between the two liquids where metal leaves grow, so when a surface-active agent is added and the surface tension between the two liquids becomes small, the growing speed of metal leaves becomes quicker, metal leaves don’t diverge clearly, and the tip of the metal leaves becomes filmy. The effect of the surface tension is thought to be a necessary condition for crystals which have the feature of fractal to be formed.

Figure 21: Olive oil was added on the solution of zinc sulfate instead of acetic acid butyl

Future Prospects It is thought that the difference in the amount of the surface tension between the two liquids becomes one of the factors, which controls the growth of metal leaves through the experiment with surface- active agent. Furthermore, the reason zinc metal leaves continue to grow between the two liquids, despite having a higher density than acetic acid butyl and the solution of zinc sulfate, seems to be because of the force which attracts from the upper layer. This force is thought to equal the surface tension between the two liquids and so metal leaves do not usually sink to the bottom of the container. I want to measure the surface tension between the two liquids quantitatively and consider the more concrete relationship between the figure of metal leaves and the effect of surface tension. Moreover, I also want to carry out some experiments to clarify the mechanism of the hydrostatic pressure that has effects on the figures of metal leaves. There are many phenomena of self-organization around us not only in nature but also in an artificial world. I think that many things in nature teach us some rules. Fractal crystals formed naturally showed the feature of growth and it will help future 52

Figure  22: A  surface-active agent was added to reduce the surface tension between the two liquids

Figure 23: The graph about the growth of metal leaves of Sample A, B, and C

fractal catalysts be self-organized. I am going to consider how to control the surface tension when I make the self-organized crystals which grow threedimensionally in the solution. Moreover, through our own studies and research, we Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


can notice the connection of various science fields and learn the importance of the relation of each point of view. And I think my research can be linked to the development of new materials. For example, at present in Japan, there is a new fiber, Morphotex,[7] developed by Nissan, Teijin, and Tanaka metal company, given hints by the surface structure of Morpho butterfly wings.

and Prof. Tetsuro Konishi of Nagoya University in Japan for valuable comments and discussions, and acknowledge the support of Asahigaoka Senior High School in Japan.

So, I think utilization of the rules from the phenomena of self-organization will arrive at the development of new materials.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Acknowledgments

6.

The author would like to thank Prof. Hideyo Kunieda

References 1.

7.

Stewart I. What Shape of a Snowflake?: Kawadesyoboshinsya; 2009. Matsushita M. Physics of Fractal (I): Syokabo; 2002. Matsushita M. Physics of Fractal (II): Syokabo; 2004. Saito Y. Growth of Crystals: Syokabo; 2002. Kikuchi K. The World of Snow and Thunder: Seizandosyoten; 2009. Takayasu H, Honda K, Sano M, Tazaki H, Murayama K, Ito K. Science of Fractal: Asakurasyoten; 1987. Kawasaki K, Noda H, Kiuchi M. Insect Technology ~Possibility to Industrial Use~: CMC publication; 2005.

About the Author Arisa is interested in structures of crystals and catalysts now. In the future, she wants to be a scientist, majoring in chemistry at college. She always thinks it is important to research from the angles of both a theory and a phenomenon. She has enjoyed every process of her research, making plans of experiments. She never forgets to think over the results before drawing conclusions from them.

Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13 53


Original Research

Using ultrasound technology and computational analysis to develop an automated champagne pourer Rajiv Dua St. Paul’s School, London, UK. E-mail: DuaR@StPaulsSchool.org.uk DOI: 10.4103/0974-6102.107626

ABSTRACT

Champagne overspill is a problem that is well-known for party hosts and sommeliers

(wine waiters). In this project, I endeavored to develop a solution to this common problem, one that has the potential to revolutionise the catering market at home, in social bars, and in corporate events. I started by considering the feasibility of the product by conducting three vital experiments – the change in CO2 concentration of the champagne over time, the ability of ultrasonic waves to reflect off the champagne in a feedback system, and finally, a test of the durability of the product by applying virtual forces to various faces of the body (using solid works and a self-made simulator). From these experiments, the final outcome was comfortably deemed feasible in a virtual but conceptual form. I then set out to develop the virtual product using electronic, structural, and mechanical prototyping as well as programming. The computer-aided design (CAD) of the product was also developed throughout the project. Having finally emerged with a successful outcome, I then evaluated my project against the ‘desired outcomes’ of my project. Not only does my research and design accomplish this small problem, but the underlying mechanical principles can be applied to many other areas of the catering market.

Introduction Often, at family get-togethers, champagne would be served for a celebration of some sort. I observed that there would always be some overflow of champagne from the flute. At the time, this was not considered a bad thing and the spill was simply wiped and dried. However, I noticed that after a while there were white marks on the wooden table where champagne had previously spilled. I researched this on the Internet and found that champagne is known to bleach wood over long periods of time. This inspired me to research and design a solution whereby champagne 54

could be poured into glasses without the overspill. I found that there is no such product presently on the market. This is the main reason for this choice of project. It is also a project that, if successful, will be very innovative.

Theory and Analysis I first investigated ultrasonic wave reflection through a tri-medial surface (champagne foam: Liquid → Air → Liquid). This research was important in determining the suitability for an ultrasonic sensor in the final Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


product; something that was key in determining the feasibility of detecting champagne levels (for accurate and precise adhesion to specified pouring techniques prescribed by chosen expert).[1] Choosing components PING range finder or megatronics 3m ultrasonic sensor After some research on electronics forums, I concluded that my best choice of circuit would be using one of the two components listed above. They both stood out as the most reliable. After further research on electronics websites, I found that the more consistent reading was given by the PING Range Finder [Figure 1]. Due to the demand for a precise distance feedback to the chip in my product circuitry, I decided to choose the PING Range Finder as the component for my final assembly.

Figure 1: PASCO Motion Sensor with a XPS Datalogger being used to study champagne bubbles

For my experiment, I used a PASCO Motion Sensor along with a XPS Datalogger [Figure 1], which enabled me to graph my data on a distance/time graph [Figure 2]. The red line on the graph shows the level of the champagne in the beaker when full. The blue line shows the progression from the beaker being empty to filling to being full, then being emptied. By utilizing basic principles of physics, one would expect that the ultrasonic waves would refract in a way that would produce very inaccurate results. However, upon experimentation, I observed that this was not the case (shown on the right). The foam of the champagne acted as a conventional fluid and not a tri-medial surface. Upon researching this, I found that a process called ‘microrefraction’ had occurred. Microrefraction deceives the naked eye into thinking that pure reflection occurs when actually the surface acts as a semi-reflective mirror, reflecting 80% of the ultrasonic wave, but refracting 20% of it. Presently, microrefraction is used most commonly in digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) lens manufacture for highend cameras such as the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV.[2] The actual lens can cost up to £5,000 pounds due to the intricate nature of the manufacturing process.[2] It was from this that I realized the feasibility of an ultrasonic sensor system. Following this successful experiment, I delved into the question: ‘Will the mechanism of a bung over the champagne bottle be beneficial in keeping the ‘fizz’ locked in the champagne?’ Due to lack of a Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Figure 2: A graph showing the level of champagne as it is poured with time

CO2 sensor in the school data logging laboratory, I decided to make an improvised experiment using calcium hydroxide, with a bung fitted on the champagne bottle, then fed in using a delivery tube into a boiling tube, filled halfway with Ca(OH)2. To the champagne bottle that had a bung on it in the first place, I connected a glass tube to the bung and a delivery tube to the glass tube. Before I started the experiment, I hypothesised that the champagne bottle without the (original) bung would lose CO2 at a faster rate. In terms of observation, this meant that the Ca(OH)2 in the boiling tube connected to the open champagne bottle turned cloudy faster than the other tube. This is because of the equation: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O. The solution turns cloudy due 55


to the fact that CaCO3 is insoluble in water whereas calcium hydroxide is soluble in water. My next task was to assess different materials in their suitability for the product scenarios, including being dropped from a height of 46” (height of average bar counter) as well as exposure to champagne, if an unplanned error occurred in the system. In order to get an authoritative opinion on this matter, I approached a materials science professional[3] and consulted him on the matter.[3] After a long process, a compromise was achieved between good aesthetics (a very high priority for my interviewed clients), as well as a sturdy structure (i.e. a high Young’s modulus (dy/dx where y = stress and x = strain). This material was chrome stainless steel which has a Young’s Modulus of 2.0 x 1011 N/m2. By using SolidWorks’ SimulationXpress Analysis Wizard, I was able to simulate the action of dropping the champagne pourer from the height of a bar counter. By using ‘Max von Mises Stress’ as the default failure criterion, I was able to see if the champagne pourer would fail upon impact with the ground [Figure 3]. As a result of this calculation, I was able to program a console application to output a displacement vector list (in C++) as a result of a bridged input from SolidWorks. This was then compared with the SolidWorks displacement model [Figure 4] to verify the simulation analysis. It was concluded that the product would not fail under impact; this is represented by the lack of red colour in Figure 3. There was also little to no displacement from the original shape during and after impact. One of the main advantages of using chrome stainless steel is its ability to retain its original shape, explaining why its Young’s Modulus is much higher than that of other common metals e.g. Aluminum. In searching for existing products on the market, I came across a large-scale champagne vending that used the same principles as I had hypothesised. This was found in Selfridges on Oxford Street, supporting my choice to pursue the upper class bracket and corporate events scene with my product. The champagne vending machine used the same principles but a different underlying technology. Instead of displacement via gas infusion, this vending machine used suction via vacuum pump. In this way, the specification of the structure had to account for a large vacuum pump (as I recorded from the bar manager at the ‘Hix Restaurant, Champagne, and Caviar Bar’). This contraption cost £15000 and when 56

Figure 3: A diagram showing the durability of the Champagne pourer

Figure 4: The control model

Figure 5: Digital feedback system for the ultrasonic sensor and clamp system for the CO2 pump control

I posed the question of ‘would you be interested in a much cheaper alternative to this method that pours for one glass at a time’, the response I received was ‘yes, most definitely, it sounds like a top class piece of technology.’ This professional recognition of innovation supports the previously stated idea of Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


total originality. Another key area of research was the diffusion of CO2 through the membranes of different materials. This would be vital in my product development as losses of CO2 through diffusion could cause wastage for the user, wasting money over a long term investment. Having found a scholarly paper on the topic of ‘Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Permeability of EAA/ PEO Blends and Microlayers,’ [4] I was able to extract relevant information and form the conclusion that cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) is the most impermeable elastopolymer to CO2 diffusion. An added bonus to using PEX is the fact that it is quite cheap. PEX is also the elastopolymer with the highest tensile and strongest impact properties, making it ideal for withstanding a drop of 46”. Another large issue was the electronics aspect of the project. Having had vast experience in programming and systems, I found the task of creating a functional system quite manageable yet challenging. By using an Arduino DueMilaNove, I was able to create a digital feedback system for the ultrasonic sensor [Figure 5], as well as a functioning clamp system for the CO2 pump control. This CO2 pump is a simple charger device that involves the pushing of a lever to operate. By using a rack and pinion mechanism, the charger can be pressed to different extents, altering the CO2 pressure that is emitted. Figure 6 shows the position of the CO2 charger, as well as the outline of the PEX tubes inside the bottle. By linking the systems of the ultrasonic sensor and the clamp mechanism together, overspill can be avoided e.g. If the ultrasonic sensor senses that the champagne is close to the top, the arduino will read this and the response will be that the clamp will loosen off the CO2 pump, hence stopping the flow of champagne. The next issue that needed addressing was that of manufacture feasibility. Having conducted a feasibility study into the pros and cons of material purchase and equipment use, the final decision was to keep the project at a virtual stage. This would allow more intricate design. A physical, scaled-down prototype has already been on the 3D printer to check the airtight and watertight properties of the tubes. If the product were to be released into the corporate world, a small-scale manufacturing line would be the best course of action. This is due to the difficult nature of handling chrome stainless steel, as well as the intricate placement of PEX tubes within the chrome stainless steel structure. With regards to the design, there have been three major design phases, the most Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13

Figure 6: The position of the CO2 charger and the outline of the PEX tubes inside the bottle

Figure 7: The virtual Stainless steel exterior

Figure 8: The virtual interior structure design

57


best shown in Figure 8. By also using XFlowExpress within SolidWorks, I was able to guarantee that the champagne would exit the tube at 90 degrees to the vertical axis because of the turbulent nature of the champagne flow showing that liquids in a closed environment will travel in the same plane as those in an open environment.

Figure 9: Virtual image of Carbon Dioxide being pumped into the bottle inside the champagne holder

The remaining few weeks of work on this project consisted of incorporating the ultrasonic sensor in the final design, then completing a final 3D-prototype print of the product [Figure 10]. The design was done on Google Sketchup 8 Pro and rendered by V-Ray Render Software. The 3-D print was facilitated by the St. Paul’s School, Engineering Department and the prototype was design on Solid Works 2012.

Conclusion From my research into ultrasonics, I concluded that the proposed feedback mechanism for champagne level measurement would indeed work as a result of the successful experiment into microrefraction. From the SolidWorks data, I was also able to conclude that my product would not fail under the possible stresses of being in common scenarios such as in a bar. The PEX tubing enabled me to develop a product with minimal CO2 loss, thereby, increasing its costeffectiveness. Using this successful data, I will now embark on physically manufacturing the device, a preliminary prototype.

References Figure 10: 3D Printed outcome

recent being described by the realistically rendered pictures below [Figures 7-9]. Figure 9 shows the CO2 coming up the tube from the bottom, into the bottle and then the displaced liquid comes up the second tube in the bottle and exits through the bent tube,

1. Erriu F. American Bar Manager. Savoy Hotel, London. 2. Matts P. Research fellow at ‘Procter & Gamble’, Lecturer at the London College of Fashion. 3. Perkins JM. A materials science professional. phD (Warwick). 4. Pethe VV, Wang HP, Hiltner A, Baer E, Freeman BD. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Permeability of EAA/PEO Blends and Microlayers, 2008. Available from: http://www.interscience. wiley.com. [Last accessed on 2012 Feb 06].

About the Author Rajiv Dua is a 16-year-old student at St. Paul’s School in London. He has just completed his AS-Levels in Maths, Further Maths, Physics, and Chemistry as well as a Level 3 Engineering Extended Project. His interests include jazz music, keyboard, and computer programming.

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Young Scientists Journal | 2013 | Issue 13


What is Young Scientists Journal? Young Scientists Journal is an online science journal, written by young scientists for young scientists (aged 12-20). More than that, the journal is run entirely by teenagers, including a team of students in Kent, England, but involving editors from all over the world. It is the only peer review science journal for this age group, the perfect journal for aspiring scientists to publish research. If you are a student wanting to submit an article, head to our website www.ysjournal. com . It can be on any Science-related subject, be it a previous science project, original research or opinion/knowledge that you would like to share. You can put this on your CV or use it to contribute to awards such as D of E. To get even more involved as part of our editorial, technical or publicity teams, contact the current Chief Editor, Fiona Jenkinson by e-mailing editor@ysjournal.com. Alternatively, find us on Facebook or Twitter, represent us at a Science Event or tell your friends about us – every little helps! Teachers can get involved by joining our International Advisory Board and encouraging students to submit their work.

YSJ Photography Competition 2013 Last Year, Young Scientists Journal decided to run a Science Photography Competition. We had a great number of entries from Artists and Scientists alike and a number won the cash prizes. To see all of last year’s entries, head to our website www.ysjournal.com and find the link on the front page. This year, we are doing the same thing again so go to our website now to enter our Competition ending 1st May 2013!

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Next Issue and Upcoming Events Our next issue, Issue 14 will be a general issue. It promises to contain a variety of topics including the Mozart Effect, Raman Spectroscopy, treatments and control of Tuberculosis and many more. This year, the Science Conference (on which this issue is based) is happening again at St. Paul’s Boys School, London on 8th March 2013 to include Science students from Germany, Japan and the UK presenting posters and presentations. Young Scientists Journal will also be present at the Big Bang Fair in London, 14th-17th March 2013. We’re also hoping to be present at the Danish Science Exhibition, either this year or next. If there are any events you feel we should attend, do let us know via the website.


The Butrous Foundation

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(ages 12-20 years) to participate in scientific advancements and to The Butrous encourage them toFoundation express their ideas freely and creatively. The Butrous Foundation is a private foundation established in 2006. The TheButrous current interestFoundation of the foundation is to fund activities that serve its mission. Butrous Foundation The Mission

The Butrous Foundation is a private foundation established in TheThe foundation aims to motivate young people to pursue 2006. current interest of the foundation is to scientific fund activities careers by enhancing scientific creativity and communication skills. that serve its mission. It aims to provide a platform for young people all over the world The(ages Mission 12-20 years) to participate in scientific advancements and to Theencourage foundation aims to motivate young people to pursue them to express their ideas freely and creatively. scientific careers by enhancing scientific creativity and Thematic approaches to achieve the foundation mission: communication skills. It aims to provide a platform for young 1. To enhance communication and friendship between young people peopleall allover over world (ages 12-20 years) to participate in thethe world and to help each other with their scientific scientific advancements and to encourage them to express their interests. 2. To promote ideals of co-operation and the interchange of ideas freely and the creatively. knowledge and ideas. 3. To enhance the application of science and its role in global soThematic approaches to achieve the foundation mission: ciety and culture. 1. To communication and young 4. enhance To help young people make links withfriendship scientists in between order to take global knowledge, participate in the with advancepeopleadvantage all over of the world and toand help each other their ment of science. scientific interests. 5. To encourage young people to show their creativity, inspire them 2. To promote thefull ideals of co-operation and the of to reach their potential and to be role models for interchange the next knowledge and ideas. generation. 6. To encourage discipline of of good scienceand where 3. To enhance thethe application science itsopen roleminds in global and respect to other ideas dominate. society and culture. 7. To help global society to value the contributions of young 4. To help young people make links with scientists in order to people and enable them to reach their full potential, take advantage of globaljournal knowledge, and participate in the visit Young Scientists www.ysjournal.com

advancement of science. 5. To encourage young people to show their creativity, inspire them to reach their full potential and to be role models for the next generation. 6. To encourage the discipline of good science where open minds


Young Scientist Journeys Editors: Paul Soderberg and Christina Astin

This book is the first book of The Butrous foundation’s Journeys Trilogy. Young scientists of the past talk to today’s young scientists about the future. The authors were members of the Student Science Society in high school in Thailand in the 1960s, and now, near their own 60s, they share the most important things they learned about science specifically and life generally during their own young scientist journeys in the years since they published The SSS Bulletin, a scientific journal for the International School Bangkok. Reading this first book is a journey, that starts on this page and ends on the last one, having taken you, Young Scientist, to hundreds of amazing “places,” like nanotechnology, Song Dynasty China, machines the length of football fields, and orchids that detest wasps. But the best reason to The Butrous Foundation, which is take the journey through dedicated to empowering today the these pages is that this scientists of tomorrow. This book will help you foundation already publishes Young prepare for all your other journeys. Some of these will be Scientists Journal, the world’s first and physical ones, from place to place, such as to scientific only scientific journal of, by, and for, conferences. Others will be professional journeys, like from all the world’s youngsters (aged 12Botany to Astrobiology, or from lab intern to assistant to 20) who want to have science careers researcher to lab director. But the main ones, the most exciting or want to use science in other of all your journeys, will be into the Great Unknown. That is careers. 100% of proceeds from sales where all the undiscovered elements are, as well as all other of The Journeys Trilogy will go to the inhabited planets and every new species, plus incredible things Foundation to help it continue to like communication with dolphins in their own language, and fulfill its mission to empower technological innovations that will make today’s cutting-edge youngsters everywhere. marvels seem like blunt Stone Age implements. For further information please write to info@butrousfoundation.com Book Details: Title: Young Scientist Journeys Editors: Paul Soderberg and Christina Astin Paperback: 332 pages Dimensions: 7.6 x 5.2 x 0.8 inches, Weight: 345 grams Publisher: The Butrous Foundation (September 26, 2010) ISBN-10: 0956644007 ISBN-13: 978-0956644008 Website: http://www.ysjourneys.com/ Retailer price: £12.45 / $19.95


The Butrous Foundation Journeys Trilogy Thirty-one years ago, Sir Peter Medawar wrote Advice to a Young Scientist, a wonderful book directed to university students. The Butrous Foundation’s Journeys Trilogy is particularly for those aged 12 to 20 who are inspired to have careers in science or to use the path of science in other careers. The three volumes are particularly for those aged 12 to 20 who are inspired to have careers in science or to use the path of science in other careers. It is to “mentor in print” these young people that we undertook the creation and publication of this trilogy. Young Scientist Journeys (Volume 1) This book My Science Roadmaps (Volume 2) The findings of journeys into key science issues, this volume is a veritable treasure map of “clues” that lead a young scientist to a successful and fulfilling career, presented within the context of the wisdom of the great gurus and teachers of the past in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Great Science Journeys (Volume 3) An elite gathering of well-known scientists reflect on their own journeys that resulted not only in personal success but also in the enrichment of humanity, including Akira Endo, whose discovery as a young scientist of statins has saved countless millions of lives.

Table of Contents: Introduction: The Journeys Trilogy, Ghazwan Butrous . . . 11 Chapter 1. Science is All Around You, Phil Reeves . . . 17 Chapter 2. The Beauty of Science, and The Young Scientists Journal, Christina Astin . . . 19 Chapter 3. The Long Journey to This Book, Paul Soderberg . . . 25 Chapter 4. Dare to Imagine and Imagine to Dare, Lee Riley . . . 43 Chapter 5. How the Science Club Helped Me Become a Human Being, Andy Bernay-Roman . . . 55 Chapter 6. Your Journey and the Future, Paul Soderberg . . . 63 Chapter 7. Engineering as a Ministry, Vince Bennett . . . 83 Chapter 8. Cold Facts, Warm Hearts: Saving Lives With Science, Dee Woodhull . . . 99 Chapter 9. My Journeys in Search of Freedom, Mike Bennett . . . 107 Chapter 10. Insects and Artworks and Mr. Reeves, Ann Ladd Ferencz . . . 121 Chapter 11. Window to Endless Fascination, Doorway to Experience for Life: the Science Club, Kim Pao Yu . . . 129 Chapter 12. Life is Like Butterflies and Stars, Corky Valenti . . . 135 Chapter 13. Tend to Your Root, Walteen Grady Truely . . . 143 Chapter 14. Lessons from Tadpoles and Poinsettias, Susan Norlander . . . 149 Chapter 15. It’s All About Systems—and People, J. Glenn Morris . . . 157 Chapter 16. A Journey of a Thousand Miles, Kwon Ping Ho . . . 165 Chapter 17. The Two Keys to Making a Better World: How-Do and Can-Do, Tony Grady . . . 185 Chapter 18. Becoming a Scientist Through the Secrets of Plants, Ellen (Jones) Maxon . . . 195 Chapter 19. The Essence of Excellence in Everything (and the Secret of Life), Jameela Lanza . . . 203 Chapter 20. The Families of a Scientist, Eva Raphaël . . . 211 Appendix: Lists of Articles by Young Scientists, Past and Present . . . 229 The SSS Bulletin, 1966-1970 . . . 230-237 The Young Scientists Journal, 2008-present . . . 237-241 Acknowledgements . . . 243 The Other Two Titles in the Journeys Trilogy . . . 247 Contents of Volume 2 . . . 249 Excerpt from Volume 3: A Great Scientist . . . 251 Index . . . 273

Editors Christina Astin and Paul Soderberg



Young Scientists Journal: issue 13 January-June 2013