Issuu on Google+

DESIGN EVALUATION FUNDAMENTALS 設計評估的根本

Jack Williamson Executive Director, Design Michigan Cranbrook Academy of Art 設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


Design Evaluation Methods

There are four systems of design evaluation we will deal with here, starting with the more simple and general forms of evaluation and progressing to more sophisticated types of evaluation. All the methods share a common basis in the posing and answering of questions. The final method will include images to illustrate the principles discussed.

1.Five Ws and an H 2.ERIC 3.Aims,Means,Consequences (AMC) 4.Form,Function,Significance *A fifth approach, not discussed here, is that of the "design critique."

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aims, Means, Consequences

AMC

目的

方法

結果

AMC

Peter・ Madsen This method of evaluation was developed by Peter Madsen to assess the ethical implications of human 該評估以人性行為為主 decisions. Although the method was not originally developed to evaluate design, it is very useful in 該方式比較open的形式 assessing design at different developmental stages: during design conception (when "aims" are important) 簡潔評估方式 , during design execution (when "means" are important) , or after a design has been implemented and exists as 初期構成 中程設計 最後設計 an independent product, communication or environment (when "consequences" are important). 目標的重要 後果的重要 手段的重要

獨立產品、訊息或者環境

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


AMC

Aims, Means, Consequences

AMC

目的

方法

結果

To understand this method, it is useful to work backwards from "consequences." The method's purpose is to understand how consequences, both good and bad, are related to, and in most cases determined by, aims and means. For example, a good consequence would most likely require a good aim to precede it. However, a good aim does not necessarily guarantee a good outcome, because the means employed may be inadequate to achieve the intended aim.

運用範圍在於結果的改善 無論好和壞-使用手段 簡單方式聚交、決定 壞手段

好目標

達到目標

未必好結果

藉由評估詳細分析 AMC

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aims, Means, Consequences

AMC

目的

方法

結果

為服務所有用戶設計signage系統 實際經驗

For example, a good design aim ("design a signage system for a hospital that serves all users") might not be realized if the wrong means are employed (a designer is used who possesses no prior experience designing hospital way finding systems, or a fabricator is used who utilizes inappropriate materials, like pigments that prematurely fade with exposure to sunlight, making letters hard to read). In these cases, a good aim is undermined by the inability to follow through and implement the aim properly.

定位好設計目標

醫院的系統 是否有所體驗 方式是否適當 如期提出改善目標

重新確認目標

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals

提出改善方式


The Design's Aim 設計的目標 The key question relating to the aim is: "Is the aim just?" That is, is the aim worthwhile? If the aim is not worthwhile, the consequence will also not be worthwhile. So a failed outcome may be traceable to an unworthy aim. However, a failed outcome may also be traceable to an aim which, though not bad in itself, is incapable of successful implementation. Such is the case with a poorly formulated aim.

關鍵問題 目標是否是值得 不是值得的

值得的

後果不值得

後果值得

不好結果判斷出好的過程 好的過程可公式化 轉換成為元素 變成另一個好的結果或目標

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


The Design's Aim 設計的目標 Aims which are either unclear or too general fall into this category, because they lack enough specific information for appropriate implementation to occur. Returning to our hospital signage system example, it would not be sufficient to have as the aim, "design a good signage system," without also clarifying what "good" means (i.e. serves all users, works within the available budget, can be easily updated by our staff, etc.).

目標不明確

太過於平常

因缺乏訊息所產生的目標 返回醫院signage案例 一個好的目標 不足以澄清 何謂「好」方法

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


The Design's Aim 設計的目標 Also, the "aim" may actually consist of many related aims on the part of both the client (who may consist of many people, as in a corporation) and the designer (who may not be an individual but consist of a team of designers in a design firm). With many different people involved, there may be conflicting aims, or the aim may become unfocused, either of which could compromise the outcome. It is important to realize that the stated aim of a design may actually be but one of a number of actual aims driving a design project, and that the final project outcomes may in fact reflect one or more of these driving aims.

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals

目標 群體或個體或設計師 目標包含多重的因素 好目標?未聚交目標?

意識到是重要的設計的陳述的目標 發現許多操控項目… 目標可在定義或更明確


The Design's Means 設計的方法 We have learned above that it is valuable, when evaluating a design , to understand and evaluate the "aim“ of the design. However, it is also important to evaluate the means, either because of the possibility that the means may be inadequate to accomplish the intended aim, and because the means may actually substitute new aims, as an example given below demonstrates.

評估設計 瞭解和評估「目標」 運用價值評估 找出操弄重要方式 找出好的方法 好的方法,運用在實際目標嘗試

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


The Design's Means 設計的方法 The key question regarding means is: "Are the means appropriate to accomplish the aim?" Failed design outcomes are sometimes traceable to inappropriate means. Because designers are often used when the nature of a problem or need is still unclear, it may happen that the level of resources and commitment required to solve a problem is not known at the outset, when the aims are formulated.

關鍵問題在於方法 是方法適當實現目標? 不合格的設計結果 追蹤的到不適當的方法 瞭解本質問題 瞭解目標需求 需求之資源 如未能達到當初所定水平 公式化的目標方法

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


The Design's Consequences 設計的結果

The key question in terms of consequences is: Do the consequences achieve the intended aims, and if they do will they continue to do so over time?

關鍵問題根據後果 結果是否達到預設的目標 是否繼續完成

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


The Design's Consequences 設計的結果 The aims may be good, and the means may be equally good, but this still does not guarantee that the consequences or outcomes will be good. Consequences must be assessed independent of the aims and means, to confirm that the full range of impacts or outcomes are indeed acceptable. Even when the aims are good, unforeseen consequences are possible, and only by conducting a thorough and on-going assessment can one know that the appropriate outcomes have been achieved and will continue to be achieved.

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals

目標也許是好 方法也許是好 不保證結果是好 目標和方法的被獨立的評估 全方位考驗其結果是可接受的 好的目標-未預見結果時 應藉由一個全面性評估是否持續


The Design's Consequences 假設提前 設計的結果 For example, let us assume that the 醫院signage系統設計 earlier mentioned hospital signage system is appropriately designed and 一個舊醫院、一個新的診所設立實驗 implemented. Later on, a new clinic is built near the older hospital by an architecture firm using a completely 刻意的先行觀察 different type of wayfinding system. At a certain point in time the two 透過系統式的方式 separate buildings are connected so that to users it is perceived as one big hospital building. To work well, 或許比較出不同改善條件 the two wayfinding systems must now be harmonized. What was once a good 回歸目標的調整 system, is now ineffective, because it doesn't encompass the whole of the new facility. 設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aims, Means, Consequences Conclusion Evaluating the aims, means and consequences of design is a useful way to assess design and the various impacts, both intended and unintended, it exercises on people and the world. One advantage of this particular method is that it also helps identify the points in the design planning and implementation process (i.e. when aims are formulated and means are identified) which negative consequences may be traced back to, permitting one who is involved with the project to subsequently correct those outcomes. Even in cases where we are not directly involved in the development of the design project, we can often work backwards from the end consequences of a design and evaluate obvious or implicit aims and means to understand the design in its totality. 設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals

評估目標 設計的方法和結果 有用的方式估計設計 各種各樣的衝擊與意念 設計計劃和實施過程中產生辨認點 可以追蹤哪些消極結果 透過不同項目隨後改正那些結果 可以明瞭設計的手法、 評估的顯著、目標是否達成


範本解說

設計評估方法

Design evaluation fundamentals


針對管狀酒架

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aims 目的: ¾ 改良傳統酒架的放置方 式 ¾ 相較於一般只露出酒瓶 瓶頸的置酒架,這個設 計將酒瓶瓶身以及酒標 (Lable)當作是整體設計 的一部份,如此一來可 以讓人一眼就辨認得出 所有酒藏。 產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Means 方法: ¾ 製作方式是屬於簡單成形,採不鏽鋼榨取器榨取鋁擠 型,便利加工,及簡易切割出酒瓶放置口。 ¾ 特殊精準的切割角度,使得酒瓶可以安穩地採水平方 式固定。 ¾ 背面用兩個螺絲鑲嵌固定,其裝設十分簡單快速,造 型卻令人耳目一新。

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Consequences 結果: ¾ 便利收藏且不浪費空間 。 ¾ 適合居家的空間陳設做搭 配。 ¾ 可形成家中的另類藝術品

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


檸檬汁萃取器

吃檸檬的我...

最討厭擠檸檬了啦! 想到要切 又要擠! 真是 ○ ○ ╳ ╳ 把我的手弄得到處都是啊! 產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


AIMS MEANS CONSEQUENCE • 產品:檸檬汁萃取器 • 直徑:2cm 高:8.5cm 重:24g 材質:不鏽鋼

設計師 : Tools Design 產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


AIMS目標

• 用手擠壓,不用 花功夫切開,不 會為了擠檸檬把 手弄濕。

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


MEANS方法

• 將萃取器插入 檸檬當中,用 手擠壓。

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


CONSEQUENCE

• 用手擠壓,就可 以讓檸檬汁順著 精心設計的角度 流出。

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals

結果


AMC

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aim, Means,Consequences

Aim 目標

•跳脫原本調味罐的印象,將趣味與美感帶入設計中。 •相較於一般調味罐直接放至於桌上所佔的空間,此調味罐的設計 解決空間問題,在放置的調味罐多的情況下,依然節省空間,整 體造形更是如含苞待放的花朵,美觀及實用同時加分。


Aim, Means,Consequences

Means 方法 •依口味選擇所需調味罐,打開蓋子直接倒出使用

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aim, Means,Consequences

Consequences 結果

•方便收藏不佔空間 •依需求而搭配使用 •像藝術品般融入居家環境

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


AMC

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


設計一個綠色環保的機能導向的用具,不希望讓人 忽略它的存在,而遺忘在某個角落,所以一個簡單 的壓扁塑膠瓶,讓他實用化、趣味。

使用簡單的鋼條以及透明的 ABS 材料 ,運用簡單的 力學原理,讓小功用大發揮。

Design evaluation fundamentals

I 目 M的 S E方 A法 N S O結 N果 S E Q U E N C E S

一個簡單造型、趣味活動來完成一個有利於環保 資源回收的動作,讓人們可以力行體會。

㊣ 產品分析案例

A M C


Aims,Means,Consequences

• Aims-目的 • Means-方法 • Consequences-結果

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Aims • 改變對傳統馬桶刷的 概念 • 以小豆苗盆栽做為整 體設計,可愛造型與 符號的運用,容易藉 由聯想程度讓使用者 表達出幽默感

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Means • 和一般傳統馬桶刷法 類似,從造形上趣味 運用,把打掃時的負 面心情也一併清除乾 淨。

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


Consequences

在冰冷的浴室中,從視覺到情 感上的反應,具有親人性,親 和力,遊戲趣味,讓人感覺愉 快的氣氛

適合為平日的居家生活,提供 一些玩具或遊戲來讓我們回憶 小時後的快樂及安全感。 • 也可以做為居家空間中獨特的 藝術品 •

產品分析案例

Design evaluation fundamentals


作業 1.根據AMC找尋三個產品然後撰寫分析(需跟第一次不同)。 2.報告時間為4/24當日、報告為每一個人。 3.報告方式為PPT,頁數不限。

還記得第一次是3/27吽~5W1H 還記得第二次是4/10阿~ERIC @@其中報告= = ~4/17呼 還記得第三次是4/24噗~AMC

評價作業說明

預備下次作業的開始


test