LETTER FROM THE EDITOR Stephanie Rodriguez OMG!Doctor I caught the flu again. GeeSuzy this is your second time here in this month! I know, I know but…No but! Have you even thought about the flu shot I recommended?Yes I have but, I somehow never have time. So you’re telling me that you haven’t even had a physical check up! Umm yeah no. Besides! Doctor it’s not like if that little flu shot is going to cure me for a whole year. Ha-ha-ha I hate to tell you but yes it does prevents you from the flu. You have it all mix up. Huh? What are you talking about? I am saying that you should really go get a checkup. Oh and here take this magazine it will help you understand what I’m talking about. This magazine is called “You Have What”, if you do read it, this magazine will help you learn about your Immune System, HIV, HPV and a little bit more. Immune System? Lord! I feel worst. Suzy just take the magazine and go get a checkup. Well hello there! I am Dr. Rodriguez and I have studied the human’s Immune System for many years. Been a doctor is great but, it is really complicated when you have patients like Suzy. It’s complicated becausethey are not aware on how important their body is. This is why some colleaguesand I have put together a magazine called ‘’You Have What?”. In this magazine you will find yourself really interested and anxious to know more. This magazine will offer you some really cool facts about some really slow deadly viruses. One of the viruses is called HIV and I’ll leave it to you to go figure out what that means. Another virus will be HPV which is not as bad as HIV but could be. Also how you can only have AIDSif you have HIV that has hit you immune system badly. Just becauseI’m a doctor it doesn’t mean that I’m 100%healthy. When I first started as a doctor I became ill. Soon I had a blood transition and unfortunately this blood was contaminated with HIV. The good part is that I diagnose my HIV on time and was able to control it.
This is why this magazine is so, so important. To let others know how important it is to know who and what we are against and what we are fighting for.
HIV: Silent Killer of the 80’s Guadalupe Talavera It has been said that HIV has originated in Africa. It has been proved that HIV is very similar to SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus), which is a virus that comes from chimpanzees in West Africa. There are two main theories in which scientist believe that this virus went from chimpanzees to humans. There is the “The Hunter Theory” in which a chimp’s blood entered a cut or wound of a hunter, then the virus adapted to the new human host causing HIV. The other main theory is called “The Oral Polio Vaccine Theory”. This theory states that HIV was transmitted to humans by an oral polio vaccine that was given to about a million people in Africa in the late 1950’s. But it is not exactly certain for sure how HIV was transferred to humans.
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is a retrovirus composed of two RNA single strands. Now this retrovirus is different from all other viruses because it contains reverse transcriptase. This means once the virus infects a cell its RNA uses the reverse
transcriptase to convert itself to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. HIV only targets one type of specific cells, and these cells are CD4+ Helper T cells. These cells play a major role in helping the immune system defend
the body from foreign invaders such as other viruses or bacteria. These cells activate other cells, such as killer T cells and memory B cells that help clear the body from any foreign invaders. If these cells are not activate by CD4+ the immune system would be very vulnerable, and this is what HIV does to human immune systems. This HIV virus has been with humans for about 30 years now, so why have scientist not found a cure or at least a vaccine? But, it is not as easy as it is said, see the reason why there is still no cure or vaccine is, because the HIV virus mutates. It can mutate so many times that scientist cannot keep up. However, there are drugs such as azidothymidine that can help prevent the spread of this virus. These drugs are not cheap though, so not
everybody who has HIV can afford them.
Giovanni Alvarez The immune system has help out my body through many ill days at home or at school. I try hard to stay far enough from people who are sick or from objects that been contaminated. Occasionally I get sick with flu or a bad cough but eventually it goes away. My immune system always know what to do when I get sick and have found ways to prevent it from happening in ways that only they have known to do. The immune system is to help our body to be safe, but to those who try to help others, there is always something to cause trouble to anything. Bacteria and viruses have the immune system greatest enemies that have always find a way to attack our body. Viruses and bacteria are known as pathogen since they have ways to make our body sick. Once the pathogen has infect our body, there antigen that attach to the pathogen to alert the immune system of a virus that is damaging our body. This helps prevent our body from getting any worse from the bacteria or virus from spreading to the rest of our inside. Viruses are the smallest organisms that can be are in the world. A virus is designed as a protein capsule that contains either a DNA or RNA. The goal for every virus goal is to find a living cell and infect it so it would be able to reproduce more viruses. Once the virus begins to reproduce, the cycle will begin to make more viruses. In the end of reproducing the host cell will die. The immune system helps with the virus on the inside. Who is stopping the virus from the outside? Our body has a non-specific defense system that is able to stop some of the virus before it is able to get inside our body. Some of the defense is our skin, epithelial tissue, and the mucous membrane that acts a outer barrier to prevent pathogen from entering. Lysozymes that
are in our teardrop can cause any cell to burst. The ciliated epithelium (nose hair) catches pathogen before entering and dispose of it like waste. Immunity is a key thing for the immune system to work. They are specialized cells and parts of the immune system that offer the body protection against diseases. Immunity is branch off to three different parts: Innate- works to make the human body from being ill from some viruses like HIV or AIDS. Adaptive- is the second part of protection that involves lymphocytes to develop to exposure from a disease or from vaccination. Passive- a protection source from another person (for example, mom giving breast milk that contains antibodies to a baby) B-cells in our body help to produce specific antibodies to block any virus. For example, one B-cells can block a virus as another attach to bacterium that can cause pneumonia. As a B-cell encounter a virus, it triggers the antigen to alert the plasma cells. Every B-cell is selected from different plasma cell to create identical antibodies to be release into the bloodstream. B-cell and Tcell help the immune system but both are very different. B-cells produce antibodies but need to recognize the antigen to create the specific antibody for it. The T-cell is to help fight the bacteria and virus when it has been exposed. Some T-cell like cytotoxic directly kill invader and helper T-cell assist B-cell with their job. CD$+ Helper T-cell are to help our body to boost the immune response of being infected by HIV. One problem is that the HIV virus attack the helper cell to prevent its duty. The CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell help s to enhance the T-cell to be more aware of for most invader cells. The CD8 helps to send a signal to be an important role to react more quickly to allergy or organ transplant rejection.
Kevin Morales Bob Gallo is a Biomedical Researcher from the United States. He was born in March 23 , 1937 in Waterbury, Connecticut. He is famous for being the co-discoverer of HIV which is a virus that basically removes your immune system by killing your Helper T-Cells. Bob Gallo was influenced to viral sciences because his sister died of Leukemia. Bob Gallo is the director of an institute called the “Institute of Human Virology. This Institute is located in the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine in Baltimore. Bob Gallo was the person who discovered the first retrovirus, which was an RNA tumor virus which was associated with certain types of leukemia and lymphomas. rd
Bob Gallo’s major contributed in the field of HIV and AIDS that’s why he is consider the co-discoverer of the HIV virus. He tried to take the credit of being the actual discoverer of the virus. Yet he did not succeed in getting the title of discoverer after a lawsuit with the actual person who discovered HIV. The actual person who discovered HIV was a French Scientist named Luc Montagnier. Montagnier and Gallo have had a dispute on who discovered HIV. Gallo then flew to France to talk about this dispute. Gallo was a powerful scientist and Montagnier may have been intimidated or he didn’t want this to become a bigger quandary. So to resolve this problem Montagnier agree to give Gallo some credit for the discovery of the HIV virus. Even though Gallo didn’t do the research that Montagnier had done. Gallo also published his story on finding out that chemokines is what can block the HIV and the development of AIDS. In 1986, he also discovered that HIV-1 is the key factor that causes AIDS. Currently Bob Gallo is currently working in the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine working on his biomedical research. He is working on his study of blood cells and abnormalities.
Karla Landeros HPV is a type of infection that can lead to a type of cancer in any of the vulva, vagina, rectum, cervix, penis, anus, or scrotum. HPV is visible when genital warts show on various parts of the skin. Genital warts are visible on the arms, hands, legs, and some other parts of the skin. There is no type of high-risk for HPV in women or men. Men and women feel fine even though their cells are changing because of the HPV infection. It does not have an exacted cell to target it just targets any type of cell. Once this process takes place the replacement cell is called the “host” cell. The host cell produces and makes copies of the viral DNA and RNA. Once this happen the “host” cells die and new produced viruses are released to go and infect even more cells. Some ways it can be transmitted is by sex, oral sex, and by French kissing. Yes HPV can give people cervix cancer. One way to increases the risk of this cancer would be by smoking. There is no treatment and there are no recommendations for treating it unless you have genital warts. There are two types of vaccines one is Gardasil and Cervarix. Cervarix protects against HPV-16 and HPV-18 and which 7 out of 10 may lead to cervical cancer; Gardasil covers HPV-6 and HPV-11and which 9 out of 10 can lead to genital warts.
Facts: -MORE THEN 100 TYPES OF HPV. -9 THAT CUASES CANCER. -3 OUT OF 4 WOMEN GET IT. -HALF OF THE MEN HAVE HPV.
Anita Garcia Background Information: AIDS also known as “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” This deadly disease was reported in June 5, 1981 when the CDC found 5 homosexual that suffered from PCP (pneumocystis carini pneumonia). AIDS is the second step to HIV. HIV is “human immunodeficiency virus”, and is transmitted through body fluids. In 1981 when AIDS was first discovered and many people, due to their ignorance believed that it was only gay related. Do to their beliefs, GRID became the term used for people that acquired this lethal disease. GRID is also known as “gay related immune deficiency”. As the time passed by people got more informed, GRID was removed in July 1982 and AIDS became the official name. Once AIDS was exposed, it was believed to come from SIV. This disease generated from chimpanzees, apes and monkeys in Africa. It’s also known as “Simian Immunodeficiency Virus”. SIV is believed to have been transmitted to humans .You may be asking yourself how monkeys were able to transmit their disease to humans, right? Well one way for SIV to be passed on to humans is by: • Meat eaters • Hunters: if the hunter had a cut and blood from the animal transfered onto him. The above possibilities would have only taken effect in humans being infected only if the apes were infected with SIV. The very first suspects of AIDS were hemophiliacs, heroin users, homosexuals and Haitians. Back in the days, there were certain people that wouldn’t believe in AIDS being a blood transmitted disease. As you could see all these users have a common trait. Either it contained needles, blood transfusion or being a sexual transmitted disease. Overall it was transmitted by body fluids which got all these people infected.
Ways to Diagnose AIDS: AIDS being the second step to HIV strongly affects the immune system. Once a person has contracted HIV/AIDS, they are prone to severe illnesses. Due to the fact that this deadly disease has affected the immune system, a minor illness can result in death! People with AIDS often have systemic systems of infection like the follow: • Fevers • Sweats (mostly at night)] • Swollen glands • Chills • Weakness • Weight loss As an effect of a really low immune system, AIDS/HIV people are prone to many more illnesses like: • Pneumocystis Pneumonia also known as “PCP” or Pneumocystis Carini Pneumonia. A little back information on PCP is that it only occurs if our CD4 helper cells are lower than 200 cells. • Gastrointestinal is an inflammation in the lining of the lower end of the esophagus. AIDS Follow Ups: • Toxoplasmosis a disease that affects the brain. Toxoplasmosis is caused by a cell called toxoplasmosis gondii. • Cryptococcus Meningitis infects the menix which is a covering for the spinal cord and brain. It causes fevers, headaches, fatigue, nausea and vomiting. • Tumors, another major follow up in AIDS/HIV patients. So many severe diseases that a patient is highly prone to if they are AIDS/HIV positive. • Cytomegalovirus disease causes light flashes, floaters, loss of central and peripheral visual fields and blurred vision • Diarrhea: another illness which are caused by salmonella, shigella, campylobacter. There are so many other illnesses that are caused by AIDS/HIV. Therefore its better to have protected sex and always check yourself, before its too late. All this lethal diseases are the result of AIDS killing our CD4+ Helper T Cells. Without our Helper T Cells HIV cells could do anything they want in our body because they are no cells that would fight them. In worst cases AIDS/HIV patients get a mild fever which canend up being fatal. The immune system becomes weak that any minor sickness could threaten their life. Stages of HIV to AIDS:
HIV is a retrovirus and that makes it difficult to find a cure for this noxious disease. “Retrovirus is a RNA virus that is replicated in a host cell via the enzyme reverse transcriptase. Afterwards, it will produce DNA from its RNA genome”. The RNA virus procedure of turning into DNA and entering the host cell have scientist eager. HIV mutates constantly therefore scientist would create various types of vaccines to stop reverse transcriptase. Reason Why HIV Progresses Slowly In Certain People: HIV without any medication normally takes about 10 years to become AIDS. Once a person is diagnosed with AIDS is when HIV leaves the host cell and reproduces more HIV cells. Once this happens the killing of our CD4 cells drops so much that people are more prone to opportunistic infections HIV is a lentivirus, therefore their incubation period is longer. It just means that they will remain in the host cell for a longer period of time. A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell. This state can be a stage of virus replication, or a state that persists over longer periods of time as either inactive viral infections or an endogenous retrovirus.Though, if you don’t have a really well balanced nutrition then you will be more prone tor AIDS. In certain people HIV doesn’t progress into AIDS because their CD4 count of cells hasn’t dropped to less than 200 mg of blood. Another reason why some people don’t develop AIDS is because they don’t catch an opportunistic infection takes place.
Najah Graves And The Band Played On is a fact based movie based on the epidemic, and political views of HIV/AIDS, or GRID as it was first called. GRID, Gay Related Immune Deficiency. When the first few cases of this new virus hit the U.S, the virus was seen in gay manner. Being that we were ignorant to this virus, seeing how it was fairly new, we automatically linked it to what we knew it to be at that time .Over time as we became more educated about the virus the name was changed to HIV/AIDS, which describes the progression of the virus. The HIV/AIDS virus was seen in other parts of the county before the epidemic reached the U.S. The epidemic began in 1976 South Africa, in the Ebola River, and quickly spread. The virus derived from a sick breed of monkeys. Being that the virus jumps hosts, it quickly spread. Since the discovery of the HIV/AIDS virus, there has been endless research on the virus itself. People of walks have helped towards the research of the virus. These are the few groups who contracted the virus via various ways. This helped lead to the understanding of how the HIV/AIDS virus spread . Doctors who’ve greatly contributed to the research of the virus are, Dr. Jaffe, who studies STD’s, Dr. Darrow, who is a doctor of sociology, and last but not least, Dr. Lawrence , who studies host factors. French scientist also helped to better understand the virus. They were the team who founded the virus, and found that the virus itself was a retrovirus. One of the most memorable scenes from the film has to be when Dr. Don Francis, played by Mathew Modine, has an outburst in the court room and says, “how many more people have to die before you do something, give us a number so we can be sure to not bother you until we’ve reached it.” That was so powerful. The political side of the virus’ situation wasn’t too good. They we’re doing very little to help understand it better. They wanted to keep the epidemic a secret, but you can’t keep something such as the virus a secret , if its taking innocent lives without the victim even knowing , or understanding the virus in which they are dying from . Factor that contributed to the spread of the virus was, the fact that we did not know where it came from, or how people we’re being infected with it . Another reason , is that the virus could show no symptoms for up to ten years . That means people who were infected and didn’t know they were infected, which lead to them affecting other people. The fact that we didn’t know, contributed to the widespread of the epidemic. We could have looked at all possible factors, and used our knowledge on virus’, to point the key factors that we needed to know about the virus. The basic information about the virus like, how does it spread, what does it do to our immune system, if we would have knew this earlier on in my opinion the virus wouldn’t have spread so quickly as it did. Not knowing , and not trying to know played a huge roll in this epidemic that is still continuing to spread throughout today.