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Senegal and Dakar Sea Level Rise and Flooding Risk

Presented by Susan Yoon December 9, 2013


SENEGAL AND DAKAR

Senegal sits in the Sahel region, bounded by latitudes of 12째N to 17째N.

How and Why Climate Change Risks Need to be Addressed

The capital city, Dakar is the western most point on the African continent. Climate change hazards include inundation from sea level rise and flooding due to precipitation. The low-lying coastal areas, around the river deltas, has suffered increasingly frequent, severe flooding over the past decade. Like many older, coastal cities, Dakar is saddled with aging infrastructure. In the case of this particular city, which has been built up around its port, many of the refineries and power generating plants are along the southern tip of Dakar.

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FLOODING SENEGALINAND THE SAHEL RECENTINFLOODING SENEGAL In 2013 monthly surpluses exceeding 100 mm have been reported along the coastal areas of Senegal. “Since August [2013], severe floods have been reported in many countries across the Sahel, particularly in Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. According to assessments conducted by authorities and Red Cross Red Crescent National Societies, more than 300,000 people have been affected. The situation is particularly serious in Dakar where, in addition to flooding, people are ironically facing a dire water shortage. A broken pipeline has left 40 per cent of the population – an estimated 3 million people – searching for clean water to drink.”*

Rain anomalies:

Flood magnitude: 5.85

August 2012 flooding

Impact: 1200 displaced

Duration: from 24/08/2012 to 29/08/2012

Primary cause: Torrential Rain Severity: class 2

Dakar on the western coast of Senegal registered a record-breaking 152 mm on 26 August, 2012. This extreme heavy rainfall event, which claimed the lives of 18 people and injured 42, followed another deadly storm event that occurred earlier during August. A storm on 13 August, 2012 dropped about 75 mm and resulted in nine deaths when a factory wall collapsed onto residential homes following the heavy rains. The flooding was exacerbated by saturated soils from the active 2012 monsoon onset. Additionally, the water table in this region has become high due to persistent extremes since 2003.**

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SEVERE FLOODING IN SENEGAL 1993 TO 2009


RECENT FLOODING AUGUST 2 to DECEMBER 4, 2013


ELEVATION IN SENEGAL AT 2.5 METERS


DENSELY POPULATED AREAS IN SENEGAL


DENSELY POPLULTED AREAS and 2.5 METER ELEVATION


FOCUS ON DAKAR

Dakar is the capital, and the largest city in Senegal with a population of 1.1 million people within 82.4 km2. The concave southern coastline will exacerbate and amplify storm surge or tidal patterns. Dakar is one of the largest ports in Africa. Much of the coastal area is industrial and houses oil repositories, power generating facilities, and refineries.


RECENT FLOODING IN DAKAR August 2 to December 4, 2013


ELEVATION IN DAKAR

POPULATION DENSITY IN DAKAR


VULNERABILITY FACTORS


RISK AND VULNERABILITY RANKING

*based on combined value of "Elevation Risk“ and "Population Density" Rank


FLOODING IN SENEGAL AND THE SAHEL RISK TO INFRASTRUCTURE

Many of Dakar’s main power generating plants, oil refineries, industrial parks, and crude oil repositories are situated along the coast. Findings: Of the 13 major power plants and refineries identified within the city limits,  8 were found to be in low risk areas  5 were found to be in medium risk areas

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VULNERABILITY FACTORS

RISK TO INFRASTRUCTURE Of the 13 major power plants and refineries identified within the city limits  8 were found to be in low risk areas  5 were found to be in medium risk areas

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SOURCES: Africa Development Bank http://infrastructureafrica.org/documents/type/arcgis-shape-files/senegal ASTER GDEM, product of METI and NASA http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/ Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Jessica Blunden and Derek S. Arndt, Editors, “State of the Climate in 2012,” Aug 2013, http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/cmb/bamssotc/2012/2012stateoftheclimate.pdf Darthmouth Flood Observatory http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/index.html GDACS, Green Flood Alert in Senegal http://www.gdacs.org/Floods/report.aspx?episodeid=2&eventid=3971&eventtype=FL Humanitarian Response COD_FOD Registry https://cod.humanitarianresponse.info/search/field_country_region/168?search_api_views_fulltext=&page=1 The International Federation of Red Cross, “Senegal: Flooding in the Sahel leaves thousands of families facing uncertain futures,” 03 Oct 2013 http://www.ifrc.org/en/news-and-media/news-stories/international/flooding-in-the-sahel-leaves-thousands-of-families-facing-uncertain-futures--63465/ International Charter Space & Major Disasters http://www.disasterscharter.org/web/charter/activation_details?p_r_p_1415474252_assetId=ACT-404 NASA, NRT Global MODIS Flood Mapping http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/getTile.php?location=020W020N NASA, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/ UN Institute for Training and Research http://www.unitar.org/unosat/node/44/1374 The World Bank and The Geoville Group, “Preparing to Manage Natural Hazards and Climate Change Risks in Dakar, Sénégal,” Jun 2009 http://www.gfdrr.org/sites/gfdrr.org/files/publication/GFDRR_Climate_and_Natural_Hazard_Risks_Dakar-Senegal.pdf WorldPop Project http://www.worldpop.org.uk/data/summary/?contselect=Africa&countselect=Senegal&typeselect=Population

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SYoon Final Project v10