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Wind loads:

Structure, components and cladding of building must withstand wind-induced sliding, uplifting or overturning.

Positive pressure exerted horizontally on vertical surfaces of a building, and to the normal of surface slanted more than 30 degrees

Negative pressure/suction on building sides and leeward surfaces and normal to windward roof surfaces with less than slanting of 30 degrees

Newtons Third Law: Every force has an equal and opposite reaction

Arrows represent the direction of which the forces act. Load path diagrams explore visually how loads of objects are distributed throughout the structure. The movement of forces in a member are very important as this can mean the difference between being stable or falling over.

Rapid oscillations of flexible cables or membranes is caused by aerodynamic effect of wind.! Objects subject to fluttering need to undergo testing in a wind tunnel or computer modelling to investigate their response to wind pressure changing direction

Snow and rain (live loads) can add to the roof’s dead load if they accumulate. Therefore the roof needs to withstand the roof’s structural weight as well as added weight

Dynamic loads (such as loads impacted by earthquakes and wind) are applied suddenly on structures. Because of their rapid change in magnitude and direction, structure must develop inertial forces in relation to its mass.



- small module! i. Mud/clay! ii. bricks! iii. concrete blocks! - large module! i. precast concrete

Bluestone - Basalt rock, an igneous rock formed from volcanos (abundant from volcanoes)! Grose, Margaret (2008) Walking The Constructed City!


Concrete:! Occupancy loads (live loads), from furniture, people, etc. Minimum uniformly distributed unit loads for various uses and occupancies

Water pressure is the hydraulic force which groundwater exerts on the foundation system Thermal tresses = can be either tension or compression forces, depending on whether the material is constrained against thermal expansion or contraction (respectively

Student Name: Lai Yoong Yen!

Longitudinal and transverse vibrations induced by tectonic plates abrupt movements.

Kinetic energy from moving mass of air typically from horizontal direction.

Ching, Building Constructed Illustrated, p2.09 (5th Edition)

Loads on buildings

Earthquake loads

Reaction forces also need to be considered where necessary in order to maintain Newton’s Third Law

Impact loads are kinetic loads applied for a short duration due to moving cars, machinery, etc. This is considered a static load, compensating for it’s dynamic nature by amplifying static load.

Student ID: 676916! !

- not good under tension, therefore must be reinforced with


steel (stainless or galvanised to protect against the elements present in concrete)!

Large modular mass construction (LMMC) - precast concrete! Advantages! - cheaper than a SMMC block! i. less labour involved, because it is mostly machine operated! ii. pre-made off site in a factory, allowing processes to run simultaneously on and off site, thus compacting construction activity! iii. quality control is instilled if there is any detailing needed! Disadvantages! - unloading requires cranes! - each block has a 10 tonne load limit


! !

Small modular mass construction (SMMC)! i.


Bricks are typically made by 2 ways, more commonly they are extruded. The brick still fulfils its function however less material is used due to the holes running through the body. Another method is press bricks which are then heated. This is an older method of manufacturing bricks, as technology was not as developed as now. Bricks were heated by an oven, but due to uneven heat distribution, not all the bricks looked or functioned the same (less heat makes it more brittle, and colour is paler).!


Various methods are used in order to maintain a building's structural integrity. Brick buildings couldn't be too tall as the walls would have to become thicker to distribute mass, and also limitation in safety on higher up scaffolds.!


iii. Concrete blocks! Advantages! - decorative (patterns and intricate designs can be worked)! - high level of detail is achievable! Disadvantages! - slow process! - brittle and more likely to break during small drops on site

ENVS 10010 : Constructing Environments! !

Week : 1!

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