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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

LEAST-COST FORMULATION OF FEEDS FOR PRAWNS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO MACROBACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN)

POH YONG THONG

FPSS 1985 2


It is hereby certified that we have read this thesis entitled "Least-Cost Formulation of Feeds for Prawns, With Particular Reference to Macrobrachium Rosenbergii (De Man)" by Poh Yong Thong, and in our opinion it is satisfactory in terms of scope, quality and presentation as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science.

LANG P. ZAINUDDIN, Ph.D. Assoc.

ssor/Dean of Graduate Studies Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Chairman Board of Examiners)

ALBERT G.J. TACON, Ph.D. Fish Feed Technologist Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome ITALY (External Examiner)

Lecturer Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Internal Examiner)

Att;;t:hS:

Associate Professor

ďż˝

Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Internal Examiner/Supervisor)


This thesis was submitted to the Senate of Universiti Pertanian Malaysia and was accpeted as partial fulfilment of the r equirements for the degree of Master of S ci ence .

Date:

4th July, 1985

ďż˝

Studies


LEA$T-CDST FORMULATIOO OF FEEDS FOR PRAWNS , WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE ro

MACROBRAOUUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN)

by Poh Yong Thong

A t hesis submitted in partial fulfi lment of t he degree of Master of Sci ence in the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sci ence, Universiti Pertanian Mala ysia .

July 1985


DEDICATION

Dedicated

to the

merrory

of my father ,

who passed

away

whil e this proj ect was being undertaken.

and he was like a dandelion , s eeds

in

forgotten .

f ertile

valley

- his

that broadcasted its

efforts

shall

never

be


The

author

supervisor , Theem

Dr .

for

Ross

Ang Kok Jee and co-supervisor ,

their

rnentorship . Che

wishes to express his appreciation

guidance ,

Sincere

encouragement

to Mr.

Law Ah

Dr .

and

his

invaluable

appreciation is also extended to Encik

bin Saad for teaching him the

nutrition ;

to

rudiments

of

fish

Cheah Sin Hock for invaluable discussions

and encouragement ; to the Dean of the Faculty of Food Science and

Technology

Analyser ;

to

for

Mr.

use

of the Technicon

TSM

Amino

Acid

Chan Tin Wan for technical assistance

on

amino acid analysis ; to Mr. Lim Song Hok , Mr. S. Pathrnasothy , Mr.

Chong Ram Kin ,

Mr. Kenneth Chin and Mr. Kabir Ahmad for

assistance in one way or another .

Chan Hooi Har ,

is also extended to Dr. criticism.

thanks

A special word of

for her constructive

Without her encouragement and help,

this thesis

may not have been possible . This proj ect was supported by a Research Grant No. 18131-0 6 5

from

Universiti

Pertanian

Malaysia ,

a

part-time

research assistantship from IDRC and the Sarawak Tunku Rahman

Scholarship.

The financial support of the

are gratefully acknowledged .

Hi

Abdul

sponsors


TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKN::MLEDGEMENT

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES

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LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF PLATES

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xiv

LIST OF APPENDICES ABSTRACT

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CHAPTER 1

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1

INTRODUcrION

Feeds and Nutrition of Prawns

3

Dietary Fat Requirement

6

Protein Requirement

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Dietary Energy Requirement

9 10

Water Stability Physico-chemical Properties of the Experimental culture system ..........................

11

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Linear Programming for Feed Formulation CHAPTER

2

MATERIALS AND METHODS

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15

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Proximate Analysis

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Crude Protein Determination Crude Fats Determination

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17

Moisture Determination Ash Determination

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Gross Energy Determination Amino Acid Analysis Linear Progranming Feed Preparation Feeding Trials

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28

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Page Aquarium Series Basin Series

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Circular Tank Series

34

Determination of Physico-chemical Properties

34 34

Dissolved Ox ygen Temperature pH

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Total Alkalinity

Feeding Rates and Feeding Schedule

37 37 38 38 40

Length and Weight Measurements CHAPTER 3

37

42

RESULTS

Proximate Analyses of Feed Ingredients and Prawns

42

Amino Acid Analyses of Feed Ingredients and Prawns

42

Linear Programming

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Formulation of P. 2 5 Formulation of P. 30 Formulation of P. 4 0

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Proximate Analyses of Pellets

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51

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Amino Acid Analyses of Pellets .

49 50

Formulation of P.SO

Feeding Trials

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66 66

M. rosenbergii Aquarium Series

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Basin-l Series

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Basin-2 Series

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75

Circular Tank-l Series

75

Circular Tank-2 Series

82

v


Page P. rroI1()(}on

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Physico-chemical Parameters Length -Weight Relationship Feeding Rates

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Live Weight Versus CUmulative Feed Consumed

CHAPTER 4

The Use of Linear Progarmming in Least-cost Fonnulation of Prawn Feed

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Comparison of Growth Responses of Prawns in Artificial Enclosures

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Comparison of Growth Responses of Prawns Cultured in Artificial Enclosures with those Cultured in Earthern Ponds .

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Protein Level f or Maximum Growth Pigmentation of the Pra'Wl1s Further Studies CHAPTER 5

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88 88

88 92 99

DISCUSSIONS

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99 102

107 107 llO

112 113

SUMMARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

us

APPENDICES

121

vi


LIST OF TABLES Table I

II III

Page Adjustment of Weight of Ingredients for Pellet P.50 ................................

29

Proximate Analyses of Feed Ingredients

V

IX

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XIII

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44

47

52

53

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Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.30 .

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Amounts of Feed Ingredients used in the Formulation of P.30 •

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Amino Acid Contents of P.30 from Linear PrCXJrannting and Constraints •

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55

56

57

Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P. 4 0 ................................... Amounts of Feed Ingredients used in the Formulation of P. 4 0 .

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Amino Acid Contents of P. 4 0 from Linear PrCXJrannt ing and the Constraints •

Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.50 .

XVI

54

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XIV

43

Comparision between the Amino Acid Contents of P.25 from the Constraints and from Linear PrCXJrannt ing .........................

XII

Amounts of Feed Ingredients used in the Formulation of P.25

XI

Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.25

.

X

Amino Acid Profiles Expressed as % Dry weight and % TOtal Essential Amino Acids for �. rosenbergii and those calculated for P.25, P.30, P.40 and P.50

VIII

45

VII

Amino Acid Content of Feed Ingredients and �. rosenbergii .........................

VI

Crude Fat, Crude Protein and Gross Energy of Three Sizes of �. rosenbergii •

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59 60

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Amounts of Feed Ingredients used in the Formulation of P. 50 •

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61 62


Page XVII

Amino Acid Contents of P.SO fram Linear Programming and the Constraints •

XVI II XIX

XXIII

XXIV

xxv

XXVII XXVII I

xxx

XXXI

Essential Amino Acid Contents of �. rosenbergii and Pe l lets P.2S, P.30, P.40 and P.SO obtained from Analys is

63

Growth Rate, Survival and Feed Conversion Ratio of �. rosenber�ii fed on P.SO, P.40, P.30, P.25 and RES in the Aquarium Series .

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67

69

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Feed Conversion Ratio and Survival of �. rosenbergii over 35 Days in the Basin-1 Series .....................................

72

Feed Conversion Ratio and Survival of �. rosenbergii over 58 Days in the Basin-2 Series .....................................

76

Growth, Feed Conversion Ratio and Survival of �. rosenberqii fed P.30 in Circular Tank-l Series .............................

79

Growth, Feed Conversion Ratio and Survival of �. rosenberqii fed P.30 •

Growth and Feed Conversion Ratio of

�. monodon fed P. 40 over 127 Days Physico-chemical Data

Daily Feeding Rates of �. rosenberqii an.d P. ITOnodon •

XXIX

65

XXVI

Linear Programming Constraints and Proximate Analyses of P.2S, P.30, P.40, P.50 and RBS

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XXII

64

XXI

Cost of the Pel lets P.2S, P.30, P.40 and P.50 .................... " ...... ".........

xx

Feed Consumption of �. rosenbergii Feed Consumption of f. monodon

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Growth, Feed Conversion Ratio and Survival of �. rosenberqii in Artificial Enclosures •

viii

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83 87 89 91 95 97

103


LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE

Page

1

Aquarium Culture System

2

Basin-type Recirculating System

3

Circular Tank Culture System

4

Standard Curve for Ammonium Ion

5

Growth of M. roserU:>erqii Fed on Five Pellets in Aquarium (Weight)

6

71

73

74

77

78

80

81

84

Growth of M. rosenbergii Fed on P.30 in Circular Tank - 2 (Weight) •

14

Growth of M. rosenbergii Fed on P.30 in Circular Tank 1 (Length) -

13

Growth of M. rosenbergii Fed on P. 30 in Circular Tank 1 (Weight) -

12

Growth of M. roserU:>ergii Fed on Four Pellets in Basin - 2 (Length) •

11

Growth of M. roserU:>ergii Fed on Four Pellets in Basin - 2 (Weight) •

10

Growth of M. roserU:>ergii Fed on Four Pellets in Basin 1 (Length) -

9

Growth of M. roserU:>ergii Fed on P. 30 in Circular Tank - 2 (Length) •

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Daily Feeding Rate of �. rosenber5{ii

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Daily Feeding Rate of f. monodon

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70

Length - Weight Relationship of �. roserU:>er5!ii .

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Growth of Tank-reared P. monodon

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Growth of M. roserU:>ergii Fed on Four Pellets in Basin 1 (Weight) -

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Growth of M. roserU:>ergii Fed on Five Pellets in Aquarium (Length) •

7


Page 19

P. 30 Feed Consumption of M . � rosenber�ii as a Function of Live Weight .

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P. 40 Feed Consumption of K. monodon as a Function of Live Weight •

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96

98


LIST OF PLATES Page Plate I II

31

Sizes of Pellets and Crumbles Pigmentation of Prawns fed on Formulated Diet and Natural Diet .

xi

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1 11


LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A

Page Amino Acid Composition of the Standard, Sigma AA.S.18 •

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B

FMPS Control Programme for P. 2 5

C

Composition of Mineral Premix

D

vitamin Premix Composition

E

Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.2 5 .

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Amounts of Ingredients used in the FOrInulation of P.30 . •

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129

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1 33

Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.4 0 .

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128

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Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.30 .

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122 127

Amounts of Ingredients used in the Formulation of P. 2 5 •

G

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121

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Amounts of Ingredients used in the Formulation of P. 4 0 •••••••••••••••••••••• 1 34

K

Optimal Solution for the Formulation of P.5 0 •

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1 35

L

Amounts of Ingredients used in the FOrInulation of P.SO ••••••••••.••••••••••• 1 36

M

Chromatogram of Pellet P.2 5

1 37

N

Chromatogram of Pellet P. 30

1 38

o

Chromatogram of Pellet P.4 0

1 39

P

Chromatogram of Pellet P. SO

Q

Chromatogram of M. rosenbergii

R

Essential Amino Acid Contents from Analysis, Linear Programming and Constraints .•••••• 1 4 2

S

Amount of Feed Const.UTled, Growth and Survival of ,t1. rosenbergii in the AquariUITl Series •

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xii

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140

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141

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143


Page T

Analysis of Variance for Growth Rate in the Aquarium •

u

Analysis of Variance for Feed Conversion Ratio (Aquarium Series) •

.

V

Growth and Feed Consumption of M. rosenbergii in the Basin-l Series

w

Analysis of Variance for Growth Rate in Basin-l Series •

.

.

Growth and Feed Consumption of M. rosenbergii in the Basin-2 Series

y

Analysis of Variance for Growth Rate (Basin-2 Series) .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x iii

.

144

146

149

15 1

.

.

.

.

.

Analysis of Variance for Feed Conversion Ratio (Basin-2 Series) •

148

x

z

15 3 155


An abstract of the thesis presented to the Senate of Universiti Pertanian Malaysia in partial fulfi lment of the requirements for lhe Degree of Master of Science . LEAST-mST FURMULATION OF FEEDS FUR PRAWNS , WITH PARTIClJIAR REFERENCE 'ill MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII ( DE MAN) by Poh Yong Thong July 1985 Supervisor

Ang Kok Jee , Ph . D .

Co-Supervisor

Law Ah Theem , Ph . D .

Faculty

Fisheries and Marine Science

Linear

programming

was used in least-cost

feeds for Macrobrachium rosenbergii. fat

of

5 to 10% ,

profi le

similar

P . 25 ,

P . 30 ,

analyses energy

40% or 50% .

were formulated ,

amino

Four

(with

pellets ,

Chemical

crude fat and

of

tryosine ,

xiv

the

amino

leucine

of the formulated feeds were remarkably similar

amino acid profi le of the prawn .

gross

with

acid analyses showed that the

the exception

of

costing M$0.72,

content of the formulated feeds agreed closely Amino

acid

amounts

and M$l.04 per kilogram respectively .

indicated that the crude protein ,

profi les

lysine )

30% ,

and P . 50 ,

constraints .

given acid

P . 40 ,

M$0.8l

an

to that of the prawn and specified

protein of either 25% ,

of

The constraints were : crude

gross energy of 4 , 400 cal/g,

crude

M$0.75 ,

formulation

to

and the


Three

culture

physico-chemical

3 . 08

em

em

were

conditions

prawn to the pellets . rate of 1 . 15

systems

for

designed

testing the responses

of

the

P . 40 was shown to produce a higher growth

per month for postlarval ďż˝

post-orbital length ) and 1 . 02

M. rosenbergii ( 2 . 67 - 4 . 64

indicated

to maintain optimal

em

em

rosenbergi i ( 0 . 96

per month for

post-orbital length ) .

that the optimum protein level of the diet

by linear programming for best growth was 40% .

xv

j uvenile

The results formulated


Abstrak

Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan k epada Senat Universiti Pertanian Malaysia sebagai rneme nuhi sebahagian dari k eperluan untuk Ijazah Master Sains. LEAST-CDST FORMULATION OF FEEDS FOR PRAWNS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE 'ID MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN)

by Poh Yong Thong Julai 1985

Penyelia

Ang Kok Jee, Ph. D.

Penyelia Bersama

Law Ah Theem, Ph. D.

Fakulti

Perik anan dan Sains Samudera

Programan Macrobrachium lemak

m entah,

linear

digunakan

Konstrennya adalah:

rosenbergii. tenaga

k asar

4,40 0

dengan

prof il

adalah

sarna

protein

m entah yang tertentu,

Empat

pel et P. 25,

harga

M$0 . 72,

dan

bersetuju amino leusin

M$0 . 75 ,

asid

cal/g, amino

iaitu 25 %,

P. 40 dan P. 50 M$0 . 81

makanan

bagi

5 % hingga

10 %

prof il udang 30 %,

asid dan

40 %

amino peratus

atau

dif ormul asikan,

dan M$1. 0 4 se

k ilogram

5 0 %.

dengan masinglemak

Analisa kimia menunjukkan bahawa protein mentah,

masing. m entah

P. 30 ,

untuk f ormulasi

tenaga

k asar

bagi

m ak anan

yang

rapat dengan k onstren yang ditentukan.

m enunjuk kan dan

lisin)

bahawa bagi

prof il asid amino m ak anan

menyarnai prof il asid amino udang.

xvi

yang

dif ormulasikan Analisa

(k ecuali

asid

tirosin,

dif ormulasikan

adalah


Tiga keadaan

sistem

ternak

fiziko-kimia

terhadap

pelet .

yang

telah

direkabentuk

optima

Keputusannya

rosenbergii

sebulan

bagi

panjang ) . bagi

pelet

pasca-rega ( 0. 96

ďż˝

-

mengawas

reaksi

udang

bahawa

P. 4 0

iaitu 1.15 sm sebulan

bagi

3.0 8 sm panjang )

rosenbergii juveni l ( 2. 67

Keputusan yang

menguji

menunjukkan

menghasilkan pertumbuhan superior , M.

bagi

untuk

sm

dan 1. 02 sm

hingga

4 . 64

menunjukkan bahawa peratus protein

diformulasikan dengan programan

menghasilkan pertumbuhan terbaik adalah 4 0 %.

xvi i

linear

sm

optima untuk


ClIAPl'ER 1

INTROOOCI'IOO

Prawn world

is one of the most important high-value

trade

products item

and has excellent potential as an export

in and

foreign exchange earner for developing countries. However , from 1977 to 1981, world prawn landings have stabi足 lised at around 1.7 million metric tonnes ( live weight ) and it is thought

to

INFOFISH ,

be close to the maximum sustainable

Any further demand for prawn will have to

1983) .

supplied

from

( ADB/FAO

yield

aquaculture which at present is estimated

be

to

be

only about 5% of total world landings (ADB/FAO INFOFISH , 1983) . In

Malaysia ,

a

similar situation prevails .

coast of West Malaysia ,

the maximum sustainable yield of

metric tonnes for marine prawn ( FAO/SCSP , has

1981)

been

surpassed .

There

1976,

is only

avai lable for exploitation on the east coast cited supply

in Anon . , of

1981) .

the giant freshwater Malaysian

decreasing

wild

a

west 53,0 0 0

cited in Anon . , marginal

stock

( Pathansali ,

1976,

There is also a downward trend in

rosenbergii in Malaysia ( Rabanal , to

In the

1982 ;

Macrobrachium

Ong and Pang , 1982 ) due

Increases

stocks .

Prawn ,

the

in

prawn

production

therefore will have to be met by prawn culture . Many enterprise

of can

the

prerequisites

be found in Malaysia .

1

of

successful

aquaculture

Among the most

important


2

are:

all-year

production;

round

extensive

warm

climate

brackish

permitting

water areas of 150, 000

freshwater surfaces of 40,000 ha (Ang,

species

banana

1976 ) ;

and

and

ha

considerable

Many of the world's commercially important

good domestic market. prawn

continuous

such as the tiger

or white prawn,

prawn,

Penaeus

monodon,

the Indian

Penaeus merguiensis,

prawn,

rosenbergii,

M.

Penaeus indicus and the giant freshwater prawn,

the

are indigenous to the seas fringing Malaysia's coastlines and its inland waters. or

provide

obviously

It is possible to modify the natural environments

artifical more

for

addition,

but

aquaculture,

economical to make use of

In

conditions.

habitats

naturally

it

is

favourable

Malaysia through its long history of

rubber and oil palm industry has accumulated invaluable expertise in

estate

industry.

management which can be adopted

the

aquaculture

All these suggest and indicate the immense opportunity

for

the development of prawn culture in

its

potential,

selected

by

as

M.

the freshwater prawn,

Recognising

Malaysia.

rosenbergii has

been

the top priority species for freshwater culture

in

Malaysia (Ong, 1983). The

giant

freshwater prawn culture has been

shown

to

be

economically profitable in Hawaii (Ling and Costello, 1976 ; Shang and

Fujimura,

1977 ) ,

in

Thailand (New,

et al.,

culture

been

has

establishment Malaysia), Sdn

.

of

1982 ) .

increasing

prawn

Syarikat

Taiwan (Liao and Chao, In Malaysia, in

recent

farms by LKIM

Pelihara Udang Sdn

in

interest in prawn years

(Lembaga .

1982 ) and

Bhd.,

with

the

Kemajuan

Ikan

Ternakan Marine

Bhd., the Lion Group of Companies, and other smaller farms.


3

Very few of the farms however ,

can yet be considered successful .

situation can be attributed

to

most

important

unreliable

management,

of

which

sub-optimal

feed

poor

water and soil conditions and a lack of

the semi-intensive and intensive prawn culture

cost

accounts

operational

for

cost .

a substantial In

South

portion

of

carolina ,

systems , the

in

it was estimated to be 27% of the

Hawaii ,

expenses ( Shang and Fuj imura , was

costs

1 982 ) .

at

1977; Weidenmch , 1982 ) ; in Taiwan

least 30% of the total costs

computer

A

Bauer ,

operating

the largest item of outlay in freshwater prawn

constituting

total

feed

freshwater prawn was 42% of total costs (Roberts and

1978 ) ;

it

supply ,

Feeds and Nutrition of Prawns In

for

fry

This thesis will focus on the feed problem.

cost-effective feeds .

1.

are :

the

a number of problems ,

This

( Liao

model of production economics in

farming ,

and

Chao ,

intensive

penaeid shrimp grow-out indicated that feed is the single highest cost factor ranging from 30 to 35% of the total annual expenses

operating

( Hanson and Goodwin , 1977 ) .

With operating

feed

costs

expenditure

opportunity

for

refinement .

Perhaps,

constituting in

reducing prawn

successful poultry industry , Schaible ( 1970 ) ,

prawn

a high

culture ,

production

proportion feeds

cost

of

offer

the more

through

their

farming should emulate the

highly

the evolution of which as stated by

was attributed more to the formulation of cost足

effective feed than any other single factor . In the natural environment , prawns are able to satisfy their


4

nutritional

requirements from a variety of animal and

vegetable

Ling ( 1969 ) reported that the giant freshwater prawns ,

sources .

M . rosenbergii is in nature annivorous , feeding on aquatic wonns , aquatic insects ,

insect larvae ,

small molluscs and crustaceans ,

flesh and offal of fish and other animals , fruits ,

algae

Studies

on

moncrlon ,

and

tender leaves and stems of

aquatic

the food and feeding habits of the

have

tiger

been accomplished by Hall (1962 ) ,

cited

in Motoh ,

These

studies

1981 ) and Marte ( 1980 , indicated that p.

feeding on crustaceans ,

seeds , nuts ,

grains ,

plants .

prawn

ďż˝

ThC'ffi3.s

( 1972 ,

cited in Motoh ,

1981 ) .

moncrlon is also

an

omnivore ,

vegetable matter , molluscs , polychaetes ,

insects and fish . Traditional natural

prawn

prcrluctivity

supplemental unprocessed

feeds

culture in Malaysia has long

of

the pond and to

from

one

or more

of

on

extent

on

following : -

a)

lesser the

agricultural wastes such as copra cake ,

groundnut cake ;

b ) grains such as rice ,

trash fish ;

d)

and

Agricultural nutritionally culture

a

relied

carmercial

wastes

and

rice

soya bean ,

maize;

c)

are

not

poultry pellets. grains

by

themselves

balanced and thus cannot support a more

system .

Although

considerable success in ďż˝

bran,

trash

fish

has

been

intensive used

rosenbergii farming in Taiwan

with ( Chao ,

1979 ) , it is messy to handle , requires refrigeration for storage , inconsistent

in

pointed

by New et al e

problems

out in

supply

the ponds .

in

monsoon-affected ( 1 982 ) ,

poses

regions

potential

and ,

as

pollution

Broiler chicken pellets is widely used

as feed for ďż˝ rosenbergii in Thailand ( New et al . , 1982 ) .

It is


5

however,

not water-stable,

thus quickly becoming unavailable to

the prawns.

Frieda World

in opening the Nutrition Workshop of the 1972

Taub,

Mariculture Society Meeting,

characterised approaches

aquacultural nutrition as tending towards three imitation with

of natural diets;

formula

controlled Much by

feeds

1)

categories:

2 ) trial and error experimentation

formulated

( formulated)

to

for

other

organisms

with chemical 1y

feeds

defined

work has been done in the first two categories as

New ( 1976 ) and Biddle ( 1977 ) .

3)

and

diets.

reviewed

The present study adopts

the

last approach.

The

problem of prawn feed formulation is rather formidable.

The prawn nutritionist has to deal with a multivariate phenomenon because there are at least eleven major variables,

all of

which

interact with one another (Hanson and Goodwin, 1977 ) .

These are ( 1 ) stage o f growth, water

quality

( 5)

dependant),

temperature,

presentation

natural

stability

is

concrete

form,

(3)

(binder paste

or

( 7 ) percentage

(8 ) percentage and amino acid ( 10 ) effects

( 9 ) health of prawn,

feed in the rearing environment and

addition,

prawn

feed

(whether pellet

derivation of carbohydrates,

composition of protein,

In

(4 )

( 6 ) percentage and derivation of lipids,

meal), and

and

( 2 ) species of prawns,

( 11 ) feeding rates.

information in dietary

very limited despite considerable

of

requirements

research

in

of

prawn

nutrition.

The nutritional requirements of prawn for lipids, protein or


Master thesis 1985