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La voz pasiva se forma:

TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Usamos la voz pasiva cuando quien/ lo que realiza la acción es desconocido o poco importante. En español no se usa mucho la pasiva, sin embargo es muy común en ingl és (especialmente escrito). Para hacer una oración en voz pasiva, el CD/CI se convierte en el sujeto de la oración pasiva: Peter eats apples

Apples are eaten by Peter

Normalmente no se hace la pasiva del presente perfecto continuo, pasado perfecto continuo, futuro continuo o futuro perfecto continuo. Aquellas oraciones que tengan dos objetos, es decir CD / CI, podrán formar la pasiva de dos formas diferentes: empezando con el CD o con el CI (date cuenta como el CI va introducido por la preposición “TO” en la pasiva). De las dos formas, es más común empezar con el CI (en ingles informal). Somebody gave the police the information - The police were given the information - The information was given to the police  Si el CI es un pronombre (objeto), habrá que cambiarlo a pronombre sujeto: - She bought me a present - I was bought a present 

Aquellos verbos que no sean transitivos (es decir, que no tengan CD o CI) no podrán ponerse en pasiva!!!!!!!!

AGENT Normalmente usamos “by” cuando mencionamos qué o quién es responsable. - The car had been hidden by my younger brother (by him)

BE BORN El verbo nacer es siempre un verbo pasivo: - I was born in Chicago. - Where were you born? - How many babies are born every day?

GET Podemos usar “get” en lugar de “be” en la pasiva: - I don’t often get invited to the parties (=I’m not often) - I’m surprised Liz didn’t get offered the job (=wasn’t offered)

Yolanda García Moreno Bachillerato


Las siguientes frases son ejemplos de pasivas para que veáis como se forma. No olvidéis que: -

“to be” en presente continuo:

am / is / are being + past participle

-

“to be” en presente perfecto:

have / has been + past participle

-

Después de auxiliar o modal el verbo tiene que ir en infinitivo sin “to”: should be

They give presents to the children The children are given presents / Presents are given to the children They are giving presents to the children The children are being given presents / Presents are being given to the children They gave presents to the children The children were given presents / Presents were given to the children They were giving presents to the children The children were being given presents / Presents were being given to the children They have given presents to the children The children have been given presents / Presents have been given to the children They had given presents to the children The children had been given presents. / Presents had been given to the children They must give presents to the children The children must be given presents. / Presents must be given to the children They must have given presents to the children The children must have been given presents / Presents must have been given to the children They will give presents to the children The children will be given presents / Presents will be given to the children They will have given presents to the children The children will have been given presents/ Presents will have been given to the children They are going to give presents to the children They are going to be given presents / Presents are going to be given to the children

Yolanda García Moreno Bachillerato


HAVE/ GET SOMETHING DONE (CAUSATIVA) Se forma: HAVE / GET + OBJETO + PARTICIPLE Se usa para expresar acciones que no realizamos nosotros mismos, sino que encargamos a alguien. Esta estructura tiene un sentido pasivo, ya que el objeto que va en medio recibe la acción del verbo, pero se traduce en la voz activa. -

I’m going to have/get my hair cut. (=I am not going to cut my hair myself) Lisa had/got the roof repaired yesterday (=somebody repair the roof for her) What beautiful curtains!. Did you have/get them made?

Recuerda que lo que conjugamos el verbo have/ get. El participio es una forma INVARIABLE del verbo. Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos más: -

She always has her hair cut in that hairdresser’s. (causative de presente simple) My father is having his car repaired now. (causative de presente continuo) They had their house redecorated last year. (causative de pasado simple) She was having her fridge mended yesterday at that time. (causative de pasado continuo) We have had our eyes tested this month. (causative de presente perfecto) They had had the roof repaired when I talked to them. (causative de pasado perfecto) I will have my computer fixed tomorrow/ I’m going to have my computer fixed tomorrow. (causative de future)

IT IS SAID THAT / HE IS SAID THAT/ HE IS SUPPOSED TO Cuando estamos diciendo lo que alguien ha dicho y no queremos mencionar a la persona que habla o desconocemos quien lo ha dicho; o simplemente queremos describir un sentimiento general o impersonal, entonces usamos la forma pasiva del reported speech:

It’s said that / He is said that Con los verbos: said, alleged, believed, considered, expected, known, reported, thought, understood; podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: -

It is said that he is 108 years old He is said to be 108 years old

- It is expected that the strike will end soon - The strike is expected to end soon.

-

It is known that there is a secret tunnel under this castle There is said to be a secret tunnel under this castle

 Una alternativa a estas expresiones pasivas es usar el sujeto neutro THEY (aunque la oración entonces ya NO es pasiva) - They say he is 108 years old

Yolanda García Moreno Bachillerato


PASSIVE VOICE