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The Scientific Method: 1. Make Obser vations• Obser vations made before and/or during the e xperiment • Useful previous knowledge • At le ast 3 obser vations 2. Ask A Question• Question must be relevant to the problem • Needs a question mark 3. Form A Hypothesis• Should be an “If... then.. because” statement • Should tr y to answer question in Step 2 4. Preform The Experiment• At le ast 4 steps to test the hypothesis • Final step should be the result of the e xperiment 5. Make A Conclusion• Begin conclusion with “My hypothesis was correct/incorrect because...”

“Stacking Liquids” Experiment: 1. Make Obser vations-

“Heat Transfer” Experiment: 1. Make Obser vations-

• 4 different colored liquids

• A me tal bar

• 4 cle ar glass be akers

• 2 st yrofoam cups (A&B)

• 1 test tube

• 2 foam lids with 2 slits

• White powder in some of the liquids

• 2 thermome ters (100°C & 50°C)

• Things with high densit y sink 2. Ask A Question• Can we put liquids into a test tube so that they stack? 3. Form A Hypothesis• If we squirt the liquids into the test tube from highest to lowest density, then they will stack because things with high density sink. 4. Preform The Experiment1. Squirt liquids into the test tube in order by how much white powder in the liquids (from most to least) 2. Squirt the liquids gently so that they don’t mix 3. The colors mixed a lit tle, but you could see that they stacked. 5. Make A Conclusion• My hypothesis was correct because the white powder was salt. Adding salt to a liquid makes it more dense.

Developing a Lens of Science

2. Ask A Question• Can we make it so that he at transfers from one place to another? 3. Form A Hypothesis• If we put a metal bar with each end in a different cup of water, then heat from one cup will travel into another because metal is a great heat conductor. 4. Preform The Experiment1. Put e ach end of the me tal bar and a thermome ter into the slits in the lids. 2. Pour boiling water into cup A and room temp. water into cup B 3. Put the lids on the cups with the thermome ters and me tal bar. Make sure the 100°C thermome ter goes into the boiling water 4. Record the temp. of the cups ever y 2 min. for 30 min. 5. The temp. of cup A decre ased, the temp. of cup B incre ased. Cup A’s declination was faster than cup B’s inclination. 5. Make A Conclusion• My hypothesis was correct because he at conducts well with me tal.

Athena Xia 10/7/2010 1st Hour

Scientific Method in a Real-Life Situation:

Independent & Dependent Variables

Two friends li ve far away from e ach other. They still want to keep in touch and have been using a te xt chat program, but both think that it’s inconvenient to t ype in what they are tr ying to say and can’t express their feelings ver y well.

Independent Variable- Some thing that you control in the experiment that will affect the dependent variable (e.g. the starting temperature)


Make Observations: • Two friends li ve far away from e ach other • Still want to keep in touch • Te xt chat ting inconvenient and not e xpressi ve

2. Ask A Question: • How can the t wo friends keep in touch in a more convenient and e xpressi ve way? 3. Form A Hypothesis: • If the t wo friends use video chat, then they can talk more conveniently and e xpressi vely because they will be able to see and he ar e ach other. 4. Preform The Experiment:

Dependent Variable- What you ge t from the experiment (e.g. the final temperature)

Independent & Dependent Variable of the Real-Life Situation Independent Variable- The amount of time, which chat ting programs used, rating system. Dependent Variable- The rating of the t wo different chat programs.

Scientific Method in the “Cold Equations” 1. Make Observations:

• The space frontier is ver y dangerous • Calls for help are fairly common 2. Ask A Question: • How can we ensure the safe t y of the EDS pilots and their cargo?

3-Beam Balance- A balance with three be ams that can me asure up to 610 grams.

3. Form A Hypothesis: • If we use precise calculations to ration rocke t fuel and eliminate any additional mass on the EDS, then the EDS pilots and their cargo will be safe because they will have e xactly enough fuel to ge t to where they need to go. 4. Preform The Experiment:

Graduated Cylinder- An elongated be aker used to me asure liquids more accurately than be akers.

1. Make 50 models of EDS’s, EDS pilots, and cargo, all the e xact same weight

Both friends download video chat program.

2. Use precise calculations with 25 models


Chat for 30 min. using video chat.

3. Use estimations with the other 25 models


Rate how convenient and e xpressi ve it was on a scale of 1-10 (1=worst, 10=best).

4. Run the models to see which ones land without crashing


Chat for 30 min. using te xt chat.


Repe at step 3.

5. The models without precise calculations all crashed and 23 of the models with precise calculations landed smoothly


One friend said: video chat-2, te xt chat-5. The other said: video chat-1, te xt chat-6

• The hypothesis was not correct because the video chat was fault y. At times the sound comple tely died or became too quie t. The visual was worse since ever ything was blurr y.

Beaker- A simple container usually made out of glass and varies in size. Used for mixing and he ating liquids.

• Rocke t fuel is rationed ver y carefully


5. Make A Conclusion:

Lab Measurement Tools:

5. Make A Conclusion: • Our hypothesis was correct because the imprecise calculations ended up in catastrophe for the model pilots and the cargo. To improve the e xperiment, we would have var ying weights of pilots and cargo in order to make it more re alistic.

Medicine/Eye Dropper- Used to transfer and/or me asure a small amount of liquid.