SOCHUM 1 T
LETTER FROM THE DAIS Hello delegates! My name is Nicole Minkina, and I am one of your directors for Dear Delegates, SOCHUM at the 40th Yale Model United Nations Conference. I am a freshman in Pierson College at Yale, having come here from San Clemente, I grew up in Hello everyone! My name is Wendy and I, along withCalifornia. Emily, am Though your senior staffer California, was born in Belarus lived for several years, making Russianat myYale, first YMUN 39’sI Commission on the and Status of there Women. Currently, I’m a sophomore language.inThough I'm still undecided about my major, interested ingraduate potentially majoring Psychology with a Neuroscience track withI'm plans to go to school. studying math, global affairs, or cognitive science (I know, it's kind of all over the place right now!). of class, competeI on Model United Team at Yale and amin Outside of theOutside classroom and IYMUN, amthe also part of Yale’sNations Mock Trial team, a mentor really involved the Youth Yale International Association. In mygroup spare time, I play on WYSE (Womeninand SupportingRelations Each Other), a mentoring for local middle school girls, andteam, I amparticipate running a in non-profit, Codi’s Hats.policy think tank on campus, and the club tennis a student-run foreign work with science outreach. With thecompeted ever-evolving policies health rightstoand women’s rights,toI’m Having in Model UN on for reproductive four years before coming Yale, I have grown loveexcited to see the experience different stances and cultural clashes that the topics mayand bring out. I look the committee - both from the perspective of being a delegate from serving forward to seeing youto allbeing respond the committee. See year, you soon! on the dais. I look how forward yourinSOCHUM chair this and I'm so excited to help create an engaging and insightful Model UN experience. I can't wait to meet and get to - Wendy Cai, Yale ‘15 know you all in January, and look forward to some great debate! If you have questions about the topic, committee, conference, or really anything else, feel free to email me! Hi guys! I’m Emily, and I will also be working as one of the directors for CSW. A NorthMinkina, Yale’17 ern California native, I’m currently a sophomore at Yale in -Nicole Branford College, majoring in email@example.com Economics with a possible double major in East Asian Studies. After graduation, I hope Dear to liveDelegates, and work in China for several years before pursuing a graduate degree, possibly in It is my to welcome you the fortieth session of Yale Model UN, and my great pleasure to businesshonor or law.
introduce myself as your director for the Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs Committee. My name isnot Jadegoing Ford,to and I’m currently a sophomore at Yale and intended History majorinoriginally When classes or preparing for YMUN, I also serve as a mentor ReadySetfrom New York City. Launch, an organization providing college counseling services to low-income students, I first discovered the thrill of competing at Model United Nations during my high school years, but participate in Danceworks, a dance group at Yale, and I serve on the alumni fundraising my real love affair began as a part of Yale’s traveling Model UN Team. As a member of the team I board for my high school. I also enjoy cooking, baking, and playing softball. soon became highly involved in the umbrella organization that includes both the Model UN team and YMUN, the Yale International Relations Association – you never know where Model UN will I can’t wait to hear your thoughts on the topics we have prepared for committee this year. take you. IR related activities aside, I am also a member of Yale’s Pi Phi sorority chapter, and enjoy Women’s rights remain a hotly debated topic globally, and I know you all are going to skiing, squash and laughing just a little too loudly. come up with informed, innovative solutions to these pressing problems. Please don’t hesBoth topics selected for SOCHUM this year offer the opportunity for lively, if not heated, debate, itate to email either Wendy or me with any questions or concerns. and I look forward to seeing what you create over the four days of discussion. I hope you will bring your best and can’t wait for the games to begin.
- Emily Harris, Yale ‘15
All the best, Wendy Cai (firstname.lastname@example.org) Emily Harris (email@example.com)
All the best,
-Jade Ford, Yale ‘16 firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS History of the Committee Flight of Human Capital Topic History Current Situation Questions to Consider Human Trafficking in Post-Conflict Zones Topic History Current Situation Questions to Consider Role of the Committee Structure of the Committee Suggestions for Further Research #$%&'! ! ! ! ! ! !
5 6 10 19 20 24 31 32 33 34 ()!
SOCHUM 5 !
History of the Committee !
The Social, Humanitarian & Cultural
genital mutilation and punishment for its
(SOCHUM) committee was created as the Third
practitioners; and third, debate over a resolution
Committee of the General Assembly in 1945. This
that would call for a moratorium on the death
committee is tasked with agenda items pertaining
penalty and encourage states who still practice it to
to social and humanitarian affairs and human rights
cease this practice.iii SOCHUM continues to lead
issues around the globe. The first major project of
world discussion on its constituent issues and has
the Third Committee was the drafting of the
great power in providing a single global voice in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Through
various subcommittees, especially The Commission on Human Rights, the Third Committee led debates and discussions on creating this “common standard of achievement of all peoples and all nations.”i In regards to the document, Eleanor Roosevelt, a member of the 18-person Commission on Human Rights, said in a 1948 speech to the General Assembly, “We stand today at the threshold of a great event both in the life of the United Nations and in the life of mankind, that is the approval by the General Assembly of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recommended by the Third Committee.”ii The drafting of the UDHR was completed in only two years, showing the shared value of human dignity among the global community within SOCHUM. Throughout its existence, the Third Committee has continued to push for increased human rights and elimination of discrimination in all its forms. More recently, SOCHUM has made several newsworthy decisions: first, to support Myanmar’s progress in eliminating human rights violations; second, to call for the elimination of
SOCHUM 6 TOPIC I.
Flight of Human Capital Topic History !
The flight of human capital, or “brain drain,” describes the departure of talented individuals or people with valuable employable skills from their home countries to other geographical regions, leaving a vacuum of qualified innovators and workers. This phenomenon can be attributed to many factors: political instability, economic depression, lack of opportunities, poor living conditions or salary, or a lack of freedom in the region of origin, or vice versa. Historically, the term referred to technology workers leaving their home nations, but over time, “brain drain” grew to refer to all educated or professional individuals. The term was coined by the Royal Society to describe the mass exodus of “scientists and technologists” from postwar Europe to North America in the 1950s and early 1960s, as well as the mass entry of Indian scientists and engineers to Britain following Indian independence in 1947. In recent years, most academic and economic attention to the concept of brain drain has been on the emigration of individuals from developing countries to developed countries.
Although the subject was not explored in depth until the term was created, the flight of human capital has a long and nuanced historical background and significance.iv Europe One of the earliest examples of significant brain drain began in the late 1400s, when the Catholic reconquest of Spain led to the mass banishment of Jews, stemming from a desire among royals to preserve religious uniformity. The exodus of Jews from Spain proved economically problematic in the end, as Jewish members of Spanish society were primarily responsible for important financial services and other valuable economic engines. v Another piece historical context for flight of human capital from Europe can be found in the French empire in 1685, when emperor Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes and criminalized Protestantism. As those of different faiths fled, the Dutch governor, Simon van der Stel, invited 227 French Huguenot refugees to settle a valley
called Olifantshoek in South Africa. In fleeing from France, the small Huguenot population used their collective skill set to obtain substantial productivity gains that would not have been possible had they remained where they were. As the Huguenots took root in South Africa (and other parts of Europe and the world), the late 17th-century French economy suffered from the loss of skilled Huguenot craftsmanship and capital. vi As Anti-Semitism became legally codified throughout Europe beginning in the 1930s, hundreds of Jewish and anti-Nazi intellectuals fled to the United States, often making notable contributions to science and technology while in self-imposed exile. Significant examples include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and Enrico Fermi. In recent years, southern and eastern European countries have begun to experience brain drain almost as profound as they had seventy years ago. With German brain drain more significant than in the 1940s, Spain and Portugal’s lagging economies pushing away qualified workers, and a mass exodus of Russian computer scientists since the fall of the USSR, a feasible solution to the issue seems complex and inherently tied to the European economic crisis. vii
Africa Poverty in African countries has been historically exacerbated by the depletion of talented workers to the US and Europe, mostly for reasons related to quality of life. For example, the severity of brain drain in Ethiopia is such that there are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than in the country itself; the University of Michigan’s effort to develop a postgraduate program for doctors in Ethiopia in order to expand home opportunities was created to mitigate these factors.ix Historically, brain drain has annually cost the African continent over $4 billion in loss of potential employment. x Middle East The fall of the Middle East’s pre-European Renaissance golden age, coupled with the industrialization of Western countries, was a historic source of massive brain drain from Arab nations. Anti-Western sentiments in predominantly Muslim nations, culminating in Ayatollah Khomeini’s spiritual revolution in 1970s Iran, led to a disconnect between the Middle East and the rapidly progressing West and (more recently) the rest of Asia. The best students in the education systems at the heart of the Arab world were statistically likely to remain abroad after completing terms of higher education, due to better employment opportunities and personal levels of freedom not available in their home countries. This trend has shown signs of reversal in recent years, and it is arguable that the ongoing Arab Spring is a contributing factor. xi Asia
Early photo of a meeting of the "University in Exile" (a collective of intellectuals who left Nazi-dominated Europe for the US) viii
India has historically lost $2 billion annually in brain drain, fueled by the migration of computer scientists and I.T. professionals to the
SOCHUM 8 United States. Young men and women educated at highly subsidized public institutions, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology, started leaving the country in the 1960s to monetize their skills in more developed nations. Unlike short-term contract workers servicing the construction boom in the Persian Gulf and southeast Asia, these gainfully educated professionals, many of whom ended up as prominent bankers, entrepreneurs, innovators and scholars abroad, seemed unlikely to return to a slow-growth economy. In the 1990s, however, as India’s burgeoning economy began to flourish from urban industrialization and modernization, some returned. In many ways, perceptions of a “rising India” are largely due to this trend repatriation, bringing fresh faces, capital, information, networks and ideas back to the subcontinent. xii According to official estimates, close to 36,000 Pakistani professionals, including doctors, engineers and teachers, have migrated to other countries in the last 30 years. This number is indicative of only a small proportion of actual migration, since the majority of emigrants do not register. As of 2009, nearly 3,500 graduates of Pakistani medical colleges are unemployed every year.xiii
The flight of human capital in China has historically begun with the privileged classes following the Cultural Revolution. The country's rapid economic growth was triggered in the late 1970s and 1980s, fueled by newly invigorated patriotism. However, the nation China is slated to become - environmentally challenged, politically and economically unstable, and aging (projected from the one-child policy) –is driving away wealthy inhabitants. A recent report by Bain & Co revealed that 60% of Chinese with a net worth of $1.5 million or more wanted to emigrate, and a third of them already have investments abroad.xiv As the biggest contributor of emigrants, China also suffers (on an absolute level) the most brain drain in the world. xv North and South America The United States, historically serving primarily as a destination for the flight human capital (rather than a nation experiencing brain drain), has enjoyed unparalleled levels of innovation and an educated populace from the Industrial Age onward. In recent decades, immigration restrictions and outsourcing have begun to buck the trend; because there are not enough permanent-resident visas for the skilled
foreign workers who are already in the U.S. on temporary visas, immigrant entrepreneurship has stalled. Tight limits on temporary guest worker visas, known as H-1B visas, are preventing technology companies from bringing in new foreign workers. Consequently, companies are forced to grow their operations abroad. In this way, protectionist policies limit the benefits of domestic innovation. xvi Latin America has historically experienced an exodus of educated professionals, to the United States and to other nations with more stable economic prospects. A 13-year-old study revealed that in the late 20th century, more than 10% of Mexicans, Colombians, and Ecuadorians chose to remain abroad after pursuing higher education. Almost 20% of Argentinians who moved and remained abroad were among the most valuable suppliers of human capital.xvii Medical brain drain has accounted for the majority of these statistical revelations, which explains the scarcity of doctors and other medical professionals in parts of South and Latin America.
Current Situation Brain drain refers to the emigration of skilled, knowledgeable, well-educated, and talented individuals from their country of origin. There are several different ways in which brain drain occurs. Typically, skilled professionals from less developed countries (LDCs) migrate to developed countries in the search for more opportunity and advancement. This is because developing countries, due in part to poor infrastructure and weaker economies, are unable to absorb the talent that these individuals have in a way that benefits either the professionals or the country as a whole. This paucity drives those who are educated and skilled into countries that have institutions and businesses that are waiting to accept their talent. Additionally, this means that talented workers are able to profit more from their education or other skills in developed countries than they could have in their home countries. Another similar situation that happens, yet not as often as the migration of of people from LDCs to developed nations, is the brain drain of professionals from one developed country to another equally or more developed countryxviii. When LDCs experience the flight of human capital, it often takes a toll on their economies, with their rate of development stagnating due to mass-
emigration. When skilled professionals depart from developing nations, they take all of the innovation, advancement, and capital that could have been accrued from their presence with them to the country that they immigrate to. At the same time, however, LDCs often do recover some of that lost capital through remittances sent by the professional in another country back to their families or relatives in their home country. Though these remittances provide some benefit to the home countries of these individuals, they rarely balance out with all of the capital that the LDCs have lost due to the departure of these professionals. This is because skilled workers, by emigrating, also leave their home country devoid of the contributions that they would have made to the economy on a daily basis as consumers, as well as the structural advancements that they could have made through their education and capacity for innovation. Currently, the flight of human capital is a prominent issue affecting Eastern Europe and Russia. In Russia, stringent political conditions, policies stifling innovation and business growth, and internationally low levels of competitiveness have caused a situation in which one of Russia's "principal exportsâ€Ś is people"xix. However, Putin's
authoritarianism is not the only cause of Russia's brain drain. The nation struggles with authorities and institutions that do not enforce the rule of law or commit to anti-corruption measures, both of which are necessary for stimulating business and consumer confidence in the market. Additionally, Putin's implementation of burdensome tax codes has harmed businesses and entrepreneurs - driving the rampant brain drain that has been harming Russia's economy. Though Russia is often cited as having one of the worst cases of brain drain in the region, much of Eastern Europe has also begun suffering from this impending doom. Even countries that have successfully avoided many of the issues that Russia suffers from, and those who have made political, social, and legal reforms, have still experienced astronomical rates of emigration of their skilled and educated workers. For instance, over the past few years Poland and other nations have seen increases in the flight of their human capital, even though they are mostly liberal, democratic, have consistently maintained high standards for transparency and accountability, and even successfully weathered the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, Eastern European countries are unwillingly sending off their brightest and most educated individuals to other nations - primarily in Western Europe - because wages there still remain comparatively higher, and living conditions still remain comparatively better, than those in most Eastern European countries. Even if Eastern European countries continue on their positive tracks towards economic growth, development, and improvement of living conditions, they will still remain decades behind their Western European counterparts - decades which will undoubtedly see
the increased emigration of their skilled laborersxx. Though the situation in Europe demonstrates that a country's wealth and level of development is decisive in determining whether or not educated individuals will emigrate from it or immigrate to it, the United States is a telling example of the fact that wealth is not the only factor. In fact, the US is currently experiencing expansive brain drain, especially in the manufacturing sector of its economy. Manufacturing, while vital to the proper functioning and growth of the economy, is also increasingly being perceived as "dirty, dark, and low-paying"xxi. This stereotype is just one cause of a situation in which US manufacturing companies have experienced approximately 237,000 job vacancies in mid-2013. Apart from manufacturing, the United States is experiencing widespread brain drain due to the federal budget crisis; the spending cuts have resulted in consequent cuts to research and development, causing innovation to plummet. The resulting job loss has begun driving talented workers out, which experts foresee as a "perfect storm" that will soon result in emigration from US shoresxxii.
SOCHUM 12 Similarly to Europe, Africa is experiencing a brain drain of African scholars both from Africa to nations in Europe and North America as well as the brain drain of scholars within Africa. The case of the former is clear, with scholars and professionals migrating for more opportunity and better wages in the more developed world. The latter, however, takes two primary forms; one in which scholars leave lesser developed countries for better paying jobs in more developed countries, and one in which academic scholars obtain higher-paying jobs outside of academia in their own home countriesxxiii. Much of Asia is experiencing a slightly different phenomenon called reverse brain drain. In reverse brain drain, people who had previously emigrated from Asian countries, who have now had years or decades of experience working in other countries (mainly Europe and North America) begin to migrate back to their home countries in Asia. This is not only affecting Asia; in fact, much of the world's human capital has begun returning home to Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Africa because of reversing trends in economic growth and opportunities for advancement in business. Before, nearly 75% of all the world's migrants were moving from countries with lower levels of development to those with higher levels of developmentxxiv. Now, however, the tide is turning, with immigrants aware of the fact that developing
nations are not necessarily the best places to seek opportunity or maximize the returns that they receive from their education and training. This phenomenon, apart from being called "reverse brain drain", is also being called a "brain gain" for developing nations. The brain gain has been especially beneficial for the BRICS nations, particularly Brazil, China, India, and South Africa who have experienced tremendous growth recently due to their intentional measures to lure in skilled individuals who are dissatisfied with the opportunities, or lack thereof, that they are facing in more developed countries. Impact on Economic Growth
Though it is well known that brain drain causes both positive and negative economic
impacts, depending on the particular nations affected and their levels of development, industrialization, advancement, and innovation, there are certain negative economic impacts that nearly all scholars can agree on. For instance, it is well known and factually established that the flight of human capital causes nations to experience a knowledge-gap that is an inescapable detriment to their economies. When talented and educated individuals leave a particular nation to find opportunities elsewhere, this practically extinguishes the flow of knowledge from current migrants to governments and businesses in their home countriesxxv. Though the exchange of knowledge and expertise does occur between current and return migrants regarding employment opportunities abroad, little if any of their substantive expertise makes it back to institutions in their home countries. Moreover, the flight of human capital results in rather detrimental fiscal impacts within the home nations of emigrating specialists. When brain drain occurs, highly skilled individuals take their education - funded by existing residents within their home nation - with them to new countries. Once they leave, they are no longer able to contribute back into the tax system of their home countries - creating a negative net fiscal impactxxvi. An additional economic harm created by the emigration of skilled workers from developing countries influences the administering of humanitarian and developmental aid. Many of the skilled workers who have been leaving developing nations are the same ones who facilitated and managed the transportation and distribution of international aid within their home nationsxxvii.
Moreover, humanitarian aid often requires, or is at least benefited from, the existence of sophisticated distributional networks, technologies, and individuals to administer the aid. When people such as health professionals begin emigrating from developing nations in the search for jobs in the developed world, the nations that undoubtedly need these health professionals the most lose them. The economic impacts of brain drain are not always negative. Often times, individuals who leave their home nations were unemployed, thus bearing little to no impact on their countries by emigrating. For instance - many nations, like the Philippines, actually have "temporary contractworker programs so that unemployed, skilled workers can find work abroad"xxviii. In these cases, the economies of affected nations are benefited; instead of having loads of idle, unemployed workers, these same individuals are able to work elsewhere, make salaries, send back remittances, and potentially return to their home countries with greater skill sets. Another way in which brain drain may benefit the economies of developing countries is that it incentivizes learning and higher education. When people, even in the poorest countries, know that they will be able to emigrate and find opportunity if they educate themselves and accrue a sophisticated set of skills, they have more incentives to acquire this type of education. In turn, this has been shown to spur additional investment in education in many developing nations; often times, the "brain gain" due to structural improvements in education outweighs the "brain drain" that occurs through emigration - having a net positive impact on the affected nationsxxix.
SOCHUM 14 In addition, it is important to understand that brain drain only tells part of the story about migration's overall impact on an economy or society. "When all the other impacts of migration â€” such as remittances, inward investment, technology transfer, increased trade flows, and charitable activities of diaspora communities â€” are taken into account, the net impact may actually be positive"xxx. Social Considerations Though the impacts of brain drain are most visibly economic in nature, there are also significant social causes and effects. Firstly, brain drain is often caused by deeply embedded social disparities in the areas of employment and education. For the past several years, this has been incredibly observable in the African continent, where "a lack of job satisfaction and a system in which performance [is] not always recognized or rewarded" has caused skilled professionals to depart from their home countriesxxxi. Though Africa is a telling example of this social issue, it is not an isolated one; many of the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and other parts of the world that are suffering from brain drain have similar problems with cultivating a work environment that is conducive to prolific and innovative individuals.
While the causes of brain drain are often social, the effects of the mass emigration of human capital can be social as well. First, the loss of skilled and innovative people means the loss of the benefits they would have provided to their co-workers, students, and fellow citizens. This means that there are less educated people raising families and rearing children, which has a negative, cyclical effect on the education of future generations. In addition, the migration of parents affects their families directly altering family compositions and roles, increasing the number of children who are raised in singleparent or no-parent households, and often decreasing the levels of supervision that children are raised with. This has been shown to lead to a systematic decrease in attendance and educational success in the children of emigrating professionalsxxxii. Second, the loss of key personnel makes it difficult to carry out the delivery of critical social services - particularly health and education. This is a social impact in addition to an economic one because it means that the overall quality of life for individuals in impacted nations experiences a significant decline. When talented educators, school administrators, and principals leave their home countries, the quality of education declines insofar as those who would have been there to maintain
high educational standards or revolutionize curricula have now taken their talents elsewhere. In addition to the educational impacts, one of the most significant harms of brain drain is its detriment to health services. The rise of the AIDS epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, has raised special concerns about the loss of medical personnel that are qualified and capable of administering treatments. Since the availability of health-care workers is one of "the principal constraint[s] upon low-income countries' capacities to deliver lifesaving medical attention"xxxiii, the impacts of brain drain in this social sector are especially magnified. Another significant social impact of brain drain occurs in the area of corruption and crime. Especially in countries that are already conducive to corruption and fraud, low income levels combined with massive inflows of remittances only aggravate corruption and fuel the demand for bribes. Additionally, "fraud is common among migrants, who do not declare income earned abroad, thereby avoiding the payment of income tax and contributions to the social-security system"xxxiv Lastly, brain drain can cause social marginalization of the migrants themselves, for several reasons. First, because highly skilled laborers who emigrate are often perceived as a disruption to existing society. Secondly, and more pressingly, brain drain results in a phenomenon known as "double marginalization", in which migrants are both prevented from integrating into their new surroundings when they emigrate, and prevented from reintegrating back into the societies of their home countries when they return from having worked or gained experience abroadxxxv.
Bloc Positions! Developed Countries (EU, OECD members): These are the nations who have received the vast proportion of immigrants from other countries as a result of brain drain. There are a number of features of such countries which attract immigrants: democratic governments, the presence of greater security, and above all economic opportunity. These characteristics attract immigrants who often contribute to augmenting the economic well-being of these countries, particularly when they are educated and looking for jobs. These countries see a far lower rate of emigration themselves. However, they do face some disadvantages even despite the influx of skilled labor from other parts of the world. The increase of population caused by brain drain does often cause a strain on resources within countries that are picked by immigrants. Often this effect is most noticeable in more urbanized areas. Furthermore, as more skilled workers enter the market in different industries, it can force wages to
go down and a lot of capable members of the workforce also do not end up getting jobs or work in jobs lower than that of their abilities (refer to â€˜brain wasteâ€™ earlier in the topic guide). While these countries are fairly rich to begin with, they also tend to lose out when immigrants remit money to their home countries instead of keeping it in the country where they now live. This constitutes an outflow of money on the balance of payments sheet for the developed country which can tend to become a negative macroeconomic indicator. Another aspect of the phenomenon worth considering is the cultural impact of immigrants coming to developed countries: while this tends to make the latter more diverse in terms of community, there have been instances of immigrants facing discrimination in a number of countries, most notably the US, certain European countries and Australia.xxxvixxxvii This bloc will look to minimize these potentially damaging effects of brain drain while maintaining the positive aspects of the phenomenon.
Developing Countries (Africa, Central
produce (who are already low in proportion in
and South America, portions of South
comparison to semi- and unskilled workers) leave
and Southeast Asia)
the country and work in other countries. Therefore
These are the nations that have seen the
the developing nations will look to use this
greatest loss of skilled workers as a result of brain
committee as a platform to provide more
drain. While brain drain has occurred for a
initiatives and opportunities to keep their workers
number of reasons in these different areas, perhaps
within their countries and orchestrate mechanisms
the individual causes of different nations and the
by which they can incentivize the process by which
destinations of choice vary for a number of
nationals working abroad can return to their home
immigrants. One key factor is culture, particularly
country. This will prove to be a challenging task,
language: workers moving abroad far prefer to
especially given the fact that different developing
move to countries where they feel they will be able
countries want have a number of differing
to integrate culturally within the community. As a
challenges that they are looking to address with
result, many immigrants from Islamic nations in
respect to brain drain and will therefore need to
Africa and Asia would prefer to migrate to the
create an integrated strategy to include in any
Middle East, a region which has grown
potential draft resolution.
over the past two decades and
provides great job opportunities to workers in
Grey Areas (Middle East, China, and
many different industries with high salaries and
job security. Moreover, certain regions of
For a few regions in the world the
developed countries have also become particularly
phenomenon of brain drain has manifested itself
known for groups of immigrants from similar
in odd ways. In Middle Eastern countries such as
parts of the world - for instance, many Spanish-
the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Jordan to name
speaking immigrants from South America or
a few, prior to the discovery of oil and the boom of
Mexico prefer to migrate to Florida in the United
the petrochemical industry many educated
States. Many of these developing countries get a
professionals would leave and seek jobs in the
useful GDP boost through the remittances that are
West. However, the massive influx of capital
sent from nationals who are working in other
resulting from the growth of industries has led
countries. For instance, Pakistan received $14
workers from other parts of the world to start
billion in remittances from Pakistanis abroad in
migrating to these countries instead. There is
, which constitutes about 7% of the
much inter-country migration between the region
countryâ€™s GDP. But despite this, these countries
as well, with workers moving from Yemen to the
suffer greatly when the skilled workers they
UAE for instance. This particular process is also
SOCHUM 18 seen in other parts of the world, for instance with workers moving between ASEAN countries and in the African Union where people look to find jobs in more economically prosperous countries such as South Africa rather than in their home countries. Another â€˜grey areaâ€™ worth considering is China: as the economy grows more and more companies and firms look to locate top officials in offices in Beijing and Shanghai to maintain a presence in the country, but China still has in absolute terms the highest number of people emigrating out of its borders. These nations which have seen both rapid emigration and immigration due to brain drain will have much to contribute to debate, as they have seen both sides of the coin in their countries and thus have greater experience as to what particular strategies and policies can contribute to creating a more desirable socioeconomic position with regards to this phenomenon.
Questions to Consider! ! 1. What is the leading cause for the phenomenon of brain drain? Is there one particular cause or a number of causes which cause brain drain to take place? 2. While brain drain has been seen in many parts of the world, in what areas has it been the most detrimental? Why is this so? 3. Who are the key actors and stakeholders in the brain drain phenomenon? 4. Which professions see the greatest brain drain? What is it about workers in these professions that cause workers to move abroad to a larger degree? 5. Which organizations need to take steps to reduce brain drain? Is it national governments? International organs? Private firms? 6.What is a bigger problem - trying to get people who have migrated to return to their home developing countries or to prevent the movement of more such families to the developed world? Is it possible to focus on just one? 7. What policies need to be enacted to reverse brain drain? Is there a one-size-fits-all policy that can be enacted? Who will be responsible for enacting it? 8. Alternatively, what differences should different developing countries have in their strategies to reverse brain drain? Why are these differences necessary? 9.Are there any benefits of brain drain to LDCs themselves? Which entities attain these benefits? Is it possible to engineer a situation in which brain drain can be reduced and these benefits can still be maintained?
SOCHUM 20 TOPIC II.
Human Trafficking in PostConflict Zones Topic History ! A History of Human Trafficking and Related Legislation The illegal movement of people through human trafficking has long threatened peace, stability, and security in regions. From the first prisoners of war enslaved by Greeks to the mitalabor system imposed by Spanish colonizers, human trafficking has frequently emerged in the wake of conflict. Today, human trafficking remains prevalent in post-conflict regions where domestic criminal and judicial infrastructure remain lax, if existent. Though there is a moral imperative to protect and prevent the victims of this criminal activity, policies aimed at reducing human trafficking will have a positive benefit on strengthening the internal governing structure in these recovering nations. In Europe, the first public and legislative recognition of human trafficking appeared around the turn of the twentieth century. Early attention on human trafficking concentrated on the topic of white slavery. An 1895 conference in Paris and 1899 conferences in London and Budapest were all held to discuss the growing concerns about the issue. “White slavery” referred to the forced prostitution
of white women. The first international agreement on human trafficking centered on sexual trafficking. Appearing in 1904, the International Agreement for the Suppression of “White Slave Traffic” aimed to create a series of measures to target female “white slaves.” The agreement was the product of a 1902 conference in Paris, where representative nations sent delegates to discuss the growing issue of “white slavery.” The agreement noted the agents of trafficking as those who “in order to gratify the passions of another person, ha[ve], by fraud, or by means of violence, threats, abuse of authority, or any other method of compulsion, procured, enticed, or led away a woman or girl over age, for immoral purposes.”xl The document was ratified by twelve countries within a few years of its creation. Fear of white slavery continued as Americans grew increasingly concerned with the forced prostitution of white women abroad. White slave-tracts, or fictionalized narratives of young women being drugged and enslaved by foreigners abroad, began to circulate wildly (Mark Thomas Connelly, The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, University of North Carolina Press, 1980, pp. 114-116). In response, the U.S.
Congress passed the 1910 Mann Act. The Mann Act aimed at limiting the illicit trafficking of women between states. The Act made it illegal to knowingly coerce or transport a woman between states for “immoral” purposes
With the creation of the League of Nations, the Convention for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic expanded the definition of human trafficking to include women and children. An important implication of this change was the recognition of children of both sexes as victims of trafficking. For the first time, human trafficking had grown beyond simply a women’s issue to a
multi-national, multi-gendered crisis. Foreshadowing modern threats, the Convention focused its attention on publicizing accounts of human trafficking at common transportation points. The Convention counseled “the exhibition, in railway stations and in ports, of notices warning women and children of the danger of the traffic and indicating the places where they can obtain accommodation and assistance” (United Nations 1950, art. 7). Two major studies were undertaken in the late 1920s, aimed at evaluating the market for human trafficking in the East and West, which illuminated the growth of human trafficking at the time. The reports focused on reporting the number of women engaged in prostitution in the associated countries, the demand for their services, the manner in which trafficked victims were introduced to the trade, the agents responsible for trafficking, and the source countries of the women involved. In the 1927 report, which focused on human trafficking in the West, international human trafficking was defined as “the direct or indirect procurement and transportation for gain to a foreign country of women and girls for the sexual gratification of one or more other persons.xli The conclusions of the report provide an overview of geography and distribution of human trafficking at the time. Women taken from France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Hungary, Romania, Austria, Greece, and Turkey were frequently transported to Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Argentina, Uruguay, Egypt, Algeria and Tunis.xlii Another study in 1932 confirmed these source and destination countries, noting that several women were trafficked to the East but few were trafficked back West. The report identified that “American, Australian, Austrian, British, Canadian, French, German, Hungarian,
SOCHUM 22 Italian, Latvian, Lithuania, Polish, Romanian, Russian and Swiss” women were taken East. They were most often taken to the cities of “Beirut, Calcutta, Saigon, Hong Kong, Bombay and Shanghai.xliii The report also placed a sub-focus on the regional trafficking of women within Asia. It found that Chinese women were most frequently the victims of Asian human trafficking, and that Japanese and Korean women were the second largest group. Less frequent — yet still trafficked — ethnic groups included Malay, Vietnamese, Siamese, Filipino, Indian, Iraqi, Persians and Syrians. This human trafficking also served a different purpose due to the regional nature. While demand for white slavery stemmed from the exotic quality of women from Europe and North America in Asia, the report found that Asian women trafficked within the continent were sent to service expat populations of their respective ethnic group. It is significant to note that over the past eighty years, modern human trafficking has evolved to frequently move in the opposite direction of the groups outlined in the 1930 reports.
The United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others in 1949 marked the first legally binding document on human trafficking. A total of sixty-six countries ratified the document.xliv The gathering focused on various aspects of human trafficking, including issues that motivated and sustained the trade. Among the topics considered part of the human trafficking problem were violence against women, sale of children, and child pornography. In 2000, members of the United Nations created the Protocol To Prevent, Suppress And Punish
Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women And Children, Supplementing The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime or The Trafficking Protocol, the product of the first international commission on trafficking. The Trafficking Protocol defined human trafficking as: “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.”xlv The document identified three “Ps” as the mantra for tackling human trafficking—protection, prevention, and prosecution. The inclusion of organ-related exploitation also marked an expansion in the parameters for human trafficking. Human Trafficking as a Commodity Human trafficking has been a currency for all illicit markets. The continued existence of human trafficking can be understood by evaluating the issue from a market perspective. Using a supply and demand analysis to analyze the origins of human trafficking provides insight on thcontinued activity and reveals the barriers to its elimination. The first reference to the commercialization of human trafficking appears in the 1927 League of Nations report on human trafficking in the West. The primary motive for human trafficking appears to be a demand for money. The authors note that
economic terms “seem aptly to describe the commercial aspect of the whole traffic.” Employing the aforementioned economic terms, the authors of the report note that human trafficking “is a business out of which large profits can be made and, like other businesses, it is governed by the law of supply and demand”.xlvi The demand for human trafficking has always stemmed from a desire for cheap labor or sex acts. Human trafficking emerges at the intersection of high-profit margins for traffickers and low-risk for traffickers in areas with limited government oversight, such as post-conflict zones. High profits appear when demand for commercial sex or products of forced labor create a market incentive for traffickers. The demand for such services leads traffickers to profit from marketing commercial sex, with sexual slavery, and minimizing production costs, with forced labor, to increase revenue.xlvii A secondary facet of the demand for human trafficking emerges from areas like post-conflict zones that lack rigorous monitoring. In communities with limited government and community organizations to address human trafficking, laws are often ineffective or unenforced. Moreover, when the prosecution and criminal system fail to prevent offenders from repeating their crimes, there is little incentive for traffickers to stop.
Current Situation The hysteria about â€œwhite slaveryâ€? may have paled in comparison to recent reports of child soldiers and forced labor as modern human trafficking continues to threaten the security of nations around the globe. Every year, human trafficking generates around 9.5 billion dollars within the United States.xlviii Human trafficking, broadly understood, can be considered in terms of the various sources of demand. Trafficked persons are primarily victims of labor trafficking or sex trafficking. The dynamics of this issue are further amplified in post-conflict zones. The modern examples of sex trafficking in the wake of war in BosniaHerzegovina and violence in Sierra Leone attest to the particular prevalence of human trafficking in areas recovering from regional conflicts. Factors that contribute to the development of human trafficking in these conditions include the presence of genderbased violence during periods of conflict, the development of irregular migration patterns, the presence of foreign armies or peacekeeping forces, and the progression of economic development in rural and urban areas.xlix
Current Labor Trafficking Situation Human trafficking plays a role in the majority of the consumer goods and food products imported and produced within the United States. Though not always obvious, trafficked labor enters our daily lives through several disparate ways. Labor trafficking can emerge in the agricultural sector, domestic work market, food services industry, factories, and the hospitality industry. Labor trafficking encompasses everything from migrant farmworkers forced with violence to harvest crops, to factory workers toiling in unethical conditions, to coerced un- or under-paid domestic labor.l
CNN Freedom Project (http://thecnnfreedomproject.blogs.cnn.com/category/thefacts/)
Current Labor Trafficking Situation: Child Labor A 2009 report found that within labor trafficking, more goods were made by child labor than forced labor. Child labor trafficking can appear in the context of agricultural work, domestic servitude, restaurant hires, and traveling sales crews. Evidence of child labor has been identified in 58 countries.li Several recent domestic labor trafficking convictions provide examples of these modern manifestations of child labor. In 2004, a case revealed that nearly 40 Mexican farm workers, including minors, had been trafficked to upstate New York as agricultural help. In 2008, over 100 Central American women and children were recovered from the Houston area. The victims, many of whom were underage, were
required to work in local bars selling drinks and commercial sex to male patrons after being smuggled away from their home countries. They and their family members were threatened to not run away?.The United States Department of Labor also releases a list of goods produced by child labor. In 2009, the most common goods were cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, coffee, rice, and cocoa in agriculture; bricks, garments, carpets, and footwear in manufacturing; and gold and coal in mined or quarried goods. The following countries were identified as producing goods using child labor: Afghanistan, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Cote dâ€™Ivoire, Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyz Republic, Lebanon, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mongolia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.lii
percent of workers did not receive overtime pay for additional hours worked beyond their paid time. Additionally, of the total number of women, 76% were foreign nationals.liii From December 2007 to July 2011, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) received 400 calls related to labor trafficking of domestic workers. The most frequently recorded nationalities of the callers were Filipino, Ethiopian, Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican â€” listed in descending order.liv
Current Labor Trafficking Situation: Domestic Labor Recent reports on coerced labor trafficking in the domestic help sector within the United States identified 42 domestic workers who filed for abuse from 2000 to 2008. Of these 42 reports, ten led to investigations of human trafficking. In 2006, Domestic Workers United estimated that New York City has around 200,000 domestic workers. Of this figure, 26% earned salaries below that of minimum wage. Sixty-seven
Current Demand for Sex Trafficking Sex trafficking is defined as the marketing of commercial sex using force or coercion as well as facilitating commercial sex with minors. At present, the United States Department of Justice estimates that approximately 300,000 children are at risk of being prostituted domestically. At an international level, children are usually between the ages of 13 to 14 when they are forced into prostitution.lv The average victim may be forced to have sex up to 20-48 times a day. A pimp can make around $150,000-$200,000 per child each year from forced commercial sex, and the average pimp makes between $700,000$1,050,000 per year. Three primary networks of sex traffickers currently exist within the
United States: Asian networks, Latino networks, and Domestic networks. Sex Trafficking: Asian Networks The trafficking of Asian females for commercial sex occurs primarily in the context of Asian Massage Parlors, room salons, residential brothels and karaoke bars. Victims in these networks are considered generally to be of South Korean origin, with occasional women of Chinese or Thai descent. They are generally between 18 to 55 years.lvi Victims are frequently trapped by elder Asian females and male club owners with commitments of better employment. They are prevented from leaving or disputing their condition by threats of deportation, controlled transportation, and language barriers. They generally service 5-15 men a day, with rates around $60 an hour, often in places like Asian massage parlors. Victims are typically smuggled into the United States through Canada and Mexico.lvii Sex Trafficking: Latino Networks Mexican, Central American, and South American women are predominately involved in providing commercial sex at residential brothels, escort services, and clubs or “cantinas”.lviii The women in this network are generally of adult age, with rare cases of minors involved. They are trafficked into the United States via Mexico on cargo vans or commercial buses. They are attracted to the networks with false promises of marriage or jobs. Unlike the Asian Network, the Latino Network is considered a “closed” network with victims primarily servicing other Latino males. They also often have strong affiliations with Latino
gangs, such as MS-13. The victims are unable to protest their situation due to several forms of coercion, including threats to their families and immigration status, debt bondage, and physical and sexual abuse. Commercial sex costs $30 dollars for 15 minutes, and victims typically service 20-35 men a day. Specific Human Trafficking Threats in Post-Conflict Zones Regions immediately after a cease-fire or peace agreement are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking. Opportunistic traffickers can take advantage of regional instability to transform such countries into suppliers of forced labor and sex workers abroad. The primary factors that can contribute to the human trafficking risk in this environment are the presence of gender-based violence during periods of conflict, the development of irregular migration patterns, the presence of foreign armies or peacekeeping forces, and the economic climate in rural and urban areas. First, immediate post-conflict regions often experience harsh gender-specific violence. Even despite the conclusion of fighting, excombatants often continue to violate women of opposing parties or groups. In some cases, as in Liberia in 2003, incidences of sexual violence increase.lix Beyond assault from combatants, domestic violence may also increase. The return of household patriarchs or male members, former fighters in the given regional conflict, is often accompanied by increased domestic abuse. Soldiers, seeking to win back authority in their household, often employ violence to reaffirm their position in the family. The absence of protective measures or prosecution
SOCHUM 28 for abusers creates a gender-specific vulnerability, which can be “conducive to trafficking women.”lx Refugee camps and irregular migration in post-war periods also contribute to facilitating human trafficking. During the conflict period, families may have had to rapidly move to a new city or refugee camp in order to avoid the fighting. A German report on “Armed Conflict and Trafficking in Women,” reported that “Women, women refugees, women trying to return to their homes and women who are released or flee from war camps are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked.” In the wake of a conflict, women in displaced families are isolated from their original social networks. The lack of law enforcement institutions within refugee and war camps can also contribute to the limited legal oversight on criminal activity. Thus, individuals appear more vulnerable to trafficking activity, far from home and in a legally precarious situation. The arrival of foreign troops or peacekeeping forces during conflict periods also increases the demand for sex markets. In particular, foreign soldiers may have excess cash that creates an incentive for increasing commercial sex available locally. This market continues to exist after the troops have
withdrawn, with clients now supplied by excombatants and soldiers returning home. Because of the depressed economy typically present in a post-conflict area, local women are “highly vulnerable to being trafficked into military prostitution.”lxi Thus, traffickers and local authorities are often attracted by profit to organizing local sex markets. The final factor of post-conflict zones that facilitates human trafficking is the regional economic climate.lxii War is often accompanied by social disintegration and the elimination of several economic opportunities for women. With this destruction of sources of livelihood, many families face pressure to sell off daughters into forced marriages or work.lxiii As with the Latino network, several of these promises of marriage can be fake ploys to trap women in trafficking networks.
Bloc Positions NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) All NATO member nations are signatories to the UN Protocol on Trafficking in Persons. NATO endorsed a “zero-tolerance” policy towards human trafficking at the Istanbul Summit in June 2004.lxiv NATO-led efforts to stem this issue include commitments of troops from some member nations. In addition, other NATO-led operations tackle the causal problems associated with human trafficking, including economic and social upheaval. Troops are seen to be the most helpful resource because they have a high probability of encountering human trafficking victims during conflict operations. Therefore, NATO’s Military Committee is given most of the responsibility for implementing the Istanbul Summit policy. All member nations have national efforts to fight against human trafficking, but cooperate through NATO in order to increase their cross-border capabilities.! AU (African Union) The states of the African Union announced a new agreement in 2009 to combat human trafficking across the African continent. The Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings called upon all member nations to recognize a comprehensive definition for human trafficking and consolidate their initiatives into a single, cooperative effort to prevent trafficking.lxv Despite the extra attention from the Ouagadougou Action Plan, many African nations in the African Union still do not have laws on human trafficking. The African Union continues to collaborate with the UNODC to
implement aspects of the Ouagadougou Action Plan and provide its member nations with the proper resources to implement policies to end human trafficking on the continent. The slightly smaller 15-nation group ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West African States) has already synchronized human trafficking legislation, providing leadership for the remainder of Africa to follow.! ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian States) ASEAN has promised to pass a comprehensive human trafficking agreement in 2014, following a successful Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers completed in November 2012.lxvi ASEAN also released a handbook in 2012 outlining basic information on how to navigate the international legal system in cases of human trafficking, especially within Southeast Asia. This signals a strong foot forward towards standardizing human trafficking legislation and policy throughout the region. With the coming 2o14 negotiations, ASEAN has the opportunity to set a precedent for the rest of Asia, leading the continent towards greater border controls and more immediate relief of post-conflict zones. League of Arab States The 2010 Arab Initiative for Building National Capacities for Combating Human Trafficking engaged the member nations in talks about how to cooperatively stop human trafficking in the Middle East. The talks encouraged all member nations to become signatories of the UN Trafficking in Persons
SOCHUM 30 Protocol and strengthen the powers of their judicial systems to more effectively capture and punish human traffickers operating within their borders.lxvii Member nations like the UAE have come under severe media scrutiny regarding labor trafficking, especially within the major expansions of Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Governments of the League of Arab States are just beginning the process of fighting human trafficking.
Questions to Consider ! *+!What kinds of measures would be appropriate to redressing modern labor trafficking? sex trafficking? 2. What would the primary priorities for post-conflict countries need to be to reduce human trafficking? 3. What peace building strategies could help reduce the presence of post-conflict human trafficking? 4. How can economic policies, in particular, help reduce human trafficking? !
Role of the Committee! SOCHUM is the venue for many discussions on human rights violations, working closely with the Human Rights Council created in 2006. In addition, the Third Committee discusses the “advancement of women, the protection of children, indigenous issues, the promotion of fundamental freedoms through the elimination of racism and racial discrimination, the right to self-determination...[and] important social development questions such as issues related to youth, family ageing, persons with disabilities, crime prevention, criminal justice, and international drug control.”lxviii During the sixty-seventh committee session (discussions held from September to December 2012), more than half of all considered draft resolutions were submitted regarding human rights questions.lxix SOCHUM is the only voice in the international community that can speak for every member nation of the United Nations, proposing resolutions that meld with the diverse values of its members. SOCHUM’s role is to synchronize discussion and allow global compromises to be made in order to promote the continuing development of the fair treatment of all humans, and ensure the safety of human lives through the recommendation of specific social reforms and humanitarian reforms.
Structure of the Committee All member nations of the United Nations are permitted membership in SOCHUM. At YMUN, the committee will include a representative sample of nations from around the world, allowing the committee to closely simulate the diversity of opinions and backgrounds represented in a typical SOCHUM session. The goal of SOCHUM is to propose resolutions concerning the topics at hand. These resolutions are not binding in any way, but instead provide guidelines that every nation in the General Assembly is encouraged to take. Multiple resolutions will be accepted for voting at the end of the session, with every nation holding a single, equal vote. Parliamentary procedure will be followed during committee session, with a Speakers List handling the order of speeches by member nations. Motions for moderated and unmoderated caucuses will also be entertained and highly encouraged. More information about the exact rules and regulations will be available on the YMUN website in the coming weeks.
Suggestions for Further Research !
Topic A: As with most humanitarian topics, the issues here are current and are thus discussed almost everyday in mainstream media. As such, quality newspapers and magazines are always a good place to start to learn more about brain drain. In addition, some other resources that can be used by delegates include: ! ! ! !
Journal of Development Economics The International Economic Review Journal of World Business Reports from UN organs, such as the UN Conference on Trade and Development or
UNESCO ! “Economics of Brain Migration” by B. N. Ghosh ! “How big is the brain drain?” by W.J. Carrington ! Websites of national governments for policy documents on individual strategies to deal with brain drain
Topic B: Like Topic A, human trafficking is a hot media topic in popular press articles and daily newspapers. To start, try searching in Google with “[your country name] + ‘human trafficking’” and see what results pop up. In addition, the following resources can further narrow your research: • The UNODC Website on Human Trafficking basics o http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html • Polaris Project — Human Trafficking o http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/overview • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement —Human Trafficking o http://www.ice.gov/human-trafficking/ • U.N. Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN GIFT) o http://www.ungift.org/
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NOTES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! i
United Nations. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UDHR." UN.org. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml ii UN News Centre. "The UN General Assembly’s Third Committee - social, humanitarian and cultural issues." UN.org. iii Ibid. iv Cervantes, Mario. "The brain drain: Old myths, new realities - OECD Observer." The brain drain: Old myths, new realities - OECD Observer. http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/673/The_brain_drain:_Old_myths,_new_realities.html (accessed November 5, 2013). v "Internet History Sourcebooks Project." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.asp (accessed November 11, 2013). vi "The Brain Drain Solution: Laissez-venir.." DL Magazine. http://dlmagazine.org/2013/08/brain-drain-solution-laissezvenir/ (accessed November 11, 2013). vii Paterson, Tony. "German brain drain at highest level since 1940s." Frost's Meditations. http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/june2007/german_braindrain.html (accessed November 11, 2013). viii "The German and Jewish Intellectual Emigre Collection." M.E Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/emigre.htm (accessed November 4, 2013). ix Foreman, William. " Battling brain drain: Training doctors in Ethiopia." University of Michigan News . http://www.ns.umich.edu/new/releases/21706-battling-brain-drain-training-doctors-in-ethiopia (accessed November 11, 2013). x Pflanz, Mike. "Reverse brain drain: 'African Lion' economies vs West's fast track." The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-Issues/2012/1021/Reverse-brain-drain-African-Lion-economies-vs-West-sfast-track (accessed November 5, 2013). xi "Brain Drain Fact Sheet." UKEC Online. http://www.ukeconline.com/downloads/Brain%20Drain%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf (accessed November 11, 2013). xii Mishra, Pankaj. "Brain drain: a headache for India and China." The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/comment/braindrain-a-headache-for-india-and-china-20131023-2w1kg.html (accessed November 11, 2013). xiii Daily Times. "‘Pakistan the worst-hit country by brain drain’." Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009%5C07%5C05%5Cstory_5-7-2009_pg5_8 (accessed November 11, 2013). xiv Daily Times. "‘Pakistan the worst-hit country by brain drain’." Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009%5C07%5C05%5Cstory_5-7-2009_pg5_8 (accessed November 11, 2013). xv Lam, Willy. "China's Brain Drain Dilemma: Elite Emigration." The Jamestown Foundation. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=36719&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=7&cHas h=0ab857a4ff#.UniSQZSDTFY (accessed November 5, 2013). xvi Wadhwa, Vivek. "The Immigrant Brain Drain: How America Is Losing Its High-Tech Talent." PBS. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/businessdesk/2013/07/the-immigrant-brain-drain-how.html (accessed November 11, 2013). xvii The World Bank Group. "Latin America: How can we retain talent to promote development?." The World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/08/08/latinoamerica-proteger-talento-impulsar-desarrollo (accessed
SOCHUM 37 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! November 5, 2013). xviii
http://geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/braindrain.htm http://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2012/11/russian-politics xx http://www.forbes.com/sites/markadomanis/2013/11/08/all-o-eastern-europe-has-a-brain-drain/ xxi http://management.fortune.cnn.com/2013/11/05/brain-drain-us-manufacturing/ xxii http://rt.com/op-edge/us-brain-drain-sequestration-739/ xxiii http://chronicle.com/blogs/worldwise/the-brain-drain-within-africa/30554 xxiv http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-Issues/2012/1021/Reverse-brain-drain-Economic-shifts-lure-migrantshome xxv The Economic Consequences of “Brain Drain” of the Best and Brightest: Microeconomic Evidence from Five Countries*, John Gibson, University of Waikato, David McKenzie, World Bank#, February 26, 2010 xxvi The Economic Consequences of “Brain Drain” of the Best and Brightest: Microeconomic Evidence from Five Countries*, John Gibson, University of Waikato, David McKenzie, World Bank#, February 26, 2010 xxvii http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=324 xxviii http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=324 xxix “Educated Unemployment”, Human Capital Formation, and Economic Betterment( Oded Stark, C. Simon Fan) xxx http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=324 xxxi http://www.oecdilibrary.org/docserver/download/4107061ec006.pdf?expires=1384164864&id=id&accname=ocid177224&checksum=072EB C18D6CF90E0B70532C7C47ED10F xxxii http://www.oecdilibrary.org/docserver/download/4107061ec006.pdf?expires=1384164864&id=id&accname=ocid177224&checksum=072EB C18D6CF90E0B70532C7C47ED10F xxxiii http://www.oecdilibrary.org/docserver/download/4107061ec006.pdf?expires=1384164864&id=id&accname=ocid177224&checksum=072EB C18D6CF90E0B70532C7C47ED10F xxxiv BORODAK, D. (2006),“Migration et Développement Économique en Moldavie”, OECD Development Centre, Paris; for access information go to www.oecd.org/dev/migration xxxv Tsuda, Takeyuki (1999). "The permanence of "temporary" migration: the structural embeddedness" of Japanesexix
Brazilian immigrant workers in Japan". The Journal of Asian Studies 58 (3): 714. xxxvi“
Integration or Segregation? Immigrant Populations Facing the Labour Market in Sweden” http://eid.sagepub.com/content/21/3/361.short xxxvii “Prejudice, Discrimination and the Labor Market: Attainment of Immigrants in Australia” http://www.jstor.org/stable/2781782 xxxviii “Financial and economic growth in the Middle East” http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09603100500120639#.Un0kiflmiFw xxxix
http://www.khaleejtimes.com/biz/inside.asp?xfile=/data/opinionanalysis/2013/July/opinionanalysis_July16.xml§ion= opinionanalysis xl http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/whiteslavetraffic1910.html) xli “Short History of Trafficking in Persons” http://www.freedomfromfearmagazine.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=99:a-short-history-oftrafficking-in-persons&catid=37:issue-1&Itemid=159 xlii “Short History of Trafficking in Persons” http://www.freedomfromfearmagazine.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=99:a-short-history-oftrafficking-in-persons&catid=37:issue-1&Itemid=159) xliii “Short History of Trafficking in Persons” http://www.freedomfromfearmagazine.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=99:a-short-history-oftrafficking-in-persons&catid=37:issue-1&Itemid=159
SOCHUM 38 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! xliv
“Short History of Trafficking in Persons” http://www.freedomfromfearmagazine.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=99:a-short-history-oftrafficking-in-persons&catid=37:issue-1&Itemid=159 xlv Protocol To Prevent, Suppress And Punish Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women And Children, Supplementing The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (2000), http://www.uncjin.org/Documents/Conventions/dcatoc/final_documents_2/convention_%20traff_eng.pdf xlvi League of Nations 1927, 9 xlvii “Why Trafficking Exists” Polaris Project, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/overview/why-traffickingexists xlviii http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22009 xlix http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Libby-Longino_UNC_Rise-of-Human-Traffickingin-Post-Conflict-Areas.pdf l “Labor Trafficking in the U.S.” Polaris Project, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking-inthe-us/ li http://www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/ocft/pdf/2009tvpra.pdf lii http://www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/ocft/pdf/2009tvpra.pdf liii Domestic Workers United and DataCenter. Home Is Where the Work Is: Inside New York’s Domestic Work Industry (2006), 1. http://www.datacenter.org/reports/homeiswheretheworkis.pdf liv Labor Trafficking of Domestic Workers, Polaris Project lv U.S. Department of Justice, https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/228631.pdf). lvi “Sex Trafficking Networks” Polaris Project, http://www.polarisproject.org/resources/resources-by-topic/sex-trafficking lvii Ibid. lviii Ibid. lix http://www.ungift.org/doc/knowledgehub/resourcecentre/NGO_GTZ_Armed_conflict_and_trafficking_in_women.pdf lx Ibid. lxi Ibid. lxii http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Libby-Longino_UNC_Rise-of-Human-Traffickingin-Post-Conflict-Areas.pdf lxiii http://www.ungift.org/doc/knowledgehub/resourcecentre/NGO_GTZ_Armed_conflict_and_trafficking_in_women.pdf lxiv http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50315.htm lxv http://www.ungift.org/ungift/en/stories/african-union-starts-campaign-against-human-trafficking.html lxvi http://cddrl.stanford.edu/news/combating_human_trafficking_requires_a_regional_approach_says_stanford_scholar_2 0130111/ lxvii http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/2010/arab-initiative.html lxviii United Nations. "UN General Assembly - Third Committee - Social, Humanitarian & Cultural." UN.org. http://www.un.org/en/ga/third/ lxix United Nations. "Third Committee - Documents per agenda item." UN.org. http://www.un.org/en/ga/third/67/documentslist.shtml