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YMCA Level 3 Diploma in Personal Training (Practitioner) (603/2438/7)

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Applied anatomy and physiology Manual

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Applied anatomy and physiology (A/616/4747)

Section 3. The structure and function of the cardiovascular system Heart and circulatory system

Oxygen poor, CO2 rich blood

Oxygen rich, CO2 poor blood

Heart valves The circulation of blood through the chambers of the heart is maintained as a one-way system by a series of non-return valves which prevent any backflow of blood. There are two valves between the atria and ventricles – the atrioventricular (AV) valves. 

The right AV valve is the tricuspid valve and prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium

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The left AV valve is the bicuspid or mitral valve and prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium

Both are attached to the ventricle walls by collagen cords, the cordae tendinae (the heart strings)

As blood flows from the atria into the ventricles the valves are loose and fall open into the ventricle chambers. When the ventricles contract the pressure created forces the valves upwards and together to shut and stop any blood being pushed back into the atria.

The other two valves are located between the ventricles and the arteries into which they pump blood. These valves are known as the semilunar valves because they are made up of three moon shaped crescents. 

The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and prevents backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle

The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta and prevents backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle

As the ventricles fill up, the semilunar valves remain closed to prevent arterial backflow into the ventricles. As the ventricles pump, the pressure causes the semilunar valves to flatten against the walls of the arteries opening them to allow blood to exit the heart.

Heart valves can become damaged, for example by infection, causing them to stiffen and narrow (stenosis). This leads to the heart working harder to get blood out and it can eventually fail. Advanced stenosis requires synthetic valve replacement.

The coronary arteries The heart is a muscle and it requires a blood supply that is rich in oxygen so it can contract. The blood supply for the heart is supplied by the coronary arteries. These arteries keep the myocardium supplied with oxygen.

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There are two coronary arteries: one on the left side of the heart and one on the right side. The left coronary artery has two main branches: 

The left anterior descending artery supplies the anterior portion of the left atrium and ventricle with oxygenated blood

The left circumflex artery supplies the posterior portion of the left atrium and left ventricle with oxygenated blood

The right coronary artery supplies the right atrium and right ventricle with oxygenated blood.

Each of these arteries has many other branches. The myocardium has virtually no anaerobic capacity so it relies on the oxygen-rich blood supply from the coronary arteries to function. The diastole phase (recovery phase of the cardiac cycle) is when the arteries are able to fill with oxygen-rich blood most effectively. The time for this phase decreases with higher heart rates. During the pumping phase (cardiac systole), the coronary arteries are compressed, restricting blood flow to them. Once the blood has passed through the capillary beds of the myocardium, the blood flows into the coronary veins, which join together to form the coronary sinus. This blood vessel empties blood into the right atrium, where it joins the deoxygenated blood returning to the lungs for re-oxygenation. With regular cardiovascular activity, both resting and working heart rates decrease. This leads to increased time for diastole and allows for greater filling of the coronary arteries. This improves coronary blood flow to the myocardium both at rest and during activity.

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Circulatory disease There are two main forms of disease that can affect the arteries. Arteriosclerosis – This is a progressive degeneration of the arterial walls that leads to hardening and loss of elasticity. The ability of arteries to relax and allow more blood to pass through is decreased and often leads to high blood pressure. It is associated with ageing and is sometimes known as hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis – The progressive narrowing of arteries caused by circulating fats (lipids) being deposited in the lining of the artery walls that have become rough. These plaque/fatty deposits are known as atheroma. Calcium is also laid down around these deposits further leading to arteriosclerosis. As the arteries narrow it becomes increasingly difficult to meet the oxygen demand of the organs and muscles. When the demand for oxygen outweighs the supply – for example when an individual exercises – the muscle or organ is deprived of oxygen and this results in pain. When the coronary arteries are affected by arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis it is known as coronary heart disease (CHD). The imbalance of oxygen demand and supply is known as myocardial ischaemia and typically results in chest pain commonly known as angina.

Risk factors There are several risk factors that will affect an individual’s risk of developing circulatory disease. The risk factors include: Non-lifestyle factors 

family history

age.

Lifestyle factors 

smoking

environment

physical inactivity – sedentary lifestyle

diet e.g. high levels of saturated fats and cholesterol

hypertension

type 2 diabetes

obesity/overweight

high blood cholesterol (blood lipid profile ratio of high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins)

stress

hormone replacement therapy.

Simple lifestyle changes can help decrease the risk of disease, for example increasing physical activity. A long-term adaptation to regular endurance exercise is a decrease in resting and exercising heart rates. Applied anatomy and physiology| Manual | Version 1.0 © YMCA Awards 2018 80


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This increases the time for diastole and improves coronary blood flow allowing oxygen demands of the myocardium to be met more effectively. Controlling body weight, giving up smoking, eating a healthy diet low in saturated fats and managing stress levels are all ways to help reduce the risk of circulatory disease.

Blood pressure Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries. It is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed with two different readings, for example, 120/80 mmHg: 

Systolic pressure – The contraction phase of the myocardium

Diastolic pressure – The relaxation phase of the myocardium.

Classifications of blood pressure measurements Hypotension – This is low blood pressure and is a reading of <90 systolic over <60 diastolic. Hypotension is not generally considered a health risk but could be indicative of other health issues. It is most common in those who are young, female, of slight build, fit and strictly vegetarian. Normal – 90–120 systolic over 60–80 diastolic. Normal blood pressure indicates a healthy cardiovascular system, with sufficient pressure to supply all of the organs with blood, but not too high to cause damage. Pre-high blood pressure – 120–140 systolic over 80–90 diastolic. Pre-high blood pressure is not a contraindication to exercise, but does suggest that lifestyle changes should be advised to prevent the condition worsening. Hypertension – >140 systolic over >90 diastolic. Hypertension is very common. It is most likely in those who are older, male, overweight, unfit, stressed and have a poor diet. Chronic hypertension results in a constant strain and battering of the smooth inner artery walls, which is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney dysfunction and some forms of dementia. High blood pressure often accompanies atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. By managing blood pressure with a healthy lifestyle – and in some cases medication – the risk of associated disease can be decreased. Ref: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) link to the Blood Pressure Association (Blood Pressure UK - www.bloodpressureuk.org).

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Blood pressure responses to exercise Short term (during exercise)

Long term (after weeks/months)

Systolic blood pressure increases proportionately In those with mild hypertension, resting and with exercise intensity. exercising blood pressures can be reduced by up to 10mmHg with endurance-type cardiovascular Heavy resistance training will increase it most activities. and therefore is not recommended for those with high blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure remains largely unchanged.

The time for diastole is increased improving coronary blood flow.

The Valsalva effect The Valsalva effect/manoeuvre is the holding of breath during exertion. It has been associated with heavy weight lifting. It is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one’s mouth and pinching one’s nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon. This can cause undesirable fluctuations in blood pressure which can be dangerous for those with cardiovascular disease. It should also be avoided during pregnancy.

Cardiovascular responses to exercise The adaptations that occur in the cardiovascular system all result in an increased efficiency of oxygen and blood supply at rest and during exercise. Short term (during exercise) Heart rate increases in proportion to intensity, which enables higher levels of oxygen to be delivered to working muscles and more carbon dioxide to be removed. When exercise progresses past 30 minutes the heat-related loss of water and electrolytes from the blood results in a steady upward drift of heart rate (cardiac drift). Adequate hydration before and during exercise can help minimise cardiac drift. Stroke volume increases. Cardiac output increases by as much as 20l/min in a sedentary individual and 40l/min for trained individuals. Blood flow is diverted away from areas such as the intestines by vasoconstriction (narrowing) of the arteries to divert blood to the working muscles to meet the increased oxygen demands of activity. Vasodilation widens the arteries and arterioles supplying the muscles to enable an increased blood flow. Vasoconstriction narrows the arteries, decreasing the blood supply to the intestines. Sphincter valves open and close capillary beds in the muscles.

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Increased oxygen supply to meet demands of exercise. Increased coronary blood flow from approximately 250 cubic centimetres per minute to approximately 1000 cubic centimetres per minute.

Long term (after weeks/months) Heart rate decreases and post-exercise recovery times improve. A trained person’s resting heart rate is typically 52 beats per minute, whereas an untrained average resting heart rate is around 72 beats per minute. Stroke volume increase due to stronger myocardium. Increased cardiac output at a lower heart rate. Improved blood supply to the myocardium due to increased time for diastole as a result of reduced heart rates at work and rest. Increased blood volume. Increased red blood cell count. Increased haemoglobin levels improving oxygen carrying capacity of the red blood cells. Improved ‘tone’ in the smooth muscle of the artery walls increasing their ability to expand and contract to move blood. More efficient circulation. Hypertrophy of the myocardium especially the left ventricle. Improved blood cholesterol profile reducing the risk of CHD. Increased capillarisation allowing for improved gaseous exchange in the muscles and lungs. Decreased risk of coronary heart disease and other diseases such as type II diabetes. In addition to cardiovascular responses to exercise the respiratory system also adapts and is closely connected to the cardiovascular system through the system of capillaries surrounding the alveoli. The main adaptations are to the respiratory volumes. The information below is extra information that may be of interest to learners; it is not needed for completion of the unit but links well to the cardiovascular changes.

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Tidal volume Tidal volume is the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one breath. When exercise begins, tidal volume increases to meet the increased oxygen demands of the activity and to remove the increased levels of carbon dioxide being produced through aerobic metabolism. With long-term exercise the muscles of breathing become more efficient and breathing rate decreases while tidal volume increases. This allows for an improved exchange of gases both at rest and during activity.

Residual volume Residual volume is sometimes known as the ‘dead space’ in the lungs. It is the amount of air left in the lungs after exhalation. It is needed to allow gaseous exchange to continue between breaths and keeps the lungs inflated. When exercise begins residual volume will decrease. This is due to the increased tidal volume (more air moving in and out of the lungs in each breath). As a long-term adaptation residual volume will decrease at rest, again due to the increase in tidal volume, allowing for a greater amount of air to be moved in and out of the lungs in one breath. Residual volume and tidal volume have an inverse relationship. If tidal volume increases, residual volume decreases and vice versa.

Vital capacity Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled and exhaled in one breath. As tidal and residual volumes improve with regular activity, vital capacity can increase.

Respiratory responses to exercise Short term (during exercise)

Long term (after weeks/months)

Increased breathing rate

Decreased breathing rate

Increased tidal volume

Increased tidal volume

Decreased residual volume

Increased efficiency of carbon dioxide 2 removal and oxygen uptake.

Decreased residual volume because of the increased use of dead space

Increased efficiency of carbon dioxide removal and oxygen uptake

Increased capillarisation, improving gaseous exchange

Increased vital capacity.

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Benefits and risks of cardiovascular exercise Regular cardiovascular endurance exercise will bring about both long- and short-term changes in the heart, lungs and circulatory system. Other benefits of cardiovascular exercise include: 

improvements in everyday function

increases in bone density especially in areas placed under load from impact activities

reduction of body fat and maintenance of body fat levels within healthy ranges

decreased risk of CHD, type 2 diabetes and other diseases.

While the benefits of activity are numerous, any mode of exercise carries with it associated risks. While careful programming and health screening can help to minimise these risks, they cannot always be avoided. It is important to inform those considering participation in an exercise programme of both the benefits and risks involved. These risks include: 

increased risk of muscle strain

increased risk of skeletal/joint injury

increased risk of connective tissue damage

increased risk of muscle imbalances in certain modes of exercise e.g. tight hamstrings in runners and cyclists

increased workload on the heart, which for some individuals is dangerous

increased levels of carbon dioxide production

increased lactic acid production

decreased levels of body fat below recommended levels for some athletes, which can increase the risk of osteoporosis.

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TEST YOURSELF Question: Name the heart valves and their functions Write your answers here:

TEST YOURSELF Question: Describe coronary circulation Write your answer here:

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Applied anatomy and physiology (A/616/4747)

True or Falseâ&#x20AC;Ś

Answer

1. Short term (during exercise), stroke volume decreases 2. Long term, with exercise there is an increase in blood volume 3. Long term, with exercise there is increased capillarisation

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Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction Manual


Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

Contents Section 1: Components of a healthy lifestyle ........................................................................... 6 Total fitness ............................................................................................................................................... 6 Effects of short- and long-term exercise for health and wellbeing........................................................... 7

Section 2: Psychological factors that can influence change ...................................................... 9 Section 3: Health conditions and medically controlled diseases ............................................. 10 Section 4: Pre-exercise health screening methods ................................................................. 13 Methods of pre-exercise health screening.............................................................................................. 13 Example: Physical activity readiness questionnaire ................................................................................ 14 Risk stratification ..................................................................................................................................... 15

Section 5: Behavioural change models .................................................................................. 17 The theory of reasoned action ................................................................................................................ 17 The theory of planned behaviour ............................................................................................................ 17 The health belief model .......................................................................................................................... 18 The health locus of control...................................................................................................................... 18 The social cognitive theory ...................................................................................................................... 19 The transtheoretical model (stages of change)....................................................................................... 21

Section 6: Professional interaction with clients ..................................................................... 25 Building rapport....................................................................................................................................... 25 Styles of communication ......................................................................................................................... 26 Points to discuss ...................................................................................................................................... 28

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Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

Section 6: Professional interaction with clients

An instructorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effective communication skills will enable the client to develop their knowledge, keep them motivated, and can positively impact their attitude and behaviour. Effective communication will help to develop: 1. Positive experiences 2. Greater chance of adherence 3. Trust 4. Clarity 5. Rapport The main goal of any communication between fitness professionals and a new client is to build rapport.

Building rapport Rapport is built using more than just conversation. Body language is also important. To build rapport with a client, it might be worth considering mimicking his or her posture. For example, if they are sitting in a relaxed position, it might be appropriate to do so yourself. It is important to remember that the tone and pace of your voice play a part in developing rapport, as well as the language you use. Try to avoid using words and phrases just because they are fashionable or using terms that are unfamiliar to your client; doing so could make you both feel uncomfortable.

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Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

It is also important to consider your choice of clothing. When you are getting ready for a session with a client, think about the following: What image does the clothing you are wearing project? What would be suitable clothing for a professional personal trainer? Finally, and most importantly, remember the following two rules:

Rule 1 = Establish rapport with your client. Rule 2 = Attempt nothing else until you have done so.

Styles of communication Attending Attending is the ability to focus on one individual at a time, using both your observation skills and your thought processes. Distractions – such as mobile phones – should be removed. Gerard Egan (1998) used the acronym SOLER to describe effective attending. This stands for:

Squarely

Face the client squarely; a posture that indicates involvement.

Open

Adopt an open posture to communicate openness and availability.

Lean

Lean slightly towards the client, as if to say, “I’m with you” rather than “I’m disinterested”.

Eye

Maintain eye contact, as if to say, “I want to hear and understand what you are saying”.

Relaxed

Adopt a relaxed posture.

Active listening Active listening involves repeating or paraphrasing what someone has said back to them, to confirm that you have heard what they have said.

Reflective responding Refle ctive responding involves two stages: first, trying to process and understand for yourself what someone has said; and, second, offering the person’s idea back to them to confirm that it has been correctly understood. To put it another way, reflective responding is like making an educated guess about the meaning of what a client has said, then checking with them that your guess is right.

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Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

Other areas to consider: 

Proximity – how close you are to an individual’s personal space?

Physical touch – how appropriate is physical touch? This is often dependant on your gender, relationship with the client, their ethnicity and the setting.

Professional boundaries with clients Reputable sources of health and fitness information: 

American College of Sport Medicine

Register of Exercise Professionals (REPS)

NHS.uk

Health.org.uk

Chartered Institute for the Management of Sport and Physical Activity (CIMSPA)

UK Active

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Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

Points to discuss Test your learning by filling in the boxes below.

Check your understanding! You understand… The components of ‘total fitness’ The psychological factors that could influence behavioural change The medically controlled conditions to be aware of and their signs and symptoms Methods of pre-exercise screening How to stratify risk The stages of change in the transtheoretical model Different styles of communication and their application

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Please tick:


Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

Revision notes Use the space below to write your own notes

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Promoting wellness through client motivation and interaction (J/616/4749)

Create your ownâ&#x20AC;Ś This section of the manual has been designed to help you manage your own revision. It includes boxes and tables in which you can make your own notes based on what you have learnt.

Glossary Throughout this manual, you will come across words and terms that you have never heard before. As you read the manual, pick the key terms that you want to remember and record them here with their definitions.

Term

Definition

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Bespoke exercise programme design Manual


Bespoke exercise programme design (F/616/4751)

Contents Section 1: Client screening ........................................................................................................................ 6 Section 2: Client assessments ................................................................................................................... 7 Section 3: Fitness assessments ................................................................................................................. 9 Section 4: Postural analysis..................................................................................................................... 16 Section 5: Goal setting and client progression ....................................................................................... 18 Section 6: Plan safe personal training programmes with clients............................................................ 21 Section 7: Use of alternative environments ........................................................................................... 28 Section 8: Small group personal training ................................................................................................ 30 Points to discuss...................................................................................................................................... 32

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Section 3: Fitness assessments To begin any fitness assessments, it is important to differentiate between the ones which will provide you with valuable health information and those which reflect a client’s fitness levels. The health assessments are pivotal and will leave very few alternatives from the specified tests below. The fitness assessments can be tailored to a client’s needs and the fitness environment.

Health assessment tests Resting heart rate can be measured using a digital heart rate monitor or manually through radial pulse measurement by a fitness professional.

Blood pressure can be performed using a digital blood pressure monitor or manual measurement. Attach the cuff so that the marked edge covers the brachial artery, around 2cm from the elbow crease (on the left arm). Press the START button and wait for the systolic and diastolic figures to be displayed. Repeat to check for consistency.

Height and weight will provide the data to complete the calculation for body mass index (BMI). BMI is used to measure a person’s weight in relation to their height and is a crude indication of obesity and associated health risks. It is simple to calculate and is often used as a reference in large-scale population studies. BMI

=

weight (kg)/height (m2)

Waist-to-hip measurement is the pattern of body fat distribution that is recognised as an important predictor of the health risks associated with being overweight or obese. People who have more fat around their trunk, especially around their abdomen, are at a higher risk of premature death compared with people who have around the same amount of fat, but which is distributed around their limbs. The size of the waist in comparison to the hips – known as waist-to-hips ratio – is an indicator of the distribution of fat on a person’s body.

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Measurement of the waist should be in line with the belly button. The hip measurement should be around the widest part of the hips with three measurements taken and the widest figure being the selected one. The ratio is then worked out by dividing waist circumference by that of the hip. Health risks increase with higher waist-to-hips ratios. Men can be classified as ‘high risk’ when their waist-to-hips ratio exceeds 0.94 and women when their ratio exceeds 0.82. Body composition, or skin fold measurement, can be an indicator of health risks. The amount of subcutaneous fat – the fat just beneath the skin – is proportional to the total amount of body fat. Body fat measurements could be obtained by the following methods:

 Skinfold callipers  Bioelectrical impedance  Hydrostatic weighing  DEXA scan The different methods will provide different levels of accuracy but are vastly different in terms of time and cost implications. The fitness professional should choose the most appropriate approach given the client they have.

Skinfold callipers – four site protocol Triceps site: a vertical fold parallel to the long axis on the posterior surface of the upper arm, over the belly of the triceps muscle at a point midway between the acromion process and the olecranon process. The arm should be relaxed with the elbow extended. When taking a reading from a client, you will need to be positioned so you can also read the dial and then record the measurement. Subscapular site: a diagonal fold taken at 45 degrees to the vertical, 1–2cm below the inferior angle of the scapula. Suprailiac site: a diagonal fold above the crest of the ilium. Mid-point of the ilium 1–2cm anterior of the mid-axillary line and 1–2cm directly above this point. The image shows the position of the suprailliac site. Biceps site: anterior surface of biceps, midway between the anterior axillary fold and the antecubital fossa. A vertical fold parallel with the long axis of the arm. The arm should be relaxed with the elbow extended.

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Fitness tests Muscular strength Test

Results and technique

Benefits

Press up

Maximum number of press-ups in 1 minute.

Identification of a client’s muscular fitness in their chest, shoulders and triceps.

No breaks are allowed. Full range of movement is required. Squats

Maximum number of squats in 1 minute. The depth: right angle occurring at the knee so the bum and knee are at the same level.

Identification of a client’s muscular fitness in their quadriceps, glutes and hamstrings.

*If this can’t be achieved, a note of the depth is to be made. Abdominal crunch

Maximum number of abdominal crunches in 1 minute. The feet are supported by the fitness professional. The client’s arms are crossed and the client is required to touch the top of their knees with their elbow for a full repetition.

Lunges

Maximum number of lunges on one leg in 1 minute. To be repeated on the other leg. Depth: The back knee should almost touch the ground.

Plank

The maximum length of time that a plank position can be held. Technique: A neutral neck and spine must be held throughout.

Identification of a client’s muscular fitness in their abdominal muscles and hip flexors.

Identification of a client’s muscular fitness in their quadriceps, glutes and hamstrings – highlighting any differentiation between sides. Identification of a client’s muscular fitness in their superficial and deeper abdominal muscles.

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Side plank

The maximum length of time that a side plank position can be held. To be repeated on both sides.

Identification of a client’s muscular fitness in their superficial and deeper abdominal muscles, and external and internal obliques – highlighting any differentiation between sides.

Repetition maximums

Select an exercise. Select the number of repetitions that will be the maximal parameter.

This approach can assess a client’s strength across any range of the strength, hypertrophy and endurance continuum.

Client will find the heaviest resistance that they can complete the set number of repetitions. This is trial and error. If the client exceeds the number of reps, they must rest, and then undertake the set again with a heavier weight. This approach only ceases once failure has been achieved.

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The approach can be tailored to be specific to the client’s needs.


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Cardiovascular fitness Test

Results and technique

Benefits

Cooper run

Maximum distance that can be run on a treadmill in 12 minutes.

Allows a calculation to ascertain a client’s oxygen uptake:

The speed can be increased once – at halfway.

Rockport walk test

Fastest time to walk 1 mile (1.6 km). The client walks at their fastest sustainable pace on flat ground for this distance.

VO2 max = (distance in metres – 505)/45 Collecting the walk time, the final heart rate achieved, in addition to the client’s age, gender and weight allows a calculation for VO2 max. to be established.

Machine-based fitness test

Define a set distance on an appropriate fitness kit (cycle, rower, treadmill etc). Also, define a level or resistance where appropriate. Time the client to reach the set distance in the quickest time possible.

This approach allows greater specificity to the client’s goals eg. if they are seeking to get faster for a cycle race, this will provide valuable information of their specific fitness for this approach.

Multi-stage fitness test

Use of a measured 20 m shuttle run and a pre-recorded CD that plays timed bleeps. The aim is for the client to run between two points 20 m apart in between bleeps. The test finishes once the client can no longer reach the 20 m point by the sound of the bleep.

This relates to a VO2 max and has sport-specific connotations. It can also be completed without a need for equipment.

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Flexibility Test

Protocol

Results

Sit and reach test

The test should be carried out using a sit and reach box placed at the feet.

Results are age and gender dependant. Refer to norm charts.

Shoes should be removed and hands should be crossed or held together to avoid rotation of the hips while slowly moving forwards with the arms outstretched. The client should then stretch to a point on the scale as far away as possible without bouncing or using unnecessary force. The best of three attempts is recorded. Lying hamstring test

Supporting leg bent; test leg straight

good = >90°

Pelvis and lumbar spine maintained in neutral

average = 90° poor = <90°

Flex one hip as far as possible without raising pelvis or bending knee Visually estimate angle Compare left with right Shoulder rotation

Lying face up on a mat Arms 90° to torso, elbows 90° External/internal rotation of the shoulder taking the hand towards the floor Monitor shoulder position to prevent lifting. Visually estimate angle Compare left with right

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external rotation ‘good’ = hands touching floor internal rotation ‘good’ = 70° from vertical


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Lunge position, four foot-lengths between feet, aiming to achieve 90° at both knees Observe back leg from front view Observe torso position from side view

back leg abducting at hip = tight tensor fascia latae unable to keep torso upright = tight rectus femoris

Compare left with right Standing in a lunge stance position, facing a wall with the front foot 5cm from the wall The toes of the rear foot should be placed one foot length behind the heel of the front foot

Knee cap touches the wall = good Failure to touch the wall = tight soleus Failure to keep the rear heal on the floor = tight gastrocnemius

The inside edges of both feet should face straight ahead and be on a line perpendicular to the wall Attempt to touch the front kneecap to the wall with the front knee Measure the distance from the knee to the wall.

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Section 4: Postural analysis Testing protocol The plumb line passes through: 

the centre of the ear, the head resting in good balance over the shoulders  the centre of the shoulder (head of the humerus), the shoulders resting evenly over the ribcage  the trunk midway (bodies of the lumbar vertebrae); there should be a ‘normal’ lumbar curve  the centre of the hip joint; the pelvis is level, not tilted or shifted forwards or backwards  the knee, slightly in front of the midline of the knee  the ankle, slightly in front of the lateral malleolus (bony prominence) of the ankle, the foot balanced evenly between the heel and the ball Reference points Head position: Head is vertical and facing forwards, not tilted to the left or right or rotated. Shoulder level: Left and right shoulders are level. Shoulder blades: Left and right shoulder blades are level, symmetrical and lying flat to the ribcage. Pelvis level: Left and right sides of the pelvis are level. Bulk/symmetry of calf muscles: Appearance of the calf muscles is similar. Ankle/foot position: Feet point forwards/slightly turned out. The Achilles tendon is vertical and central to the heel, with adequate medial arch to the foot.

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Bespoke exercise programme design (F/616/4751)

Common postural deviations Kyphosis (hyper-kyphosis) Hyper-kyphosis is an excessive curvature of the thoracic spine, where the head and shoulders move significantly towards the plumb line.

Top tips Stretching: Pectoralis minor, rectus abdominis (if the chest is depressed) and possibly levator scapulae or upper trapezius (if shoulder elevation is also present).

Strengthening: A strengthening exercise would be appropriate for the middle and lower trapezius, the deep neck flexors and for the thoracic portion of the erector spinae. Rotator cuff muscles around the shoulder joint may also need to be assessed for correct functioning. Lordosis (hyper-lordosis) Hyper-lordosis is an excessive curvature of the lumbar spine (hyperextension), where the pelvis tilts forwards too much and the abdomen moves forwards relative to the plumb line, whilst the buttocks move backwards.

Stretching: The lumbar erector spinae and the hip flexor muscles (rectus femoris, tensor fascia latae, iliacus and psoas major) become shortened. Strengthening: The abdominal group, external obliques and the gluteus maximus. Particular attention should be paid to strengthen the glutes whilst limiting activation of the hamstrings as these will have become overworked due to the inactivity of the glute muscles.

Scoliosis Scoliosis refers to a sideways curvature of the spine when viewed from behind.

Mild scoliosis due to muscle imbalance can often be improved by some very basic measures. For example, if the cause was carrying a heavy bag on one shoulder, then simply swapping shoulders regularly, or using a rucksack, would help alleviate the problem. Training to be carried out isolaterally. This is where each side of the body works independently of the other so the stronger side cannot help the weaker side.

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Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques Manual


Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques (J/616/4752)

Contents Section 1: Fitness training techniques .....................................................................................6 Cardiovascular training ............................................................................................................................. 6 Resistance training .................................................................................................................................... 8

Section 2: Skills to observe and monitor clients during sessions ............................................ 11 Section 3: Legal and ethical responsibilities of a personal trainer .......................................... 15 Insurance................................................................................................................................................. 15 Legislation ............................................................................................................................................... 15

Section 4: Principles of best practice .................................................................................... 17 Code of ethical practice .......................................................................................................................... 17 Reflective practice................................................................................................................................... 18 Working with a mentor ........................................................................................................................... 18 Qualifications .......................................................................................................................................... 18

Section 5: Planning a personal training session ..................................................................... 23 Preparing the session .............................................................................................................................. 23 Cardiovascular exercise .......................................................................................................................... 23 Resistance exercise ................................................................................................................................. 23 Core stability ........................................................................................................................................... 24 Flexibility and mobility ............................................................................................................................ 25 Resource preparation ............................................................................................................................. 26 The session .............................................................................................................................................. 27 Points to discuss...................................................................................................................................... 28

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Section 5: Planning a personal training session Preparing the session The main aspect of session planning is to consider: 1. The client’s goal 2. The resources available. Once these have been established, the session planning can commence. As previously discussed, there are many factors which may require the planned activities to change, however, an effective plan should still be devised. Irrespective of a client’s goal, the following aspects of training should be incorporated into a client’s long-term plan.

Cardiovascular exercise The approaches discussed previously – continuous, intervals and fartlek – can all be applied across a programme. It is usually advisable to show a range of these approaches to avoid boredom setting in and for maximal CV development. Within each approach there are several variations that can also be utilised. Cardiovascular exercise has a primary function to improve the efficiency of the heart and lungs. This does not mean that this form of exercise must be performed on a traditional CV machine. Machines such as the rower, treadmill, cross-trainer, stepper and bike can be used, but bodyweight exercises such as high-knee running, star jumps, mountain climbers, burpees and squat thrusts can also provide an effective CV workout. Also, equipment such as plyometric boxes, prowlers, battle ropes, slam balls etc can be used to provide an effective CV workout as long as the parameters are adhered to.

Resistance exercise As with the cardiovascular exercise, resistance training can utilise a host of different tools. These include:

 Resistance machines  Free weights (dumbbells and barbells)  Functional equipment, to include: suspension training equipment, ViPRs, kettlebells, monkey bars, functional zones within gyms and parks, resistance bands (and any other piece of kit that can be used to help your client to achieve their resistance goals

 Bodyweight. A variety of resistance approaches, previously discussed and listed below, should be employed. Through further research and trial and practice, you’ll discover other resistance training modalities that can also Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques | Manual | Version 1.0 © YMCA Awards 2018 23


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be employed to elicit performance benefits. Aside from the fact that including multiple approaches is optimal for a client to achieve their goal, time restrictions may often determine the most effective approach for a specific client. Basic sets Super setting Tri-sets Giant sets Pyramid training

Negative training German volume training Drop sets Circuit-style training Time under tension

Core stability

Activation of the deeper core muscles, alongside the superficial abdominals will reduce injury risk, improve the effectiveness of a movement and should transfer a neurological benefit to other exercises. Equipment such as suspension trainers, core balls, BOSUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and stability discs can be utilised for this purpose. Also, bodyweight exercises such as plank, side plank, bridge, superman and dead bugs can also be implemented and would be a useful base to start from with regards to core development. To develop any of these activities further, increasing the muscular time under tension and reducing the stabilising capabilities of the exercises will be beneficial. This could be achieved by reducing the physical contact points to a stable surface e.g. lifting a leg or arm off of the ground, performing exercises unilaterally or reducing a visual stimulus. Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques | Manual | Version 1.0 Š YMCA Awards 2018 24


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Flexibility and mobility Flexibility refers to the ability of your muscles to reach their full range of movement, whilst mobility refers to how freely this movement occurs.

Flexibility Techniques to be employed: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation – the muscle to be stretched is first placed under tension by isometric contraction (6–10 seconds). When the contraction is released, the muscle appears to become temporarily more relaxed than usual. The muscle can then be stretched well beyond its usual range (to be held in this position for a further 15 seconds). The increased range of movement is not permanent, but continual use of PNF stretching will bring about a long-term increase in range of movement. Active stretch – stretching the antagonist muscle is brought about by contraction of the agonist. One example is lengthening the quadriceps by contracting the hamstrings. An active stretch can be performed statically or dynamically. The above is an example of a static active stretch. A dynamic active stretch would occur when performing leg curls, for example. Active stretching is a natural function of the muscles and is the type of stretch encountered when performing many sports and everyday activities. Active stretching uses ‘reciprocal innervation’ between muscles. This means that when the agonist contracts, the nervous system will automatically cause a ‘reflex inhibition’ (relaxation) of the antagonist so that movement can occur. Passive stretch – a passive stretch means that an external force causes the stretch. This can include leaning on a wall, holding the leg, partner assistance and gravity to allow the agonist muscle to be relaxed. Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques | Manual | Version 1.0 © YMCA Awards 2018 25


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Passive stretches can also be performed statically or dynamically. The effectiveness of passive stretches does not rely on the strength of the agonist to stretch the target muscle. They can therefore be easy to perform and comfortable to hold, hence their common use in health-related flexibility. However, if used inappropriately, they may promote ROM beyond that which the muscles are capable of controlling. When this happens, they may potentially be detrimental to joint stability in the long term.

Mobility Myofascial release – in a healthy musculoskeletal system the fascia supports free movement of our muscles and bones. When this tissue becomes dysfunctional it can be a great cause of movement restriction and pain. Release techniques such as foam rolling, massage, trigger point tools (e.g. golf and tennis balls) can release this restricted movement. Pre-activation techniques – a technique that involves ‘waking up’ a target muscle with an isolation or conditioning exercise before the main lift or activity you’re doing. A lot of muscles are inactive or less active than we’d like (the glutes, latissimus dorsi, abdominals and deeper core muscles are common ones), usually because of improper mechanics or lifestyle trends, such as sitting a lot during the day. The inactivity of these muscles means that other muscles — quadriceps, lower back, trapezius and hamstrings — take over as a result, reducing the effectiveness of the exercise, creating a poor movement pattern and increasing injury risk. Pre-activating the targeted muscles with a specific movement will kick-start the neural pathways to ensure that muscle is active during the bigger compound move.

Resource preparation All session plans should be written down in an appropriate format. Digital notes allow for easy access to previous sessions and offer a clearer, neater way to manage session planning. However, many fitness professionals prefer to keep notebooks with written copies of sessions. This is purely down to a fitness professional’s personal preference. Remember: If you are using your phone to update session information, inform your client in advance. Otherwise, it may look like you are disinterested and have had attention diverted to texts or emails. Within session plans, a list of equipment requirements should be noted. Health and safety checks should be applied to each of these. Also, alternatives should be proposed, due to the possibility of equipment malfunction or unavailability.

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The session

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Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques (J/616/4752)

Points to discuss Test your learning by filling in the boxes below.

Check your understanding!

Please tick:

You understand… Fitness training techniques for: 

Cardiovascular training

Resistance training

The teaching skills to be employed to observe and monitor performance The legislation that fitness professionals must adhere to The code of ethical practice How to prepare for a personal training session

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Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques (J/616/4752)

Revision notes Use the space below to write your own notes.

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Customised exercise programme instruction and communication techniques (J/616/4752)

Create your ownâ&#x20AC;Ś This section of the manual has been designed to help you manage your own revision. It includes boxes and tables in which you can make your own notes based on what you have learnt.

Glossary Throughout this manual, you will come across words and terms that you have never heard before. As you read the manual, pick the key terms that you want to remember and record them here with their definitions.

Term

Definition

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Nutrition to support physical activity

Manual


Contents Section 1: The principles of nutrition ................................................................................ 6 The digestive system .............................................................................................................. 6 Macronutrients ...................................................................................................................... 8 Micronutrients ..................................................................................................................... 10 Food labelling ....................................................................................................................... 12 Section 2: Influence of nutrition on health ...................................................................... 14 Diabetes................................................................................................................................ 14 Severe energy restriction diets ............................................................................................ 16 Cultural and religious dietary practices ............................................................................... 17 Eating disorders .................................................................................................................... 19 Section 3: Nutritional guidelines and evidence-based recommendations......................... 21 Section 4: Relationship between food and physical activity ............................................. 23 Energy systems ..................................................................................................................... 23 Fuel ....................................................................................................................................... 23 Protein and vitamin supplementation - effectiveness and contraindications..................... 24 Understanding caloric needs................................................................................................ 25 Physical activity factor.......................................................................................................... 26 Activity guidance .................................................................................................................. 26 Healthy eating advice for different goals ............................................................................. 27 Hydration guidance .............................................................................................................. 28 Section 5: Collecting and analysing nutritional information ............................................. 29 Gathering information ......................................................................................................... 29 Analysing progress ............................................................................................................... 30 ACSM guidelines body composition (% body fat) ................................................................ 32 Points to discuss from manual ............................................................................................. 34

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Section 1: The principles of nutrition The digestive system Digestion occurs through physical (mechanical) and chemical actions that take place in the digestive system, or alimentary canal. The process takes many hours, starting at the mouth and finishing at the anus. The ultimate aim of digestion is to break down the food eaten to extract the nutrients the body requires. The complex structures of protein, fat and carbohydrates are broken down to their simplest forms. Water is absorbed to aid hydration and vitamins and minerals are extracted from food to perform their vital functions.

What is left following the complex process of hydration are waste products and fibre. Both mechanical and chemical digestion occurs throughout the digestive system.

The mouth Here food is chopped and torn by the teeth – mastication. It is moistened with saliva, and with the aid of the tongue, rolled into small balls that are easy to swallow. The tongue also allows you to experience taste as this is where the taste buds are. Saliva contains the digestive enzyme, salivary amylase, which starts a chemical breakdown of starchy carbohydrate into simpler sugars. There is no chemical breakdown of fat or protein in the mouth.

The oesophagus From the mouth, the food is pushed into the oesophagus to travel to the stomach by a process called peristalsis. Peristalsis is rhythmical waves of muscle contractions which help push food towards the stomach. There is no physical or chemical breakdown at this stage.

The stomach An empty human stomach is only about 15–30cm long with an internal volume of just 50ml. In this state its internal surface is thrown into deep muscular folds. However, its capacity for stretching is enormous and it can fill to hold up to four litres of partially digested food. Its smooth muscle fibres are orientated in three different layers so that it can really get to work at breaking up remaining Nutrition to support physical activity | Manual | Version 1.0 © YMCA Awards 2018


food chunks into a thick liquid called chime. The process of churning and digestion in the stomach can take up to five hours. The stomach wall contains different kinds of cells, each with a specific job. It is in the stomach where the breakdown of some protein and fat takes place. Pepsin breaks the protein into smaller amino acid chains. Peptides and gastric lipase will also be released to break down short chain triglycerides (mainly found in milk) into fatty acids and monoglycerides.

The small intestine The small intestine is divided into three parts, the duodenum, the jejunum and the ilium, and is the major site for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The name ‘small intestine’ is misleading, as it is actually about seven metres (25ft) long. The small intestine’s role is to break down the complex structure of nutrients into their usable components. The liver plays a part in digestion by secreting bile. Bile emulsifies fat and provides the correct environment for the breakdown and absorption of fats. As the partially digested food enters the small intestine, it will also be mixed with pancreatic enzymes that break down carbohydrates, protein and fat. It is the small intestine’s role to transport nutrients into the bloodstream and is a major site of water absorption.

The large intestine The final stage of digestion takes place in the large intestine with the partial breakdown of cellulose (soluble fibre). The large intestine’s role is to reabsorb the remaining water from undigested food. The undigested food and fibre ends up as faeces where it is passed to the colon and then expelled from the body via the anal canal (rectum).

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Key nutritional terms Diet The kinds of food a person habitually eats. It can also reflect a special course of food to which a person restricts themselves, either to lose weight or for medical reasons. Healthy eating Eating a variety of foods that give you the nutrients you need to maintain your health, feel good and have energy. Nutrition The process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth. Balanced diet A diet consisting of a variety of different types of food and providing adequate amounts of the nutrients necessary for good health.

Macronutrients Macronutrients are the nutrients that provide the body with energy: fats, carbohydrates, proteins and water. Macronutrient Fats

Importance 

Protection of internal organs

Thermoregulation through insulation

Insulation of nerve cells

Uptake and storage of vitamins

Provides energy: 1g = 9kcals

Storage and modification of reproductive hormones

Four types: 1. Saturated 2. Polyunsaturated 3. Monounsaturated 4. Trans

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Sources: Saturated: Meat, eggs, butter, cream Polyunsaturated: Vegetable and plant oil, nuts, seeds, oily fish Monounsaturated: Avocado, olive oil, nuts and seeds Trans: Crisps, biscuits, many fast foods Carbohydrates

Provide energy, in particular during high intensity activities: 1g = 4kcals

Fibre ensures healthy gut function

Two types: 1. Complex 2. Simple Sources: Complex: Bread, potatoes, pasta, rice, beans, oats Simple: Sweets, jams, honey, fruits, soft drinks Proteins

Growth, repair and maintenance of body tissue

All enzymes are proteins

Some hormones are made up of protein

Antibodies are proteins

In extreme circumstances provides energy: 1g = 4kcals

Sources: Meat, fish, eggs, poultry, dairy products, tofu, seeds, nuts, soya

Did you know… There are 20 different amino acids. Eight are ‘essential’ because the body can’t produce them; 12 are ‘non-essential’ because they are produced in the body.

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Micronutrients Micronutrients are those that are vital to the proper functioning of all of your body’s systems, also called vitamins and minerals. Micronutrient

Importance

Vitamins

Two different types: 1. Water-soluble: 

C and B groups: essential co-factors or helpers for enzymes

2. Fat-soluble: 

A: Vision

D: Bone growth and development

E: Protection from chemical damage

K: Blood clotting

Sources: Dairy products, dark green vegetables, milk, fish oils, fruit, eggs Minerals

Sodium: regulation of water balance Potassium: essential for water and electrolyte balance and the proper functioning of cells Calcium: needed for muscle contraction, the secretion of hormones and nerve transmission Zinc: helps many enzymes to do their job, particularly enzymes involved in growth and development of nerves Iron: Important component of haemoglobin which transports oxygen around the body

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Key nutritional terms UK dietary reference values (DRV) Values intended as guidelines and not recommendations for healthy eating. The intention of the DRV is to promote the concept of health and not just avoidance of disease. Guidelines are provided for energy, fats (saturated, mono and polyunsaturated), protein, carbohydrates (sugars, starches and non-starch polysaccharides NSP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fibre), vitamins and minerals. Recommended daily allowance (RDA) The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (approximately 98 percent) healthy individuals. Recommended daily intake (RDI) The amount sufficient, or more than sufficient, for the nutritional needs of practically all healthy people in the UK. Glycaemic index The glycaemic index (GI) is a ranking of carbohydrates on a scale from 0 to 100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar (glucose) levels after eating.

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Food labelling Food labels can be used to help choose foods lower in fat, salt and sugars when shopping, and so may make it easier to make healthier choices. Many food manufacturers and supermarkets have adopted the traffic light labelling system, which offers consumers a simple, visual representation of the proportions of nutrients in a food product.

Red = high

Amber = medium

Green = Low

The Food Information Regulations (FIR), designed to make food labelling easier to understand for consumers, has been published by the European Union. Its main points that must be displayed are as follows: 

Country of origin

Allergen information

Unsuitable products must state: ‘not recommended for children, or pregnant and breastfeeding women’

Meat and fish products must state if they have more than 5% added water

Types of vegetable oil used in the food.

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TEST YOURSELF True or Falseâ&#x20AC;Ś

Answer

1. A micronutrient can only be consumed as a pill

2. A single gram of fat provide more energy than a single gram of carbohydrate 3. The glycaemic index is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (approximately 98 percent) healthy individuals. 4. The small intestine is a major site of water absorption

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Business acumen for a successful personal training practice Manual


Contents Business acumen for a successful personal training practice.............................................. 6 Section 1. Understanding marketing strategies and techniques in planning and promotion ............ 7 Developing a marketing plan .......................................................................................................... 7 Types and sources of market research ......................................................................................... 11 Tools for analysing market research data ..................................................................................... 17 Analysing market research data ................................................................................................... 18 Scenario......................................................................................................................................... 20 Patterns and trends ...................................................................................................................... 21 Competitor analysis ...................................................................................................................... 22 Understanding business markets.................................................................................................. 25 Section 2. How to sell personal training services to clients directly ................................................. 27 The sales cycle............................................................................................................................... 27 Don’t be a hard seller…be an ‘assistant buyer’............................................................................. 35 Personal training documentation ................................................................................................. 38 Section 3: Understand how to communicate the benefits of the personal training service ............ 41 Communication ............................................................................................................................. 41 Verbal communication .................................................................................................................. 42 Non-verbal communication .......................................................................................................... 42 Written communication................................................................................................................ 43 Body language ............................................................................................................................... 43 Different ways of promoting personal training services .............................................................. 45 Choosing appropriate promotional activities ............................................................................... 47 Creating a brand image ................................................................................................................. 48 Section 4: Know the components and the purpose of a business plan relevant to a personal training business ............................................................................................................................... 52 What is a business plan? ............................................................................................................... 52 Setting clear business objectives .................................................................................................. 53 Supporting achievement of business objectives .......................................................................... 57 Tools and techniques for monitoring achievement of business objectives ................................. 58 Section 5: Understand how to legally set up and run a business as a personal trainer ................... 61 Registering with HMRC as ‘self-employed’ ................................................................................... 61


Keeping accurate financial records of your income and expenditure .......................................... 61 Submitting annual tax returns ...................................................................................................... 62 National Insurance contributions ................................................................................................. 64 Value Added Tax (VAT) ................................................................................................................. 64 Financial terminology.................................................................................................................... 65 Ways of operating as self-employed ............................................................................................ 67 Elements of a valid business contract........................................................................................... 69 Business start up ........................................................................................................................... 71 Cash flow forecasting .................................................................................................................... 73 Cost-benefit analysis ..................................................................................................................... 76 Points to discuss................................................................................................................................ 79


Section 2. How to sell personal training services to clients directly The sales cycle The sales cycle is a recognised model defining the seven stages of the sales process which leads to the close of a sale and the potential for repeat business or client referrals. Prospecting – identifying potential fitness clients. Initiate contact – making contact with potential clients. Identify needs – understanding the needs, wants and expectations of clients. Present offer – communicating the terms and conditions of personal training services, including cost. Manage objections – identifying and overcoming barriers which may prevent the sale being closed. Close the sale – seal the deal and agree a contract for personal training services. Repeat sales and referrals – returning clients and clients who recommend personal training services to others.

Prospecting

Key word Prospecting is the process of identifying and reaching new personal training clients. Prior to researching potential new clients, personal trainers must have detailed knowledge of the services available in order to match potential clients with the correct personal training service. Taking time to research the target market will be time well spent to attract the right clients and avoid wasting time where prospecting will not generate a firm sales lead. So, who are your target market for personal training services? Prospects could include new mums looking to lose their baby weight, senior clients with specific health issues such as arthritis or obesity, or males looking to increase their muscle mass. Examples of different types of prospects include:


Type of prospect

Definition

New

Potential clients who have not previously used your personal training services

Old

Potential clients who are no longer actively engaged with a personal trainer

Existing

Promoting additional products and/or services to clients already engaged with a personal trainer

For both old and existing clients, accessing information already held in customer relationship management (CRM) databases is a great place to start as this will provide valuable information about client demographics (e.g. male, female or age) as well as purchasing history.

Market research scenario Think about where you are most likely to find the type of client you most want to work with. Use the space below to write your notes.

Directing prospecting activities to community services such as doctorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; surgeries, hospital outpatient departments, sports venues and community centres is likely to reach your target market effectively.


Initiating contact Once potential new clients have been researched, the next stage is to make contact with your target market. Speaking with potential clients provides the opportunity to gather information and judge whether they are worthy of moving to the next stage of sales cycle – identifying needs. There are different ways of contacting new personal training clients which can be broken down into two distinct categories: 

Expected is where a potential client has agreed to engage with you to discuss the potential of employing personal training services.

Unexpected, also known as ‘cold calling’, involves making speculative contact with potential clients who are not expecting you and have not previously made any enquiries about the services you are offering.

Here are some examples of expected and unexpected methods of making contact with potential new clients: Expected

Unexpected

Response to a web page enquiry

Telesales

Response to a social media marketing campaign

Street selling

Door-to-door sales

Response to a leaflet drop

Email marketing

Response to an advertisement

Potential clients who drop in to the gym

Referrals

Potential clients who expect to hear from you are by far the easiest to convert to sales as they have already expressed an interest in personal training services. Potential clients who hadn’t expected to speak to you are much harder to convert as they have not previously expressed an interest and therefore may become hostile to being contacted unexpectedly. There are likely to be many more refusals when contacting potential new clients unexpectedly, however this is still considered a valuable method of prospecting so be patient.

Identifying client needs and expectations Understanding the requirements of potential new clients allows a personal trainer to accurately match the correct personal training services with the needs and expectations of the client. Interpersonal skills such as carefully listening to the needs and expectations of a potential new client and asking the right questions will develop an understanding of the customer and what they can potentially achieve from personal training services.


Need – A problem a client is looking to solve by purchasing personal training services Expectation – The perceived value a client seeks from the purchase of personal training services. Examples of client needs and expectations may include: Needs

Expectations

Weight loss

Carry out pre-training fitness assessments

Increase physical activity

Develop a progressive training programme

Improve muscle strength

Be motivated to achieve fitness goals

Why is it important to understand the needs and expectations of clients?

Correctly identifying and responding to the needs and expectations of clients has many benefits for the client, personal trainer and fitness organisation. Providing personal training services which are too expensive, focusing on running style when a client asked for strength training, or developing a static, non-progressive training plan would fail to meet the needs of the client and could lead to those services being terminated. Benefits of accurately identifying client needs and expectations include: 

tailoring training services that provide opportunity for clients to achieve health and fitness objectives

increasing client motivation and retention

increasing sales as clients feel more comfortable doing business with you

more referrals from satisfied clients who bring in additional business by word of mouth

gaining information about service levels to keep clients happy and achieve client satisfaction

personal trainers focusing on fulfilling customers’ expectations or providing opportunity to exceed expectations

helping to resolve complaints to quickly fix the problems and retain the business.

Presenting your offer Personal training services are unlikely to sell themselves, therefore it may be necessary to make a presentation of your personal training services to potential new clients. Potential new clients will be keen to know what you do and to establish your credibility as a personal trainer. Be prepared to provide evidence of your personal training success stories. Remember: sell the results rather than the package.


A successful presentation of personal training services would include information about the features and the benefits of the services being offered and using these features and benefits to persuade the client to make a buying decision. Sales pitches should be tailored to individual clients and should be different each time you deliver them. Potential clients will only be interested in the aspects of your service that address their specific need for change so don’t feel tempted to explain every feature or benefit. Asking questions about lifestyle, work, current levels of activity, and health and fitness aspirations will provide opportunities to suggest ways in which your personal training services may solve existing problems or contribute to the achievement future goals. Finding out about potential clients is also a great way to build a relationship and allow potential clients to connect with you and the services you are offering, thus building trust. Questions may also uncover the ‘sore points’ a potential client has, for example weight loss or looking great in that bikini in time for that week in Benidorm. Identifying these sore points, otherwise known as ‘commitment points’, may help you to close the deal. When the pitch begins to go cold, bring that commitment point back into the discussion as these are reasons why potential clients will buy. It is important to provide opportunity within your pitch for potential clients to ask questions. This will enable them to clarify points, gain trust in you as a personal trainer and determine whether your services will adequately meet their needs. The more they know about the services on offer, the more their buying decisions will be informed and the more likely they will commit to a sale.

Managing client objections Why do potential clients say “no” when you are offering them a service which has many benefits? This is easy and can be answered very simply in just four words:

One of these four objections is generally central to the reason why a potential client might say “no”. Understanding these objections, preparing yourself for them and knowing how to overcome them are essential to closing the sale. It is important to recognise which objections are real and which are simply avoiding or stalling tactics. Here are some examples of common objections when selling personal training services and how these could be overcome: Objection

How to overcome

“It’s too expensive”

Point out that PT sessions can be as little as a daily caramel latte from their favourite coffee shop. Ask how much they can afford and put a package together which suits their financial position.


“I don’t have the time”

Sell the benefits of making time to achieve a healthier lifestyle.

“I don’t need PT sessions”

Point out that professional athletes have coaches and personal trainers.

“I need to talk to my partner”

Ask if this is something they want to do for themselves and the benefits having a personal goal.

Encourage clients to swap TV or Xbox time for time spent achieving health and wellbeing targets.

Remind clients of ‘sore points’ they have already told you about.

Point out how happy their partner will be to see they are doing something positive and improving their health and wellbeing. “It’s cheaper at the other gym”

Point out the benefits of purchasing from you or your organisation. Consider matching the price of like for like competitors.

Where real or avoiding objections are raised, it is encouraged that you dig deeper three times before moving on to the next question. Despite there being many reasons why potential clients may object to purchasing personal training services, everything really does come down to money. Why pay to get fit when it doesn’t cost to walk around the park with the dog, go for a run or dance while you are ironing? Statistical evidence shows that exercising with a buddy or personal trainer vastly improves the clients’ chances of achieving health and fitness goals. Professionally trained fitness experts cost but are money well spent – a fact that can be used when overcoming objections.

Closing the sale It is a well-known fact that personal trainers are great at improving fitness levels, but not so great at the sales side of the role, therefore there is a risk that too much time may be taken carefully negotiating and persuading a potential client to purchase personal training services. Knowing how and when to close a sale can be challenging but knowing which techniques to deploy in the right circumstances may improve your chances of closing a sale efficiently.


Client objections may not be the only reason why a sale may not be closed. The personal trainer may be responsible for losing that sale. Here are some common reasons why sales are lost: 

Being too sales-focused

Over-presenting the features

Failing to ask about the client’s needs and expectations

Trying too hard

Aggressive sales techniques

Lack of confidence in sales ability

Misjudging the client’s commitment level

Believing it’s all about the money.

Stop asking clients what they want, and start asking them how they want to feel. Clients will immediately form an emotional connection with the personal training services which is more likely to lead to a sale being closed quickly. Effective use of open questioning techniques where clients cannot give a “yes” or “no” answer is the best way of engaging the client and getting to know them. This allows the personal trainer to align the closing technique with the results the client wants to achieve, influencing their decision to purchase personal training services. Here are some open questions which could be asked: 

What’s your goal?

Why is it important to you?

What obstacles have you faced in the past?

How will you feel, six months from now, if you achieve your goal?

How will you feel, six months from now, if you don’t achieve your goal?

How can I help you?

Where do we go from here?

Identifying signals which may indicate a potential client is ready to buy is an important skill to have in sales; however, buying signals can be really hard to spot. In some instances, these may be as obvious as the client reaching for their purse or wallet but in most cases, may be determined by a question, behaviour or body language. Here are some common examples of positive buying signals:


Questions

Behaviours

Body language

Specific details about PT sessions

Expressing opinions

Looking around for help

Availability or appointment dates

Displaying excitement

Smiling

Contract

Touching

Nodding

Pricing and payment methods

Talking faster to get ownership sooner

Leaning forward

Requesting information be repeated

Reading information signs and leaflets

Dilated pupils

Read these signals well and you will be in a position to progress your client to a larger commitment. Allowing clients to take some ownership of their commitments increases the likelihood of closing the sale. The sales industry gives names to different sale closing techniques depending on the nature of the technique being applied. Some techniques require negative actions or behaviours so here is a selection of positive closing techniques and their definitions: 

Alternative close – offering a limited set of choices, for example, “Would you like our peak package or off-peak package?”

Assumptive close – close the sale by making an assumption that the client has made the decision to buy. An example of this type of close may include: “You are really going to enjoy the range of fitness classes we run as part of your membership.”

Best-time close – emphasise how now is the best time to buy

Compliment close – flatter your potential client into submission

Conditional close – link the closure to resolving objections

Daily cost close – reduce the cost to a daily amount so it appears smaller

Emotion close – trigger identified emotions (sore points)

Ownership close – act as if the client owns what you are selling

Quality close – sell on quality, not on price

Similarity close – bond the client to a person or a story

Valued customer close – offer the client a special ‘valued customer’ deal


Don’t be a hard seller…be an ‘assistant buyer’ Transfer feelings and help the potential client come to the right conclusion that your personal training service is the most logical solution for achieving their desired outcome.

Negotiation skills Whichever closing technique(s) you chose to apply, there is every likelihood that some negotiation will be required to secure agreement to purchase personal training services. Like managing objections, negotiation needs to be considered in advance of the sales intervention. This is known as a negotiation strategy. There are different types of negotiation strategy depending on the nature of the negotiation. The table below shows examples of common negotiating strategies: Strategy

Definition

Problem solving

Both parties entering into long-term agreements

Contending

Persuade others to concede to your outcome

Yielding

Conceding a point that is more important to the other party

Compromising

Outcome is satisfactory for each party

Inaction

Factoring in more time to think about the proposal or gather more information

A negotiation strategy should include the following considerations: 

What you want from the negotiation

How you will control negotiations

Any concessions which can be made such as reductions for off-peak use and group discounts

Pricing

Issues which may affect contracting for example age or existing health issues

Building relationships.

Planning from the outset what you hope to achieve through negotiation is important. It will help you apply the appropriate negotiation techniques and remain focused and strong in the proceedings. You are unlikely to achieve your desired outcome if you enter into a negotiation without a strategy. Along with distinct negotiation strategies and their components, there are also clearly defined desired negotiation outcomes, these include: 

Defeat – win at any cost

Collaborate – both parties win


Accommodate – build friendly relationships

Withdraw – take what you can.

Negotiation skills help the negotiator to reach an understanding, resolve points of difference, gain advantage or craft outcomes that satisfy interests of the personal trainer and/or fitness organisation. Common negotiation skills include: Definition Problem solving Preparation, for example, identify goals, research, costs, know what you are willing to give up, negotiation outcomes, and resources to help seal the deal Active listening Emotional control (head over heart) Verbal communication which is clear, effective; state desired outcomes, use questioning and the ability to be silent Collaboration and teamwork to achieve mutually agreeable solutions Problem solving rather than focusing on the goal Decision making including being decisive but having the ability to compromise Interpersonal skills such as developing working relationships, patience, powers of persuasion Ethics and reliability, for example, ethical standards, trust and executing promises and agreements

Agreeing terms Once you have secured a buying commitment from the client, it is important to hold on to that. Agreeing terms with your client ensures that the roles of the personal trainer and client are clearly appreciated and understood. Agreeing terms typically takes place during an initial consultation with the client. There are certain formalities which need to be discussed and agreed and so most fitness organisations draw up a business to consumer contract. There are many types of business contracts including face to face, written and distance selling. In most cases, contracts for personal training services are agreed face to face but have a written contract which is signed by the client. With an increasing number of gym memberships and personal training services being purchased online there is a need for distance selling contracts to be offered.


Matters generally covered in a contract for services being provided include: 

parties of the contract (seller and buyer)

contract date and duration

definitions and key terms used in the contract, including the ‘small print’

personal training services being provided including training objectives

payment amount, payment date and payment method

lateness policy

cancellation policy including notice periods and conditions for cancellation

health, safety and security arrangements

level of commitment required.

Some self-employed personal trainers will discuss aspects of these matters, yet agreements are more likely to be on a verbal and less formal basis. Prior to finalising any personal training agreement, it is important to assess the current and previous health and fitness levels of the client. Most personal trainers and organisations carry out an assessment of these areas using a questionnaire. It is essential for any issues which could adversely affect the safety and wellbeing of client to be fully disclosed to allow the personal trainer to exclude potentially harmful exercise from any agreed training plans. Health and fitness assessments may include: 

existing injuries or joint problems, for example arthritis and recovering bone fractures

history of heart problems such as cardiac arrest or heart bypass

history of breathing difficulties such as asthma

strokes and dizzy spells

recent episodes of illness or hospitalisation

high blood pressure

weight-related issues including anorexia and obesity

family history of illness and disease

lifestyle including poor exercise and nutrition habits.

Depending on the information provided by the client during health and fitness screening, it may be necessary for the client to seek medical clearance from their GP prior to undertaking physical activity.


As personal training programmes are not solely about exercise and fitness, personal trainers may also assess the characteristics and lifestyle of the client which should include the following areas: Age

Gender

Sleeping habits

Water intake

Weight

Height

Occupation (active or sedentary job)

Most recent exercise (level and type)

Exercise likes and dislikes

Eating habits

Aspects of the lifestyle assessment will provide the personal trainer with information which will lead to setting lifestyle goals, particularly where weight and mind-set are issues. Asking questions will contribute to an open working relationship with clients and build rapport as you deliver services which align to the individual needs of the client.

Personal training documentation As a personal trainer, there are a number of key documents that you will be required to complete which provide information about sales leads, potential clients, training agreements, and the health and fitness levels of your clients. Some of these documents are for internal purposes such as tracking clients and following up on leads; the majority hold much more importance and are in place to legally protect the interests of both personal trainer and client in the event of a dispute. Here are examples of documents used by personal trainers throughout the sales process: Document

Purpose

Leads

Captures the results of prospecting efforts including the names and details of potential clients including goals, timeframes and barriers to exercise and fitness.

Enquiries

Completed when potential clients express an interest in personal training services.

Consultation and screening

Formal assessment of a clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health and fitness levels used to identify issues which may affect the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to undertake physical activity. A training plan would be agreed based on this information. This is considered as the single most important document a PT will use.

Informed consent declaration

Where a client formally gives their consent to personal training services; includes a declaration which confirms that information provided during consultation and screening is accurate.

Client contract

Covers all policies and terms of the agreement relating to the delivery of personal training services and protects the interests of both client and PT.


Fitness record

Records of fitness activities including times, weights, reps and sets. Capturing this information allows the PT to monitor progress towards achievement of goals and to stretch and challenge clients by increasing exercise levels.

Referrals

Similar to an enquiry form but provides information of the client who has referred the individual. This information can be used to make contact with the referral and to reward the referring client.

Having documents which capture valuable information demonstrates to clients you are organised and professional. Clients like to see that you have reviewed the training plan and made provision to progress training to meet their needs through great preparation. This gives your clients confidence in your abilities as a PT and shows you are just as committed to the clients’ training programme as they are. Where personal and sensitive information is captured from clients, there will always be a need to protect this information. Whether you are self-employed or an employee of fitness organisation, you are legally responsible for keeping information secure under the Data Protection Act 1998. Client data such as medical history, name and address and payment information should be protected and secure at all times and not be passed or shared with third parties.

Data Protection Act 1998 The Data Protection Act 1998 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.

Here is an overview of the Data Protection Act 1998 defined by eight key principles. Personal information must: 

be processed fairly and lawfully

be processed for limited purposes

be adequate, relevant and not excessive

be accurate and kept up to date

not be kept for longer than is necessary

be processed in line with clients’ rights

be secure

not be transferred to other countries without adequate protection.

The nature of your personal training business and how information is captured will directly influence the measures you need to take to protect clients’ personal information. Here are measures which can be taken to protect personal information in both paper and electronic form:


Paper

Electronic

Store paper files and documents in a locked cabinet

Don’t leave your laptop lying around

Maintain organised and efficient storage systems

Make regular backups of client files

Shred documents which are no longer required

Use anti-virus software to protect against viruses

Don’t leave documents or notebooks containing personal information lying around

Store information on removable disks in a safe and secure location

Don’t divulge personal information about one client to another

Password protect files and folders

Use the lock screen function when stepping away for your computer Use data encryption when transferring files containing personal information


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