Page 1


ATLAS CO N C I S E

WORLD


WORLD

ATLAS

CO N C I S E

London • New York • Melbourne • Munich • Delhi

Previously published as Concise Atlas of the World and also includes content published in Reference World Atlas


LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, DELHI FOR THE SIXTH EDITION Publisher Jonathan Metcalf Art DirectorPhilip Ormerod Associate PublisherLiz Wheeler Senior Cartographic Editor Simon Mumford Cartographers Encompass Graphics Ltd, Brighton, UK Index database David Roberts Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh Production Controller Gemma Sharpe Production Editor Rebekah Parsons-King General Geographical Consultants Physical Geography Denys Brunsden, Emeritus Professor, Department of Geography, King’s College, London Human Geography Professor J Malcolm Wagstaff, Department of Geography, University of Southampton Place Names Caroline Burgess, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, London Boundaries International Boundaries Research Unit, Mountjoy Research Centre, University of Durham

Digital Mapping Consultants DK Cartopia developed by George Galfalvi and XMap Ltd, London Professor Jan-Peter Muller, Department of Photogrammetry and Surveying, University College, London Cover globes, planets and information on the Solar System provided by Philip Eales and Kevin Tildsley, Planetary Visions Ltd, London

Regional Consultants North America Dr David Green, Department of Geography, King’s College, London • Jim Walsh, Head of Reference, Wessell Library, Tufts University, Medford, Massachussetts South America Dr David Preston, School of Geography, University of Leeds Europe Dr Edward M Yates, formerly of the Department of Geography, King’s College, London Africa Dr Philip Amis, Development Administration Group, University of Birmingham • Dr Ieuan Ll Griffiths, Department of Geography, University of Sussex Dr Tony Binns, Department of Geography, University of Sussex

Central Asia Dr David Turnock, Department of Geography, University of Leicester South and East Asia Dr Jonathan Rigg, Department of Geography, University of Durham Australasia and Oceania Dr Robert Allison, Department of Geography, University of Durham

Acknowledgments Digital terrain data created by Eros Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Processed by GVS Images Inc, California, USA and Planetary Visions Ltd, London, UK Cambridge International Reference on Current Affairs (CIRCA), Cambridge, UK • Digitization by Robertson Research International, Swanley, UK • Peter Clark British Isles maps generated from a dataset supplied by Map Marketing Ltd/European Map Graphics Ltd in combination with DK Cartopia copyright data

DORLING KINDERSLEY CARTOGRAPHY Editor-in-Chief Andrew Heritage Managing CartographerDavid Roberts Senior Cartographic Editor Roger Bullen Editorial Direction Louise Cavanagh Database Manager Simon Lewis Art Direction Chez Picthall Cartographers Pamela Alford • James Anderson • Caroline Bowie • Dale Buckton • Tony Chambers • Jan Clark • Bob Croser • Martin Darlison • Damien Demaj • Claire Ellam • Sally Gable Jeremy Hepworth • Geraldine Horner • Chris Jackson • Christine Johnston • Julia Lunn • Michael Martin • Ed Merritt • James Mills-Hicks • Simon Mumford • John Plumer John Scott • Ann Stephenson • Gail Townsley • Julie Turner • Sarah Vaughan • Jane Voss • Scott Wallace • Iorwerth Watkins • Bryony Webb • Alan Whitaker • Peter Winfield

Digital Maps Created in DK Cartopia by Tom Coulson • Thomas Robertshaw Philip Rowles • Rob Stokes

Managing Editor

Placenames Database Team Natalie Clarkson • Ruth Duxbury • Caroline Falce • John Featherstone • Dan Gardiner Ciárán Hynes • Margaret Hynes • Helen Rudkin • Margaret Stevenson • Annie Wilson

Senior Managing Art Editor

Lisa Thomas

Philip Lord

Editors

Designers

Thomas Heath • Wim Jenkins • Jane Oliver Siobhan Ryan • Elizabeth Wyse

Editorial Research Helen Dangerfield • Andrew Rebeiro-Hargrave

Additional Editorial Assistance Debra Clapson • Robert Damon • Ailsa Heritage Constance Novis • Jayne Parsons • Chris Whitwell

Scott David • Carol Ann Davis • David Douglas • Rhonda Fisher Karen Gregory • Nicola Liddiard • Paul Williams

Illustrations Ciárán Hughes • Advanced Illustration, Congleton, UK

Picture Research Melissa Albany • James Clarke • Anna Lord Christine Rista • Sarah Moule • Louise Thomas

First American edition, 2001. This revised edition, 2013. Published in the United States by DK Publishing, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 12 13 14 15 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 188130 – April 2013 Copyright © 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2013 Dorling Kindersley Limited. All rights reserved Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Ltd. A Penguin company. DK Publishing books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotion, premiums, fundraising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or specialsales@dk.com

A catalog record for this book is avaiable from the Library of Congress ISBN 978-1-4654-0227-1

Printed and bound in Hong Kong by Hung Hing.

Discover more at www.dk.com


Introduction EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT OUR PLANET TODAY For many, the outstanding legacy of the twentieth century was the way in which the Earth shrank. In the third millennium, it is increasingly important for us to have a clear vision of the world in which we live. The human population has increased fourfold since 1900. The last scraps of terra incognita— the polar regions and ocean depths—have been penetrated and mapped. New regions have been colonized and previously hostile realms claimed for habitation. The growth of air transportation and mass tourism allows many of us to travel further, faster, and more frequently than ever before. In doing so we are given a bird’s-eye view of the Earth’s surface denied to our forebears. At the same time, the amount of information about our world has grown enormously. Our multimedia environment hurls uninterrupted streams of data at us, on the printed page, through the airwaves, and across our television, computer, and phone screens; events from all corners of the globe reach us instantaneously and are witnessed as they unfold. Our sense of stability and certainty has been eroded; instead, we are aware that the world is in a constant state of flux and change. Natural disasters, man-made cataclysms, and conflicts between nations remind us daily of the enormity and fragility of our domain. The ongoing threat of international terrorism throws into very stark relief the difficulties that arise when trying to "know" or "understand" our planet and its many cultures. The current crisis in our "global" culture has made the need greater than ever before for everyone to possess an atlas. DK's CONCISE WORLD ATLAS has been conceived to meet this need. At its core, like all atlases, it seeks to define where places are located, to describe their main characteristics, and to map them in relation to other places. Every attempt has been made to produce information and maps that are as clear, accurate, and accessible as possible using the latest digital cartographic techniques. In addition, each page of the atlas provides a wealth of further information, bringing the maps to life. Using photographs, diagrams, at-a-glance maps, introductory texts, and captions, the atlas builds up a detailed portrait of those features—cultural, political, economic, and geomorphological—that make each region unique, and which are also the main agents of change. This sixth edition of the CONCISE WORLD ATLAS incorporates hundreds of revisions and updates affecting every map and every page, distilling the burgeoning mass of information available through modern technology into an extraordinarily detailed and reliable view of our world.


CONTENTS

The Caribbean .....................................................................44–45

ATLAS OF THE WORLD

Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Navassa Island, Puerto Rico, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Sint Maarten, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands (US)

North America

South America

NORTH AMERICA ................................................................... 1

SOUTH AMERICA ..................................................... 46– 47

PHYSICAL NORTH AMERICA ................................ 2–3

PHYSICAL SOUTH AMERICA ............................. 48– 49

POLITICAL NORTH AMERICA ..............................4–5

POLITICAL SOUTH AMERICA ..............................50–51

The solar system.................................................................... x–xi

NORTH AMERICAN RESOURCES ......................6–7

SOUTH AMERICAN RESOURCES .................... 52–53

The physical world........................................................ xii–xiii

Canada ................................................................................................. 8–9

Northern South America ...................................... 54–55

Introduction ........................................................................................ v Contents........................................................................................ vi–vii How to use this Atlas................................................. viii–ix

THE WORLD

Canada: Western Provinces .................................. 10–11 Structure of the Earth ............................................. xiv–xv Shaping the landscape ......................................... xvi–xvii The world’s oceans .................................................. xviii–xix The global climate

....................................................... xx–xxi

Life on Earth ................................................................... xxii–xxiii

Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Yukon

Canada: Eastern Provinces...................................... 12–13 New Brunswick, Newfoundland & Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec, St Pierre & Miquelon

Southeastern Canada .................................................. 14–15 Southern Ontario, Southern Québec

United States of America ....................................... 16–17 USA: Northeastern States ...................................... 18–19

Population and settlement ......................... xxiv–xxv The economic system ..................................... xxvi–xxvii The political world ............................................. xxviii–xxix States and boundaries ....................................... xxx–xxxi

Connecticut, Maine, Massachussetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont

Western South America ......................................... 56–57 Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil ................................................................................................. 58–59 Eastern South America ............................................ 60–61 Southeast Brazil, Northeast Argentina, Uruguay

Southern South America ...................................... 62–63 Argentina, Chile, Paraguay

The Atlantic Ocean ...................................................... 64–65

Africa

USA: Mid-Eastern States ......................................... 20–21 Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia

USA: Southern States .................................................. 22–23 Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi

International disputes.................................................... xxxii USA: Texas ..................................................................................24–25 USA: South Midwestern States....................... 26–27 Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma

USA: Upper Plains States ........................................ 28–29 Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

USA: Great Lakes States ...........................................30–31 Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

USA: North Mountain States ............................ 32–33 Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming

USA: California & Nevada ......................................34–35 USA: South Mountain States ............................36–37 Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah

USA: Hawaii & Alaska .................................................. 38–39 Mexico ............................................................................................40–41 Central America................................................................ 42–43 Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama

vi

Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

AFRICA .............................................................................................. 66–67 PHYSICAL AFRICA ............................................................. 68–69 POLITICAL AFRICA ..............................................................70–71 AFRICAN RESOURCES ................................................... 72–73

North Africa ............................................................................ 74–75 Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara

West Africa .............................................................................. 76–77 Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

Central Africa ........................................................................ 78–79 Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome & Principe

East Africa ................................................................................. 80–81 Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda

Southern Africa.................................................................. 82–83 Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe


Europe

Asia

EUROPE .............................................................................................84–85

ASIA .................................................................................................... 128–129

PHYSICAL EUROPE ........................................................... 86–87

PHYSICAL ASIA .....................................................................130–131

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA ................................174–175

POLITICAL EUROPE ......................................................... 88–89

POLITICAL ASIA ..................................................................132–133

POLITICAL AUSTRALASIA

EUROPEAN RESOURCES ............................................. 90–91

ASIAN RESOURCES ........................................................134–135

Scandinavia, Finland & Iceland ....................... 92–93

Turkey & the Caucasus ......................................... 136–137

Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Svalbard, Sweden

Southern Scandinavia ................................................94–95 Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Southern Norway, Southern Sweden

The British Isles...................................................................96–97 Channel Islands, Ireland, Isle of Man, United Kingdom

The Low Countries ....................................................... 98–99 Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey

The Near East ................................................................... 138–139 Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria

The Arabian Peninsula ............................................ 140–141 Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

Iran & the Gulf States ............................................. 142–143 Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates

Kazakhstan ............................................................................ 144–145 Central Asia ......................................................................... 146–147

Germany .................................................................................. 100–101

Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

France .......................................................................................... 102–103

Afghanistan & Pakistan .........................................148–149

France, Monaco

The Iberian Peninsula ............................................ 104–105 Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal, Spain

The Italian Peninsula ............................................... 106–107 Italy, San Marino, Vatican City

The Alpine States ....................................................... 108–109 Austria, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Switzerland

South Asia .............................................................................. 150–151 Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Northern India & the Himalayan States ................................................ 152–153

Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia

Southeast Europe .......................................................... 112–113 Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia

Bulgaria & Greece ..........................................................114–115 (including European Turkey)

Romania, Moldova & Ukraine ........................116–117 The Baltic States & Belarus ............................... 118–119 Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kaliningrad

The Mediterranean ......................................................120–121 The Russian Federation ........................................ 122–123

& OCEANIA .................................................................. 176–177 AUSTRALASIAN & OCEANIAN RESOURCES ............................ 178–179

Australia ....................................................................................180–181 Southeast Australia................................................... 182–183 New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria

New Zealand ......................................................................184–185 Melanesia ...............................................................................186–187 Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu

Micronesia............................................................................ 188–189 Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Wake Island

Polynesia...................................................................................190–191 Cook Islands, Easter Island, French Polynesia, Kiribati, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Wallis & Futuna

The Pacific Ocean ........................................................192–193

Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Northern India

Southern India & Sri Lanka ............................. 154–155 Mainland East Asia ..................................................... 156–157

Central Europe ....................................................................110–111

Australasia & Oceania

Antarctica .............................................................................. 194–195 The Arctic ..............................................................................196–197

China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan

Western China ................................................................. 158–159 Eastern China ..................................................................... 160–161

INDEX–GAZETTEER

Eastern China, Taiwan

Northeastern China, Mongolia & Korea ..............................................162–163 Mongolia, Northeastern China, North Korea, South Korea

Japan ........................................................................................... 164–165

Geographical comparisons ............................ 198–199 Countries of the world including The time zones .................... 200–207 Geographical glossary ......................................... 208–210

Mainland Southeast Asia ...................................166–167 Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Paracel Islands, Thailand, Vietnam

West Maritime Southeast Asia ................ 168–169 Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore

Northern European Russia ............................... 124–125

East Maritime Southeast Asia ...................... 170–171

Southern European Russia................................126–127

The Indian Ocean ......................................................... 172–173

Geographical names ............................................................. 211 Index .............................................................................................212–349 Acknowledgements ............................................................. 350

East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines

vii


INTRODUCTION

Key to maps Regional

6000m / 19,686ft

motorway / highway (under construction)

4000m / 13,124ft

major road

3000m / 9843ft

minor road

2000m / 6562ft

tunnel (road)

Nordkapp

main railroad

Lake Geneva

rivers / canals spring / well / waterhole / oasis / waterfall / rapids / dam

Mekong

ice features

Vatnajökull

sea features

Golfe de Lion

THE WOR LD

2

act ai F r

C li pper

nF

M

ra c t t on F

id

Sargasso Sea

dl

e A m

eric

a T r

Barracud

Caribbean Sea

en

Guate mala B a sin

MINSKAYA VOBLASTS’

2nd order internal administrative region

Vaucluse

cultural region

New England

ca Ri dg e

Per u Basin

az

N Chile Basin

SOUTH AMERICA

䉱 A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean.

Chimney

Plume of hot mineral laden water

Water percolates into the sea floor

Water heated by hot basalt

C

D

E

14

15

Sun

Tropic of Cancer

Moon

Equator

H

145

65

I

J

Antarctic Circle

Tidal bulge created by gravitational pull

Tidal range and wave environments less than 2m / 7ft 2–4m / 7–13ft greater than 4m / 13ft

Age uncertain Continental shelf and island arcs

208 million years old

K

L

N

M

tropical cyclone storm wave

east coast swell west coast swell

O

P

Deep sea temperature and currents

ice-shelf

Q

Primary currents Secondary currents

Ice-shelf (below 0˚C / 32˚F) Sea-water -2–0˚C / 28–32˚F (below 5000m / 16,400ft) Sea-water 0–5˚C / 32–41˚F (below 4000m / 13,120ft)

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

17

Z

xix

The political continent The political portrait of the continent is a vital reference point for every continental section, showing the position of countries relative to one another, and the relationship between human settlement and geographic location. The complex mosaic of languages spoken in each continent is mapped, as is the effect of communications networks on the pattern of settlement. POLITICAL EUROPE K

L

N

M

O

P

Q

R

T

S

䉳 Overcoming natural barriers, the Brenner Autobahn, one of the main routes across the Alps, links Innsbruck in Austria with Verona in Italy.

Y

le Circ

Liverpool Birmingham

London

a

Bern Lyon

Milan Genoa

N

A

l

Bordeaux Bilbao

E a ni th

z

K a

S S

T

S I

M

O K

A E

H

G

I

U

SH

OMAN

I

ADYGHE KARACHAY

BOSNIAN

R SE BULGARIAN ALBANIAN MACEDONIAN TURKISH

SARDINIAN

LI

R

KA

LM

YK

KABARDIAN

N

ENG

ES

GU P OR TU

HUNGARIAN SLOVENE CROATIAN R

A

GA E

SH

ie p

IRI

LI

an

Rhô

W

e a

N

S

c NI

ne

S

S

LIS H

of

E

O

Gulf

E

C O C I

T N A

L

A T AL UG

er

Q

SWE DIS H

W R

D

N

A

Bo

P

N

O

T A R A R BASHKIR IN DV

15

U K R A I N I A N O VA K

G E R M A N

ITALIAN

T

MOR

A

N

MARI CHUVASH

I

C H

14

UDMURT

U

BELORUSSIAN

ZE CH SL

IT

Crete

I

H

VEPS

S

G

N CATALA

13

R

S

F

BASQUE

TALAN CA

N

LITHUANIAN RUSSIAN LI PO

POLISH

GERMAN C

N

N

E

S PA N I S H

I

L AT VI A N IS

A

D

GA LIC IAN E

䉴 The architecture of the Grand Place lies at the heart of Brussels – home city to one of the EU headquarters.

Irákleio

S e a C

y

SIAN

I

B

e

Ionian Sea

F

ISH SWED ESTONI A N

KARELIAN DA N

RI

R E

VALLETTA

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

A

k

G

T DU FRENCH

BRETON

r

ATHENS

Piraeus

EN

L

17

Messina

MALTA

n

FAEROESE

C LI

A

a

u

Aegean G REEC E S ea Lárisa

Catania

e

700

Turkic Albanian Finno-Ugric/Samoyed Germanic Slavic Romance Basque H Baltic Celtic Greek Caucasian WELSH Iranian Mongol

j

N

E

N

600

500

ALBANIA Cosenza

a

Sicily

n

700 400

a

ai

E

I)

M

ELIA

600

N

Language groups

e

Azerb

I T

500 300

Se

Groznyy

Caucasus G e org i a

e a

F

400

n

S

c k l a

B

Varna Burgas

Istanbul

T

Salonica

H

200

Miles

Constan√a Ruse

BULGARIA SOFIA Stara Zagora

PRISTINA SKOPJE MACEDONIA

L I S H N G

300

ia

Novorossiysk Simferopol’

Bra§ov

BUCHAREST Da nube

(disputed)

E

100

Y

200

100

0

en

Odesa

ROMANIA

KOSOVO

TIRANA

(SA

LAPPISH

BELGRADE

SER B IA

PODGORICA

Palermo

a

Km 0

Naples

h

Scale 1:15,500,000

A RY

MONTENEGRO

Bari

rr

16

a

L

Ty

d i t e r r

Se

A

Languages map

M e

(to Spain)

c

i

T

Cagliari

Ceuta

Melilla

at

VATICAN CITY ROME

Sardinia

nds

11

12

T

ICELANDIC

H I S

HUNG Milan A LJUBLJANA SLOVE Verona Po Venice Trieste ZAGREB Genoa Bologna C ROAT IA BOS. Florence SAN Pisa & HERZ. MARINO SARAJEVO Mostar

ri

Corsica

Isla

Stavropol’

KAR

Turin

MONACO

I

RT

A

Nice

Marseille

Mallorca Menorca

Sea of Azov

Dn

N

es

Palma

Balearic

Vol ga Astrakhan’ Rostov-na-Donu

Donets’k

O

N

Toulouse

ne

Barcelona

Ibiza Murcia

LD

S

re

ANDORRA LA VELLA ANDORRA

Zaragoza

Valencia

Málaga

Volgograd

Dnipropetrovs’k

Dn iester

MO

Cluj-Napoca CHIflINÂU

C a s p i a n

Py Valladolid

ro

Córdoba

Cádiz (to UK)

There are three main European language groups: Germanic languages predominate in central and northern Europe; Romance languages in western and Mediterranean Europe and Romania; while Slavic languages are spoken in eastern Europe and the Russian Federation. Isolated pockets of local languages, such as Basque and Gaelic, persist and frequently provide a focus for national identity.

Voronezh

Kharkiv KIEV

U K R A I N E

L’viv

VA

D ue

MADRID

S P A I N

Seville

Gibraltar

O de r

Tagus

Setúbal

Country capital

Languages

Homyel’

Brest

Chernivtsi

Miskolc

BUDAPEST

2nd order internal administrative center

Miscellaneous features ancient wall

salt flat / salt pan

site of interest

9

10

h s t a n a k Saratov

B E L A RU S

WARSAW

S L O VA K I A BRATISLAVA Györ

Innsbruck

Ad

LISBON

100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 10,000 to 50,000

in e Rh

above 5 million 1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million

Borders

ul a

Îód¶

Kraków

Da n Salzburg ube VIENNA

Munich

s AU S T R I A l p LIECHTENSTEIN

Orenburg

Samara

MINSK

Wrocîaw

CZECH REPUBLIC

Stuttgart

Zürich

BERN

SWITZERLAND

Tol’yatti

Tula

Vitsyebsk

Babruysk

PRAGUE

Nuremberg

Strasbourg

Geneva Lyon

Kazan’

Ul’yanovsk

MOSCOW na

Kaunas VILNIUS

P OL A N D

Dresden

Frankfurt am Main

LUXEMBOURG

Orléans

Limoges

Poznaú

GERM ANY Leipzig

Bonn

Liège

LUXEMBOURG

PARIS

FR A NC E

Porto

Population

IUM

BRUSSELS

Se e in

Map key

15

le Havre Rennes Nantes Loir e

Bordeaux

We stern D

LIT HUA NIA

8

Despite its fragmented geography and many natural frontiers, communications in Europe are well developed. Extensive motorway links allow rapid road transport, while high-speed rail connections like France’s TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse), and the Channel Tunnel have improved rail travel. Outdated communication infrastructures in parts of eastern Europe, and insufficient transport links across the Alps, however, remain weak parts of the network.

s

a

(to UK)

Bilbao

Vi st

7

Athens

Valletta

Nizhniy Novgorod

L AT V I A RÍGA

Liepája

RUSS. FED. (Kaliningrad) Kaliningrad Gdaúsk

Bydgoszcz

Yaroslavl’

ESTONIA

Ventspils

i

lt

a

B

Hamburg El b e Hannover BERLIN

vi

Groningen AMSTERDAM NETH. THE HAGUE Bremen Rotterdam Nijmegen Antwerp Düsseldorf BELG

Channel English Channel Islands

St-Nazaire

Gotland

Malmö

Odense

Birmingham

E N G L A N D

Bay of Biscay

A Coruña

13

Vättern

Jönköping

Helsingborg

COPENHAGEN

Sheffield

K I NG D OM

12

䉱 Traditional lifestyles still persist in many remote and rural parts of Europe, especially in the south, east, and in the far north.

Gothenburg Aalborg

DE NMA RK

Leeds

Liverpool Manchester

Th

11

Kristiansand

UNI TED

(to UK)

WA L E S

m es LONDON Southampton

Istanbul

Transport

Ufa

n

DUBLIN

Cardiff

14

Nor th S ea

Edinburgh

Newcastle upon Tyne

I R E L A N D ofIsle Man

St Petersburg

i

NORTHERN IRELAND

Belfast

below 49 50–99 100–149 150–199 200–299 above 300

Kirov

Vologda

a

(people per sq km)

Lake Ladoga HELSINKI TALLINN

STOCKHOLM

Varna

Salonica

Perm’

F E D E R AT I O N

Tampere Turku

t

Glasgow

Population density

9

10

a

Piraeus

Lake Onega

FINLAND

Åland Uppsala Örebro

Vänern

5

6

Bucharest Constanπa Sofia

Rome Naples

Astrakhan’

Novorossiysk

n

OSLO Stavanger

Rostov-na-Donu

Odesa

Barcelona Valencia

Cádiz

Samara

Volgograd

Kharkiv Kiev

Gibraltar

Dvin

Kirov

Moscow

Minsk Brest

Bratislava Budapest

Innsbruck Trieste Ljubljana Zagreb Verona Bologna Belgrade

u

Bergen

Orkney Islands

Marseille

Madrid

Nuremberg Vienna Munich

o

Shetland Islands

Aberdeen Dundee

Lisbon

M

Trondheim

ther n

Vologda

Nizhniy Novgorod Ríga Kaliningrad Vilnius

Gdaúsk

Berlin Warsaw Poznaú Prague

Strasbourg

R U S S I A N

Arkhangel’sk

or

Political map All the countries in each continent are shown, with their political capitals and most populous cities.

Farnham

White Sea

Rotterdam Antwerp Brussels Frankfurt am Main

St Petersburg

Stockholm Tallinn

Helsingborg

Hamburg

Amsterdam

le Havre Paris

N O R W

De

tic

Southampton

(to Denmark)

SCOTLAND

Helsinki

Oslo Gothenburg Newcastle upon Tyne Middlesbrough Copenhagen

Dublin

Arc

St-Nazaire

Murmansk

A Coruña

N o r w e g i a n S e a

3

Bergen

Aberdeen Grangemouth

B are nts S ea

Outer Hebrides

1

2

Perm’

Circ le

Faeroe Islands

Z

Vorkuta

Murmansk

Archangel

6

7

W

Trondheim

䉱 The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin is a potent symbol of German reunification. From 1961, the road beneath it ended in a wall, built to stop the flow of refugees to the West. It was opened again in 1989 when the wall was destroyed and East and West Germany were reunited.

tic

V

major roads and motorways major railways international borders transport intersections major international airports major ports

Kara Sea

Vorkuta Arc

U

Transport

Reykjavík

Novaya Zemlya

ICELAND

ro

Yonezawa

J

REYKJAVÍK

Eb

Tizi Ozou

I

trait k S

ar

m

n

Europe is a densely populated, urbanized continent; in Belgium over 90% of people live in urban areas. The highest population densities are found in an area stretching east from southern Britain and northern France, into Germany. The northern fringes are only sparsely populated.

5

Population map

Adana

H

S W E D

G

BI AN

3

BEIJING

F

16

KUMYK CHECHEN AVAR LEZGHIAN OSSETIAN BALKAR

AN

E

F

D

H

C

The political boundaries of Europe have changed many times, especially during the 20th century in the aftermath of two world wars, the break-up of the empires of AustriaHungary, Nazi Germany and, towards the end of the century, the collapse of communism in eastern Europe. The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has again altered the political map of Europe, highlighting a trend towards nationalism and devolution. In contrast, economic federalism is growing. In 1958, the formation of the European Economic Community (now the European Union or EU) started a move towards economic and political union and increasing internal migration.

C

B

Political Europe

䉱 Demand for space in densely populated European cities like London has led to the development of high-rise offices and urban sprawl.

17 GREEK

A

MALTESE

Y

Z

89

Miscellaneous sites of interest / miscellaneous

Valley of the Kings

Tropics / Polar circles

Antarctic Circle

Continental resources The Earth’s rich natural resources, including oil, gas, minerals, and fertile land, have played a key role in the development of society. These pages show the location of minerals and agricultural resources on each continent, and how they have been instrumental in dictating industrial growth and the varieties of economic activity across the continent.

scientific station SOUTH AMERICA

s

nd

la

gh Hi

en

Gulf of Panama Medellín

a

Magdal

A

L

n

la

o s

Or i

Gu

Ta p

s

nd la

gh Hi

an

ili az Br

o

ac Ch

s

n

ra

e d

n

N

A

N 10

Fortaleza

Land use map

ua i Arag

Recife

co

ds

nc i s

an

ão

H

ig

Brasília S

s

Salvador

hl

F ra

Planalto de Mato Grosso

e

ili

an

12

az Br ná Par a

Rio de Janeiro

ra

A

y

Ur u

g

Paraná

e

ua

C

d

Porto Alegre

E

s

I

14

C

T

15

Using the land and sea

N

Pa

m

pa

n

Montevideo Buenos Aires

A

C ol or ado Rí oN eg r o

L

barren land cropland desert forest mountain region pasture

T

i co

A

Ch

major conurbations

Gulf of San Jorge

B

C

D

E

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

cattle pigs sheep bananas corn (maize) citrus fruits

Bahía Grande

S

T

W

Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn

X

Industry map

N

O Rosario

A

䉳 High in the Andes, hardy alpacas graze on the barren land. Alpacas are thought to have been domesticated by the Incas, whose nobility wore robes made from their wool. Today, they are still reared and prized for their soft, warm fleeces.

13

São Paulo Curitiba

G

Córdoba

Santiago

䉳 The Pampas region of southeast South America is characterized by extensive, flat plains, and populated by cattle and ranchers (gauchos). Argentina is a major world producer of beef, much of which is exported to the USA for use in hamburgers.

Belo Horizonte

n

s

Ch

ay o

o

m

ac

I T

E

Tocantin s

á

Jur u

a

E

C O C

E L I

ós

uay

H

C

Ilha de Marajó Belém

on Amaz

aj

r

ag Par

C

ei

cocoa cotton coffee fishing oil palms peanuts rubber shellfish soya beans sugar cane vineyards wheat

16

17

Cape Horn A

52

Environmental issues map

9

d

co

ra it of M

7

C

O

s

Manaus

ad M

us

Pi l

lan agel

St

I

u

(to UK)

T

Lima

E A N O C

Punta Arenas

Falkland Islands

N

C

Bahía Grande

and

A

I

N

Comodoro Rivadavia Gulf of San Jorge

6

a

䉳 South America, and Brazil in particular, now leads the world in coffee production, mainly growing Coffea Arabica in large plantations. Coffee beans are harvested, roasted and brewed to produce the world’s second most popular drink, after tea.

Argentina and Brazil are South America’s most industrialized countries and São Paulo is the continent’s leading industrial centre. Long-term government investment in Brazilian industry has encouraged a diverse industrial base; engineering, steel production, food processing, textile manufacture and chemicals predominate. The illegal production of cocaine is economically significant in the Andean countries of Colombia and Bolivia. In Venezuela, the oil-dominated economy has left the country vulnerable to world oil price fluctuations. Food processing and mineral exploitation are common throughout the less industrially developed parts of the continent, including Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru.

5

8

L

F

A

below 999 1000–1999 2000–2999 3000–3999 4000–4999 above 5000

Industry

high

Pur

I

L

ghl

A

GNI per capita (US$)

Bahía Blanca Neuquén

16

䉴 Both Argentina and Chile are now exploring the southernmost tip of the continent in search of oil. Here in Punta Arenas, a drilling rig is being prepared for exploratory drilling in the Strait of Magellan.

T

Hi

B a s i n

C

A

na

A m a z o n m a z on

Marañón

A

E

Montevideo

ia

Rio Neg ro

Putumayo Amazon

Gulf of Guayaquil

P

C URUGUAY

Buenos Aires

A RG E N T INA

low

A

A T

no co

Bogotá

n

O Santiago

Talca

Valdivia

(UN human development index)

15

Mineral resources map

N

bauxite copper diamonds gold iron lead silver tin

Cali

A

C

A

A

ng Xi

I Valparaíso

Concepción

Standard of living

Rio Grande

E

Caracas

poor urban air quality

N

Santa Fe Rosario

I

C

C

A

an

az

L

N

Maracaibo

Gulf of Darien

P a t a g o n i a

F

Curitiba

Porto Alegre Córdoba

T

N

T

A

Mineral resources

A E

C O C I

T A

E

oil field gas field coal field

Barranquilla

Many foods now common worldwide originated in South America. These include the potato, tomato, squash, and cassava. Today, large herds of beef cattle roam the temperate grasslands of the Pampas, supporting an extensive meat-packing trade in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Corn (maize) is grown as a staple crop across the continent and coffee is grown as a cash crop in Brazil and Colombia. Coca plants grown in Bolivia, Peru and Colombia provide most of the world’s cocaine. Fish and shellfish are caught off the western coast, especially anchovies off Peru, shrimps off Ecuador and pilchards off Chile.

12

Mendoza

O

Car ibb ean S ea

N

do

C

G

Br

o Colora

IC

s

ac Ch n ra

ay

l at a

T

O

á

Par ag u

de la P

N

L

u Ca

A N

I

Ciudad del Este

LA

nds

e

A N O C E

C

Rio de Janeiro

San Miguel de Tucumán Corrientes

ghla

Rio de Janeiro

Using the land and sea

Belo Horizonte

São Paulo

1

a Hi

d

䉳 Copper is Chile’s largest export, most of which is mined at Chuquicamata. Along the length of the Andes, metallic minerals like copper and tin are found in abundance, formed by the excessive pressures and heat involved in mountain-building.

N

heavy marine pollution

Brasília

Santa Cruz Sucre

PARAGUAY

ian

B a s i n

I C

A

desertification

Salvador

BOLIVIA

Z

AT Gu

A m a z o n

F

Río

forest destroyed

La Paz

Antofagasta

Y

n Sea

s n o

l a

L

n

o

desert

Chuquicamata

Asunción

17

E

polluted rivers

Arica

13

C

marine pollution

Iquique

X

Caribbea

I

tropical forest

Recife

Maceió

Arequipa

W

São Paulo Pa r a

d

B R A Z I L PE RU

Lima

14

O

Santa Fe Mendoza S al a

A

11

Santiago

national parks

Cusco

Wealth disparities throughout the continent create a wide gulf between affluent landowners and those afflicted by chronic poverty in inner-city slums. The illicit production of cocaine, and the hugely influential drug barons who control its distribution, contribute to the violent disorder and corruption which affect northwestern South America, de-stabilizing local governments and economies.

10

IC

ad

P

degrees of longitude / latitude

T

o

Environmental issues

Natal Chiclayo

Chimbote

N

rancisco oF Sã

G

S al

Standard of living

LA

an d s

s

A N C E

9

V

on

e

Fortaleza

B a s i n

8

ig hl

Ne g ro

Amaz

d

E A N

Manaus

Iquitos

Tropics / Polar circles

aH

Ri

7

䉱 The cold Peru Current flows north from the Antarctic along the Pacific coast of Peru, providing rich nutrients for one of the world’s largest fishing grounds. However, overexploitation has severely reduced Peru’s anchovy catch.

AT

i an

O

C

n Sea

Caracas o s

Gu

C

O

n

B a s i n

I

I C

l a

A m a z o n

F

T

L

Bogotá Quito

I

N

Belém

A m a z o n

U

C

A

(to France)

Quito

ECUADOR

Caribbea ca

Medellín

䉱 Clouds of smoke billow from the burning Amazon rainforest. Over 11,500 sq miles (30,000 sq km) of virgin rainforest are being cleared annually, destroying an ancient, irreplaceable, natural resource and biodiverse habitat.

n

French Guiana

SURINAM

COLOMBIA

6

Guayaquil

pharmaceuticals printing & publishing shipbuilding sugar processing textiles timber processing tobacco processing wine oil gas industrial cities major industrial areas

A

GUYANA

Bogotá

L

T

Mineral resources

A

T

S

P

Paramaribo

R

Over a quarter of the world’s known copper reserves are found at the Chuquicamata mine in northern Chile, and other metallic minerals such as tin are found along the length of the Andes. The discovery of oil and gas at Venezuela’s Lake Maracaibo in 1917 turned the country into one of the world’s leading oil producers. In contrast, South America is virtually devoid of coal, the only significant deposit being on the peninsula of Guajira in Colombia.

C P A

A

Georgetown

Q

P

o

Ciudad Guayana

Cali

aerospace brewing car/vehicle manufacture chemicals electronics engineering finance fish processing food processing hi-tech industry iron & steel meat processing metal refining narcotics

S e a

Valencia

VENEZUELA Medellín

O

Environmental issues The Amazon Basin is one of the last great wilderness areas left on Earth. The tropical rainforests which grow there are a valuable genetic resource, containing innumerable unique plants and animals. The forests are increasingly under threat from new and expanding settlements and ‘slash and burn’ farming techniques, which clear land for the raising of beef cattle, causing land degradation and soil erosion.

T

Industry

Caracas

Maracaibo Barquisimeto

Cartagena

Gulf of Panama

N

n

C a r i b b e a n Barranquilla

PANAMA 5

M

A

L

䉳 Ciudad Guayana is a planned industrial complex in eastern Venezuela, built as an iron and steel centre to exploit the nearby iron ore reserves.

ili

K

d al e n a

J

A

3

4

lines of latitude and longitude / Equator

I

M ag

H

li

G

Uc ay a

F

s

E

e

D

d

C

n

mangrove

Graticule features

SOUTH AMERICAN RESOURCES

B

Agriculture still provides the largest single form of employment in South America, although rural unemployment and poverty continue to drive people towards the huge coastal cities in search of jobs and opportunities. Mineral and fuel resources, although substantial, are distributed unevenly; few countries have both fossil fuels and minerals. To break industrial dependence on raw materials, boost manufacturing, and improve infrastructure, governments borrowed heavily from the World Bank in the 1960s and 1970s. This led to the accumulation of massive debts which are unlikely ever to be repaid. Today, Brazil dominates the continent’s economic output, followed by Argentina. Recently, the less-developed western side of South America has benefited due to its geographical position; for example Chile is increasingly exporting raw materials to Japan.

A

A

South American resources

1

viii

Supporting maps

Tropic of Capricorn 16

G

Jurassic Cretaceous

23 23 0 Tertiary (Neogene)

65

88

autonomous / federal region / other 1st order internal administrative center

reservoir

winter pack ice limit

Tropic of Cancer

Equator

Cretaceous 145

r

capital city

country/dependent territory capital city

perennial salt lake

summer pack ice limit

Deep sea temperature and current s

Antarctic Circle Tertiary (Paleogene) Quaternary

Jurassic

208 million years old

F

warm current cold current

0–10˚C / 32–50˚F 10–20˚C / 50–68˚F 20–30˚C / 68–86˚F

Arctic Circle

Earth

Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle

Mid-ocean ridges are formed by lava which erupts beneath the sea and cools to form solid rock. This process mirrors the creation of volcanoes from cooled lava on the land. The ages of sea floor rocks increase in parallel bands outwards from central ocean ridges.

Ocean floor

B

Tropic of Capricorn

Ocean floors

16

Ice-shelf (below 0˚C / 32˚F) Sea-ice* (average) below -2˚C / 28˚F Sea-water -2–0˚C / 28–32˚F * Sea-water freezes at -1.9˚C / 28.4˚F

N

500,000 to 1 million

seasonal lake

glacier / snowfield

ge c

ti

13

Surface temperature and currents

Lowest high tides

Highest high tides

(to Spain)

ice shelf

12

Equator

Equator

full international border

ice cap / sheet

Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer

The highest tides occur when the Earth, the Moon and the Sun are aligned (below left). The lowest tides are experienced when the Sun and Moon align at right angles to one another (below right).

U

1 million to 5 million

fewer than 10,000

Ice features

11

Tropic of Capricorn

High and low tides

Population

secondary seasonal river

spring / well / waterhole / oasis

Sur face temperature and current s

dw San h South Trenc Antarctic Circle

Weddell Sea

Tidal range and wave environment s

Tropic of Cancer

4

10,000 to 50,000

wadi

t

ich

Scotia Sea

S o u t h e a s t Pa c i f i c Basin Bellingshausen Sea

Amundsen Sea

Global mapping Global information is shown in a variety of projections to give the reader a clear overview of each topic.

9

10

n

P st

a

OCEAN

Tides and waves

Communications map

50,000 to 100,000

marsh / salt marsh

-A

id

M

Tides are created by the pull of the Sun and Moon’s gravity on the surface of the oceans. The levels of high and low tides are influenced by the position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and Sun. Waves are formed by wind blowing over the surface of the water.

Arctic Circle

䉱 Surtsey, near Iceland, is a volcanic island lying directly over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was formed in the 1960s following intense volcanic activity nearby.

Settlements

main seasonal river

seasonal salt lake

id

Ri se

ci fi c

a

Argentine Basin

ge Rid

PO

more than 5 million

minor river

perennial lake

Idealized globe showing the movement of water around a landless Earth.

Ocean currents Surface currents are driven by the prevailing winds and by the spinning motion of the Earth, which drives the currents into circulating whirlpools, or gyres. Deep sea currents, over 330 ft (100 m) below the surface, are driven by differences in water temperature and salinity, which have an impact on the density of deep water and on its movement.

Tropic of Capricorn

E

tic tarc c-An Pacifi Ross Sea

Ages of the ocean floor

A

Chicago

dam

Brazil Basin

O C E A N Rio Grande Rise

EUROPE

FORT-DE-FRANCE

rapids

8

is e

R Ea st Pa ci fi c

Ton ga Trench

ll be mp u Ca tea Pla

Locator map Introductory text

other settlements

waterfall

Explanatory captions

7

one

Antarctic Circle

Black smokers These vents in the ocean floor disgorge hot, sulphurrich water from deep in the Earth’s crust. Despite the great depths, a variety of lifeforms have adapted to the chemical-rich environment which surrounds black smokers.

A

100,000 to 500,000

canal

a Fracture Z

l e Tr e n c h

other 1st order internal administrative region

Photographs

5

6

ch

Sala y Gomez Ridge

O C E A N

SOUTHERN

3

Equator

Southwest Pacific Basin

ANTA RC TIC A

Diagrams

How sediment is deposited on the ocean floor

hi

2nd order internal administrative border

Tropic of Cancer

Basin

Yucatan Basin

one ure Z

1

2

Deep sea turbidity flow

Surface water

C A T L A N T ICanary

Gulf of Mexico

one ure Z

ne re Zo rac tu

Z

Rocks and Other debris, flow from shelf to ocean floor

Ocean currents move warm water away from the Equator towards the poles, while cold water is, in turn, moved towards the Equator. This is the main way in which the Earth distributes surface heat and is a major climatic control. Approximately 4000 million years ago, the Earth was dominated by oceans and there was no land to interrupt the flow of the currents, which would have flowed as straight lines, simply influenced by the Earth’s rotation.

R

ap an

North American Basin

Zone

c t ure

M olok

Y

Continental shelf

la

Tren ch

Se a

h

Ta iwa nS tra it

yF r a

e

Central Pacific Basin

n South Indian Basi

u

i dg

X

Sediment accumulates at head of underwater canyon Recentlydeposited sediments overlay older rocks

䉴 Satellite image of the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Delta, in which the land appears red. The river deposits immense quantities of silt into the East China Sea, much of which will eventually reach the deep ocean floor.

t ic Ridge

ea

-A

Newfoundland Basin

nt

lat

W

4

id

la

nP

nR

Tasman Sea

n Ridge

e

Arctic Circle

Labrador Sea

M

South Fiji Basin

ef Re

ele

V

-C

ier

MINAS GERAIS

U

Storms, earthquakes, and volcanic activity trigger underwater currents known as turbidity currents which scour sand and gravel from the continental shelf, creating underwater canyons. These strong currents pick up material deposited at river mouths and deltas, and carry it across the continental shelf and through the underwater canyons, where it is eventually laid down on the ocean floor in the form of fans.

xviii

dependent territory capital city

tertiary river

Dav is S tra i Hudson Strai t t Hudson Bay

C lar io

Bass Strait

Enderby Plain

Se a

Baffin Bay

P A C I F I C Melanesian Basin

arr tB ea Gr

rgu

st In dia

an d

NORTH AMERICA

c t ure Zon e c ino Fra

Solomon Sea

Arafura Sea

South Australian Basin thea

ai i a

untains

Coral Sea

ge

secondary river

Haw

fic M o

enl

Gulf of n c h Alaska

Me n d o

a Marian

AUSTRALIA

Sou

Tr e

ian

Mur ra

1

main river

T

䉱 The Atlantic Ocean was formed when the landmasses of the eastern and western hemispheres began to drift apart 180 million years ago.

Pe r u

Timor Sea

Ke

t ic Circl

nc

Perth Basin

O C E A N

Ant a rc

re

Mi d-P ac i

Bismarck Sea

S

Sea level 200m / 656ft 1000m / 3281ft 2000m / 6562ft 3000m / 9843ft 4000m / 13,124ft 5000m / 16,400ft 6000m / 19,686ft

eT

Celebes Sea

Rid

Ocean depth

ril

nts

idge

Continental shelf

Typical sea-floor features

J

east

Agulhas Basin

12

settlement population symbols

Drainage features

S

䉱 The Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest and deepest ocean, covering over one-third of the surface of the Earth.

Beaufort Sea

Bering Sea

Emperor Seamou

Mid-Indian Basin

Madagascar Basin

Volcanic island

Ku

Northwest Pacific Basin

ca lac

scarene M al a t e a u P

ndian R

Cape Basin

Yellow Sea East China Sea

Philippine Sea

South China Sunda Sea Shelf

Ninety

other 1st order internal administrative border

built up area

Mid-I

ANGOLA

autonomous / federal region

seamount / guyot symbol

e

NIUE (to NZ)

region outside feature area

Settlements

R

Arctic Circle

autonomous / federal region border

-3000m / -9843ft

undersea spot depth

Oceanic ridge

Abyssal plain

a

Tropic of Capricorn

Formation of black smokers

-2000m / -6562ft

Q

OC EAN Chukchi Sea

Aleut

Bay of Bengal

fM

The continental shelf is a shallow, flat sea-bed surrounding the Earth’s continents. It extends to the continental slope, which falls to the ocean floor. Here, the flat abyssal plains are interrupted by vast, underwater mountain ranges, the midocean ridges, and ocean trenches which plunge to depths of 35,828 ft (10,920 m). Seamount

ARCTI C

Laptev Sea

A Sea of Japan (East Sea)

I N D I A N

Somali Basin

Angola Basin

Ocean structure

Trench

Sea

I

f of Gul iland Th a

AFRICA

Flat-topped guyot

Kara

S

it o

-1000m / -3281ft

P

䉱 Currents in the Southern Ocean are driven by some of the world’s fiercest winds, including the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Shrieking Sixties.

Sea of Okhotsk

A

Arabian Sea

g Rid erg

-500m / -1640ft

O

Se a

ia lf n

Equator

17

-250m / -820ft

Baltic

u tea Pla

sea level

䉱 The Indian Ocean accounts for approximately 20% of the total area of the world’s oceans.

C

ue biq zam Mo

sea depth

dependent territory with parent state

N

Deposition of sediment

ea

Gulf of Guinea

8

idge

demarcation/ cease fire line

Se a

Black Sea

A

ea nS

Tropic of Cancer

11

ARMENIA

M

East Siberian Sea

Med ite

How surface waters reflect the relief of the ocean floor

6

9

Regions

L

E U R O P E

Base level of the sea surface at 0 ft (0 m)

Actual relief of ocean floor

vis R

atoll

Arctic Circle

rth No

Depressed sea level over trough in ocean floor Elevated sea level over ridge in ocean floor

5

䉱 The low relief of many small Pacific islands such as these atolls at Huahine in French Polynesia makes them vulnerable to changes in sea level.

country

K

Tr e n ch

4

Baren Sea ts

a Str

Barracuda Fracture Zone

J

Gre

Wal

reef

I

Sea level If the influence of tides, winds, currents and variations in gravity were ignored, the surface of the Earth’s oceans would closely follow the topography of the ocean floor, with an underwater ridge 3000 ft (915 m) high producing a rise of up to 3 ft (1 m) in the level of the surface water.

lsb Car

indication of country extent (Pacific only) indication of dependent territory extent (Pacific only)

H

The great oceans There are five oceans on Earth: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern oceans, and the much smaller Arctic Ocean. These five ocean basins are relatively young, having evolved within the last 80 million years. One of the most recent plate collisions, between the Eurasian and African plates, created the present-day arrangement of continents and oceans.

3

10

coastline

G

7

undersea features lava flow

F

s Per G u

disputed territorial claim border

E

n

INDIAN OCEAN

D

rra

sand desert

disputed de facto border

C

Se a

elevation below sea level (depression depth)

THE WOR LD’S OCE ANS B

Two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by the oceans. The landscape of the ocean floor, like the surface of the land, has been shaped by movements of the Earth’s crust over millions of years to form volcanic mountain ranges, deep trenches, basins and plateaux. Ocean currents constantly redistribute warm and cold water around the world. A major warm current, such as El Niño in the Pacific Ocean, can increase surface temperature by up to 10°F (8°C), causing changes in weather patterns which can lead to both droughts and flooding.

iati c

Andaman Sea

A

The world’s oceans

1

dr

pass

ian

undefined international border

a sp

volcano

ve Plateau

full international border

The introductory section of the Atlas deals with every aspect of the planet, from physical structure to human geography, providing an overall picture of the world we live in. Complex topics such as the landscape of the Earth, climate, oceans, population, and economic patterns are clearly explained with the aid of maps and diagrams drawn from the latest information.

-Laccadi

elevation above sea level (mountain height)

The world

I

drainage features international airport

Borders

Mount Meru 4556 m

Red Sea

elevation / volcano / pass

tunnel (railroad)

Chagos

minor railroad

sea level below sea level

ANDES headland

Mozambique Channel

100m / 328ft

Namib Desert

Massif Central

ge

250m / 820ft

landscape features

Rid

500m / 1640ft

Physical features

The atlas is organized by continent, moving eastward from the International Date Line. The opening section describes the world’s structure, systems, and its main features. The Atlas of the World which follows, is a continent-by-continent guide to today’s world, starting with a comprehensive insight into the physical, political, and economic structure of each continent, followed by integrated mapping and descriptions of each region or country.

est In dian

1000m / 3281ft

Typographic key

motorway / highway

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elevation

Communications

ou

Physical features

How to use this Atlas

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53

Comparative wealth map


INTRODUCTION Temperature

Rainfall Algiers

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Rift valley lakes, like Lake Tanganyika, lie along fault lines

Km 600

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at Rift

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White Nile

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3 Houtbaai (above), in southern Africa, is constantly being modified by wave action. As waves approach the indented coastline, they reach the shallow water of the headland, slowing down and reducing in length. This causes them to bend or refract, concentrating their erosive force at the headlands.

The sea bed is deeper opposite the bay than at the headland

Coastal processes: Erosion of a bay

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Landscape evolution map The physical shape of each continent is affected by a variety of forces which continually sculpt and modify the landscape. This map shows the major processes which affect different parts of the continent.

Transportation network The differing extent of the transportation network for each region is shown here, along with key facts about the transportation system.

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Milford Newburyport Haverhill Jaffrey Methuen Plum Island Nashua Winchester i Cape Ann Winchendon Lowell v e r Lawrence Gloucester Athol Danvers Fitchburg y Beverl Leominster Salem Quabbin Woburn Lynn Reservoir Medford Clinton Malden Logan International Barre Hudson Cambridge

Massachusetts Bay

r ice Mauiver R

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I RGIN A WEST VI

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Pittsburgh

Harrisburg

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Milford

Lead Mountain 466m

Brewer Hampden

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New Jerse y AT

Delaware

The urban/rural population divide urban 83%

rural 17%

Calais

Bay Eastport

Lake Lubec a s Gardner Rive r Machias

l of ne Fundy

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Land use map This shows the different types of land use which characterize the region, as well as indicating the principal agricultural activities.

4

Land use and agricultural distribution cattle poultry cranberries fishing fodder fruit maple syrup timber

Population density

Total land area

major towns

335 people per sq mile (120 people per sq km)

162,258 sq miles (420,232 sq km)

pasture cropland forest

5

Map keys Each supporting map has its own key.

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Scale 1:2,750,000

Grid reference The framing grid provides a location reference for each place listed in the Index.

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Sebasticook Lake

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Bingham Sugarloaf Mountain

Saddleback Mountain 1255m Madison

Massachusetts

C on ne c t ic ut Pennsy lvania Pittsburgh

Pittsfield Skowhegan Graham Lake Cross Island Bucksport Milbridge Jonesport Old Speck Mountain Groveton Wilton Oakland 1274m Ellsworth Winslow Great Wass Island r Rumford Searsport 䉴 Foreign competition and Guildhall Lancaster Blue Hill Rive Livermore Petit Manan Point China Lake g in Lyndonville depletion of stocks in the Falls Bar Harbor Belfast Berlin An dros cog Bethel Moore Augusta Mount Desert Atlantic fishing grounds caused a Reservoir Littleton Island Mount Washington decline in fishing in the seaboard Deer Isle Camden South Paris e 1917m Norway Swans Island it states. Recent years have seen a Gardiner Rockland P W hMount Lafayettes Lewiston Waldoboro gradual recovery; Massachusetts Thomaston Lisbon 1600m i n Auburn Isle au Haut Vinalhaven a Pleasant Mountain now annually ranks third or Woodsville 64 Wiscasset Bridgton n t North Island 612m u fourth in the US in terms of the Seal Island Conway Mo Sebago Lisbon Matinicus Bath Falls value of fish landed. Conway Island Lake Brunswick Boothbay Ragged Island iv e r Squam North Windham Harbor Lake Lake Westbrook Plymouth Winnipesaukee Gorham Casco Bay Mount Cardigan Lebanon 951m Portland South Portland Meredith Wolfeboro Saco Cape Elizabeth Bristol Km Laconia Alfred 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sanford Biddeford Kennebunk Northfield Claremont Farmington Rochester Sunapee Lake 40 80 90 100 30 60 70 0 5 10 50 20 Miles Somersworth projection: Lambert Conformal Conic York Harbor Concord Charlestown Dover Henniker Suncook Kittery Hillsboro Newmarket Portsmouth Goffstown Exeter Hampton Manchester Keene 䉴 The islands, inlets and Peterborough Amesbury Milford Newburyport promontories of Maine’s Haverhill Jaffrey coast extend 3500 miles Methuen Plum Island Nashua Winchester The marshy lowlands of the Atlantic Coastal Plain dwindle i (5630 km). The tidal range is Cape Ann Winchendon Lowell v e r Lawrence toward the north, giving way to the rocky coast of Maine. Athol Gloucester particularly high, varying Danvers Fitchburg Leominster Salem Beverly between 12 and 24 ft Quabbin Uplifted over 400 million years ago, the Appalachian Woburn Lynn Reservoir (3.7–7.3 m). Medford Clinton Malden Mountains have since been carved into several discrete Logan International Barre Hudson Cambridge Boston Newton ranges by the region’s main rivers and heavily denuded by Quincy Worcester Framingham Dedham Weymouth successive glacial advances. This broad upland belt, with the Stoughton Randolph Marshfield Auburn Palmer Race Provincetown Whitinsville younger Adirondack Mountains, is bounded by the Brockton Point Stafford Southbridge Mansfield Bridgewater Kingston Woonsocket Great Lakes in the northwest. Springs Plymouth Attleboro Cape Cod Cape Cod Taunton Putnam Greenville Pawtucket Orleans Bay The lower Connecticut River has Storrs Providence Providence East Bay Buzzards Cranston cut down into the flat, clay valley Danielson Somerset The Adirondack Mountains The narrow Finger Lakes Barnstable Nauset Beach Moosup Fall River floor, which previously formed the Warwick were formed when the deeply of northwestern New York State South Yarmouth Fairhaven City Jewett bed of an ice-dammed lake. Tiverton New Bedford Hyannis buried basement rocks were were formed by glaciers cutting Island East Falmouth Monomoy Colchester y Rhode forced upward in a dome by as into deep deposits of material Norwich Ba Falmouth s Island d Nantucket much as 2 miles (3 km). from an earlier ice advance. Kingston Newport zzar Great Point Sound Bu Oak Bluffs New London Green Edgartown ound Westerly S Island Deposits of glacial Rhode The Genesee River in New York Groton nd Martha's Mountains Isla Niantic till from the last Ice State has eroded a canyon Sound Vineyard Nantucket Nantucket ck Fishers Island Blo Age are up to 1000 ft Island 800 ft (240 m) deep through Island Block Gardiners (300 m) deep around the Appalachians. The river Southold Island Montauk Point Lake Ontario. continued to cut downward as Montauk the land was uplifted. Sag Harbor ec t i

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Mount Frissell 725m

1265m

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The urban/rural population divide

The landscape

10

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Sodus Hilton Fulton Point Greece Webster Albion Rochester Spencerport Baldwinsville East Rochester North Syracuse Fairport Lyons Palmyra Fairmount Newark Le Roy

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major towns chemicals international airports coal major roads defense major industrial area electronics engineering finance hi-tech industry iron & steel pharmaceuticals printing & publishing research & development textiles timber processing

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Mattawamkeag Lake Chiputneticook Sherman Mills Lakes

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Boundary Bald Mountain 1109m

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14 sea level

New York’s commercial success is tied historically to its transportation connections. The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, opened up the Great Lakes and the interior to New York’s markets and carried a stream of immigrants into the Midwest.

The principal seaboard cities grew up on trade and manufacturing. They are now global

Mars Hill ok o o s to Saddleback Mountain

Mount Chase 744m

Seboomook Chesuncook Lake Lake

100m / 328ft

hi a s River

Chamberlain Lake

D

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2108 miles (3389 km)

ac

Churchill Lake Eagle Lake

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12,872 miles (20,592 km)

250m / 820ft

A

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500m / 1640ft 4813 miles (7700 km)

N C A

1000m / 3281ft

340,090 miles (544,144 km)

Limestone Caribou Washburn Fort Fairfield Presque Isle

Squa Pan Mountain Ashland 451m

e Pl

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below 10,000

Elevation

Transportation network

Eagle Lake

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䉱 The Hancock Tower dominates the skyline of Boston’s business district. New England’s principal city has grown through land reclamation within Massachusetts Bay.

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50,000 to 100,000 10,000 to 50,000

V

Pennsylvania has a large rural population and a major agribusiness sector dominated by livestock-raising. Fruit, vegetables, and nursery plants are grown throughout the region, with Mai ne fishing on the coast. Cranberries and maple syrup A NA D are traditional products in New England. CA Ver mont Large areas of cropland in the north were returned to forest New York New in the 20th century. Albany shire re Hamp shi

r ive

100,000 to 500,000

䉱 Chelsea in Vermont, surrounded by trees in their fall foliage. Tourism and agriculture dominate the economy of this self-consciously rural state, where no town exceeds 30,000 people.

Van Buren

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1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million

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centers of commerce and corporate administration, dominating the regional economy. Research and development facilities Albany Rochester support an expanding electronics and Buffalo Massachusetts New York communications sector throughout the region. Boston C on ne c t ic ut Pharmaceutical and chemical industries are Hartford Providence Pennsy lvania R ho de Island New York important in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

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World locator This locates the continent in which the region is found on a small world map.

Key to main map A key to the population symbols and land heights accompanies the main map.

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Landform diagrams The complex formation of many typical landforms is summarized in these easy-to-understand illustrations.

15

Coastal processes

Wave energy Waves dispersed in the bay refracting

Force of waves concentrates on the headland

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Lake Erie, receiving water flowing from the rest of the Great Lakes, drains via the Niagara Falls, into Lake Ontario, which lies 325 ft (99 m) below.

River fed by water from the Great Lakes

Resistant rock

䉱 The Niagara Falls were created where the Niagara River reached an escarpment capped by hard limestone. This was gradually eroded, exposing softer rock strata. Plunging water continues to erode the softer strata causing the falls to recede upstream.

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15

Softer rock is eroded more quickly

Force of water continues to undercut cliffs

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Cape Cod

Niagara Falls

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Cape Cod, Long Island and the islands between them mark the top of a great terminal moraine, formed at the front of the ice sheet which once covered the land. This ridge of deposited material was subsequently flooded by rising seas.

Dingmans Ferry

䉴 The waterfalls at Dingmans Ferry are typical of those found in villages on the “Fall-line,” where rivers drop from the Appalachians to the coastal lowlands. These locations provide waterpower and are often at the navigable head of the river.

The Atlantic Coastal Plain is part of the continental shelf, which extends several hundred miles out to sea, providing a rich environment for marine life.

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Rising sea levels have flooded river valleys along the coast, creating rias such as Long Island Sound.

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䉱 At Provincetown, Cape Cod, complex and powerful ocean currents continue to modify the shoreline, washing away some 3 ft (1 m) of the lower cape each year, while extending the beaches in the north.

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Continuation symbols These symbols indicate where adjacent maps can be found.

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Urban/rural population divide The proportion of people in the region who live in urban and rural areas, as well as the overall population density and land area are clearly shown in these simple graphics.

Landscape map The computer-generated terrain model accurately portrays an oblique view of the landscape. Annotations highlight the most important geographic features of the region.

Main regional map A wealth of information is Worcester displayed on the main map, Stoughton Randolph Marshfield Auburn building up a rich portrait of Provincetown Palmer Race Whitinsville the interaction between the Brockton Point Stafford Southbridge Mansfield Bridgewater Kingston Woonsocket Springs Plymouth Attleboro Cphysical landscape and the human Cape Cape Cod Taunton and political geography of each Putnam Greenville ns The key to the regional maps Pawtucket Orlea Bay region. Storrs Providence Providence East Bay rds Buzza n Cransto Danielson Somerset can et be found on page viii. Barnstable Naus Moosup Fall River W i k

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5 Wadis (above) drain much of northern Africa. These drybed courses are flooded only after infrequent, but intense, storms in the uplands cause water to surge along their channels.

escarpment ocean current rift active volcano inselberg oasis river wadi waterfall

Build up of sand produces strata inside the dune

Ephemeral channels

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Photographs A wide range of beautiful photographs bring the world’s regions to life.

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Transportation and industry map The main industrial areas are mapped, and the most important industrial and economic activities of the region are shown .

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sinking land stable land uplifting land

69

The indented coast and vast woodlands of the northeastern states were the original core area for European expansion. The rustic character of New England prevails after nearly four centuries, while the great cities of the Atlantic seaboard have formed an almost continuous urban region. Over 20 million immigrants entered New York from 1855 to 1924 and the northeast became the industrial center of the US. After the decline of mining and heavy manufacturing, economic dynamism has been restored with the growth of hi-tech and service industries.

R ho de Island

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River systems: Retreating of the Victoria Falls

Landscape

Water collects and floods the dry channel

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Massachusetts

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Deposition on the slip face

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B

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A

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2 The Zambezi river (above) drops 360 ft (110 m) over the Victoria Falls into a zig-zag gorge. The river has eroded the gorge along lines of weakness in the bedrock, created by fault lines running in two directions.

5

NORTH AMERICA

1

New Hamp shi re

New York

River systems

Groundwater: Replenishment of an oasis

We s t Virg i nia

Albany

Hartford

Aquifer exposed near the surface

Water migrates up through fault

Rainwater feeds the aquifer Groundwater trapped between impermeable strata

Philadelphia

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C on ne c t ic ut

The evolving landscape

a

y Regional Locator This small map shows the location of each country in relation to its continent.

10

New York

Joints or cracks caused by expansion and contraction

Key to transportation symbols Extent of national paved road network. Extent of motorways, freeways, or major national highways. Extent of commercial railroad network. Extent of inland waterways navigable by commercial craft.

Mai ne

Buffalo

9

10

6

Transportation network

Syracuse

External stresses act on the surface of the inselberg

B

9

We s t Virg inia

J

8

Pemba Island Zanzibar

Lake Tanganyika

A D A A N

cold wind hot wind

Sand is gradually blown up the back slope

Mauritius

Main physical map Detailed satellite data has been used to create an accurate and visually striking picture of the surface of the continent.

Kilimanjaro 5895m

8

Philadelphia

zam b Ch an ique ne l

LA AT

W hit e V o lt a

t

U

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7

daily hours of sunshine, January daily hours of sunshine, July

1 Oases are found in desert areas such as the Sahara (left). Groundwater migrates through permeable rock strata, confined between two impermeable layers. Oases form either when the permeable rocks come near to the surface, or at a fault line, when water is able to seep up to the surface through the crushed rocks at the fault.

6 Inselbergs (above), found extensively across West Africa, are exposed remnants of an extensive upland area. Erosion of the surrounding uplands leaves a resistant rock outcrop. Its spheroidal shape is the result of ‘onion-skin’ weathering – the exfoliating of layers – due to repeated expansion and contraction.

N

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Cape of Good Hope

Major industry and infrastructure

Harrisburg

Dr

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F

7

Pennsy lvania

le

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68

The main body of the Atlas is a unique regional map set, with detailed information on the terrain, the human geography of the region, and its infrastructure. Around the edge of the map, additional “at-a-glance” maps, give an instant picture of regional industry, land use, and agriculture. The detailed terrain map (shown in perspective), focuses on the main physical features of the region, and is enhanced by annotated illustrations, and photographs of the physical structure.

Pittsburgh

Zamb

Orange River

200 Miles

Regional mapping

Rochester

Comoro Islands

i

200 Km 100

D

200–300 mm (8–12 in) 300–400 mm (12–16 in) 400–500 mm (16–20 in) more than 500 mm (20 in)

Groundwater

Seychelles

B Pemba Island Zanzibar

Okavango Delta

Dese

100

0

C

0–25 mm (0–1 in) 25–50 mm (1–2 in) 50–100 mm (2–4 in) 100–200 mm (4–8 in)

Average July rainfall

1

Kilimanjaro 5895m

Lake Tanganyika

Kalahar i D es e r t

arid humid equatorial mediterranean semi-arid tropical warm humid

Weathering

Lake Nyasa

mib

B

eb

Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf)

Kalahari Basin

C 0

Cross-section through southern Africa showing the boundary of the Great Escarpment.

A

le G r e a t R i f t Va l

umb a R ang e

B

Na

C 17

Lake Victoria

Bié Plateau

A N O C E

Drakensberg

16

Mi t

o

I C

Uplift of the basement rock created a raised plateau

Boundary of the Great Escarpment

Kalahari Basin, covered with the sandy plains of the Kalahari Desert

ng

T

15

Lake Albert

G r e a t R i f t Va l

Co

The Great Escarpment marks the southern boundary of Africa’s basement rock and includes the Drakensberg range. It was uplifted when Gondwanaland fragmented about 160 million years ago and it has gradually been eroded back from the coast. To the north, the relief drops steadily, forming the Kalahari Basin. In the far south are the fold mountains of the Great Karoo.

6

Weathering: Formation of an inselberg

Juba

C ongo

Congo B a sin

N

Southern Africa

Sh

Cameroon Mountain 4070m

A

13

Cross-sections Detailed cross-sections through selected parts of the continent show the underlying geomorphic structure.

bangi

Sudd

Cape Town

Tropic of Capricorn

Maputo

Climate

Exfoliated layers

N

g

NT

Er

Niger Delta

São Tomé

L

s if a s go M B on s de

Windhoek

Durban

e li

wa ma ds da an A ighl H

Maputo

Durban

5

Antananarivo

Tshwane/Pretoria

Average January rainfall

en of Ad Gulf Horn of Africa

Lake Tana

Ethiopian Highlands

e

Gulf of Guinea

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E AT E PL AT N PL IA AB AN C AR RI AF

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s

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Tropic of Capricorn

Tshwane/Pretoria Pemba

Average July temperature

Blue

A Niger

I

Nile

Lake Chad

a h e l Lake Volta

Gr ain Co a

S

Se

S

Windhoek

Tropic of Capricorn

4

Dar es Salaam

Harare

African landscapes are shaped by the intensity of climatic extremes and by tectonic action. High aridity, wind action and infrequent but heavy rainstorms, lead to the migration of sand dunes and dramatic flash flooding across much of the north and west. In the wetter areas, high precipitation increases the rate of weathering. To the east, the rift system has created a volcanic and lake environment and allowed rivers to erode weaknesses left in the crustal structure by faults.

A

d Nubian Desert

a

t er es

Massif de l'Aïr

Niger

l

r

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Lake Nasser

r

Tibesti

D

a

Antananarivo

Equator

Mombassa

Kinshasa Luanda

Shaping the continent

t ser De

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Harare

Lusaka

20° S Tropic of Capricorn

䉱 The hot, equatorial basin of the Congo river receives over 48 inches (1200 mm) of rainfall per year.

sea level

n

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S e ne ga

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ya

Ah

Kisangani

Libreville

Rainfall

line of cross-section

250m / 820ft

rn ste e Nil

h

a

500m / 1640ft

below sea level

ib

ec

L

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Pemba Lusaka 3

Mogadishu

Cape Town

100m / 328ft

ARABI

Nile Delta Qattara Depression W Gr ea D este tS es r n an ert dS e

Luanda

b Ha

Bangui

Douala Bata

Equator

1000m / 3281ft

of Sirte

a

Er

S

14

C

Lagos

Abidjan

Tropic of Capricorn

Ea

I

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500 Miles

Dar es Salaam

Djibouti b Ha Wau

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uncertain

AN P L AT

E U R A S I A N P L AT E A F R I C A N P L AT E

500 Km 250

250

Equator

Mombassa

Kinshasa

2

Khartoum

Abéché

Niamey

r Ha

2000m / 6562ft

0

Port Sudan

an

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Tropic of Cancer 20° N

destructive conservative

i t AN PLA OLI TE AT e r AN r a A N P L AT E RIC n e a AF n S e a Gulf

1 Tropic of Cancer

constructive

4000m / 13,124ft 3000m / 9843ft

M e d

Section across northern Africa showing infilled basins and uplifted plateaux.

Average January temperature

(for explanation see page xiv) 5000m / 16,405ft

800

600

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

6

B

at t

0 to 10°C (32 to 50°F) 10 to 20°C (50 to 68°F) 20 to 30°C (68 to 86°F) above 30°C (86°F)

Plate margins

Elevation

800

400

200

Miles

A

12

Lake Victoria

m Har

Bamako

Mogadishu Kisangani Nairobi

Bilma

Nouakchott

Conakry

Bangui

Douala Libreville

Tamanrasset

Dakar

b Ha

Bata

Equator

Z

Temperature

100 Miles

50

Djibouti

Lagos

Abidjan

Nairobi

20° S Tropic of Capricorn

50 100 Km

0

Map key

Scale 1:36,000,000 0

0

ds

b Ha Wau

Cairo

Tropic of Cancer

Temperature

B Cross-section through eastern Africa showing the two arms of the Great Rift Valley and its interior plateau.

Lake Chad lies in a sandfilled basin

Volcanic Ahaggar mountains, formed by rising magma from a hot spot

The Earth’s crust has been warped to form the Taoudenni Basin

B

A

ge Ni

ongo a sin

Extensive faulting occurs as rift valley pulls apart

Y

Marrakech

The climates of Africa range from mediterranean to arid, dry savannah and humid equatorial. In East Africa, where snow settles at the summit of volcanoes such as Kilimanjaro, climate is also modified by altitude. The winds of the Sahara export millions of tonnes of dust a year both northwards and eastwards.

䉱 Savannah grasslands run in a belt across Africa; limited rainfall inhibits tree growth.

Casablanca

Equator

6

A

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S

Tropic of Cancer 20° N

11

'*%

R

The Great Rift Valley is the most striking feature of this region, running for 4475 miles (7200 km) from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea. North of Lake Nyasa it splits into two arms and encloses an interior plateau which contains Lake Victoria. A number of elongated lakes and volcanoes lie along the fault lines. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression, which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

A

5

Cape Verde Islands

%

Q

P

Climate

Lake Victoria

10

'*%

O

Equator

9

%

N

Northern Africa Northern Africa comprises a system of basins and plateaux. The Tibesti and Ahaggar are volcanic uplands, whose uplift has been matched by subsidence within large surrounding basins. Many of the basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the north were formed by convergence of the African and Eurasian plates.

4

8

6

M

in Khams

The structure of Africa was dramatically influenced by the break up of the supercontinent Gondwanaland about 160 million years ago and, more recently, rifting and hot spot activity. Today, much of Africa is remote from active plate boundaries and comprises a series of extensive plateaux and deep basins, which influence the drainage patterns of major rivers. The relief rises to the east, where volcanic uplands and vast lakes mark the Great Rift Valley. In the far north and south sedimentary rocks have been folded to form the Atlas Mountains and the Great Karoo.

L

i Ghibl

Physical Africa

1

K

Khartoum

Abéché

Niamey

r Ha

oo

J

East Africa

an

Ouagadougou

b

I

at t

Conakry

oo

H

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G

at

F

m

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D

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Climate map Climatic regions vary across each continent. The map displays the differing climatic regions, as well as daily hours of sunshine at selected weather stations.

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Marrakech

Sirocco

The astonishing variety of landforms, and the dramatic forces that created and continue to shape the landscape, are explained in the continental physical spread. Cross-sections, illustrations, and terrain maps highlight the different parts of the continent, showing how nature’s forces have produced the landscapes we see today.

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Climate charts Rainfall and temperature charts clearly show the continental patterns of rainfall and temperature.

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Boston

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ix


THE WOR LD A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

1

M

All the Solar System’s planets and dwarf planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and (apart from Pluto) roughly in the same plane. All the orbits have the shapes of ellipses (stretched circles). However, in most cases, these ellipses are close to being circular: only Pluto and Eris have very elliptical orbits. Orbital period (the time it takes an object to orbit the Sun) increases with distance from the Sun. The more remote objects not only have further to travel with each orbit, they also move more slowly.

Nine major planets, their satellites, and countless minor planets (asteroids) orbit the Sun to form the Solar System. The Sun, our nearest star, creates energy from nuclear reactions deep within its interior, providing all the light and heat which make life on Earth possible. The Earth is unique in the Solar System in that it supports life: its size, gravitational pull and distance from the Sun have all created the optimum conditions for the evolution of life. The planetary images seen here are composites derived from actual spacecraft images (not shown to scale).

3

L

Orbits

The Solar System 2

K

4

5

6

7

8

Ceres (dwarf planet)

9

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

10

The Sun Diameter: 864,948 miles (1,392,000 km) Mass: 1990 million million million million tons

11

The Sun was formed when a swirling cloud of dust and gas contracted, pulling matter into its center. When the temperature at the center rose to 1,000,000°C, nuclear fusion – the fusing of hydrogen into helium, creating energy – occurred, releasing a constant stream of heat and light.

12

Jupiter

Solar eclipse

13

A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, casting its shadow on Earth’s surface. During a total eclipse (below), viewers along a strip of Earth’s surface, called the area of totality, see the Sun totally blotted out for a short time, as the umbra (Moon’s full shadow) sweeps over them. Outside this area is a larger one, where the Sun appears only partly obscured, as the penumbra (partial shadow) passes over.

14

15

䉱 Solar flares are sudden bursts of energy from the Sun’s surface. They can be 125,000 miles (200,000 km) long.

The formation of the Solar System

16

Area of totality

Penumbra (partial shadow)

Moon

Earth

Sunlight

The cloud of dust and gas thrown out by the Sun during its formation cooled to form the Solar System. The smaller planets nearest the Sun are formed of minerals and metals. The outer planets were formed at lower temperatures, and consist of swirling clouds of gases.

Umbra (total shadow)

Area of partial eclipse

17

A

x

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M


TH E SOL AR SYSTE M N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

PLANETS

Y

Z

1

DWARF PLANETS MERCURY

VENUS

EARTH

MARS

JUPITER

SATURN

URANUS

NEPTUNE

CERES

PLUTO

ERIS

DIAMETER

3029 miles (4875 km)

7521 miles (12,104 km)

7928 miles (12,756 km)

4213 miles (6780 km)

88,846 miles (142,984 km)

74,898 miles (120,536 km)

31,763 miles (51,118 km)

30,775 miles (49,528 km)

590 miles (950 km)

1432 miles (2304 km)

1429-1553 miles (2300-2500 km)

AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM THE SUN

36 mill. miles (57.9 mill. km)

67.2 mill. miles (108.2 mill. km)

93 mill. miles (149.6 mill. km)

141.6 mill. miles (227.9 mill. km)

483.6 mill. miles (778.3 mill. km)

889.8 mill. miles (1431 mill. km)

1788 mill. miles (2877 mill. km)

2795 mill. miles (4498 mill. km)

257 mill. miles (414 mill. km)

3675 mill. miles (5915 mill. km)

6344 mill. miles (10,210 mill. km)

ROTATION PERIOD

58.6 days

243 days

23.93 hours

24.62 hours

9.93 hours

10.65 hours

17.24 hours

16.11 hours

9.1 hours

6.38 days

not known

ORBITAL PERIOD

88 days

224.7 days

365.26 days

687 days

11.86 years

29.37 years

84.1 years

164.9 years

4.6 years

248.6 years

557 years

SURFACE TEMPERATURE

-180°C to 430°C (-292°F to 806°F)

480°C (896°F)

-70°C to 55°C (-94°F to 131°F)

-120°C to 25°C (-184°F to 77 °F)

-110°C (-160°F)

-140°C (-220°F)

-200°C (-320°F)

-200°C (-320°F)

-107°C (-161°F)

-230°C (-380°F)

-243°C (-405°F)

2

3

AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM THE SUN 4 MERCURY

EARTH

VENUS

JUPITER

SATURN

URANUS

NEPTUNE

PLUTO (dwarf planet)

MARS

ERIS (dwarf planet)

CERES (dwarf planet)

SUN 5













 

 



 

 









 







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6

7

8

Eris

(dwarf planet) 9

Pluto

(dwarf planet)

Neptune Uranus

10

Space Debris Millions of objects, remnants of planetary formation, circle the Sun in a zone lying between Mars and Jupiter: the asteroid belt. Fragments of asteroids break off to form meteoroids, which can reach the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. Comets, composed of ice and dust, originated outside our Solar System. Their elliptical orbit brings them close to the Sun and into the inner Solar System.

Saturn

11

12

ä&#x2030;± Meteor Crater in Arizona is 4200 ft (1300 m) wide and 660 ft (200 m) deep. It was formed over 10,000 years ago. 13

Possible and actual meteorite craters -APKEY Edhh^WaZ^beVXi XgViZgh

The Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Atmosphere

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During the early stages of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s formation, ash, lava, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were discharged onto the surface of the planet by constant volcanic eruptions. The water formed the oceans, while carbon dioxide entered the atmosphere or was dissolved in the oceans. Clouds, formed of water droplets, reï¬&#x201A;ected some of the Sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s radiation back into space. The Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s temperature stabilized and early life forms began to emerge, converting carbon dioxide into life-giving oxygen.

14

Halleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comet

15

Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orbit

ä&#x2030;± It is thought that the gases that make up the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s atmosphere originated deep within the interior, and were released many millions of years ago during intense volcanic actvity, similar to this eruption at Mount St. Helens.

16

Halleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orbit

ä&#x2030;± The orbit of Halleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comet brings it close to the Earth every 76 years. It last visited in 1986.

Orbit of Halleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comet around the Sun 17

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

xi


THE WOR LD D

E

F

G

H

The physical world

These cross-sections around the Earth, one in the northern hemisphere; one straddling the Equator, reveal the limited areas of land above sea level in comparison with the extent of the sea floor. The greater erosive effects of weathering by wind and water limit the upward elevation of land above sea level, while the deep oceans retain their dramatic mountain and trench profiles.

The Earth’s surface is constantly being transformed: it is uplifted, folded, and faulted by tectonic forces; weathered and eroded by wind, water, and ice. Sometimes change is dramatic, the spectacular results of earthquakes or floods. More often it is a slow process lasting millions of years. A physical map of the world represents a snapshot of the ever-evolving architecture of the Earth. This terrain map shows the whole surface of the Earth, both above and below the sea.

3

Map key

t i c Ci rc

le

Am

un

dse

n

Amundsen Sea

projection: Wagner VII

A

xii

B

a Ross Se C

D

E

F

ce Ross Ilf She

nt Bra z

er

Guinea Basin

St Helena

Tristan da Cunha

Bahía Blanca Peníns ula Valdé s

Gulf of San Jorge

Strait of Magellan

e ure Zon d Fract Falklan South Georgia South San dw ic South S c o t i a S e a Sandwich Islands

Falkl and Island s

ke

ge Pa s s a

U

O

Bellingshausen Sea

J

Gough Island

Argent ine Basin

-105m

and Byrd L Marie I

Trindade

Rio de la Plata

Miles

17

Abrolhos Bank

á

Dra

S

Brazil Basin

h Trench

Ant a rc

2000

in Pla

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s

Mag d

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Pa

1500

o

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1000

500

ech

Rio Grande Rise

as

Pa t a

250

2000

ra n

p

0

1500

1000

500

Ch

Sierra Leone Basin

Santos Plateau

Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn

Southeast Pacific Basin

ge

o ci sc an

Uruguay

m

250

Da v is

la

Pa

e i s

0

cif

s

uîd

one ure Z n Fract o i s n e c s A Ascension

Noronha

Pa

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c f i c i P a

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nt a

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t Atacama Deser

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ra do

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A ic-

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ATLANTIC

Ce ará Pla in

Ilha de Marajó

Planalto de Mato Grosso

l e

Juan Fernandez Islands

Eltanin Fracture Zone

Scale 1:73,000,000

f Gibraltar Strait o

tlanti

i

Lake Titicaca

d

h

a

Cerro Aconcagua 6959m

Chal leng er Fr actu re Z one

id ic R

Iberian Peninsula

Mid-A

-

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16

Douro

Sierra Leone Rise

S OUTH A M E RICA

s

Chile San Felix B a s i n Island San Ambrosio Island

Gomez

Chatham Islands

ru

n e

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nd

ale

Demerara Plateau

M

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ez Ridge y Gom Sala Sala y

Rid e g

s ssi pp i Miss i

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Galapagos Rise

s t E a

Southwest Pacific Basin 15

Bauer Basin

Easter Island

nch Tre dec ma Ker

14

Gulf of Guayaquil

n

Pitcairn Islands

s n oOr inoco

asin Putumay A m a z o n B Nap o a z on o Am

Chimborazo 6310m

Peru Basin

Tubuai Islands

l

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Caq uetá

ó rañ

i

s nd Isla

Tropic of Capricorn

a Ll

r Ant il

G uiana Hig hlands

Ma

s

k Coo

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a

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Isl an ds

British Isles Bay of Biscay

Cape Verde Terrace

Cape Verde Islands

ntins

ds

e

Tuam otu

us of Isthm amá Pan

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s

an

n Penrhyn Basin

k ja

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Indies

Sea

Lesse

ch

Galápagos Islands

Newfoundland Basin

Sargasso

aj ó

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Marquesas Islands

Bermuda

ira

ne

l

OCEAN

Tonga 13

R i s e

PACIFIC

a dB

Oc ean Azores t ogr A aph er F i d racture Z M one Madeira Atla ntis Fract ure Zon e Canary Is

Nor th Amer ican Basin

C ar ibb e an

Guatemala Basin

P a c i f i c

Li

o

Samoa

aT re n

Iceland

e

al

r ic

M

M

me

Grand Banks of Newfoundland

a App

Sea St ra o as Nares Fl Plain Pu Cuba erto Rico Tr G enc re at e r Hispaniola W e s t An tille s

Mexico Basin Yucatan Peninsu la

n

es

n

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Sen

P 12

Gulf of Mexico

y Re

Newfoundland

Lake Michigan Lake ts Erie O hio Delaware Bay see hi Chesapeake Bay nes c n Te la

Blake Plateau

n

De

n

S t ra

l an Ice Labrador Basin Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone y Re

la

Revillagigedo Islands

Zone acture ton Fr r e p Clip

Manihiki Plateau

Red River

k ja

es

si Ba

rk ma

h

Sie rr M d aM id d l e el Su adre r A

Clipperton Island

Kiritimati

de

l

ne ture Zo n Frac Clario

9

n ra

Great Plains

Greenland Sea

Gree nland

Labrador Sea

Laurentian Mountains

va No tia Sco Cape Cod

de

Hawai‘i

n S hi e l d

Great

m ha Ba

one Fracture Z Molokai

Johnston Atoll

Arka nsas

ta r ien dre O S i e r ra Ma d re Ma S i e r r ad e nt al O cc i or ni a Gu l f of C al i f a L ow e r C alifor ni

one racture Z Murray F

Isl an ds

do

Co lor a

Death Valley -86m

Lake Superior

di a

an

Co

as

Snake

R o c k Ri oG y

7

Lake Winnipeg

na

Baffin Bay

Hudson S tr Pénin sule ait d'Ung ava Hudson Bay Belcher Islands

M is

Co

s

ge a

tR

n

120°W

Ellesmere Island

N O R T H Lakes Lake Huron Lake A M E R I C A Ontario

Great Basin

Francisco Bay

Ca

tchewan Saska

ri sou

150°W

São Fr

Fr bia lum

6

o Fracture Zone er Fracture Zone Mendocin Pione San

ca

i r i dt s of a

below sea level

Phoenix Islands

10°S

Baffin I sl

Xingu

Vancouver Island

Gre at Sla ve Lak e

abas Ath

120°W

Hawaiian Islands

gh

Gulf of Alaska

Trench Aleutian

sea level

Ha wa i‘i an

150°W

20°N

Gre at Bea r Lak e

g

100m / 328ft

ount McKin ley (Denali) 6194m

na

B an l an d s uti i a n Is Ale Al e ut

250m / 820ft

a

zie

sk Ala

Rocky Mountains

Cross-section: Northern hemisphere

Queen Elizabeth Islands

Victoria Island

s

5

Equator

180°

d an

Bering Sea

n asi

ks Range Broo

ge Ran M

N

Sea

Mackenzie

it Bering Stra

Ma c ke n

-4000m / -13,124ft

Mt

Arctic C ircle

500m / 1640ft

Tropic of Cancer

Pacific Ocean

Str ait

Beaufort

Chukchi Sea

Gran Cha co

-2000m / -6562ft

IC OC EA

es

3000m / 9843ft

ARCT

Ta p

-250m / -820ft

1000m / 3281ft

8

Aleutian Trench

M

Cross-section: Southern hemisphere

Pu

4000m / 13,124ft

2000m / 6562ft

L

180°

sea level

as

4

K

60°N

Sea depth

6000m / 19,686ft

o u er C o a s t M t s n t a i n

Elevation

Ri d

2

J

The world in section

Na z c a

1

I

ic

C

nH i

B

ilia

A

T

Ant arc tic Pen insu la

ge ica Rid tarct -An

N

R

E

H

a eric Am

Weddel l Sea Ronne Ice Shelf

K

N

A L

T

A M


TH E PHYSICAL WOR LD N

O

Great Lakes

P

Appalachian Mountains

Q

Grand Banks of Newfoundland

R

S

British Isles

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Alps

T

U

Mediterranean Sea

Caucasus

V

Zagros Mountains

Hindu Kush

90°W

60°W

Peru-Chile Trench

30°W

Andes

Guiana Highlands

Cape Verde Islands

30°E

60°E

Congo Basin

Gulf of Guinea

Y

Gobi

Japan

Z

Japan Trench

Pacific Ocean

Asia

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Himalayas

X

1

Africa

North America

W

Ethiopian Highlands

90°E

Gulf of Aden

Bay of Bengal

120°E

Ninetyeast Ridge

150°E

Java Trench

East Indies

180°

Micronesia

2

Pacific Ocean

3 South America 90°W

Africa

60°W

30°W

30°E

60°E

90°E

120°E

150°E

180°

an

pm ak er Sea mo unt s

re b e Kh

rait

uT rench

nch

' lin t Si k h ot e - A

Taiw an S t

ky

Tr e

oly ms Ko kiy ry Kh aks reb kiy et

a

e

Mount Wilhelm 4509m

e

Simp son Dese rt

AUSTRALIA

G

Mo unt Kos cius zko 222 8m

e

Coral Sea

Fiji

New Caled onia 13

South Fiji Basin

we

iv

Ho

t

rd

a

12

Vanu atu

Lo

14

North Island

New Zealand t

South Island

t rai

Tasman Sea

ok S

Bass Strait

re

n

Solomon Islands

Co

Grea t Aus trali an Bigh t

Lake Eyre -16m ng rli Da

Bismarck a Archipelago

Tropic of Capricorn

D

Nu

Great Victo ria Deser t l l ar b or P l ain

Equator

Tungaru

Cape York

Land Gulf of Carpentaria

id in g R ange

M

Perth Basin

Melanesian Basin

l

Solomon Sea

Arafura rres S trait To Sea

or Tim Arnhem Kimberley Plateau

Bismarck Sea

Rise

a

tor R i dge

ast

etye

Nin

aga

a Tr ench

Ashmore & Cartier Islands

In v e s t i g a

R i d g e lat

Ma scaren eP

sca

r

Mo zam biqu e Ch ann Ma el d

Timor

Se

s

at

Hi n

Owen

E a s te r n Gh

ChagosLaccadive P lateau Chagos Trench

Ni l e

Wh ite Nile

Mo za Pla mbiqu teau e

g

er

n

a

sb

Marshall Islands

o

a

Heard Island

Auckland

South Indian Ba sin

Campbell Islan d Macquarie Island

N

Campbell Plateau Islands

15

Physical factfile Diameter of Earth at Equator: 7927 miles (12,756 km) Equatorial circumference of Earth: 24,901 miles (40,075 km) Diameter from Pole to Pole: 7900 miles (12,714 km) Polar circumference of Earth: 24,860 miles (40,008 km) Mass: 5988 million million million tons (tonnes)

D av i s S e a

Wilkes

A P

r

i

O

c

9

i

New G uin ea

E a s t I n d i e s

Antarct ic Circle

Land Mt Ere bus Ro 3794m S ss Ice helf

N

i

M

Ta sm an ia

dg

ai n s

s

Ja v

an

Kerguelen

M

an

Borneo

South Australian Basin Ri

ount

Central Pacific Basin

Ree f Gre at B a r r i e r

di

cM

OCEAN

Celebes

st

Crozet Islands

cifi

PACIFIC

Celebes Sea

Java S ea

Amsterdam Island

In

Pa

8

e

a Lu laba

Su l R ai m Ind ange a n us

Sea ic

né Té

h Mar i

re nch ne T

sR idg e

nc -10,920m

ppi

vi

re nT

Mar iana Islan ds

g

Philippine Islands

id-

West Mariana Basin

ili

al

ni

M

Ryu

Java

Ridge

Tropic of Cancer

a M

Ph

ea

7

Taiwan

Great Sandy Desert

Brok en th

Northwest Pacific Basin

Bo

Malay Peninsula al ac c

tra

A

Ryukyu Islands

Gibson Desert

St Paul Island

Prince Edward Islands

h

Cocos Basin

e au

C

u

Kyúshú

East China Sea

ma

So

n

nc

d

s

e Tr

an

nt

a

t e s

g

6

ou

Ja p a n

ai l

M Su

In

d

i a

id

m

s

of

w

R

re n c h le T

Th

ait

OCEAN

k in

ea

St r

Mid-Indian Basin

Shikoku

South China Sea

of

INDIAN

rS

f

To ng

Gulf

ea an S Andam

Chagos Archipelago

ro

Hokkaidó

Gu l

ng ko

dy

Nicobar Islands

Ceylon Plain

of

pe

Philippine Sea

e

P l at

E I

wad

o

Natal Basin

ele n

T

Me

e nch

Em

rgu

C

Ir r a

Réunion

Enderby Plain

Dronning Maud Land

Maldive Islands

Ri dg e

een

Mauritius

Ke

R

i

S

u

t h

Bouvet Island

C

Sri Lanka

t i an Tr

Honshú

o

Agulhas Basin

O

at s

zi pop

en

Cape of Good Hope

Maud Rise

ar

be

b Desert

Drak

Andaman Islands

u

Madagascar Basin

Oran Riv ge er

Cape Basin

Gh

y

o ang av

mi

W

Lim

ern

le

Ok

Na

Kalahari Desert

Bay of Bengal

Ca r

Seychelles

Lake Nyasa

Zam

Kri sh na

Arabian Basin

Somali Basin

Lake Tanganyika

Ganges Fan

G o d av

st We

V

al

Okavango Delta

Kilimanjaro 5895m

Lake Victoria

Mount Everest 8848m

es

Deccan

Kirinyaga 5200m

Va l l e y

Great Rift

o ang Kw

Angola Basin

h bilas Lu Kasai

o ng Co

Ga ng

Al e u

Japan

Yan g tz e

a mad Nar

Arabian Sea

erg

Congo

Somali Plain

She

T har Desert

5

n

ka

Yel low G r e a t Sea f o n i a Pl China

a l a y a s

Laccadive Islands

li

Uele

Congo Basin

A

be

Gulf of Guinea

C

ba Ju

ang i

I

im

lsb

R

ft Great Ri

F Ub

H

Socotra

Horn of Africa

Q i li an Sh a n M o n u nt ai n s n lu Ku Plateau of Tibet

a si

Sea of Japan (East Sea)

S a lw

a

ea d S

A

da la A igh H

le e Ni Blu

Lake Volta

f of

n Ad e

Yellow R

nB

Is l a n d s

f

hn

Re

er t

a e w s nu Be m a n d

Gu l

Ethiopian Highlands

sh Ku

at

tia

ri Ku

ts

Da

Des

S a h e l

Lac ‘Assal -156m

Gobi

Takla Makan Desert

ir s

ch

eu

ile

M

Ad

an

Lake Chad

M an ch ur ia n Pl ai n

s

m

Sakhalin

Am ur

A

im He Tar

Gu O m lf of a n Oman Basin

Arabian Peninsula

Sea of Okhotsk

Al

r Ku

s er sia nG ul

du

Alta i Mo unta in

Ka

oliv y Pr ski tar Ta

Iranian Plateau

o

K et reb h K

r ive

a

gr

4

ircle Arctic C

Stanovoy Khrebet

Shan

u

Za P

by

Tibesti

Nubian Desert

m Pa

ea

te

s

rn ste r t Ea ese D

Li

S a h a r a

Da ry

is

Sea

Syrian Dead Desert Qattara -423m Sea Depression An Nafud -133m Western Desert

Gulf of Sirte

Ahaggar

Ti Euph ra

Ti e n

I

S

A

h

Lake Balkash

ar ya

gr

an

nS

a

Chott el Jerid

El'brus 5642m

at o li a s An Mt Taurus

Aegean Sea

s

Ustyurt A Plateau m

ia

Se

Medite rr an ts e

Ionian Sea

M

Black Sea

M ts lkan Ba

ic

a su

sp

i at

Aral Sea Syr D

-28m

C au c

Ca

A

dr

Ir t y s

Ural

g hi z Ste p p e Ki r

r ste

e oir

Alps

E

P

Don

r

Moun a Dnie

i an s t h t ain

e

D ube

Mont Blanc 4807m

O

Dni epe

Lake Baikal

ns

e hin

Sein L

Kama

UCarp R

Ean

O b'

ai

R

Volga

rian

a S i b e r i

nt

o Eur No r t h

n pea

n

East Sibe Sea

Ve K h r e b e t Cher rk skog ho o Le n y a n s k i y K h r e bet a

Central Siberian Plateau

y

ou

B

t al

ai

M

North Sea

Pl

yr

Fracture Z one

an

Lake Ladoga

Sc

a

Ye ni se

West Siberian Plain

al

n di

v ia

Ur

Norwegian Sea

Poluostrov Ta y m

Kara Sea Poluostrov Yamal

ea i d - I n d i a n

Novaya Zemlya Barents Sea

Spitsbergen

Laptev Sea

Ridge

Severnaya Zemlya

Franz Josef Land

ri New Sibe Islands

Q

R

U

V

W

X

Y

16

17

Z

xiii


THE WOR LD A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Structure of the Earth

1

J

K

L

Rocky crust

Inside the Earth

3

M

Viscous asthenosphere

Rigid lithosphere

The Earth’s hot inner core is made up of solid iron, while the outer core is composed of liquid iron and nickel. The mantle nearest the core is viscous, whereas the rocky upper mantle is fairly rigid. The crust is the rocky outer shell of the Earth. Together, the upper mantle and the crust form the lithosphere.

The Earth as it is today is just the latest phase in a constant process of evolution which has occurred over the past 4.5 billion years. The Earth’s continents are neither fixed nor stable; over the course of the Earth’s history, propelled by currents rising from the intense heat at its center, the great plates on which they lie have moved, collided, joined together, and separated. These processes continue to mold and transform the surface of the Earth, causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and creating oceans, mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, and island chains.

2

I

Inner core of solid iron

Liquid outer core

Mantle composed of solid rock and magma

Mesosphere

Inner core

The dynamic Earth

Continental plate

The Earth’s crust is made up of eight major (and several minor) rigid continental and oceanic tectonic plates, which fit closely together. The positions of the plates are not static. They are constantly moving relative to one another. The type of movement between plates affects the way in which they alter the structure of the Earth. The oldest parts of the plates, known as shields, are the most stable parts of the Earth and little tectonic activity occurs here.

4

5

Deep within the Earth, at its inner core, temperatures may exceed 8,100°F (4,500°C). This heat warms rocks in the mesosphere which rise through the partially molten mantle, displacing cooler rocks just below the solid crust, which sink, and are warmed again by the heat of the mantle. This process is continuous, creating convection currents which form the moving force beneath the Earth’s crust.

Movement of plate

Oceanic plate

Mid-ocean ridge Lithosphere Shield area in middle of plate: little tectonic activity occurs here

Plate boundary: most tectonic activity takes place here

Asthenosphere Mesosphere Continental crust

The boundaries between the plates are the areas where most tectonic activity takes place. Three types of movement occur at plate boundaries: the plates can either move toward each other, move apart, or slide past each other. The effect this has on the Earth’s structure depends on whether the margin is between two continental plates, two oceanic plates, or an oceanic and continental plate.

7

Convection currents

Subduction zone Ocean crust

Plate boundaries

6

Outer core

Rigid tectonic plate

Mid-ocean ridges

Ocean plates meeting

Mid-ocean ridges are formed when two adjacent oceanic plates pull apart, allowing magma to force its way up to the surface, which then cools to form solid rock. Vast amounts of volcanic material are discharged at these mid-ocean ridges which can reach heights of 10,000 ft (3000 m).

Oceanic crust is denser and thinner than continental crust; on average it is 3 miles (5 km) thick, while continental crust averages 18–24 miles (30–40 km). When oceanic plates of similar density meet, the crust is contorted as one plate overrides the other, forming deep sea trenches and volcanic island arcs above sea level.

䉱 The Mid-Atlantic Ridge rises above sea level in Iceland, producing geysers and volcanoes.

Ocean floor

䉱 Mount Pinatubo is an active volcano, lying on the Pacific “Ring of Fire.”

Earthquake zone

Overriding plate Ocean trench

Magma pushed upwards along centre of ridge

8

Diving plate Volcanic activity

Solid mantle

Formation of a mid-ocean ridge

Tectonic activity

Ocean plates meeting to form an island arc

Arctic C ircle

uncertain plate boundary

9

Chain of islands

ircle Arctic C

volcanic zone earthquake zone hot spot

E U R A S I A N

rift valley

J UA N D E F U C A

N O R T H

P L AT E

A NAT O L I A N

A M E R I C A N

P L AT E

P L AT E

10

P L AT E

PAC I F I C P L AT E

IRANIAN P L AT E

Tropic of Cancer

Tropic of Cancer

11

ARABIAN

PHILIPPINE

P L AT E

P L AT E

CARIBBEAN

CAROLINE P L AT E

P L AT E COCOS P L AT E

Equator P A C I F I C

BISMARCK Equator P L AT E

P L A T E A F R I C A N P L AT E

12 S O U T H

A M E R I C A N

SOLOMON P L AT E

P L AT E

N A Z C A

F I J I P L AT E

P L AT E

I N D O -

Tropic of Capricorn

A U S T R A L I A N

13

Tropic of Capricorn

P L A T E

14 S C O T I A P L AT E

A N T A R C T I C A

P L A T E Antarctic Circle

Circ l e nt a rc t i c

Sliding plates

15

Diving plates When an oceanic and a continental plate meet, the denser oceanic plate is driven underneath the continental plate, which is crumpled by the collision to form mountain ranges. As the ocean plate plunges downward, it heats up, and molten rock (magma) is forced up to the surface.

16

17

A

xiv

B

Oceanic plate dives under continental plate

Mountains thrust up by collision

Plate

䉱 The deep fracture caused by the sliding plates of the San Andreas Fault can be clearly seen in parts of California.

Earthquake zone Continental plate

Diving plate

C

D

䉴 The Alps were formed when the African Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate, about 65 million years ago.

When two plates slide past each other, friction is caused along the fault line which divides them. The plates do not move smoothly, and the uneven movement causes earthquakes.

䉳 The Andean mountain chain is the typical result of the impact of a diving plate.

E

F

Plate buckles as it collides Earthquake zone

Plate

Earthquake zone

When two continental plates collide, great mountain chains are thrust upward as the crust buckles and folds under the force of the impact.

Continental plates colliding to form a mountain range

Sliding plates H

Colliding plates

Crust thickens in response to the impact

Fault line

G

Mountains thrust upwards

I

J

K

L

M


STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH O

P

Continental drift Although the plates which make up the Earth’s crust move only a few inches in a year, over the millions of years of the Earth’s history, its continents have moved many thousands of miles, to create new continents, oceans, and mountain chains

Q

R

S

G ON DWA NA L A N D

4: Triassic period 245–208 million years ago. All three major continents have joined to form the super-continent of Pangea.

Arabia Africa G O

N

D AN

N

Northern Europe

AL

Siberia India A DW

South America

D

Antarctica

BALTICA

Siberia North Northern America Manchuria Greenland Europe China Africa Arabia Central Asia South America W Southeast Asia AN A L India Australia AND Antarctica N

Greenland North America

570–510 million years ago. Most continents are in tropical latitudes. The supercontinent of Gondwanaland reaches the South Pole.

208–145 million years ago. The super-continent of Pangea begins to break up, causing an overall rise in sea levels. L AU R A S I A

Siberia Northern Manchuria Europe China Spain Turkey Africa Arabia Central Asia Southeast Asia GO India ND Australia W

North America Greenland LAURENTIA /BALTICA

Northern South Asia Europe Kazakhstania Africa Australia Arabia India N Antarctica

South America

A NA

LAND

Antarctica

D

G O N DWA N

AL

A

2: Devonian period 408–362 million years ago. The continents of Gondwanaland and Laurentia are drifting northward.

R AU

EN

TIA BALTICA

Africa

Siberia

DW

3: Carboniferous period 362–290 million years ago. The Earth is dominated by three continents; Laurentia, Angaraland, and Gondwanaland.

Korean African Guiana (Venezuelan)

30 million years ago

Antarctica

Australian

3

4

Between 10 and 20 million years ago, the Indian subcontinent, part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland, collided with the continent of Asia. The Indo-Australian Plate continued to move northward, displacing continental crust and uplifting the Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain chain. Movements of India

H

im

5

Force of collision pushes up mountains

ala

6

yas Cross-section through the Himalayas 7

20 million years ago nd

PAC I F IC OCEAN

un ts

䉱 The Himalayas were uplifted when the Indian subcontinent collided with Asia.

80 million years ago

Hawai‘i

䉳 Basalt columns at Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland, UK.

Gneiss 1 Gneiss is a metamorphic rock made at great depth during the formation of mountain chains, when intense heat and pressure transform sedimentary or igneous rocks.

The Earth’s rocks are created in a continual cycle. Exposed rocks are weathered and eroded by wind, water, and chemicals and deposited as sediments. If they pass into the Earth’s crust they will be transformed by high temperatures and pressures into metamorphic rocks or they will melt and solidify as igneous rocks.

8

60 million years ago

2 million years ago

10 million years ago

Direction of movement of plate over hot spot

The Earth’s geology

9

Limestone 3 Limestone is a sedimentary rock, which is formed mainly from the calcite skeletons of marine animals which have been compressed into rock.

10

Basalt 2 Basalt is an igneous rock, formed when small quantities of magma lying close to the Earth’s surface cool rapidly.

䉱 Gneiss formations in Norway’s Jotunheimen Mountains.

8 Sandstones are sedimentary rocks formed mainly in deserts, beaches, and deltas. Desert sandstones are formed of grains of quartz which have been well rounded by wind erosion.

Brazilian

Active volcano

Al e u t i a n I s l a

20 million years ago

65–2 million years ago. Although the world’s geography is becoming more recognizable, major events such as the creation of the Himalayan mountain chain, are still to occur during this period.

Sandstone

2

Antarctic

Evolution of the Hawai'ian Islands

7: Tertiary period

G O N D WA A L A N D N

Siberian Indian

India

ALAND

Z

Cross-section through the Hawai‘ian Islands Northern Europe

Australia AN

Scandinavian (Fenno-Scandian)

Canadian (Laurentian)

Present day

o S eam Emperor

South America

Arabia

G ON

Northwest Greenland China Antarctica Northern Europe Australia Arabia Africa

LAURENTIA

Siberia

Y

Creation of the Himalayas

Direction of plate movement over hot spot

145–65 million years ago. Warm, shallow seas cover much of the land: sea levels are about 80 ft (25 m) above present levels.

North America

ANGARALAND

North America South America

Extinct volcano

6: Cretaceous period

L

North America South America

X

1

A hot spot lying deep beneath the Pacific Ocean pushes a plume of magma from the Earth’s mantle up through the Pacific Plate to form volcanic islands. While the hot spot remains stationary, the plate on which the islands sit is moving slowly. A long chain of islands has been created as the plate passes over the hot spot.

Greenland SIBERIA

W

The Hawai'ian island chain

5: Jurassic period

1: Cambrian period

V

The centers of the Earth’s continents, known as shields, were established between 2500 and 500 million years ago; some contain rocks over three billion years old. They were formed by a series of turbulent events: plate movements, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Since the Pre-Cambrian period, over 570 million years ago, they have experienced little tectonic activity, and today, these flat, low-lying slabs of solidified molten rock form the stable centers of the continents. They are bounded or covered by successive belts of younger sedimentary rock.

GO

Australia

U

Continental shields

Siberia Manchuria Greenland I A Northern S A Europe R China U Central A Arabia Asia Southeast Asia North L P America A N Africa India Australia G South America E A Antarctica

L AU R A S I A

LAURENTIA

T

s

N

11

12 1

䉱 Limestone hills, Guilin, China.

2

Coral 8

6

4 Coral reefs are formed from the skeletons of millions of individual corals.

3 7

13

4

䉱 Rock stacks of desert sandstone, at Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah, US. 䉳 Extrusive igneous rocks are formed during volcanic eruptions, as here in Hawai‘i.

15

䉱 Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Geological regions continental shield sedimentary cover coral formation igneous rock types

Mountain ranges

Andesite

Alpine (new) Hercynian (old) Caledonian (ancient)

7 Andesite is an extrusive igneous rock formed from magma which has solidified on the Earth’s crust after a volcanic eruption.

N

O

P

14

5

Q

Schist

Granite

1

Schist is a metamorphic rock formed during mountain building, when temperature and pressure are comparatively high. Both mudstones and shales reform into schist under these conditions.

5 Granite is an intrusive igneous rock formed from magma which has solidified deep within the Earth’s crust. The magma cools slowly, producing a coarse-grained rock.

䉴 Schist formations in the Atlas Mountains, northwestern Africa.

䉴 Namibia’s Namaqualand Plateau is formed of granite.

S

V

W

X

16

17

Y

Z

xv


THE WOR LD A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Shaping the landscape

1

Less than 2% of the world’s water is on the land, but it is the most powerful agent of landscape change. Water, as rainfall, groundwater, and rivers, can transform landscapes through both erosion and deposition. Eroded material carried by rivers forms the world’s most fertile soils.

3

Coastal water

䉴 A low, wide sandy beach on South Africa’s Cape Peninsula is continually re-shaped by the action of the Atlantic waves.

5

L

M

䉱 Waterfalls such as the Iguaçu Falls on the border between Argentina and southern Brazil, erode the underlying rock, causing the falls to retreat. Permeable zone where groundwater is stored

Groundwater

The world’s coastlines are constantly changing; every day, tides deposit, sift and sort sand, and gravel on the shoreline. Over longer periods, powerful wave action erodes cliffs and headlands and carves out bays.

4

K

Water

The basic material of the Earth’s surface is solid rock: valleys, deserts, soil, and sand are all evidence of the powerful agents of weathering, erosion, and deposition which constantly shape and transform the Earth’s landscapes. Water, either flowing continually in rivers or seas, or frozen and compacted into solid sheets of ice, has the most clearly visible impact on the Earth’s surface. But wind can transport fragments of rock over huge distances and strip away protective layers of vegetation, exposing rock surfaces to the impact of extreme heat and cold.

2

J

In regions where there are porous rocks such as chalk, water is stored underground in large quantities; these reservoirs of water are known as aquifers. Rain percolates through topsoil into the underlying bedrock, creating an underground store of water. The limit of the saturated zone is called the water table.

䉱 The sheer chalk cliffs at Seven Sisters in southern England are constantly under attack from waves.

Perched aquifer Water table

Impermeable rock

Spring

Storage of groundwater in an aquifer

World river systems: Sediment deposited annually per drainage basin

World river systems

6

Arctic C ircle

A

C

R

I

T

O

C

C

A

E

N

tons per sq mile per year 9120

ircle Arctic C

Yukon Yenisey

Mackenzie

drainage basin

6080

Volga

Nelson

Colorado

1520 760

Danube Mississippi/ Missouri

Indus

tonnes per sq km per year

Yangtze

Tropic of Cancer

Ganges/ Brahmaputra

OCEAN

Mekong

PAC I F I C

Nile

Niger

P A C I F I C

400 200 and less

Yellow River Tigris/ Euphrates

AT L A N T I C

Rio Grande

Tropic of Cancer

Amur

Rhine

St. Lawrence

Columbia

9

1600

Ob'

7

8

Lena

2400

OCEAN

Orinoco

Equator

Equator

Congo Amazon

O C E A N

INDIAN

Sáo Francisco

Zambezi

OCEAN

AT L A N T I C

10 Paraná

Tropic of Capricorn

OCEAN

Tropic of Capricorn

Orange Murray/ Darling

11

Ant a rc

t i c Ci rc

le

Antarct ic Circle

12

Drainage basins

Rivers Rivers erode the land by grinding and dissolving rocks and stones. Most erosion occurs in the river’s upper course as it flows through highland areas. Rock fragments are moved along the river bed by fast-flowing water and deposited in areas where the river slows down, such as flat plains, or where the river enters seas or lakes.

13

14

River valleys

Deltas

Over long periods of time rivers erode uplands to form characteristic V-shaped valleys with smooth sides.

When a river deposits its load of silt and sediment (alluvium) on entering the sea, it may form a delta. As this material accumulates, it chokes the mouth of the river, forcing it to create new channels to reach the sea.

Chemical erosion cuts valley in softer rock

Resistant rock River

Apennines

Tributary river

In their lower courses, rivers flow slowly. As they flow across the lowlands, they form looping bends called meanders.

17

A

xvi

B

Heavy rain and associated flooding on slopes can loosen underlying rocks, which crumble, causing the top layers of rock and soil to slip.

䉳 Mud is deposited by China’s Yellow River in its lower course.

䉴 A huge landslide in the Swiss Alps has left massive piles of rocks and pebbles called scree.

Deposition When rivers have deposited large quantities of fertile alluvium, they are forced to find new channels through the alluvium deposits, creating braided river systems.

䉱 The meanders of Utah’s San Juan River have become deeply incised.

C

River mouth

Po Valley

Landslides

16

䉱 The Mississippi River forms meanders as it flows across the southern US.

Delta

The drainage basin of the Po river, northern Italy.

Meanders 15

Alps

Dolomites

䉴 The Nile forms a broad delta as it flows into the Mediterranean.

River valley erosion

Major trunk river

Watershed

The drainage basin is the area of land drained by a major trunk river and its smaller branch rivers or tributaries. Drainage basins are separated from one another by natural boundaries known as watersheds.

D

E

F

G

H

Gullies

䉱 A deep gully in the French Alps caused by the scouring of upper layers of turf.

I

J

K

In areas where soil is thin, rainwater is not effectively absorbed, and may flow overland. The water courses downhill in channels, or gullies, and may lead to rapid erosion of soil.

L

M


SHAPING THE LANDSCAPE N

O

P

Q

Ice

R

S

V

W

X

Y

Z

Glacial valleys

During its long history, the Earth has experienced a number of glacial episodes when temperatures were considerably lower than today. During the last Ice Age, 18,000 years ago, ice covered an area three times larger than it does today. Over these periods, the ice has left a remarkable legacy of transformed landscapes.

1

Glaciers can erode much more powerfully than rivers. They form steep-sided, flat-bottomed valleys with a typical U-shaped profile. Valleys created by tributary glaciers, whose floors have not been eroded to the same depth as the main glacial valley floor, are called hanging valleys

2

䉱 The U-shaped profile and piles of morainic debris are characteristic of a valley once filled by a glacier.

䉱 A series of hanging valleys high up in the Chilean Andes. 䉱 The profile of the Matterhorn has been formed by three cirques lying “back-to-back.”

Past and present world ice-cover and glacial features

Glaciers

3

Cirques Cirques are basin-shaped hollows which mark the head of a glaciated valley. Where neighboring cirques meet, they are divided by sharp rock ridges called arêtes. It is these arêtes which give the Matterhorn its characteristic profile.

Glaciers are formed by the compaction of snow into “rivers” of ice. As they move over the landscape, glaciers pick up and carry a load of rocks and boulders which erode the landscape they pass over, and are eventually deposited at the end of the glacier.

4

Fjords Fjords are ancient glacial valleys flooded by the sea following the end of a period of glaciation. Beneath the water, the valley floor can be 4000 ft (1300 m) deep.

5

6

䉱 A massive glacier advancing down a valley in southern Argentina.

7

Past and present world ice cover and glacial features

Post-glacial features When a glacial episode ends, the retreating ice leaves many features. These include depositional ridges called moraines, which may be eroded into low hills known as drumlins; sinuous ridges called eskers; kames, which are rounded hummocks; depressions known as kettle holes; and windblown loess deposits.

Wind

Kame terrace

extent of last Ice Age loess deposits post-glacial feature glacial feature

Retreating glacier

Kettle hole Esker

Drumlin

Braided river

Water drips into fissures in rocks and freezes, expanding as it does so. The pressure weakens the rock, causing it to crack, and eventually to shatter into polygonal patterns.

Glacial till Bedrock

Post-glacial landscape features

Prevailing winds and dust trajectories

Strong winds can transport rock fragments great distances, especially where there is little vegetation to protect the rock. In desert areas, wind picks up loose, unprotected sand particles, carrying them over great distances. This powerfully abrasive debris is blasted at the surface by the wind, eroding the landscape into dramatic shapes.

Prevailing winds northeast trade southeast trade

polar easterly polar easterly

䉱 Irregular polygons show through the sedge-grass tundra in the Yukon, Canada.

trajectory of aeolian dust

semi-arid

10

Most of the world’s deserts are in the tropics. The cold deserts which occur elsewhere are arid because they are a long way from the rain-giving sea. Rock in deserts is exposed because of lack of vegetation and is susceptible to changes in temperature; extremes of heat and cold can cause both cracks and fissures to appear in the rock.

cold polar

Deposition

Heat

The rocky, stony floors of the world’s deserts are swept and scoured by strong winds. The smaller, finer particles of sand are shaped into surface ripples, dunes, or sand mountains, which rise to a height of 650 ft (200 m). Dunes usually form single lines, running perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind. These long, straight ridges can extend for over 100 miles (160 km).

Fierce sun can heat the surface of rock, causing it to expand more rapidly than the cooler, underlying layers. This creates tensions which force the rock to crack or break up. In arid regions, the evaporation of water from rock surfaces dissolves certain minerals within the water, causing salt crystals to form in small openings in the rock. The hard crystals force the openings to widen into cracks and fissures. 䉱 Barchan dunes in the Arabian Desert.

9

Temperature

Main desert types hot arid

8

Periglacial areas occur near to the edge of ice sheets. A layer of frozen ground lying just beneath the surface of the land is known as permafrost. When the surface melts in the summer, the water is unable to drain into the frozen ground, and so “creeps” downhill, a process known as solifluction.

Hot and cold deser t s

Dust trajectories westerly westerly

Periglaciation

Ice shattering

Terminal moraine

Windblown loess

䉱 A fjord fills a former glacial valley in southern New Zealand.

present day ice cover glacial field

11

12

Desert abrasion Abrasion creates a wide range of desert landforms from faceted pebbles and wind ripples in the sand, to large-scale features such as yardangs (low, streamlined ridges), and scoured desert pavements. Wind abrasion

13

Gravel

Faceted rock

Sand desert

Wind direction

14

Wind rippling

Desert pavement

Thermal fracturing

䉱 Complex dune system in the Sahara.

15

Features of a desert surface

Dunes Types of dune

Dunes are shaped by wind direction and sand supply. Where sand supply is limited, crescentshaped barchan dunes are formed.

䉱 The cracked and parched floor of Death Valley, California. This is one of the hottest deserts on Earth.

Wind direction Transverse dune

N

O

P

Barchan dune

Q

Linear dune

R

Star dune

S

䉳 This dry valley at Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic is an example of a cold desert. The cracked floor and scoured slopes are features also found in hot deserts.

T

U

V

W

X

Y

16

17

Z

xvii


THE WOR LD A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

The world’s oceans

1

J

K

L

M

The great oceans There are five oceans on Earth: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Southern oceans, and the much smaller Arctic Ocean. These five ocean basins are relatively young, having evolved within the last 80 million years. One of the most recent plate collisions, between the Eurasian and African plates, created the present-day arrangement of continents and oceans.

Two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by the oceans. The landscape of the ocean floor, like the surface of the land, has been shaped by movements of the Earth’s crust over millions of years to form volcanic mountain ranges, deep trenches, basins, and plateaus. Ocean currents constantly redistribute warm and cold water around the world. A major warm current, such as El Niño in the Pacific Ocean, can increase surface temperature by up to 10°F (8°C), causing changes in weather patterns which can lead to both droughts and flooding.

2

I

䉱 The Indian Ocean accounts for approximately 20% of the total area of the world’s oceans.

3

Sea level If the influence of tides, winds, currents, and variations in gravity were ignored, the surface of the Earth’s oceans would closely follow the topography of the ocean floor, with an underwater ridge 3000 ft (915 m) high producing a rise of up to 3 ft (1 m) in the level of the surface water.

rth No

Depressed sea level over trough in ocean floor

Se a Sea of Okhotsk

Red Sea

ve Plateau -Laccadi

ca lac

Chagos

arr tB ier

e n Ri dg

est In dia

ou

thw

ef Re

Mozambique Channel

ea Gr

Ocean floor Water heated by hot basalt

Formation of black smokers

xviii

nP

lat

ea

Tasman Sea ll be mp eau a C lat P

n Ridge

n South Indian Basi

u

SOUTHERN

ANTA RC TIC A

le

Tropic of Cancer

Ocean floors

16

C

M

Plume of hot mineral laden water

B

of

䉱 A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean.

A

ele

st In dia

Bass Strait

Arctic Circle

䉱 Surtsey, near Iceland, is a volcanic island lying directly over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was formed in the 1960s following intense volcanic activity nearby.

17

South Fiji Basin

Ages of the ocean floor

These vents in the ocean floor disgorge hot, sulfur-rich water from deep in the Earth’s crust. Despite the great depths, a variety of lifeforms have adapted to the chemical-rich environment which surrounds black smokers.

Water percolates into the sea floor

rgu

thea

Enderby Plain

Black smokers

Chimney

ge

Typical sea-floor features

South Australian Basin

Sou

t i c Ci rc

Coral Sea

Perth Basin

O C E A N

Ant a rc

untains

Solomon Sea

Arafura Sea

AUSTRALIA

S

Sea level 200m / 656ft 1000m / 3281ft 2000m / 6562ft 3000m / 9843ft 4000m / 13,124ft 5000m / 16,400ft 6000m / 19,686ft

12

Rid

Ocean depth

fic M o

Melanesian Basin

Bismarck Sea

Timor Sea

Ke

Northwest Pacific Basin

a Marian

east

Agulhas Basin

en

Celebes Sea

Ninety

Continental shelf

idge

Volcanic island

ndian R

Flat-topped guyot

Mid-I

Oceanic ridge

Abyssal plain

Cape Basin

Mid-Indian Basin

Madagascar Basin

u tea Pla ue biq zam Mo

Seamount

idge vis R

Trench

11

Wal

10

Tropic of Capricorn

scarene M al a t e a u P

The continental shelf is a shallow, flat seabed surrounding the Earth’s continents. It extends to the continental slope, which falls to the ocean floor. Here, the flat abyssal plains are interrupted by vast, underwater mountain ranges, the mid-ocean ridges, and ocean trenches which plunge to depths of 35,828 ft (10,920 m).

a

I N D I A N

Somali Basin

Angola Basin

f of Gul iland Tha

Equator

䉱 The low relief of many small Pacific islands such as these atolls at Huahine in French Polynesia makes them vulnerable to changes in sea level.

ait Str

ge Rid erg lsb Car

Gulf of Guinea

Tr

Mi d-P ac i

Philippine Sea

South China Sunda Sea Shelf

c

h

Ta iwa nS tra it

Bay of Bengal

J

e ril

nts

s Per G u

Arabian Sea

renc h

n

ia lf n

Yellow Sea East China Sea

Ku

ap an T

ian

rra

ea

AFRICA

Ocean structure

A Sea of Japan (East Sea)

7

9

I

C

Tropic of Cancer

8

S

asp

A

ea nS

A

Tr e n ch

Se a

Black Sea

iati c

Med ite

How surface waters reflect the relief of the ocean floor

6

ARCTI C

Laptev Sea

E U R O P E

Base level of the sea surface at 0 ft (0 m)

Actual relief of ocean floor

Baltic

dr

5

Sea

Emperor Seamou

Elevated sea level over ridge in ocean floor

Kara

East Siberian Sea

Se a

Se a

4

Baren Sea ts

Arctic C ircle

D

Mid-ocean ridges are formed by lava which erupts beneath the sea and cools to form solid rock. This process mirrors the creation of volcanoes from cooled lava on the land. The ages of sea floor rocks increase in parallel bands outward from central ocean ridges.

E

F

Equator Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle

Jurassic

Tertiary (Paleogene) Quaternary

Cretaceous 208 million years old

G

145

65

H

23 0 23 Tertiary (Neogene)

I

Jurassic Cretaceous 145

65

J

Age uncertain Continental shelf and island arcs

208 million years old

K

L

M


THE WOR LD’S OCE ANS N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

Deposition of sediment

䉱 Currents in the Southern Ocean are driven by some of the world’s fiercest winds, including the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties, and Shrieking Sixties.

OC EAN

Be ri n g Sea

Al

an euti

Tr e

enl

an d

Baffin Bay

Se a

ircle Arctic C

Dav i

Beaufort Sea

Chukchi Sea

䉱 The Atlantic Ocean was formed when the landmasses of the eastern and western hemispheres began to drift apart 180 million years ago.

䉱 The Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest and deepest ocean, covering over one-third of the surface of the Earth.

Gre

sS tra i Hudson Strai t t Hudson Bay

Storms, earthquakes, and volcanic activity trigger underwater currents known as turbidity currents which scour sand and gravel from the continental shelf, creating underwater canyons. These strong currents pick up material deposited at river mouths and deltas, and carry it across the continental shelf and through the underwater canyons, where it is eventually laid down on the ocean floor in the form of fans.

id

-A

t la

i dg

Mol o

e

C

kai F

ct n Fra lar io

Clipp

er ton

M

one ure Z

ure Frac t

id

Tropic of Cancer

Basin

e A m

eric

a T r

Guate mala B a sin

Zone

Barracud

Caribbean Sea en

2

Deep sea turbidity flow

How sediment is deposited on the ocean floor 3

5

a Fracture Z

6

7

one

ch

Equator

ca Ri dg e

Idealized globe showing the movement of water around a landless Earth.

O C E A N Tropic of Capricorn

st

P

a

Argentine Basin

a

M

id

ge

-A

t

Amun dsen Sea

Ross Sea

Ocean currents Surface currents are driven by the prevailing winds and by the spinning motion of the Earth, which drives the currents into circulating whirlpools,or gyres. Deep sea currents, over 330 ft (100 m) below the surface, are driven by differences in water temperature and salinity, which have an impact on the density of deep water and on its movement.

10

Sur face temperature and current s

Tropic of Cancer

ich

Scotia Sea

S o u t h e a s t Pa c i f i c Basin

dw San h South Trenc

Bel lin gsh aus en Sea

12

Equator

Antarcti c Circle

Weddell Sea

11

Arctic Circle

E

e idg tic R

OCEAN

9

n

ti

c

ci fi c

Ri se

Rio Grande Rise

id

Ton ga Trench

az

N Chile Basin

l e Tr e n c h

Southwest Pacific Basin

Brazil Basin

hi

Ea st Pa ci fi c

R

is e

8

-C

O C E A N

SOUTH AMERICA

Pe r u

Per u Basin

Sala y Gomez Ridge

tarc c-An Pacifi

1

Ocean currents move warm water away from the Equator toward the poles, while cold water is, in turn, moved towards the Equator. This is the main way in which the Earth distributes surface heat and is a major climatic control. Approximately 4000 million years ago, the Earth was dominated by oceans and there was no land to interrupt the flow of the currents, which would have flowed as straight lines, simply influenced by the Earth’s rotation.

Yucatan Basin

dl

Rocks and Other debris, flow from shelf to ocean floor

Surface water

A T L A N T ICanaCry Sargasso Sea

Gulf of Mexico

ne re Zo rac t u

P A C I F I C Central Pacific Basin

North American Basin

Zone

R

nR

e

Continental shelf

la

a i’ i a

NORTH AMERICA

ic Ridge

Haw

actur

Newfoundland Basin

nt

M

Fr ur ray

Sediment accumulates at head of underwater canyon Recentlydeposited sediments overlay older rocks

Z

4

M

c t ure Zone c ino Fra

Y

䉴 Satellite image of the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Delta, in which the land appears red. The river deposits immense quantities of silt into the East China Sea, much of which will eventually reach the deep ocean floor.

L ab ra d or Se a

Gulf of n c h Alaska

Me n d o

X

Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle 13

Tides and waves

High and low tides

Tides are created by the pull of the Sun and Moon’s gravity on the surface of the oceans. The levels of high and low tides are influenced by the position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and Sun. Waves are formed by wind blowing over the surface of the water.

Surface temperature and currents

The highest tides occur when the Earth, the Moon and the Sun are aligned (below left). The lowest tides are experienced when the Sun and Moon align at right angles to one another (below right).

Ice-shelf (below 32˚F / 0˚C) Sea-ice* (average) below 28˚F / -2˚C Sea-water 28–32˚F / -2–0˚C * Sea-water freezes at 28.4˚F / -1.9˚C

warm current cold current

14

Lowest high tides

Highest high tides

Tidal range and wave environment s Arctic Circle

Deep sea temperature and current s Arctic Circle

Earth

15

Sun

Tropic of Cancer

32–50˚F / F 0–10˚C 50–68˚F / 10–20˚C 68–86˚F / 20–30˚C

Moon

Tropic of Cancer

Equator

Equator

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle

Antarctic Circle

16

Tidal bulge created by gravitational pull

Tidal range and wave environments less than 7ft / 2m 7–13ft / 2–4m greater than 13ft / 4m

N

O

east coast swell west coast swell

P

tropical cyclone storm wave

Q

Deep sea temperature and currents

ice-shelf

R

Primary currents Secondary currents

Ice-shelf (below 32˚F / 0˚C) Sea-water 28–32˚F / -2–0˚C (below 16,400ft / 5000m) Sea-water 32–41˚F /0–5˚C (below 13,120ft / 4000m)

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

17

Z

xix


THE WOR LD F

G

H

The global climate

Warm air rises

t

S

r

a

e

m

No

n

t

Ju l y

re Eq

N O R T H

tor

y

ial

Cu r re

Ca

nt

na

ry

m

at

E A S T

Ju l y

C u r r e n t

ua

ar

uar

h

H

Ja n

ur

No

rt

Doldrums

re n

(H

Bra z i l

u

T R A D E S

u m

bo t ld

n

t

) Pampero

nt rre Cu

Average Januar y temperatures

s

I E S T E R L W E S

Tropic of Cancer

E A S T

Cur

r

12 Arctic Circle

i al Cur re nt

S O U T H

ño

e

Equator

t

Ni

P

uth

Ju l y

El

S O U T H

T R A D E S

We s t

We s t Win d Dr if t

Equator

Ant a rc

Tropic of Capricorn

t i c Ci rc

le

P

O

L

A

R

Climatic change

Antarctic Circle

The Earth is currently in a warm phase between ice ages. Warmer temperatures result in higher sea levels as more of the polar ice caps melt. Most of the world’s population lives near coasts, so any changes which might cause sea levels to rise, could have a potentially disastrous impact.

14

Average July temperatures Arctic Circle 15

The greenhouse effect Gases such as carbon dioxide are known as “greenhouse gases” because they allow shortwave solar radiation to enter the Earth’s atmosphere, but help to stop longwave radiation from escaping. This traps heat, raising the Earth’s temperature. An excess of these gases, such as that which results from the burning of fossil fuels, helps trap more heat and can lead to global warming.

Tropic of Cancer Equator

Incoming shortwave solar radiation

Tropic of Capricorn

16

Antarctic Circle

below -22˚F (-30˚C) -22 to -4˚F (-30 to -20˚C) -4 to 14˚F (-20 to -10˚C)

17

A

xx

B

14 to 32˚F (-10 to 0˚C) 32 to 50˚F (0 to 10˚C) 50 to 68˚F (10 to 20˚C)

C

D

E

F

G

H

Deflected shortwave solar radiation

Deflected longwave radiation emitted by the Earth heats the atmosphere

䉱 This ice fair, painted by Pieter Brueghel the Younger in the 17th century, shows the Little Ice Age which peaked around 300 years ago.

68 to 86˚F (20 to 30˚C) above 86˚F (30˚C)

tan

T R A D E S

E A S T Tro p i c o f C a p ri c o r n

a

f

El Niño

ur rent quator ial C South E

A

h

rt

tl

W E S T E R L I E S

So

The world can be divided into three major climatic zones, stretching like large belts across the latitudes: the tropics which are warm; the cold polar regions and the temperate zones which lie between them. Temperatures across the Earth range from above 86°F (30°C) in the deserts to as low as -70°F (-55°C) at the poles. Temperature is also controlled by altitude; because air becomes cooler and less dense the higher it gets, mountainous regions are typically colder than those areas which are at, or close to, sea level.

13

D

ri

t

ft

nt

ren

er– M a

h rc

a Cu r

r Cu rador Lab

ds

De cem b

E A S T t

C o u n t e r

R

ic

Ju l y

ren

T R A D E S

A

Ju l y

zar

Cur orial

L

Ju l y

e nt

O

ren t

Cu r r

r re n

N O R T H

E q u a t o r i a l

11

k Chinoo y Januar

Ju l y

Nor ther n Equat

Doldrums

Southeast trade winds

P

W E S T E R L I E S t

u N o r t h Pa c i f i c C

Equator

䉱 The Antarctic pack ice expands its area by almost seven times during the winter as temperatures drop and surrounding seas freeze.

Low

Bliz

Al a s k a

Tropic of Cancer

Temperature

Rain falls in the tropics

Ju l y

7

8

High

Low

Ja n u a r y

䉳 Heavy fogs, as here in southern England, form as moistureladen air passes over cold ground.

10

High

Low

South Pole

Arctic C ircle

6

9

Equator

Westerlies

Californi

5

North Pole

Cooled air sinks

High

The Earth’s atmosphere has been compared to a giant ocean of air which surrounds the planet. Its circulation patterns are similar to the currents in the oceans and are influenced by three factors; the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and rotation about its axis, and variations in the amount of heat radiation received from the Sun. If both heat and moisture were not redistributed between the Equator and the poles, large areas of the Earth would be uninhabitable.

M

Air does not simply flow from the Equator to the poles, it circulates in giant cells known as Hadley and Ferrel cells. As air warms it expands, becoming less dense and rising; this creates areas of low pressure. As the air rises it cools and condenses, causing heavy rainfall over the tropics and slight snowfall over the poles. This cool air then sinks, forming high pressure belts. At surface level in the tropics these sinking currents are deflected poleward as the westerlies and toward the equator as the trade winds. At the poles they become the polar easterlies.

The atmosphere, wind and weather

4

L

C u r re

3

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Global air circulation

The Earth’s climatic types consist of stable patterns of weather conditions averaged out over a long period of time. Different climates are categorized according to particular combinations of temperature and humidity. By contrast, weather consists of short-term fluctuations in wind, temperature, and humidity conditions. Different climates are determined by latitude, altitude, the prevailing wind, and circulation of ocean currents. Longer-term changes in climate, such as global warming or the onset of ice ages, are punctuated by shorter-term events which comprise the day-to-day weather of a region, such as frontal depressions, hurricanes, and blizzards.

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Greenhouse gases prevent the escape of longwave radiation

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䉳 The islands of the Caribbean, Mexico’s Gulf coast and the southeastern US are often hit by hurricanes formed far out in the Atlantic.

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Oceanic water circulation

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Tilt and rotation 1

The tilt and rotation of the Earth during its annual orbit largely control the distribution of heat and moisture across its surface, which correspondingly controls its large-scale weather patterns. As the Earth annually rotates around the Sun, half its surface is receiving maximum radiation, creating summer and winter seasons. The angle of the Earth means that on average the tropics receive two and a half times as much heat from the Sun each day as the poles.

In general, ocean currents parallel the movement of winds across the Earth’s surface. Incoming solar energy is greatest at the Equator and least at the poles. So, water in the oceans heats up most at the Equator and flows poleward, cooling as it moves north or south toward the Arctic or Antarctic. The flow is eventually reversed and cold water currents move back toward the Equator. These ocean currents act as a vast system for moving heat from the Equator toward the poles and are a major influence on the distribution of the Earth’s climates.

䉱 In marginal climatic zones years of drought can completely dry out the land and transform grassland to desert.

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Earth’s orbit

Earth’s axis tilted

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Map key Climate zones ice cap subarctic tundra continental temperate warm temperate

Ocean currents

Prevailing winds

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mediterranean semi-arid arid hot humid humid equatorial tropical

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䉱 Monsoon rains, which affect southern Asia from May to September, are caused by sea winds blowing across the warm land.

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When warm air expands, it rises and cools, and the water vapor it carries condenses to form clouds. Heavy, regular rainfall is characteristic of the equatorial region, while the poles are cold and receive only slight snowfall. Tropical regions have marked dry and rainy seasons, while in the temperate regions rainfall is relatively unpredictable.

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䉱 Heavy tropical rainstorms occur frequently in Papua New Guinea, often causing soil erosion and landslides in cultivated areas.

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Deflection to left in southern hemisphere, creates southeast trade winds

Maximum deflection at South Pole

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Deflection to right in northern hemisphere, creates northeast trade winds

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The rotation of the Earth influences atmospheric circulation by deflecting winds and ocean currents. Winds blowing in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the right and those in the southern hemisphere are deflected to the left, creating large-scale patterns of wind circulation, such as the northeast and southeast trade winds and the westerlies. This effect is greatest at the poles and least at the Equator. Maximum deflection at North pole

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䉱 The wide range of environments found in the Andes is strongly related to their altitude, which modifies climatic influences. While the peaks are snow-capped, many protected interior valleys are semi-tropical.

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Average July rainfall

䉱 The intensity of some blizzards in Canada and the northern US can give rise to snowdrifts as high as 10 ft (3 m).

䉱 The Atacama Desert in Chile is one of the driest places on Earth, with an average rainfall of less than 2 inches (50 mm) per year.

When moist air is forced to rise by mountains, it cools and the water vapor falls as precipitation, either as rain or snow. Only the dry, cold air continues over the mountains, leaving inland areas with little or no rain. This is called the rainshadow effect and is one reason for the existence of the Mojave Desert in California, which lies east of the Coast Ranges.

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䉱 Violent thunderstorms occur along advancing cold fronts, when cold, dry air masses meet warm, moist air, which rises rapidly, its moisture condensing into thunderclouds. Rain and hail become electrically charged, causing lightning.

Moist air travels inland from the sea

The rainshadow effect

Arctic Circle

As air rises it cools and condenses leading to cloud

15 Tropic of Cancer Equator

Dry air in ‘shadow’ of mountain

Tropic of Capricorn

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Antarctic Circle

0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm)

The rainshadow effect

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Life on Earth

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Biogeographical regions

A unique combination of an oxygen-rich atmosphere and plentiful water is the key to life on Earth. Apart from the polar ice caps, there are few areas which have not been colonized by animals or plants over the course of the Earth’s history. Plants process sunlight to provide them with their energy, and ultimately all the Earth’s animals rely on plants for survival. Because of this reliance, plants are known as primary producers, and the availability of nutrients and temperature of an area is defined as its primary productivity, which affects the quantity and type of animals which are able to live there. This index is affected by climatic factors – cold and aridity restrict the quantity of life, whereas warmth and regular rainfall allow a greater diversity of species.

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The Earth can be divided into a series of biogeographical regions, or biomes, ecological communities where certain species of plant and animal coexist within particular climatic conditions. Within these broad classifications, other factors including soil richness, altitude, and human activities such as urbanization, intensive agriculture, and deforestation, affect the local distribution of living species within each biome.

Polar regions A layer of permanent ice at the Earth’s poles covers both seas and land. Very little plant and animal life can exist in these harsh regions.

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Broadleaf forests Much of the northern hemisphere was once covered by deciduous forests, which occurred in areas with marked seasonal variations. Most deciduous forests have been cleared for human settlement.

Tundra A desolate region, with long, dark freezing winters and short, cold summers. With virtually no soil and large areas of permanently frozen ground known as permafrost, the tundra is largely treeless, though it is briefly clothed by small flowering plants in the summer months.

With milder summers than the tundra and less wind,these areas are able to support large forests of coniferous trees.

Arctic Circ le

Deserts

In warmer wetter areas, such as southern China, temperate deciduous forests are replaced by evergreen forest.

Deserts are areas with negligible rainfall. Most hot deserts lie within the tropics; cold deserts are dry because of their distance from the moisture-providing sea.

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Hot, dry summers and short winters typify these areas, which were once covered by evergreen shrubs and woodland, but have now been cleared by humans for agriculture.

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World biomes

World biomes

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polar tundra needleleaf forest broadleaf forest temperate rain forest temperate grassland cold desert

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mediterranean hot desert tropical grassland dry woodland tropical rain forest mountain wetland

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Tropical and temperate grasslands The major grassland areas are found in the centers of the larger continental landmasses. In Africa’s tropical savannah regions, seasonal rainfall alternates with drought. Temperate grasslands, also known as steppes and prairies are found in the northern hemisphere, and in South America, where they are known as the pampas.

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Wetlands Mountains Dry woodlands

Tropical rain forests

Trees and shrubs, adapted to dry conditions, grow widely spaced from one another, interspersed by savannah grasslands.

Characterized by year-round warmth and high rainfall, tropical rain forests contain the highest diversity of plant and animal species on Earth.

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Though the lower slopes of mountains may be thickly forested, only groundhugging shrubs and other vegetation will grow above the tree line which varies according to both altitude and latitude.

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Rarely lying above sea level, wetlands are marshes, swamps, and tidal flats. Some, with their moist, fertile soils, are rich feeding grounds for fish and breeding grounds for birds. Others have little soil structure and are too acidic to support much plant and animal life.

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Biodiversity

Animal adaptation

The number of plant and animal species, and the range of genetic diversity within the populations of each species, make up the Earth’s biodiversity. The plants and animals which are endemic to a region – that is, those which are found nowhere else in the world – are also important in determining levels of biodiversity. Human settlement and intervention have encroached on many areas of the world once rich in endemic plant and animal species. Increasing international efforts are being made to monitor and conserve the biodiversity of the Earth’s remaining wild places.

The degree of an animal’s adaptability to different climates and conditions is extremely important in ensuring its success as a species. Many animals, particularly the largest mammals, are becoming restricted to ever-smaller regions as human development and modern agricultural practices reduce their natural habitats. In contrast, humans have been responsible – both deliberately and accidentally – for the spread of some of the world’s most successful species. Many of these introduced species are now more numerous than the indigenous animal populations.

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Polar animals 1

The frozen wastes of the polar regions are able to support only a small range of species which derive their nutritional requirements from the sea. Animals such as the walrus (left) have developed insulating fat, stocky limbs, and double-layered coats to enable them to survive in the freezing conditions.

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Diversit y of animal species 4

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Desert animals Marine biodiversity

Many animals which live in the extreme heat and aridity of the deserts are able to survive for days and even months with very little food or water. Their bodies are adapted to lose heat quickly and to store fat and water. The Gila monster (above) stores fat in its tail.

The oceans support a huge variety of different species, from the world’s largest mammals like whales and dolphins down to the tiniest plankton. The greatest diversities occur in the warmer seas of continental shelves, where plants are easily able to photosynthesize, and around coral reefs, where complex ecosystems are found. On the ocean floor, nematodes can exist at a depth of more than 10,000 ft (3000 m) below sea level.

Number of animal species per country more than 2000 1000–1999 700–999 400–699 200–399 100–199 0–99

Amazon rain forest The vast Amazon Basin is home to the world’s greatest variety of animal species. Animals are adapted to live at many different levels from the treetops to the tangled undergrowth which lies beneath the canopy. The sloth (below) hangs upside down in the branches. Its fur grows from its stomach to its back to enable water to run off quickly.

data not available

High altitudes Few animals exist in the rarefied atmosphere of the highest mountains. However, birds of prey such as eagles and vultures (above), with their superb eyesight can soar as high as 23,000 ft (7000 m) to scan for prey below.

Urban animals

Endemic species

The growth of cities has reduced the amount of habitat available to many species. A number of animals are now moving closer into urban areas to scavenge from the detritus of the modern city (left). Rodents, particularly rats and mice, have existed in cities for thousands of years, and many insects, especially moths, quickly develop new coloring to provide them with camouflage.

Isolated areas such as Australia and the island of Madagascar, have the greatest range of endemic species. In Australia, these include marsupials such as the kangaroo (below), which carry their young in pouches on their bodies. Destruction of habitat, pollution, hunting, and predators introduced by humans, are threatening this unique biodiversity.

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Plant adaptation Environmental conditions, particularly climate, soil type, and the extent of competition with other organisms, influence the development of plants into a number of distinctive forms. Similar conditions in quite different parts of the world create similar adaptations in the plants, which may then be modified by other, local, factors specific to the region.

Cold conditions

Rain forests

In areas where temperatures rarely rise above freezing, plants such as lichens (left) and mosses grow densely, close to the ground.

Most of the world’s largest and oldest plants are found in rain forests; warmth and heavy rainfall provide ideal conditions for vast plants like the world’s largest flower, the rafflesia (left).

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Hot, dry conditions Arid conditions lead to the development of plants whose surface area has been reduced to a minimum to reduce water loss. In cacti (above), which can survive without water for months, leaves are minimal or not present at all.

Diversit y of plant species

Ancient plants Some of the world’s most primitive plants still exist today, including algae, cycads, and many ferns (above), reflecting the success with which they have adapted to changing conditions.

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Number of plant species per country

Resisting predators A great variety of plants have developed devices including spines (above), poisons, stinging hairs, and an unpleasant taste or smell to deter animal predators.

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Weeds

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Weeds such as bindweed (above) are fast-growing, easily dispersed, and tolerant of a number of different environments, enabling them to quickly colonize suitable habitats. They are among the most adaptable of all plants.

more than 50,000 7000–49,999 3000–6999 2000–2999 1000–1999 600–999 0–599

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Population and settlement

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The Earth’s population is projected to rise from its current level of about 7 billion to reach some 10.5 billion by 2050. The global distribution of this rapidly growing population is very uneven, and is dictated by climate, terrain, and natural and economic resources. The great majority of the Earth’s people live in coastal zones, and along river valleys. Deserts cover over 20% of the Earth’s surface, but support less than 5% of the world’s population. It is estimated that over half of the world’s population live in cities – most of them in Asia – as a result of mass migration from rural areas in search of jobs. Many of these people live in the so-called “megacities,” some with populations as great as 40 million.

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The past 200 years have seen the most radical shift in world population patterns in recorded history.

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North America

Europe

The eastern and western seaboards of the US, with huge expanses of interconnected cities, towns, and suburbs, are vast, densely-populated megalopolises. Central America and the Caribbean also have high population densities. Yet, away from the coasts and in the wildernesses of northern Canada the land is very sparsely settled.

With its temperate climate, and rich mineral and natural resources, Europe is generally very densely settled. The continent acts as a magnet for economic migrants from the developing world, and immigration is now widely restricted. Birthrates in Europe are generally low, and in some countries, such as Germany, the populations have stabilized at zero growth, with a fast-growing elderly population.

䉱 North America’s central plains, the continent’s agricultural heartland, are thinly populated and highly productive.

䉱 Many European cities, like Siena, once reflected the “ideal” size for human settlements. Modern technological advances have enabled them to grow far beyond the original walls.

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䉱 Within the denselypopulated Netherlands the reclamation of coastal wetlands is vital to provide much-needed land for agriculture and settlement.

(inhabitants per sq mile) 520–2600 260–520 130–260 52–130 26–52 13-26 3–13 Fewer than 3

All the world’s peoples were hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago. Today nomads, who live by following available food resources, account for less than 0.0001% of the world’s population. They are mainly pastoral herders, moving their livestock from place to place in search of grazing land.

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Nomadic life

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䉱 Vancouver on Canada’s west coast, grew up as a port city. In recent years it has attracted many Asian immigrants, particularly from the Pacific Rim.

Patterns of settlement

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North America Population World land area 8

11% 7.1%

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Population World land area

8% 17% 9

Nomadic population area

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The growth of cities In 1900 there were only 14 cities in the world with populations of more than a million, mostly in the northern hemisphere. Today, as more and more people in the developing world migrate to towns and cities, there are over 70 cities whose population exceeds 5 million, and around 490 “million-cities.”

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Population World land area

South America

Nomadic population

14% 20.2%

Most settlement in South America is clustered in a narrow belt in coastal zones and in the northern Andes. During the 20th century, cities such as São Paulo and Buenos Aires grew enormously, acting as powerful economic magnets to the rural population. Shantytowns have grown up on the outskirts of many major cities to house these immigrants, often lacking basic amenities.

South America

Million-cities in 190 0 12

䉱 Many people in western South America live at high altitudes in the Andes, both in cities and in villages such as this one in Bolivia.

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䉱 Venezuela is one of the most highly urbanized countries in South America, with nearly 90% of the population living in cities such as Caracas.

Population World land area

6% 11.8%

Africa 14

Asia

Million-cities in 1900 Cities over 1 million population

Million-cities in 20 05 15

The arid climate of much of Africa means that settlement of the continent is sparse, focusing in coastal areas and fertile regions such as the Nile Valley. Africa still has a high proportion of nomadic agriculturalists, although many are now becoming settled, and the population is predominantly rural.

Most Asian settlement originally centered around the great river valleys such as the Indus, the Ganges, and the Yangtze. Today, almost 60% of the world’s population lives in Asia, many in burgeoning cities – particularly in the economically-buoyant Pacific Rim countries. Even rural population densities are high in many countries; practices such as terracing in Southeast Asia making the most of the available land.

䉱 Traditional lifestyles and homes persist across much of Africa, which has a higher proportion of rural or village-based population than any other continent.

䉱 Many of China’s cities are now vast urban areas with populations of more than 5 million people.

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䉱 Cities such as Nairobi (above), Cairo, and Johannesburg have grown rapidly in recent years, although only Cairo has a significant population on a global scale.

Million-cities in 2005

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䉱 This stilt village in Bangladesh is built to resist the regular flooding. Pressure on land, even in rural areas, forces many people to live in marginal areas.

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Population structures

Population growth

Population pyramids are an effective means of showing the age structures of different countries, and highlighting changing trends in population growth and decline. The typical pyramid for a country with a growing, youthful population, is broad-based (left), reflecting a high birthrate and a far larger number of young rather than elderly people. In contrast, countries with populations whose numbers are stabilizing have a more balanced distribution of people in each age band, and may even have lower numbers of people in the youngest age ranges, indicating both a high life expectancy, and that the population is now barely replacing itself (right). The Russian Federation (center) is suffering from a declining population, forcing the government to consider a number of measures, including tax incentives and immigration, in an effort to stabilize the population .

Improvements in food supply and advances in medicine have both played a major role in the remarkable growth in global population, which has increased five-fold over the last 150 years. Food supplies have risen with the mechanization of agriculture and improvements in crop yields. Better nutrition, together with higher standards of public health and sanitation, have led to increased longevity and higher birthrates.

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Ageing population

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Population in millions

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World population growth 1500 to present day

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Population in millions 5

World nutrition

Asia

Two-thirds of the world’s food supply is consumed by the industrialized nations, many of which have a daily calorific intake far higher than is necessary for their populations to maintain a healthy body weight. In contrast, in the developing world, about 800 million people do not have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs.

Population World land area

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Daily calorie intake per capita above 3000 2500–2999

2000–2499 below 2000

data not available

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World life expectancy Improved public health and living standards have greatly increased life expectancy in the developed world, where people can now expect to live twice as long as they did 100 years ago. In many of the world’s poorest nations, inadequate nutrition and disease, means that the average life expectancy still does not exceed 45 years.

Australasia & Oceania

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Population World land area

1% 5.9%

Antarctica 12

Population World land area

Life expectancy at birth

0% 8.9%

above 75 years 65–74 years

Australasia and Oceania This is the world’s most sparsely settled region. The peoples of Australia and New Zealand live mainly in the coastal cities, with only scattered settlements in the arid interior. The Pacific islands can only support limited populations because of their remoteness and lack of resources.

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55–64 years 45–54 years

below 44 years data not available

Average world birth rates

World infant mortality

Birthrates are much higher in Africa, Asia, and South America than in Europe and North America. Increased affluence and easy access to contraception are both factors which can lead to a significant decline in a country’s birthrate.

In parts of the developing world infant mortality rates are still high; access to medical services such as immunization, adequate nutrition, and the promotion of breast-feeding have been important in combating infant mortality.

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䉴 Brisbane, on Australia’s Gold Coast is the most rapidly expanding city in the country. The great majority of Australia’s population lives in cities near the coasts.

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䉳 The remote highlands of Papua New Guinea are home to a wide variety of peoples, many of whom still subsist by traditional hunting and gathering.

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World infant mortality rates (deaths per 1000 live births)

Number of births (per 1000 people) above 40 30–39

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The economic system

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Trade blocs

The wealthy countries of the developed world, with their aggressive, market-led economies and their access to productive new technologies and international markets, dominate the world economic system. At the other extreme, many of the countries of the developing world are locked in a cycle of national debt, rising populations, and unemployment. In 2008 a major financial crisis swept the world’s banking sector leading to a huge downturn in the global economy. Despite this, China overtook Japan in 2010 to become the world’s second largest economy.

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International trade blocs are formed when groups of countries, often already enjoying close military and political ties, join together to offer mutually preferential terms of trade for both imports and exports. Increasingly, global trade is dominated by three main blocs: the EU, NAFTA, and ASEAN. They are supplanting older trade blocs such as the Commonwealth, a legacy of colonialism.

Trade blocs NAFTA SADC

EU CACM

ASEAN ECOWAS

LAIA CEEAC

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International trade flows World trade acts as a stimulus to national economies, encouraging growth. Over the last three decades, as heavy industries have declined, services – banking, insurance, tourism, airlines, and shipping – have taken an increasingly large share of world trade. Manufactured articles now account for nearly two-thirds of world trade; raw materials and food make up less than a quarter of the total.

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Shipping

Multinationals

Primary products

Ships carry 80% of international cargo, and extensive container ports, where cargo is stored, are vital links in the international transportation network.

Multinational companies are increasingly penetrating inaccessible markets. The reach of many American commodities is now global.

Many countries, particularly in the Caribbean and Africa, are still reliant on primary products such as rubber and coffee, which makes them vulnerable to fluctuating prices.

7

Service industries Service industries such as banking, tourism and insurance were the fastest-growing industrial sector in the last half of the 20th century. Lloyds of London is the center of the world insurance market.

8

9

10

Balance of trade

11

(millions US$) over 30,000 10,000–29,000 1000–9999 0-999 0–999 1000-9999 10,000–29,999 over 30,000

12

Direct foreign investment

Surplus

from USA

Deficit

from UK

data unavailable

from Japan

World money markets The financial world has traditionally been dominated by three major centers – Tokyo, New York, and London, which house the headquarters of stock exchanges, multinational corporations and international banks. Their geographic location means that, at any one time in a 24-hour day, one major market is open for trading in shares, currencies, and commodities. Since the late 1980s, technological advances have enabled transactions between financial centers to occur at ever-greater speed, and new markets have sprung up throughout the world.

13

14

Major money market s

New stock markets

The developing world

New stock markets are now opening in many parts of the world, where economies have recently emerged from state controls. In Moscow and Beijing, and several countries in eastern Europe, newly-opened stock exchanges reflect the transition to market-driven economies.

International trade in capital and currency is dominated by the rich nations of the northern hemisphere. In parts of Africa and Asia, where exports of any sort are extremely limited, home-produced commodities are simply sold in local markets.

䉱 Dealers at the Kolkata Stock Market. The Indian economy has been opened up to foreign investment and many multinationals now have bases there.

䉱 Markets have thrived in communist Vietnam since the introduction of a liberal economic policy.

15

London New York

Kolkata

Tokyo

16

䉱 The Tokyo Stock Market crashed in 1990, leading to a slow-down in the growth of the world’s most powerful economy, and a refocusing on economic policy away from export-led growth and toward the domestic market.

Location of major stock markets

17

Major stock markets

A

xxvi

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M


T H E ECO N O M I C SYS T E M N

O

P

Q

R

S

World wealth disparity A global assessment of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by nation reveals great disparities. The developed world, with only a quarter of the world’s population, has 80% of the world’s manufacturing income. Civil war, conflict, and political instability further undermine the economic self-sufficiency of many of the world’s poorest nations.

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Urban decay

Booming cities

Although the US still dominates the global economy, it faces deficits in both the federal budget and the balance of trade. Vast discrepancies in personal wealth, high levels of unemployment, and the dismantling of welfare provisions throughout the 1980s have led to severe deprivation in several of the inner cities of North America’s industrial heartland.

Since the 1980s the Chinese government has set up special industrial zones, such as Shanghai, where foreign investment is encouraged through tax incentives. Migrants from rural China pour into these regions in search of work, creating “boomtown” economies.

1

2

䉳 Foreign investment has encouraged new infrastructure development in cities like Shanghai.

䉱 Cities such as Detroit have been badly hit by the decline in heavy industry.

Urban sprawl Cities are expanding all over the developing world, attracting economic migrants in search of work and opportunities. In cities such as Rio de Janeiro, housing has not kept pace with the population explosion, and squalid shanty towns (favelas) rub shoulders with middle-class housing.

T

3

Economic “tigers”

Comparative world wealth

The economic “tigers” of the Pacific Rim – China, Singapore, and South Korea – have grown faster than Europe and the US over the last decade. Their export- and service-led economies have benefited from stable government, low labor costs, and foreign investment.

4

5

6

䉱 The favelas of Rio de Janeiro sprawl over the hills surrounding the city.

7

䉱 Hong Kong, with its fine natural harbour, is one of the most important ports in Asia.

Agricultural economies In parts of the developing world, people survive by subsistence farming – only growing enough food for themselves and their families. With no surplus product, they are unable to exchange goods for currency, the only means of escaping the poverty trap. In other countries, farmers have been encouraged to concentrate on growing a single crop for the export market. This reliance on cash crops leaves farmers vulnerable to crop failure and to changes in the market price of the crop.

World economies average GDP per capita (US$)

The affluent West 8

The capital cities of many countries in the developed world are showcases for consumer goods, reflecting the increasing importance of the service sector, and particularly the retail sector, in the world economy. The idea of shopping as a leisure activity is unique to the western world. Luxury goods and services attract visitors, who in turn generate tourist revenue.

above 20,000 5000–20,000 2000–5000 below 2000 data unavailable

䉱 The Ugandan uplands are fertile, but poor infrastructure hampers the export of cash crops.

9

䉱 A shopping arcade in Paris displays a great profusion of luxury goods.

Tourism

Money flows

In 2004, there were over 940 million tourists worldwide. Tourism is now the world’s biggest single industry, employing over 130 million people, though frequently in low-paid unskilled jobs. While tourists are increasingly exploring inaccessible and less-developed regions of the world, the benefits of the industry are not always felt at a local level. There are also worries about the environmental impact of tourism, as the world’s last wildernesses increasingly become tourist attractions.

In 2008 a global financial crisis swept through the world’s economic system. The crisis triggered the failure of several major financial institutions and lead to increased borrowing costs known as the “credit crunch”. A consequent reduction in economic activity together with rising inflation forced many governments to introduce austerity measures to reduce borrowing and debt, particulary in Europe where massive “bailouts” were needed to keep some European single currency (Euro) countries solvent.

䉱 Botswana’s Okavango Delta is an area rich in wildlife. Tourists go on safaris to the region, but the impact of tourism is controlled.

Tourist arrivals

10

䉳 In rural Southeast Asia, babies are given medical checks by UNICEF as part of a global aid program sponsored by the UN.

11

12

13

International debt

14

15

16

International debt (as percentage of GNI)

Tourist arrivals over 20 million 10–20 million

N

5–10 million 2.5–5 million

O

P

1–2.5 million 700,000–999,000

under 700,000 data unavailable

Q

R

over 100% 70–99%

S

T

50–69% 30–49%

U

10–29% below 10%

V

17

data unavailable

W

X

Y

Z

xxvii


THE WOR LD E

F

G

H

The political world

Most densely populated country

L

Smallest country

Monaco: 40,680 people per sq mile (15,646 people per sq km)

Vatican City: 0.17 sq miles (0.44 sq km)

Longest land borders

Russian Federation: 12,427 miles (20,000 km)

Longest single land border

There are 196 independent countries in the world today. With the exception of Antarctica, where territorial claims have been deferred by international treaty, every land area of the Earth’s surface either belongs to, or is claimed by, one country or another. The largest country in the world is the Russian Federation, the smallest is Vatican City. Some 60 overseas dependent territories remain, administered variously by France, Australia, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, the UK, the US, and the Netherlands.

Largest country

Canada/USA: 5526 miles (8893 km)

Russian Federation: 6,592,735 sq miles (17,075,200 sq km)

Most populous City

Tokyo: 36,900,000 people

Most sparsely populated country

Mongolia: 5 people per sq mile (2 people per sq km)

Most populous country

China: 1,347,350,000 people

The map shows three main types of boundary between states. Full borders represent internationally agreed and recognized territorial boundaries. Undefined borders exist where no fixed boundary between states has been demarcated; the boundaries indicated in this way show approximate areas of sovereignty. A disputed border is indicated where a de facto territorial boundary exists, which is not S) Aleutian Is (to U agreed or is subject to arbitration.

ARC O C ET I C AN Arctic C ircle

Bering S ea

Jan Mayen (to Norway)

Reykjavik ICELAND

Hu d s on Bay

C A N A

Faeroe Islands (to Denmark)

D A

UNITED KINGDOM IRELAND London Isle of Man (to UK) Channel Islands (to UK)

Lake Super ior

Seattle

7

Greenland (to Denmark)

Baffin Bay

USA

(Alaska)

6

PAC I F IC O CEAN

Nauru: 8.2 sq miles (21.2 sq km)

Australia: 2,967,893 sq miles (7,686,850 sq km)

Lake Ottawa Montreal Lake Huron Michigan Toronto Lake Chicago Ontar io Lake New York Er ie Washington, DC

St Pierre & Miquelon (to France)

U N I T E D S TAT E S OF AMERICA

San Francisco

Azores (to Portugal)

Ceuta (to Spain) Melilla (to Spain)

Dallas Bermuda (to UK)

Tropic of Cancer

MEXICO

Ca

IVORY SIERRA LEONE COAST Yamoussoukro LIBERIA Abidjan Accra

G U YA N

Baker & Howland Is (to US) Equator

SENEGAL Dakar MALI GAMBIA Bamako BURKINA GUINEAGUINEA BISSAU

NA

Clipperton Island (to French Polynesia)

Palmyra Atoll (to US)

Nouakchott CAPE VERDE

GHA

9

A

COLOMBIA

O

Rabat O C C

TA

Revillagigedo Islands (to Mexico)

Quito Jarvis I (to US)

I

R

I

B

A

Galápagos Is (to Ecuador)

T

ECUADOR Fernando de Noronha (to Brazil)

I

P E

R

A

Z

I

L

Cook Islands (to NZ)

Lima

U

SAMOA Wallis & Futuna American (to France) Samoa (to US)

Ascension (to St Helena)

Recife

Lake Titicaca La Paz

PAC I F IC O CEAN

Belo Horizonte

R PA

AG UA Y

I

Kermadec Islands (to NZ)

Santiago

L

Juan Fernandez Islands (to Chile)

14

São Paulo

Trindade (to Brazil) Rio de Janeiro

Asuncion

URUGUAY Montevideo

Tristan da Cunha (to St Helena)

Buenos Aires

E

Map key

A I N N T A R G E

San Felix Island (to Chile) San Ambrosio Island (to Chile)

Sala y Gomez (to Chile)

Easter Island (to Chile)

St Helena (to UK)

BOLIVIA

H

Pitcair n Islands (to UK)

O CEAN

Brasilia

C

Tropic of Capricorn

AT L A N T I C

Salvador

French Poly nesia (to France)

Niue TONGA (to NZ)

13

B

R

Tokelau (to NZ)

12

WESTERN SAHARA (occupied by Morocco)

Guadalajara

Johnston Atoll (to US)

K

BAHAMAS

Casablanca

Canary Islands (to Spain)

Turks & Caicos Is (to UK) Havana Puerto Rico (to US) C UBA Virgin Is Cayman Is British Virgin Is (to UK) Mexico City (to US) (to UK) Anguilla (to UK) HAITI DOM. r i JAMAICA REP. ANTIGUA & BARBUDA b Guadeloupe (to France) BELIZE b e a I. ST KITTS & n S Navassa DOMINICA GUATEMALA e a (to US) NEVISMontserrat Martinique (to France) HONDURAS Guatemala City Curaçao (to UK) ST LUCIA (to Neth.) ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES EL SALVADOR BARBADOS Aruba Guatemala City (to Neth.) NICARAGUA GRENADA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Caracas COSTA RICA PANAMA VENEZUELA Georgetown SURINAME Bogotá French Guiana (to France)

Hawaii (to US)

Kingman Reef (to US)

AT L A N T I C O CEAN

Madrid SPAIN

RI

8

Gulf of Mexico

Madeira (to Portugal)

R

Midway Islands (to US) Monterrey

Lisbon

Gibraltar (to UK)

Los Angeles

Guadalupe (to Mexico)

PORTUG AL

5

Smallest island country

Largest island country

International borders 4

M

O

3

K

M

2

J

U

1

I

A

D

NI

C

A

B

M

A

Gough Island (to Tristan da Cunha)

Borders Chatham Islands (to NZ)

full borders

15

Falkland Islands (to UK)

undefined borders

South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands (to UK)

disputed borders indication of country extent (island territories only) indication of dependent territory extent (island territories only)

16

South Orkney Islands South Shetland Islands

Settlements

M E X I C O : independent state

17

O

S

Political status Gibraltar (to UK): self-governing dependent territory

capital city

Laccadive Is (to India): non self-governing

major city

dependent territory, with parent state indicated

other city

U

E

H

T

R

Peter I Island (to Norway)

c Circle Antarcti

A Ronne Ice Shelf

e Ross Icelf Sh

A

xxviii

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M


THE POLITICAL WOR LD N

O

P

Q

R

The world in 1914

S

T

U

V

Percentage of Earth’s land surface controlled by colonial empires in 1914

The early years of the 20th century saw the mainly European colonial empires reaching their greatest extents by 1914. Two world wars inaugurated their disintegration, but even in 1950 there were only 82 independent countries. Since then, over 100 have gained their independence, culminating in the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.

Independent: 29.8%

W

X

Y

Colonial empires in 1914

1

Chinese: 6% Ottoman: 1.5% Russian: 15% 2

French: 7.7%

Portuguese: 1%

Belgian: 1.6%

Spanish: 1%

Italian: 1.8% German: 1.6%

British: 21.5%

Japanese: 0.4% United States: 7.6%

Dutch: 1.4% Danish: 1.5%

3

TIC ARC AN E C O

Colonial Empires in 1914

Y

T I O N F E D E R A

SWE

D

NOR

W

EN

A

Baren ts Sea

R U S S I A N

Se

a

St Petersburg

of

O

Lak e Ba ika l

Moscow

kh

POLAND BELARUS NETH. Berlin GERMANY Kiev Warsaw BELGIUM CZECH REP. LUX. UKRAINE Paris LIECH. Vienna SLOVAKIA FRANCE Budapest MOLDOVA AUSTRIA

Ulan Bator Harbin

A M O N G O L I

pi

an

Sea

JORDAN

Cairo

I R A N

e

Riyadh

P

i

an

BAHRAIN

R EGYPT

rs

KUWAIT

LIBYA

Gu

QATAR

lf Muscat

d

AN O

e

a

DJIBOUTI

Brazzaville

Ryukyu Is (to Japan)

RWANDA

BRUNEI

IA

MALDIVES

Kuala Lumpar

I

SEYCHELLES

MICRONESIA

P A L AU

TANZANIA Lake Nyasa

ANGOLA

MALAWI Lilongwe

Q

DA

MI

MOZ

NA

ZIMBABWE

BI

BIA

Pretoria

Johannesburg SWAZILAND

Réunion (to France)

MA

BOTSWANA

Tromelin (to Réunion) Antananarivo

Rodrigues (to Mauritius)

MAURITIUS

O

N

E

S

I

NAU RU

P A P UA NEW GUINEA

A

K I RI BAT I

Surabaya Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia)

Mayotte (to France)

UE

GA

Harare

AM

Lusaka

SC

ZAMBIA

D

Jakarta

Agalega Islands (to Mauritius)

COMOROS

N

Java Sea

British Indian Ocean Territory (to UK)

Dar Es Salaam

Luanda

Christmas Island (to Australia)

SOLOM ON I SL A N D S

EAST TIMOR

TUVAL U

Ashmore & Cartier Islands (to Australia)

12

Coral Sea Islands (to Australia)

INDIAN O CEAN

VANUATU

New Cale doni a (to France)

FIJI

Tropic of Capricorn

Maputo

13

A U S T R A L I A

LESOTHO

Bloemfontein

MARSHALL ISLANDS

SINGAPORE

AR

Lake Tangany ika

Gaborone

9 Guam (to US)

M A L A Y S I A

Mogadishu

Kinshasa

Windhoek

8

Wake Island (to US)

Nor thern Mariana Is (to US)

Nairobi

Lake Victor ia

BURUNDI

ANGOLA (Cabinda)

Tropic of Cancer

Taipei

U

NG

Chongqing

BHUTAN

L

KENYA

G

D E M . R E P. CONGO

CO

SAO TOME & GABON PRINCIPE

AN

DA

S

EP A

SRI LANKA

O

Bangui

O

Libreville

N

New Delhi

AL

Juba

M

ON

Yaounde

ETHIOPIA

SOUTH SUDAN

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

ME CA

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Socotra (to Yemen)

Addis Ababa

RO

BENIN

Lagos TOGO

N Delhi

TNA M

Ndjamena

NIGERIA Abuja

EN Sanaa M YE

A

P A C I F I C O C E A N

V IE

ERITREA

ST

7

A

Kánpur BANGLADESH Dhaka Guangzhou TAIWAN Chittagong Kolkata Ahmadabad Hong Kong Hanoi (Calcutta) MYANM AR (BURM A) LAOS Mumbai I N D I A Nay Pyi Taw Vientiane (Bombay) Paracel Is Bay Yangon Hyderabad Pune (disputed) Arabian o f (Rangoon) Manila Sea l a g Ben THAILAND South Chennai PHILIP PINES Bangkok a n i h C (Madras) Bangalore CAMBODIA Andaman Is (to India) Sea Laccadive Is Phnom Penh (to India) Ho Chi Minh City Spratly Is Nicobar Is Davao Colombo (disputed) (to India)

M

S Khartoum

SU DA N

CHAD

Niamey

I AK

N

NORTH KOREA Sea of Dalian Pyongyang Japa n Beijing JAPAN Seoul (Ea st Sea ) Tianjin Jinan Tokyo SOUTH Daegu Nagoya Qingdao KOREA Yokohama Busan Osaka Xi’an Nanjing Shanghai Wuhan Chengdu

Karachi

UAE

S AU D I ARABIA

NIGER

Lahore

Pe

Giza

ALGERIA

GH

Alexandria

Baghdad IR AQ

I

Islamabad

AN

Damascus

LEBANON ISRAEL

H

C

Kabul

AF

TUNISIA

Tripoli

Tehran

SYRIA

CYPRUS

Mediter ranean Sea

IST AN

AN

Athens

MALTA

6

Shenyang

as

Tunis

sk

Astana

N K A Z A K H S T A

Aral SWITZ. HUNGARY Lake Sarajevo ROMANIA Sea SLOVENIA Balka sh C Urumqi CROATIA Bucharest Almaty MONACO UZ B-H SERBIA B IT Bishkek EK Black Sea KOS. nt BULGARIA Tashke SAN MARINO A L MON. IS GEORGIA KYRGYZSTAN TA Istanbul Y ANDORRA ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN T U R K N ME Ankara MACEDONIA TAJIKISTAN VATICAN Rome at N Asgab IS CITY ALBANIA GREECE Dushanbe AZERB. T ƒzmir T U R K E Y Algiers

ot

Kurile Is an Fed.) Russi

RUSS. FED.

5

(to

FINLAND Helsinki Oslo Stockholm ESTONIA LATVIA Copenhagen DENMARK LITHUANIA

4

Japanese Ottoman Portuguese Russian Spanish United States Independent Disputed

Belgian British Chinese Danish Dutch French German Italian

ircle Arctic C

Svalbard (to Norway)

Z

SOUTH AFRICA

Nor folk Island (to Australia)

Cape Town

Amsterdam Island

Canberra

Crozet Islands

14

Melbourne

St Paul Island Prince Edward Islands (to South Africa)

Lord Howe Island (to Australia)

Sydney

NEW ZEALAN D

Frenc h South ern & Antar ctic Territ ories (to Franc e)

Wellington

15

Kerguelen Bouvet Island (to Norway)

N

O T

N

Bounty Isl ands (to Auckland Islan Antipodes Islan NZ) (to NZ) ds (to NZ) ds

Heard & McDonald Islands ( to Australia)

A

R

C

C

E

A

Macquar ie (to AustralIsland ia)

Campbell Islan (to NZ) d

16

Scale 1:73,000,000

N

Km

T

I

(All territorial claims are held in abeyance under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty)

C

A

0

Antarcti c Circle

250

0

1000

500 250

500

1500

2000

1000

1500

2000

Miles

17

projection: Wagner VII Ross Ic Shelf e

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

xxix


THE WOR LD A

B

C

D

E

States and boundaries

1

2

4

5

G

H

The changing world map

I

J

K

L

M

New nations 1945 –1965

Decolonization In 1950, large areas of the world remained under the control of a handful of European countries (page xxix). The process of decolonization had begun in Asia, where, following the Second World War, much of southern and southeastern Asia sought and achieved self-determination. In the 1960s, a host of African states achieved independence, so that by 1965, most of the larger tracts of the European overseas empires had been substantially eroded. The final major stage in decolonization came with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc after 1990. The process continues today as the last toeholds of European colonialism, often tiny island nations, press increasingly for independence.

There are almost 200 sovereign states in the world today; in 1950 there were only 82. Over the last half-century national self-determination has been a driving force for many states with a history of colonialism and oppression. As more borders have been added to the world map, the number of international border disputes has increased. In many cases, where the impetus toward independence has been religious or ethnic, disputes with minority groups have also caused violent internal conflict. While many newly-formed states have moved peacefully toward independence, successfully establishing government by multiparty democracy, dictatorship by military regime or individual despot is often the result of the internal power-struggles which characterize the early stages in the lives of new nations.

3

F

New nations 1965 – present

6

The nature of politics

䉱 Icons of communism, including statues of former leaders such as Lenin and Stalin, were destroyed when the Soviet bloc was dismantled in 1989, creating several new nations.

Democracy is a broad term: it can range from the ideal of multiparty elections and fair representation to, in countries such as Singapore, a thin disguise for singleparty rule. In despotic regimes, on the other hand, a single, often personal authority has total power; institutions such as parliament and the military are mere instruments of the dictator. 䉳 The stars and stripes of the US flag are a potent symbol of the country’s status as a federal democracy.

䉱 Iran has been one of the modern world’s few true theocracies; Islam has an impact on every aspect of political life.

9

ICELAND

Hudso n Bay

EGYPT

RI

AU

MALI

O

AN

KI

Tropic of Cancer BANGLADESH

TAIWA N

I N D I A

Bay of Bengal

LAOS

THAI.

CAMB.

AL

IA

Arabian Sea

MYANMAR (BURMA)

O

M

SRI LANKA

Nor t her n Mar iana Is (to US) PHILIPPINES Guam (to US) South

China Sea

BRUNEI

MALDIVES

S

PA C I F I C O C E A N

P

MARSHALL ISLANDS

PALAU

MICRONESIA

MAL AYSIA SINGAPORE

Equator I N D

SEYCHELLES

O N E S I A

Java Sea

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

KIRIBATI NAU RU

SOLOMON ISLANDS

TUVALU

SCA

DA GA

MAURITIUS

BIA

MA

ZIMB. BOTS.

MB I

R

EAST TIMOR

VANUAT U

INDIAN O CEAN

T ARGEN

New Caledonia (to France) Tropic of Capricorn

SWAZILAND

A U S T R A L I A

LESOTHO

URUGUAY

JAPAN

SOUTH KOREA

BHUTAN

KENYA

Lake Victoria

o

A

Persian Gulf

A

N

I

H

NEPAL

UAE

Lake TANZANIA Tanganyika Lake Nyasa COMOROS A NG OL A MALAWI ZAMBIA E QU MI

R PA

AG UA Y

UG

NG

RWANDA BURUNDI

NA

BOLIVIA

DEM. REP. CONGO

C

ST

KUWAIT

S AU D I ARABIA

AND A

ME ROO N

CA

SAO TOME GABON & PRINCIPE C ANGOLA (Cabinda)

AT L A N T IC O CEA N

AFGHAN.

N ERITREA M E YE DJIBOUTI

NIGER

GHANA EQ. GUIN. TOGO

A Z I L

U

CHILE

16

IRAN

JORDAN BAHRAIN QATAR

LIBYA

O

R

Pitcairn Islands (to UK)

Tropic of Capricorn

I R AQ

NA M

P E

B R

kh

Sea of Japan NORTH (East KOREA Sea)

ET

M

ECUADOR

PAC I F I C O CEAN

SYRIA

LEB. ISRAEL

AN

Sea

M

RO

M

ALGERIA

K I R I B A T I

French Polynesia (to France)

N

GREECE

MALTA CYPRUS

O

TUNISIA

MONGOLIA

VI

CAPE VERDE

French Guiana (to France)

COLOMBIA

Equator

Tokelau (to NZ) Cook Islands SAMOA (to NZ) American Samoa TONGA (to US) Niue (to NZ)

O

k

d ite r ran ean

O

a Se

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

DOMINICA

C

C

SENEGAL ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES GAMBIA CHAD S U DA N BARBADOS BURKINA GUINEA-BISSAU GRENADA GUINEA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO NIGERIA VENEZUELA G U YA NA IVORY SIERRA LEONE BENIN CENTRAL SOUTH ETHIOPIA COAST SURINAME LIBERIA AFRICAN REP. SUDAN

PANAMA

of

ts

WESTERN SAHARA (occupied by Morocco)

CUBA

COSTA RICA

Sea

.

AT L A N T IC O CEAN

DOM. JAMAICA HAITI REP. BELIZE ST KITTS & HONDURAS NEVIS GUATEMALA ST LUCIA EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA

ir cl e

Lake Baikal

N

MEXICO

Me

BAHAMAS

R U S S I A N ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA

d Re

Gulf of Mexico

N

FINLAND

POLAND BELARUS NETH. BELGIUM GERM. SLVK. CZ. REP. K A Z A K H S TA N LUX. LIECH. UKR AINE Aral Lake FR ANCE MOLD. AUT. HUNG. SWITZ. Sea Balkash SLVN. CRO. ROM. Caspian SM SERB. MONACO B-H UZBE Black Sea K ITALY BULG. Sea IS KYRG. ANDORRA GEORGIA MON. TA ARM. AZERB. T U R VAT. CITY KOSOVO PORTUGAL KM SPAIN TAJ. MACED. T U R K E Y E ALBANIA AZERB.

U N I T E D S TAT E S OF AMERICA

Tropic of Cancer

A

䉱 In Brunei the Sultan has ruled by decree since 1962; power is closely tied to the royal family. The Sultan’s brothers are responsible for finance and foreign affairs.

N A T I O F E D E R

IRELAND

Great Lakes

12

A rc ti c C

Barents Sea Y

RUSS. FED. (Kaliningrad) DEN.

UNITED KINGDOM

C A N A D A

PAC I F IC O CEAN

A RC TIC O C EA N

䉳 In early 2011, Egypt underwent a revolution, part of the so called “Arab Spring,” which resulted in the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak after nearly 30 years in power.

MOZ A

Be ri ng Se a

Greenland (to Denmark)

O

Current civil unrest

Baffin Bay

SA (Alaska)

RW

11

DE

Multiparty democracy for more than 10 yrs Multiparty democracy within last 10 yrs Single-party government Military regime Theocracy Monarchy Non-party system Arctic C ircle Transitional regime U

SWE

Types of government

NO

10

Netherlands New Zealand Pakistan Portugal South Africa Spain Sudan UK Unified country USA USSR Yugoslavia

Australia Aust/NZ/UK Belgium China Czechoslovakia Egypt/UK Ethiopia France France/UK Indonesia Italy Japan Malaysia

䉱 North Korea is an independent communist republic. Power was transferred directly to Kim Jong-un in 2012 following the death of his father Kim Jong-il.

䉳 Afghanistan has suffered decades of war and occupation resulting in widespread destruction. The hardline Taliban government were ousted by a US-led coalition in 2001 but efforts to stabilize the country are still continuing over ten years later.

IA

8

Administration at the time of independence

TA N

7

SOUTH AFRICA

INA

NEW ZEAL AN

French Southern & Antarctic Territories (to France)

FIJI

D

17 Circle Antarctic

A

xxx

B

A N T A R C T I C A

(All territorial claims are held in abeyance under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty)

Antarcti c Circle

K

L

M


S TAT E S A N D B O U N D A R I E S P

Q

R

Lines on the map

S

T

U

V

W

X

Z

1

The shifting political map over the course of history has frequently led to anomalous situations. Parts of national territories may become isolated by territorial agreement, forming an enclave. The West German part of the city of Berlin, which until 1989 lay a hundred miles (160km) within East German territory, was a famous example

The determination of international boundaries can use a variety of criteria. Many of the borders between older states follow physical boundaries; some mirror religious and ethnic differences; others are the legacy of complex histories of conflict and colonialism, while others have been imposed by international agreements or arbitration.

ESTONIA

RU S S I A N F E D E R AT I O N

L A T V I A

2

L I T H UA N I A RUSS. FED. (Kaliningrad)

Post-colonial borders

䉱 Since the independence of Lithuania and Belarus, the peoples of the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad have become physically isolated.

B E L A RU S

POLAND

When the European colonial empires in Africa were dismantled during the second half of the 20th century, the outlines of the new African states mirrored colonial boundaries. These boundaries had been drawn up by colonial administrators, often based on inadequate geographical knowledge. Such arbitrary boundaries were imposed on people of different languages, racial groups, religions, and customs. This confused legacy often led to civil and international war.

3

Geometric borders Antarctica

Brazilian zone of interest

A

When Antarctic exploration began a century ago, seven nations, Australia, Argentina, Britain, Chile, France, New Zealand, and Norway, laid claim to the new territory. In 1961 the Antarctic Treaty, now signed by 45 nations, agreed to hold all territorial claims in abeyance.

T

L

British Norwegian claim claim C I C rcOtic CEiA N (undefined limits) T rc l e ta A N An Australian claim

Argentinian claim

EAN

C

EA

IA

O

N

FIC

OC

Chilean claim

PA C I

ALGERIA

WESTERN SAHARA

Y

Enclaves S e a

O

B a l t i c

N

4

5

IN

D

N

Straight lines and lines of longitude and latitude have occasionally been used to determine international boundaries; and indeed the world’s second longest continuous international boundary, between Canada and the USA follows the 49th Parallel for over one-third of its course. Many Canadian, American, and Australian internal administrative boundaries are similarly determined using a geometric solution.

French claim Australian claim

New Zealand claim

C

M AU R I TA N I A

A

MALI

N A

D A

6

49th Parallel

World boundaries U N I T E D S T AT E S O F A M E R I C A

7

8

䉱 The conflict that has plagued many African countries since independence has caused millions of people to become refugees.

Physical borders

Dates from which current boundaries have existed

9

1990–present 1966–1989 1946–1965 1915–1945 1850–1914 1800–1849 Pre-1800

Many of the world’s countries are divided by physical borders: lakes, rivers, mountains. The demarcation of such boundaries can, however, lead to disputes. Control of waterways, water supplies, and fisheries are frequent causes of international friction.

䉱 Different farming techniques in Canada and the US clearly mark the course of the international boundary in this satellite map.

Lake borders

River borders

Mountain borders

Countries which lie next to lakes usually fix their borders in the middle of the lake. Unusually the Lake Nyasa border between Malawi and Tanzania runs along Tanzania’s shore.

Rivers alone account for one-sixth of the world’s borders. Many great rivers form boundaries between a number of countries. Changes in a river’s course and interruptions of its natural flow can lead to disputes, particularly in areas where water is scarce. The center of the river’s course is the nominal boundary line.

Mountain ranges form natural barriers and are the basis for many major borders, particularly in Europe and Asia. The watershed is the conventional boundary demarcation line, but its accurate determination is often problematic.

AW I

MOZA

MB

I

A

UKRAINE

GERMANY be Danu

IA

MAL

ZAMBIA

Z

N

Lake Nyasa

11

12

N

Q

MOZAMBIQUE

TA

10

F R A N C E

SLOVAKIA

AUSTRIA

P y r e A N D OR R A n e e s

H U NG ARY ROM AN I A

CROATIA

UE

䉱 Complicated agreements between colonial powers led to the awkward division of Lake Nyasa.

Danube

SE R BI A

BU LG ARI A

13

S PA I N

䉱 The Danube forms all or part of the border between nine European nations.

䉱 The Pyrenees form a natural mountain border between France and Spain.

14

Shifting boundaries – Poland Borders between countries can change dramatically over time. The nations of eastern Europe have been particularly affected by changing boundaries. Poland is an example of a country whose boundaries have changed so significantly that it has literally moved around Europe. At the start of the 16th century, Poland was the largest nation in Europe. Between 1772 and 1795, it was absorbed into Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and it effectively ceased to exist. After the First World War, Poland became an independent country once more, but its borders changed again after the Second World War following invasions by both Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany. N

O

P

Moscow

Moscow

A

POLAND P

SI

Warsaw

IA

Kiev

S RU

R U S S I A

P OL A N D

POLAND Warsaw

Kiev

15

Warsaw

Kiev

Kiev

R

Warsaw

Moscow

Moscow

AU

䉱 In 1634, Poland was the largest nation in Europe, its eastern boundary reaching toward Moscow.

Q

R

S

S

16

T

䉱 From 1772–1795, Poland was gradually partitioned between Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Its eastern boundary receded by over 100 miles (160 km).

T

U

䉱 After the Second World War, the Baltic Sea border was extended westward, but much of the eastern territory was annexed by Russia.

䉱 Following the First World War, Poland was reinstated as an independent state, but it was less than half the size it had been in 1634.

V

W

X

Y

17

Z

xxxi


THE WOR LD A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

International disputes

1

Cyprus was partitioned in 1974, following an invasion by Turkish troops. The south is now the Greek Cypriot Republic of Cyprus, while the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is recognized only by Turkey.

C H I N A

Ye l l o w Sea

2

䉱 Indian army troops maintain their positions in the mountainous terrain of northern Kashmir. 3

N

C

H

I

N A 4

Claimed by India

A 'line of control' was agreed between India and Pakistan in 1972.

Pre 1947 Boundary

Aksai Chin Peshawar

r pa Ka

sía

JAMMU & KASHMIR I N D I A

Rawalpindi

Administered by China, claimed by India.

䉱 Heavy fortifications on the border between North and South Korea.

UK Sovereign Base Area

UK Sovereign Base Area Lárnaka

Faisalabad

Administered by China, claimed by India.

HIMACHAL PRADESH

Amritsar

Lahore

Medite r ranean S ea

Lemesós (Limassol)

CHINA Demchok/ Demqog

Gujranwala

Tr o ó d o s

CYPRUS

5

PA K I S T A N

NICOSIA

SEOUL

1

ISLAMABAD

TURKISH REPUBLIC OF NORTHERN CYPRUS (recognized only by Turkey) ns Medite r ranean Kyrenia Mountai S ea

PYONGYANG

SOUTH KOREA

M

Srinagar

䉱 The so-called “green line” divides Cyprus into Greek and Turkish sectors.

NORTH KOREA

A

ST

Cyprus

Since 1953, the de facto border between North and South Korea has been a cease-fire line which straddles the 38th Parallel and is designated as a demilitarized zone. Both countries have heavy fortifications and troop concentrations behind this zone.

NI

North and South Korea

HA

4

L

Disputes over Jammu and Kashmir have caused three serious wars between India and Pakistan since 1947. Pakistan wishes to annex the largely Muslim territory, while India refuses to cede any territory or to hold a referendum, and also lays claim to the entire territory. Most international maps show the “line of control” agreed in 1972 as the de facto border. In addition, India has territorial disputes with neighboring China. The situation is further complicated by a Kashmiri independence movement, active since the late 1980s.

AFG

3

K

Jammu and Kashmir

There are more than 60 disputed borders or territories in the world today. Although many of these disputes can be settled by peaceful negotiation, some areas have become a focus for international conflict. Ethnic tensions have been a major source of territorial disagreement throughout history, as has the ownership of, and access to, valuable natural resources. The turmoil of the postcolonial era in many parts of Africa is partly a result of the 19th century “carve-up” of the continent, which created potential for conflict by drawing often arbitrary lines through linguistic and cultural areas.

2

J

6

Claimed by India.

P U N JA B Ludhiana

Conflicts and international disputes

7

UN peacekeeping missions 2002-2012

R U S S I A N

F E D E R AT I O N

Major active territorial or border disputes

Kurile Islands

8 Chechnya

CROATIA KOS. MOLDOVA B.&H. BULG. GEORGIA MACEDONIA ARMENIA

TURKEY

SYRIA CYPRUS LEBANON IRAQ ISRAEL

CO

Melilla

9

C RO MO

B R A Z I L

ZIMBABWE

12 URUGUAY ARGENTINA

Former Yugoslavia

r

C

HERZEGOVINA

䉱 Barbed-wire fences surround a settlement in the Golan Heights.

D

E

F

G

AM

IE

Celeb es

16

Philippine claim

S ea Malaysian claim Occupied by Taiwan Occupied by Philippines Occupied by Malaysia Occupied by China Occupied by Vietnam

MONTENEGRO Dubrovnik

H

15

Spratly Island s

Gornji Vakuf Goraªde SARAJEVO Mostar

Republika Srpska Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina

PH I L I PPI N ES

N

S ea

Tuzla

S e i at Split a ic

14

S outh China

Brâko

Dr Jajce BOSNIA & i Srebrenica

Ad

xxxii

B

Bihaá Banja Luka

PT

A

ISR AEL

CAMBODIA

The site of potential oil and natural gas reserves, the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea have been claimed by China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Malaysia, and the Philippines since the Japanese gave up a wartime claim in 1951.

T I A O A Sava

GAZA STRIP

EGY

Palestinian control Mixed control Israeli settlement block

R

WEST BANK

Israeli settlement Palestinian settlement West Bank fence

䉱 Most claimant states have small military garrisons on the Spratly Islands.

RBIA

(Israel retains 15%control)

Dead Sea

The Spratly Islands

na

Hebron

13

V

C

Bethlehem

HEIGHTS

N

JERUSALEM

Mediterranean Sea GOLAN

Following the disintegration in 1991 of the communist state of Yugoslavia, the breakaway states of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina came into conflict with the “parent” state (consisting of Serbia and Montenegro). Warfare focused on ethnic and territorial ambitions in Bosnia. The tenuous Dayton Accord of 1995 sought to recognize the post-1990 borders, whilst providing for ethnic partition and required international peacekeeping troops to maintain the terms of the peace.

T

Falkland Islands

SYRIA

Jordan

'Auja et Tahta Nu'eima Jericho

EAST TIMOR

BOTSWANA

Israel was created in 1948 following the 1947 UN Resolution (147) on Palestine. Until 1979 Israel had no borders, only cease-fire lines from a series of wars in 1948, 1967, and 1973. Treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994 led to these borders being defined and agreed. Negotiations over Israeli settlements and Palestinian self-government seen little effective progress LEBANON since 2000.

J O R

Ramallah

D A

N

WEST BANK

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

ZAMBIA

RDA

I S R

Nablus

KENYA

RWANDA BURUNDI

BOLIVIA

JO

L

E A

Tulkarm

MALAYSIA

UGANDA

ANGOLA

Israel

Qalqiliya

DEM. REP. CONGO

10

11

CHILE

Jenin

O C

Cabinda

䉳 British warships in Falkland Sound during the 1982 war with Argentina.

13

BENIN CAMEROON

PHILIPPINES

Spratly Islands

SE

12

C.A.R.

IVORY COAST

Paracel Islands

CAMBODIA

SOUTH SUDAN ETHIOPIA

Bosna

11

THAI.

YEMEN

SOMALIA SIERRA LEONE LIBERIA

O

The British dependent ECUADOR territory of the Falkland Islands was invaded by Argentina in 1982, sparking a PERU full-scale war with the UK. Tensions ran high during 2012 in the build up to the thirtieth anniversary of the conflict.

NIGERIA

NG

VENEZUELA GU YA NA SURINAME French Guiana COLOMBIA

The Falkland Islands

BURKINA

MYANMAR (BURMA)

AM

10

BANGLADESH

ERITREA S U DA N

9 Senkaku Islands TAIWAN

TN

MALI SENEGAL

SOUTH KOREA

BHUTAN

EGYPT

NIGE R CHAD

N A

Jammu and Kashmir Arunachal Pradesh

INDIA

MAURITANIA

HAITI

I

IE

BELIZE

H

Active territorial or border disputes and internal conflict

V

Guantanamo Bay

CUBA

IRAN

C

Aksai Chin

AFGHANISTAN

L I B YA

ALGERIA WESTERN SAHARA

MEXICO

TAJIKISTAN

PA K

Gibraltar Ceuta

NORTH KOREA AZERB.

IST AN

SPAIN

8

Countries involved in internal conflict

I

J

B RU N EI M A L AYS I A

K

INDONESIA

L

M

17


ATL AS

OF THE WORLD THE MAPS IN THIS ATLAS ARE ARRANGED CONTINENT BY CONTINENT, STARTING FROM THE INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE, AND MOVING EASTWARD. THE MAPS PROVIDE A UNIQUE VIEW OF TODAYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S WORLD, COMBINING TRADITIONAL CARTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES WITH THE LATEST REMOTE-SENSED AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY.


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1

2

3

North America North America is the world’s third largest continent with a total area of 9,358,340 sq miles

e Ri s all ck n Ro asi d B PLATE ATE PL lan N Ice RASIA RICAN EU ME sin HA s Ba RT ane NO ykj

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Greatest extent, East–West: 3500 miles / 5700 km

ar

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Boothia Peninsula (71° 59’ N)

9

Strai t

Zone acture Oceanographer Fr

s Brown Bank

8

c c ti Ar

Az ore s

of B

ell e

d n lan d

I C N T

tia rges co Geo k Ban

GE

n ou si f w a Ne B

Lowest recorded temperature: Northice, Greenland -87° F (-66° C)

Cape Prince of Wales (168° 4’ W)

ID

ks an

7

Most westerly point: Attu, Aleutian Islands, USA 172° 30’ E

A

R TIC AN

B nd Gra

sh mi Fle ap C

Most easterly point: Nordøstrundingen, northeast Greenland 12° 08’ W

Most northerly point: Kap Morris Jesup, northern Greenland 83° 38’ N

L

L AT D-

d lan nd fou New

of Gulf ence wr St La C a b ot S t rai t

Nov aS

Greatest extent, North–South: 4600 miles / 7400 km

A

lie

-G

It lies wholly within the Northern Hemisphere.

MI

swa Gro

i

bb

5

(24,238,000 sq km) including Greenland and the Caribbean islands.

Re

or rad b a L in Batesr Bay

4

Battle Harbour (55° 35’ W)

Highest point: Mount McKinley (Denali), Alaska, USA 20,322 ft (6194 m)

10

mo

ville Nash

un

Se

ner C o r u nt s mo a e S

ts

unt amo

m S oh

Pla

At l a n t i

in

uda da Berm Bermu Rise

Hatteras Plain

h Nor t ican Amer n Basi

Sea

Plai

s

San Francisco

Washington DC Highest recorded temperature: Death Valley, California, USA 135°F (57°C ) ic of Trop

Lowest point: Death Valley, California, USA -282 ft (-86 m) below sea level

n

Indi We s t e

Most southerly point: Península de Azuero, southeast Panama 7° 15’ N

Península de Azuero (7° 15’ N)

13

Rocky Mountains

Great Plains

Great Lakes

San Francisco

Zone cture a Fra

Appalachian Mountains

Washington DC

14

s

ud NORTH ico Trench Barrac Puerto R Le uda AN PLATE Barbigua AMERIC AN ERIC Ant iola SOUTH AM Hispan upe PLATE o Nevis delo ic a R u to G Puer inica Dom ique Ant illes tin Mar ia os uc uelan St L arbad Venez sin a B rar Ba me a De lain nad P e r G idad Trin ra G era E PLAT ATE Dem eau EAN t L B P a l B N I P CAR AMERICA o c H no SOUT Or i

11

cer Can

12

Ba

Nare

ne e Zo actur r F e n Ka

e

Largest lake: Lake Superior, Canada/USA 32,142 sq miles (83,270 sq km)

Ca pe sin Ver de

Sarg

asso

tu s Fra c

on re Z

Trop ic of C ancer

S ea

N O C E A

and

AFRICAN PLATE

En g l

NORTH AMERICAN PLATE

Ne w

ve s Gr Ridge Win enada Basin dward Islands Bra nco

500

1000 Miles

15

line of cross-section

Eq ua tor

r Ant illes

Orinoco

O

0

1000 Km

E

Caroní

s A se

Le

nez uela

ul fo f Ve

N

land mbetas Tro

re v ia Gua

Hig h

500

DG

ana

0

RI

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a Met

Cross-section from San Francisco to Washington DC

IC NT

e Apur

LA AT DMI

ds slan dI ar ew

a

Se

ana Gui sin Ba

16

n azo Am Fan

s

17 on az Am

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

1


NORTH AMERICA B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

Physical North America

1

Spanning northern Canada and Greenland, this geologically stable plain forms the heart of the continent, containing rocks more than two billion years old. A long history of weathering and repeated glaciation has scoured the region, leaving flat plains, gentle hummocks, numerous small basins and lakes, and the bays and islands of the Arctic.

About 80 million years ago the Pacific and North American plates collided, uplifting the Western Cordillera. This consists of the Aleutian, Coast, Cascade, and Sierra Nevada mountains, and the inland Rocky Mountains. These run parallel from the Arctic to Mexico.

4

5

A

A

Elevation

 This computer-generated view shows the ice-covered island of Greenland without its ice cap. The Rocky Mountain Trench is the longest linear fault on the continent

B

B

100 Km

G r e e

100 Miles

50

ASIA

Lake Erie

sea level

Scale 1:42,000,000 Km 0

200

0

The Appalachians

A

an

Sedimentary strata folded and faulted into ridges and valleys

rient al

N

CAR

Nov aS co tia

S

N

IN A

L

Hard basement rock

C Cross-section through the Appalachians showing the numerous folds, which have subsequently been weathered to create a rounded relief.

t W e s

E AT PL TE N A L A IC N P ER BEA AM IB H AR RT C

IBB

Softer strata has been crumpled against the harder basement rock

C

PL

Yucatan Península

O

1000

The Appalachian Mountains, uplifted about 400 million years ago, are some of the oldest in the world. They have been lowered and rounded by erosion and now slope gently toward the Atlantic across a broad coastal plain.

Cape Cod

Mississippi Delta

N

800

600

Newfoundland

Horizontal strata

L

hi

I C C O A S TA

C

G

del Sur

400

200

1000

Miles

M ANT

800

r e a t e r

Caribbean Sea

Lake Nicaragua EA N PL AT E

Ist

hmus o

f Panama

SO

0 0

25

50 Km 25

50 Miles

i e I n d

s

re O

de

A

dre

600

400

D

A

ac

O

C

hio

al

e

aw ren c

St L

Lake Huron re Lake Ontario at L a k e s

Lake Michigan

S N D

ad

ci F

100m / 328ft

an

c eO

E

Ma

line of cross-section

250m / 820ft

A

Gulf of Mexico Volcán Pico de Orìzaba 5700m

rra

r

I E L D

A U

de

aM

dr

E

Sie

C

G

LF

L AT

physiographic regions

P

L Gr

rr

Ma

I

al

do

e

W

Ri o

ra

e

ra

ou n C tains H I A

O

Missouri

I N S L A

s

A Sier

F D

H

G

P

R

I 400 Miles

200

S

L

ang

N

L T s A i n t a

R a n g e Casca s de R

A E

C o a s t

N

A

Ark an sa

C

O

uncertain

O C E A N

A E

f lf o ia Gu iforn l Ca i a n or

lif

C

Si

nt

400 Km

Lab

Laurentian Mountains

Lake Winnipeg

n L

Ca

C

2

B

I

er

A

A

0

R

u

L

Low

P

17

D

D Section across the Great Plains and Central Lowlands showing river systems and structure.

t

C

o

I Canyon

D

L abrador S ea

ai t

Lake Superior

Colorado Plateau

conservative

2000m / 6562ft

500m / 1640ft

S

Lake Manitoba

Great Salt Lake o rad

D

Ne va d a r ra in a qu S an Jol l e y Va

16

s

Hud son B ay

R

G

Great Basin

Sonoran Desert

200

D

Reindeer Lake

T

B

Death Valley -86m Grand

Confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers

0

A

A

N

M

Sie

Upland rivers drain south toward the Mississippi Basin

E

Mount St Helens 2549m

Mojave Desert

15

Sedimentary layers overlay domed basement rock

Lake Athabasca

Mount Rainier 4392m

R C O

TE

14

e

DE FUCA PL A

Deposits left by retreating glaciers San and rivers have made this vast flat area Andreas Fault very fertile. In the north this is the result of glaciation, with deposits up to one mile (1.7 km) thick, covering the basement rock. To the south and west, the massive Missouri/Mississippi river system has for centuries deposited silt across the plains, creating broad, flat floodplains and deltas.

C

y

AN

13

Hu d s o n St r

Great Slave Lake

k

JU

12

Great Bear Lake

tains

B

o c

11

R N T E R W E S s

ountain ast M

ka

E R I C A N P L AT E AM PA C I F I C P L AT E

The Great Plains & Central Lowlands

H

10

oun eM

T

Gu l f o f Al a s

an

Foxe Basin

nzi

zi

R

Co

NO

destructive

2500m / 8203ft

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

ai

k

vi

d

ac

Da

pp

M

n I sl

A

k a R an g e

Ma c k e

as Al

en

e Al e ut i an R ang

constructive

3000m / 9843ft

tr

s

Baffi

Mackenzie Delta

A

Mount McKinley 6194m

ge

Miss issipp i

and

9

an

Colo

Isl

R

B af f in B ay

P

k

s

a d

oo

eu

an

l

n

B eaufor t S ea

Br

Al

ti

n

ng Strait er i

B e r ing S ea

3500m / 11,484ft

1000m / 3281ft

I C N T L A A T

50

Plate margins

1500m / 4922ft

Cross-section through the Western Cordillera showing direction of mountain building.

B

200 Miles

100

(for explanation see page xiv)

6

0

0

Map key

Strata have been thrust eastward along fault lines

0

0 100 200 Km

Section across the Canadian Shield showing where the ice sheet has depressed the underlying rock and formed bays and islands.

Volcanic rock

7

Once overlain by sedimentary rocks, erosion has reexposed the ancient Laurentian Mountains

Hudson Bay was depressed by the ice sheet to form North America’s largest basin

The hard bedrock of the Canadian Shield is slowly rising

The weight of the ice sheet, 1.8 miles (3 km) thick, has depressed the land to 0.6 miles (1 km) below sea level

The Western Cordillera

M

The Canadian Shield

The North American continent can be divided into a number of major structural areas: the Western Cordillera, the Canadian Shield, the Great Plains, and Central Lowlands, and the Appalachians. Other smaller regions include the Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain which borders the southern coast of North America from the southern Appalachians to the Great Plains. This area includes the expanding Mississippi Delta. A chain of volcanic islands, running in an arc around the margin of the Caribbean Plate, lie to the east of the Gulf of Mexico.

3

L

s l e i l t n A

il l e s

A

nt r A L e s s e

E AT AT PL PL N N EA CA BB ERI I K R M CA H A UT

E

SOUTH AM ERICA L

M


PHYSICAL NORTH AM ER ICA O

P

Q

R

S

Climate

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Climate

1

Nome

Resolute

Fairbanks

daily hours of sunshine, January daily hours of sunshine, July direction of hurricanes tornado zones

 “Tornado alley” in the Mississippi Valley suffers frequent tornadoes.

Eismitte

le irc cC ct i Ar

ice cap tundra subarctic cool continental warm humid semiarid arid humid equatorial tropical

North America’s climate includes extremes ranging from freezing Arctic conditions in Alaska and Greenland, to desert in the southwest, and tropical conditions in southeastern Florida, the Caribbean, and Central America. Central and southern regions are prone to severe storms including tornadoes and hurricanes.

Ar cti cC irc le

N

2

Aklavik Kugluktuk Iqaluit

Haines Junction

3

Juneau Fort Vermillon

Temperature

Churchill

Happy Valley - Goose Bay

Fort St John Torbay

Arctic Circle

Vancouver

4

Winnipeg

Medicine Hat

60° N

Montréal Toronto

Boise

40° N Tropic of Cancer

Salt Lake City San Francisco

20° N

 Much of the southwest is semi-desert; receiving less than 12 inches (300 mm) of rainfall a year.

Sioux City

Las Vegas

Average January temperature

5

Phoenix

Cape Hatteras

Atlanta

Los Angeles

Average July temperature

New York

Denver

Little Rock

Temperature -22°F (below -30°C) -22 to -4°F (-30 to -20°C) -4 to 14°F (-20 to -10°C) 14 to 32°F (-10 to 0°C)

Rainfall

32 to 50°F (0 to 10°C) 50 to 68°F (10 to 20°C) 68 to 86°F (20 to 30°C) 86°F (above 30°C)

Houston

Guaymas Tropic o f Cance

New Orleans

Chihuahua

Miami

6

Nassau

of Tropic r Cance

r

Santo Domingo Fort-de-France

Mérida Kingston

Arctic Circle

Acapulco

Rainfall

60° N

San Salvador

0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) 4–8 in (100–200 mm) 8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) 16–20 in (400–500 mm) more than 20 in (500 mm)

40° N Tropic of Cancer 20° N

Average January rainfall

San José

 The lush, green mountains of the Lesser Antilles receive annual rainfalls of up to 360 inches (9000 mm).

8

Average July rainfall

Shaping the continent Periglaciation

Glacial processes affect much of northern Canada, Greenland, and the Western Cordillera. Along the western coast of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, underlying plates moving together lead to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The vast river systems, fed by mountain streams, constantly erode and deposit material along their paths.

9

2 The ground in the far north is nearly always frozen: the surface thaws only in summer. This freeze-thaw process produces features such as pingos (left); formed by the freezing of groundwater. With each successive winter ice accumulates producing a mound with a core of ice. Ice core pushes up ground to form pingo

Volcanic activity

Unfrozen lake

1 Mount St. Helens volcano (right) in the Cascade Range erupted violently in May 1980, killing 57 people and leveling large areas of forest. The lateral blast filled a valley with debris for 15 miles (25 km). Molten rock at volcano’s core

Groundwater attracted to ice core

Periglaciation: Formation of a pingo in the Mackenzie Delta

Vertical eruption

Post-glacial lakes

10

3 A chain of lakes from Great Bear Lake to the Great Lakes (above) was created as the ice retreated northward. Glaciers scoured hollows in the softer lowland rock. Glacial deposits at the lip of the hollows, and ridges of harder rock, trapped water to form lakes.

11

Ice-scoured hollow filled with glacial meltwater to form a lake

Retreating glacier

The evolving landscape

Harder rock creates a barrier between lakes

Lateral explosion increases extent of damage

12

Softer lowland rock

Landslide fills valley

Post-glacial lakes: Formation of the Great Lakes

Volcanic activity: Eruption of Mount St Helens

2

Landscape 13

limestone region sinking land stable land uplifting land

14

3

5 The San Andreas Fault (above) places much of the North America’s west coast under constant threat from earthquakes. It is caused by the Pacific Plate grinding past the North American Plate at a faster rate, though in the same direction. Pacific Plate

San Andreas Fault Fault is caused by faster movement of Pacific Plate North American Plate

Seismic activity: Action of the San Andreas Fault

N

O

active volcano

1

Seismic activity

P

area of tectonic activity

5

limit of permafrost

6

maximum limit of glaciation ocean current

River erosion 6 The Grand Canyon (above) in the Colorado Plateau was created by the downward erosion of the Colorado River, combined with the gradual uplift of the plateau, over the past 30 million years. The contours of the canyon formed as the softer rock layers eroded into gentle slopes, and the hard rock layers into cliffs. The depth varies from 3855–6560 ft (1175–2000 m).

Q

R

Soft rock is easily eroded into gentle slopes

Weathering 4 The Yucatan Peninsula is a vast, flat limestone plateau in southern Mexico. Weathering action from both rainwater and underground streams has enlarged fractures in the rock to form caves and hollows, called sinkholes (above).

Porous limestone plateau

4

Rainwater erodes porous rock forming sinkholes

Hard rock resists erosion

16

Sea level Underground stream further erodes rock

Colorado River cuts down through rock

Weathering: Water erosion on the Yucatan Peninsula

River Erosion: Formation of the Grand Canyon

S

15

T

U

V

W

X

Y

17

Z

3


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Political North America

1

K

ASIA

A R C T I C

Strait ring Be k oo Br

s

A

le

3

Victoria

A L A S K A

Aleut i an Rang

e Anchorage

T E R R I T O RY

Mount

Gulf of Alaska

Whitehorse

NORT HW E ST T E R R I TOR I E S

ains

 This busy suburban interchange in Los Angeles is part of the US’s Interstate freeway system. Construction of the 55,000 mile (88,500 km) freeway network began in the 1950s, and it now connects most major cities, and carries one-fifth of the US’s road traffic.

Great Bear Lake

nzie

7

cke

Y U KO N

In the 19th century, railroads opened up the North American continent. Air transportation is now more common for long distance passenger travel, although railroads are still extensively used for bulk freight transportation. Waterways like the Mississippi River are important for the transportation of bulk materials, and the Panama Canal is a vital link between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. In the 20th century, road transportation increased massively, with the introduction of cheap, mass-produced motor cars and extensive highway construction.

6

ge

OF AM E R IC A

Transportation 5

an

U N I T E D STAT E S

Ma

4

R

B eaufor t S ea

Mackenzie

Democracy is well established in some parts of the continent but is a recent phenomenon in others. The economically dominant nations of Canada and the US have a long democratic tradition but elsewhere, notably in the countries of Central America, political turmoil has been more common. In Nicaragua and Haiti, harsh dictatorships have only recently been superseded by democratically elected governments. North America’s largest B e r ing u ti countries, Canada, Mexico, and the US have federal state systems, an S ea sharing political power between national and state governments. Is la nd The US has intervened militarily on several occasions in Central s America and the Caribbean to protect its strategic interests.

J

Juneau

Yellowknife Great Slave Lake Lake Athabasca

BRITISH

C A N

COLUM BIA

Queen Charlotte Islands

Prince George

A L B E RTA Edmonton

Vancouver Island

Saskatoon Calgary

Vancouver Victoria

SASKATCHEWAN

Regina

Seattle Olympia Fairbanks

Tuktoyaktuk

Tacoma WA S H I N G TO N MON TA NA

Portland

Salem

Helena

Dutch Harbor Anchorage

9

Eugene OREGON

IDAHO Boise W YOM I NG

Skagway

U N I T E D

Hay River

Reno Great Salt Lake Salt Lake Cheyenne City do Carson City a Sacramento U TA H Stockton N E V A D A Denver San Jose COLORADO Fresno Salinas Colorado Springs Pueblo C ALIFORN IA Las Vegas Bakersfield

Prince Rupert St.John’s Prince George

Calgary

Vancouver

Nanaimo

11

Edmonton

Seattle

Québec

Thunder Bay

Winnipeg

Sault Ste. Montréal Marie

Spokane

Portland

Duluth

Butte

Fargo

Coos Bay

Chicago Toledo

San Diego

13

Phoenix

Oklahoma City Albuquerque

Savannah Jacksonville

Mobile New Orleans

Orlando Tampa

Corpus Christi

Chihuahua

ia

Houston

San Antonio

Wilmington Charleston

Hermosillo

rn

Chihuahana

Atlanta

Birmingham

El Paso Isla Cedros

major roads and highways major railroads major canals international borders transport intersections international airports major ports

Nashville Memphis

Dallas

Transportation Norfolk

o lif Ca of ia lf rn Gu fo li Ca

Long Beach

El Paso Ciudad Juárez

r

Los Angeles

NEW MEXICO

Tucson

Detroit Newark

Washington DC Saint Louis

Miami

Durango

Mazatlán

Monterrey

14

Santa Fe

Albuquerque

Phoenix

Mexicali

New York Philadelphia Baltimore

A M

ARIZONA

San Diego

Tijuana

Toronto

Kansas City

Denver

Boston

O F

Simi Valley Riverside

we

Oakland San Francisco

Los Angeles

Lo

Sioux Falls Cheyenne Omaha Salt Lake City

12

Halifax

Oceanside

Albany

Minneapolis

St.John

Colo r

Santa Rosa Oakland San Francisco

10

ME

Havana

Mazatlán

San Juan

Guadalajara

Tampico Mérida

Kingston

Mexico City Manzanillo

15

Manzanillo

Toluca

Coatzacoalcos Salina Cruz San Salvador

Guatemala City

Corinto

16

H AWA I I Moloka‘i

SCALE 1:13,300,000

 Low-density housing developments such as this one on the outskirts of Phoenix, Arizona, reflect the US’s abundance of land and a dispersed population, dependent on the car for personal mobility.

IF

C

D

E

F

G

IC

Km 0 0

50

100 50

150

OC

200

100

Maui Lana‘i Kaho‘olawe

C

4

B

PA

A

Kaua‘i UNITED STATES Ni‘ihau O‘ahu OF AMERICA Honolulu

 The 40 mile (65 km) long Panama Canal cuts through the Isthmus of Panama, a narrow strip of land connecting North and South America. Opened in 1914, the canal reduced the journey between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by almost 8000 nautical miles (14,800 km).

17

Panama Canal Balboa Panama City

150

EA

Hawai‘i

N

200

Miles

H

I

J

K

L

M


POLITICAL NORTH AMERICA S

U

V

W

Z

N

A

E C O

T

1

E S K

I

M

Ellesmere Island A

T

Language groups

Greenland

Baffi

Island

Da

vi

s

S

2

F R

E

N

G

1 million to 5 million

ai

d

L

I

S

EN

L abrador S ea

GL

10,000 to 50,000

ISH

/SP

below 10,000 State / Province capital

AN

IS

H

FRENCH/ ENGLISH

U AZ TOTECAN

Country capital

ENGLISH/ SPANISH

Lake Michigan

SOUTH DA KOTA

WI SCONSI N

i our Miss

Minneapolis

A

Augusta Montpelier

VERMONT NEW HAMPSHIRE

Lake Ontario Albany Rochester

Oshawa Toronto Hamilton

NEW YORK

E

MAIN E

Concord Boston MASSACHUSETTS

Lansing

nt

ou

N

M

n

ia

Amarillo Lubbock

Dallas

Shreveport

T E X A S

Columbus

Jacksonville Tallahassee

Mobile

Orlando

New Orleans

Tampa

de an Gr Rio

Mississippi Delta

Corpus Christi

Saint Petersburg FLORIDA Fort Lauderdale Miami

BA HA MAS HAVANA

Mexico

Santa Clara

Yucatan Peninsula

HONDURAS

GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR

MANAGUA

Scale 1:31,000,000

0

100

300

200

400

500

(to Neth.)

(to Neth.)

SOUTH

PANAMA  Mexico City is one of the world’s largest and highest cities. Fresh water supplies are dwindling, while air pollution regularly creates thick smog.

600

P

16

PANAMA CITY

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

O

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO PORT-OF-SPAIN

15

Miles

N

below 25 25–124 125–259 260–649 650–1300 above 1300

AMERICA

COSTA RICA

200 300 400 500 600

e ll t i An

14

(people per sq mile)

ST LUCIA BARBADOS ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES GRENADA

Bonaire

Curaçao

Lake Nicaragua SAN JOSÉ

Km

Population density

Martinique (to France)

(to Neth.)

TEGUCIGALPA SAN SALVADOR NICARAGUA

GUATEMALA CITY

100

e r Aruba L e s s

Sea

San Pedro Sula

11

DOMINICA

ST KITTS & NEVIS

SANTO

Caribbean

BELMOPAN

Acapulco

HAITI

KINGSTON

BELIZE

Villahermosa

10

Guadeloupe (to France)

G r DOMINGO Montserrat (to UK) e a PORT-AU-PRINCE Cayman Islands t e Navassa Island (to US) (to UK) r A n t i l l e s JAMAICA

Mérida

9

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SAN JUAN

Santiago de Cuba

Tampico San Luis Potosí León Irapuato Querétaro Morelia MEXICO CITY Toluca Puebla

8

I n d i e s

W e s t

Turks & Caicos Puerto Rico Islands (to UK) (to US)

Guantanamo Bay (to US)

C U BA

X ICO

I

British Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (to US) (to UK) Anguilla (to UK)

NASSAU

Gulf of

Monterrey

0

Savannah

Montgomery

Jackson

Baton Rouge

Houston San Antonio

SOUTH C A ROL INA

GEORGIA

ALABAMA

LOUI SI ANA

Austin

Columbia

Atlanta Birmingham

MISSISSIPPI

Fort Worth

pa

TENNESSEE

Memphis

A T L A

Tulsa A R K A N S AS Oklahoma City OKLAHOMA Little Rock

EOLE

Much of North America is almost empty, especially the frozen far north. Population densities are highest in the highlands of Mexico and Central America; the coastal plain stretching from the Gulf of Mexico along the Atlantic coast; the Great Lakes area; and the Pacific coast. Large conurbations have developed, notably the San-San (San Francisco–San Diego), Boswash (Boston– Washington), and Main Street (Toronto– Montréal). The populations of the Caribbean islands are small, but settlement is dense, due to the limited amount of land available.

ch

Ar k a n s a s

Ap

Miss issipp i

la

E R I C A

CR

N

Population

T

ain

s

S TAT E S

Milwaukee Madison Chicago

I C

Sioux Falls

A

Providence

RHODE ISLAND Hartford CONNECTICUT

Buffalo Newark Lake Erie New York Detroit PENNSYLVANIA Trenton Cleveland NEW JERSEY Toledo Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh Baltimore Des Moines Dover DELAWARE OH IO I O W A Davenport NEBRASKA Annapolis INDIANA Omaha Columbus ILLINOIS WASHINGTON DC Lincoln Cincinnati WEST MARYLAND Springfield VIRGINIA Indianapolis Richmond Charleston Kansas City Topeka VIRGINIA Saint Louis hio Norfolk Frankfort O Louisville K A N S A S Jefferson City Evansville KENTUCKY MISSOURI Wichita Raleigh NORTH Springfield C A ROL INA Nashville Charlotte

Pierre

 Land in northern Canada has been set aside for Inuit reserves, allowing the Inuit and other Native American groups to maintain their traditional practices and culture.

s

MICHIGAN

Halifax

O

OTTAWA

Bismarck

NOVA SCOTIA

C

aw ren ce

Lake Huron

St. L

Lake Superior

M I N N E S O TA

Saint Paul

N

Charlottetown

Montréal NORTH DA KOTA

(to France)

NEW BRUNSWICK

Fredericton

OLE C

The three major official languages of North America are of European origin, brought by settlers in the 16th century. In Canada, French and English are spoken; in the US, English is the main language, with large Spanish-speaking areas in the southwest; Mexicans are Spanish-speaking; while the Caribbean islands use French, English, and Spanish as well as the hybrid Creole tongues. In isolated areas, languages of the indigenous peoples still exist, such as Inuit in the far north of the continent.

St Pierre & Miquelon

Québec

CRE

Languages

Newfoundland

ON TA R IO

Y

S PA

St.John’s

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND

FRENCH

H

SH

Reindeer Lake

Thunder Bay

A

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABR AD OR

QU É BE C

IS

N

M

state border

Lake Winnipeg

GL

OLE

Hud son B ay

EN

RE

S PA N I S H

full international border

Winnipeg

E

100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000

t rait

MANITOBA

3

H C N

H

Borders

A D A

N

500,000 to 1 million

t

Hu d s o n S

L E U T

ALGONQUI

above 5 million

NUUK

Iqaluit (Frobisher Bay)

N U N AV U T

A

A B A S C A N

Population

n

Foxe Basin

-

Map key

tr

n I sla

American Indian Germanic Romance Eskimo-Aleut Uninhabited

(to Denmark)

B af f in B ay

H

O

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

17

X

Y

Z

5


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

North American resources

1

K

L

M

Standard of living The US and Canada have one of the highest overall standards of living in the world. However, many people still live in poverty, especially in urban ghettos and some rural areas. Central America and the Caribbean are markedly poorer than their wealthier northern neighbors. Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere.

The two northern countries of Canada and the US are richly endowed with natural resources that have helped to fuel economic development. The US is the world’s largest economy, although today it is facing stiff competition from the Far East. Mexico has relied on oil revenues but there are hopes that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), will encourage trade growth with Canada and the US. The poorer countries of Central America and the Caribbean depend largely on cash crops and tourism.

Standard of living

3

 After its purchase from Russia in 1867, Alaska’s frozen lands were largely ignored by the US. Oil reserves similar in magnitude to those in eastern Texas were discovered in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 1968. Freezing temperatures and a fragile environment hamper oil extraction.

Industry The modern, industrialized economies of the US and Canada contrast sharply with those of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Manufacturing is especially important in the US; vehicle production is concentrated around the Great Lakes, while electronic and hi-tech industries are increasingly found in the western and southern states. Mexico depends on oil exports and assembly work, taking advantage of cheap labor. Many Central American and Caribbean countries rely heavily on agricultural exports.

4

5

6

RUSS. FED.

Be

7

r in

tr gS

high

low

N

E A C O

A R C T I C

ait

(UN human development index)

B eaufor t

B e r ing

Greenland B af f in

S ea

Prudhoe Bay

(to Denmark)

B ay

S ea

USA

L abrador Gulf of Alaska

9

Hu d s on S t

S ea rai t

 Fish such as cod, flounder, and plaice are caught in the Grand Banks, off the Newfoundland coast, and processed in many North Atlantic coastal settlements.

Hud son B ay 10

C A N A D A

A

N Montréal

C Cleveland

Phoenix

Atlanta

Birmingham Dallas

O

Ciudad Juárez

El Paso New Orleans

C

Tampa

E

A

C UBA Cayman Islands

Guadalajara

(to UK)

D

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Montserrat (to UK) Guadeloupe (to France)

San Juan

Navassa Island (to US)

GUATEMALA Guatemala City

ST KITTS & NEVIS ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

Caribbean Sea

HONDURAS

Lesser

Aruba

DOMINICA

Martinique (to France) ST LUCIA BARBADOS ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

l GRENADA ti A n TRINIDAD & Port-of-Spain TOBAGO

(to Neth.)

Curaçao (to Neth.)

Tegucigalpa

Bonaire (to Neth.)

VENEZUELA A

EL SALVADOR San Salvador NICARAGUA

E

F

G

M

Panama City

LO

San José

BI

Managua

PANAMA

CO

industrial cities major industrial areas

(to UK)

Port-au-Prince Santo Domingo G r e a t e JAMAICA r A n t i l l e s

BELIZE

below 1999 2000–4999 5000–9999 10,000–19,999 20,000–24,999 above 25,000

coal oil gas

C

HAITI

Mexico City

GNI per capita (US$)

I n d i e s

British Virgin Islands Anguilla (to UK)

(to US)

MEXICO

N

printing & publishing research & development shipbuilding sugar processing textiles timber processing tobacco processing

Turks & Caicos Islands (to UK) Puerto Rico

BAHAMAS

Havana

COSTA RICA

6

W e s t Virgin Islands

(to US)

Gulf of Mexico

Monterrey

Industry

B

Orlando

Miami

15

A

 The health of the Wall Street stock market in New York is the standard measure of the state of the world’s economy.

Jacksonville

le s

C

Charlotte

Tulsa

Houston

 Multinational companies rely on cheap labor and tax benefits to facilitate the assembly of vehicle parts in Mexican factories.

T N Greensboro

Nashville

A T L A

I

Saint Louis

Wichita

Tijuana

Philadelphia

Cincinnati

Kansas City

I C

F Denver

San Diego

17

New York

Detroit

Pittsburgh Baltimore Dayton

A M E R I C A

Los Angeles

14

Milwaukee Chicago

O F

Albany

Buffalo

I S T AT E S

O

C U N I T E D

13

16

Boston

Toronto

Minneapolis

San Francisco

aerospace brewing car/vehicle manufacture chemicals defense electronics engineering film industry finance food processing hi-tech industry iron & steel pharmaceuticals

A

Winnipeg

Portland

 South of San Francisco, “Silicon Valley” is both a national and international center for hi-tech industries, electronic industries, and research institutions.

12

Calgary

Seattle

E

P

Vancouver

11

K

L

M


NORTH AMERICAN RESOURCES N

O

P

Q

R

T

S

U

V

W

X

Y

Environmental issues

Mineral resources

Many fragile environments are under threat throughout the region. In Haiti, all the primary rain forest has been destroyed, while air pollution from factories and cars in Mexico City is among the worst in the world. Elsewhere, industry and mining pose threats, particularly in the delicate arctic environment of Alaska where oil spills have polluted coastlines and decimated fish stocks.

Fossil fuels are exploited in considerable quantities throughout the continent. Coal mining in the Appalachians is declining but vast open pits exist further west in Wyoming. Oil and natural gas are found in Alaska, Texas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Canadian West. Canada has large quantities of nickel, while Jamaica has considerable deposits of bauxite, and Mexico has large reserves of silver.

N E A O C B af f in B ay

L abrador S ea

Gulf of Alaska

Mi s s i s s i ppi Alabam a

E

A C

A

E

Fraser

N o

C

O

AT L AN TI C

O

 In addition to fossil fuels, North America is also rich in exploitable metallic ores. This vast, mile-deep (1.6 km) pit is a copper mine in New Mexico.

N

N

Gulf of Mexico

A

A Mexico City

6

E

Havana

C

Gr

E

Gulf of Mexico

de

C

anoke Ro

Ri o

an

I

A

Houston

C

poor urban air quality

i

nsas

Red Rive r

Phoenix

Oh

5

F

n

rka

q

New York

i

N

I

Sa

Jo a

Hamilton Chicago

sso Denver ur i Saint Louis

O

heavy marine pollution

C

marine pollution

Pla e tt

uin Los Angeles San Diego

Montréal dson Hu re D e l aw a

I

radioactive contamination

en am to

4

Hud son B ay

M

F

risk of desertification

James

desert

polluted rivers

Hud son B ay

Sudbury

Columbia

I

forest destroyed

L abrador S ea

Gulf of Alaska

Vancouver

Sacr

tropical forest

son Nel

B af f in B ay

P A C

risk of acid rain

P A C

national parks

2

O

Environmental issues

bauxite copper gold iron lead nickel phosphates silver uranium

3

B eaufor t S ea

B e r ing S ea

1

oil field gas field coal field

N EA O C

A R C T I C

B eaufor t S ea

B e r ing S ea

Mineral resources

A T L A N T I C

A R C T I C

Z

Caribbean Sea Caribbean Sea

8

A

R C T I C

Strait

S ea

B ay

ge

ac

k

zi tain s oun eM

Hu d s on S

Hud son B ay

y Lo we li

nd Gra Rio

Ca

fo

Houston San Antonio

Monterrey

Gulf of Mexico

ia

E R

N A

E C

IC

T

Tampa

Mississippi Delta

Miami

e

rn

C

Q

N

Jacksonville Austin

r

O

P

O

ns

ntai

ou

M

Dallas El Paso

N

Guadalajara

Havana

13

14

15

San Juan

16

Santo Domingo

Yucatan Península

Mexico City

12

cattle goats pigs poultry reindeer sheep bananas citrus fruits coffee corn cotton fishing fruit maple syrup peanuts rice shellfish soybeans sugar cane timber tobacco vineyards wheat

AT L A

Tucson

n

Co l

Phoenix

Ottawa

ri ou

s

C

Los Angeles San Diego

s

Boston Saint Paul Toronto Cape Cod Buffalo Minneapolis New York Milwaukee Detroit Cleveland Miss Toledo Philadelphia Chicago Pittsburgh Baltimore Washington DC Columbus Indianapolis io Cincinnati Kansas Oh Louisville City Saint Louis Ar ia Nashville ka Charlotte nsa s Tulsa Memphis Oklahoma City Atlanta

i n s P l a

i n

I Albuquerque

Québec Montréal

ch

t a

F

Denver

ke

la

n

I

do ora

t L a

pa

u

C Sacramento Oakland San Jose

Grea

Ap

t e a G r

o

P A

Portland

Winnipeg

St L aw ren ce

Calgary

M

Seattle

 The Great Plains support large-scale arable farming throughout central North America. Corn is grown in a belt south and west of the Great Lakes, while farther west where the climate is drier, wheat is grown.

O

cropland forest ice cap mountain region pasture tundra wetland desert major conurbations

k Vancouver

11

Using the land and sea

Newfoundland

A

N

S ea t

Edmonton

San Francisco

 Sugar cane is Cuba’s main agricultural crop, and is grown and processed throughout the Caribbean. Fermented sugar is used to make rum.

t rai

10

 In agriculturally marginal areas where the soil is either too poor, or the climate too dry for crops, cattle ranching proliferates – especially in Mexico and the western reaches of the Great Plains.

L abrador

c R o

Using the land and sea

enzie

en

Gulf of Alaska

Abundant land and fertile soils stretch from the Canadian prairies to Texas creating North America’s agricultural heartland. Cereals and cattle ranching form the basis of the farming economy, with corn and soybeans also important. Fruit and vegetables are grown in California using irrigation, while Florida is a leading producer of citrus fruits. Caribbean and Central American countries depend on cash crops such as bananas, coffee, and sugar cane, often grown on large plantations. This reliance on a single crop can leave these countries vulnerable to fluctuating world crop prices.

9

Ma c k

M

Al e ut i a n R a ng e

B af f in

S ea an

l d

oo

sR

n

n

Br

B eaufor t

k

B e r ing

ip p i

ring

A

E

Miss i ss

Be

O C

a

 Wild bison graze in Yellowstone National Park, the world’s first national park. Designated in 1872, geothermal springs and boiling mud are among its natural spectacles, making it a major tourist attraction.

G r e e

N

Caribbean Sea Guatemala City

S

T

U

17

Managua

X

Y

Z

7


NORTH AMERICA F

G

H

I

J

K

d

n

E C

I

h

t O

Wha Ti

Edzo

Ellice

Bu rn sid e

W

E

R

S

I

E

Garry Lake

Sl a

Aylmer elon Lake Lake en Cold tonClin

S

Hanbur y

Dubawnt Lake

Îutselk’e (Snowdrift)

ak ve L

Sn o d r i f t w

e

Fort Resolution Pine Point

Taltso n

t Gre a

T

Nonacho Lake Thoa

A

Wholdaia Lake

Fort Smith

Steen River

Uranium City

Ca rib ou Mo untai ns eace Fort Chipewyan P

Peace

ha ga

ills

Lake Athabasca

Lake Claire

h Birc tains n Mou

D

on att

O

O min

nt a

y Finla

ou M

Fort Vermilion

Willi am Ma cFa rlan e

High Leve l

Aberdeen Lake

Reliance

Yellowknife

Trutch

H ar

m

Duba wnt

T

I

Hay River

Chinc

ulf

Th

H

Slave

n

Moun Fontas 2942m t Sylvia

M au d G

k

i

t

Kasba Lake

Selwyn Lake Phelps Lake Black Lake

Wollaston Lake

Cree

T

kn ife

sto ne

Porcu pin

Pr in

R

Hay

Ra mpa r ts M ou nt ain

ER AM

A)

OF

SK

ES

LA

AT

(A

ST ED

AT O LA C N E A

IT UN

G

A

Hy lan d

Coal

S U

IC

Ro ss

R

Bistcho Lake

Fort N elson

nd Sou eel

ck ee n

Back

N

t Trou

Petitot

Be

to

O

R

Fort Sim pson Fort Pro vidence

Fort Lia rd

t For

na

s

M

tn

E

Lac La M artre

er av Be

Y M

i

l

L a r se n Sound

i Pen

Hood

ne

Lake

rn Ho

ain s

ar

Stikine Mou 2787 nt Edziz m a Mou Will nt 2515 War e m Sustu t Pea k 2470 m

a

K

Co pp e

Willowlak e

Nels o

Coron

Kugluk (Copperm tuk ine)

an

y Cambridge Ba (Ikaluktutiak) Lind ny Jen Qu Island

lf G u Kent la nsu

n tio

t Inle

T

Liard

Moun Roose t 2972mvelt

Stra it

L ake Ec ho Bay Takijuq

B ear

N

Tung sten

ssi

Sk

ake

Ca

Tele g ra ph C reek Mou nt

Un i on

Hottah Lake

h an

Wats on L ake Lowe r Pos t

at

Vic tor ia Island

A

unt

K

MeTs zah e Pe Deas 2164ak De a m L se

d Re

Wrigle y

So

re

nzie Macke

Mo

C

Sim 2173pson Pea m k

tain s o u n h Na ni ut eM

wyn

Atli Atlin n u Lake ak

R 313 atz 6m

zi

Sel

Wh 880 ite Pass m

Keele

Ch

ine rm

P

en

e Snak

Bonnet

Mou nt M ur Tesl 2162ray in m

Fort (Rád Good Ho eyilik p óé) e Norm an W ell Délìn s e Tulit a

Kee 2972le Peak m

Mt H 2743unt m

ee

The majority of Canada’s agricultural land is found in the prairies, which cover 140 million acres (57 million ha) and support wheat and grain-fed cattle. More specialized crops, such as fruit and vegetables, are grown in pockets of agricultural land in the east and west. Of Canada’s many islands, only Prince Edward Island has notable farmland. Further north, boreal forests, exploited for timber, run in an almost unbroken arc, giving way to uncultivable tundra and ice sheets in the far north.

11

iteh ors e

t a s C o

Using the land and sea

Teslin

In recent years the road network has been expanded, especially links to remote areas. Meanwhile, for long-distance travel, air transportation now supersedes the declining rail network, which focuses mainly on east–west routes.

R OM

1864 miles (3000 km)

eak

2

190 Ais m hih ik L Car ake ma cks Far Yu o Klu ane Lak Lak e e La Ha berg t Jun ines e ns ctio n Wh

ly Pel

8049 miles (12,995 km)

Mo unt L 595 ogan 9m

kon

10,500 miles (16,900 km)

e ng Ra on g ws Nislin

10

309,019 miles (497,375 km)

M YU ac Ken K O k oH TE il l N RR l Stewartume Ma Da I T yo Gle OR nlyo nP Y

Da ws on

Mountains Elias int Sa

9

Transportation network

P A C I F I C

aerospace car manufacture chemicals engineering food processing hi-tech industry hydroelectric power oil & gas mining timber processing capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

White

Major industry and infrastructure

IC N

P

f P ri n ce o Wa le s Is la n d

Zeta Lake

rst thu Ba

T

rt Ha

Toronto

ES OF AMERICA

n

D S TAT

es

P r in ce Al be r t Pe ni n su la

Rae

Hare Ind ian

Resolute) ittuq (Qausu

M Passage ount Point Vi s c Stefansson ait Island Peel Point Str

Bluenose Lake

C

ITE

Halifax

Montréal OTTAWA

o Yuk

Thunder Bay

Peel

Hor ton

Regina

8

Québec St. John

Winnipeg

I s l a

Bathurst Island

Pa r r y C h a n n e l

Wollaston Peninsula

lp hin &

Paulatu k

ath rnw Ca

Vancouver

er Arctic Red Riv

Calgary Saskatoon

Victoria

e

r ve Ri Eagle

Edmonton

Cir cle

al

ds

nell Grin sula Penin

e lv i l l e S o u n d

Do

St. John's

O Porcu ld Cro pine w

d

Lougheed Island

Melville Island

C pe se Parr n G Wollastaon y Holman ulf Frank lin Cap e Lyon Bay Prince Albert Sound aday Horn

Hu d s on Bay

Arc tic

un

Cape

Tuk toya ktu k Eski Lak mo es Inu Ak l v avik ik For tM cPh Tsi erson (Ar igehtch ctic i Red c Riv er)

Sachs (Ikaa Harbour huk)

d Amun ss Ringned n la Is

lin

C A N A D A

r S ea

e Ba thur st

e And rson

do

Ca Kelle pe tt

Prince Gustaf Adolf Mackenzie Sea King Island

M’C

16

Ban I s l a nk s d

Am

bra

Her sch el Is Ma lan cke d Bay nzie

Rich ard s M o u n t a i no n s

C P A C I F IN OCEA

La

Yellowknife

7

au f Se ort a Cap

B ri ti sh s in Mo u nta

Whitehorse

UN

Be

Ellef Ringness Island

E

ay ley B Had

n B ay

Sverdrup Is lan

it

ffi

Tliz

r y P a r

ra

Thomsen

Ba

e

C

b rin Alfre ce d

5

A

e

e

 Canada has one of the u world’s highest rates of energy Q PaPrtriinckce Land consumption per person. It is Island s End endowed with vast hydroelectric potential from which more M' than 60% of its electricity Cl ur Ca requirements are generated. eS P pe t

Abundant energy in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, and hydroelectric power underpins Canadian industry. Over 75% of manufacturing is concentrated in the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence region, including prospering aerospace, transportation, and hi-tech industries. Across Canada as a whole, manufacturing has developed around a diversified, high-quality resource base and a wide range of metallic and nonmetallic minerals. IC CT AR AN E C O

Rn

A

Transportation and industry 4

l Axe berg i e H nd Is l a

a

I

C

Yello w

3

Cape y Stallworth

W

2

O

Canada is the second largest country in the world, and with only about onetenth of its land area inhabited, it is one of the most sparsely populated. Canada became a confederation in 1867, though Newfoundland did not join until 1949. As a founding member of the UN and of the Commonwealth, Canada has played an important role in international affairs. A constitutional crisis, focusing on the French-speaking Québécois, and Inuit, and Native American land rights, dominated politics in the 1990s. In 1999, part of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, became a self-governing homeland for the Inuit.

196

l a

 The Selwyn Mountains in northwestern Canada form part of the Rocky Mountains. The highest point, Keele Peak, rises to 9750 ft (2972 m).

s

Canada

1

L

N

E

s

D

A

C

of

B

ce

A

Wollaston Lake

Ath

Smo

Beaver

t

T

A

sca

P

ri

l

AT L OC AN EA T N

30

40

50

60

70

80

Population density

Total land area

9 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km)

3,559,294 sq miles (9,220,970 sq km)

A

B

90

100

cattle cereals fishing fruit timber capital cities major towns

C

D

E

F

G

H

s

UNIT E D S TAT E S O F

 The climate and topography of the prairies makes them ideally suited to farming. Long summer days, moderate temperatures, limited rainfall, and flat plains provide excellent conditions for wheat farming.

pasture cropland forest wetland mountain region barren tundra

Calgary

n

20

16

i

10

S Nu n t a i n s

Mo

a

ia

I

mb

Ca

lu

A

Co

Edmonton

Sa

A

S

N

U

e a G r

n ero

U

Vanco uver

Land use and agricultural distribution

rural 23%

I

C

t ar

0

8

s

urban 77%

17

Mtn

The urban/rural population divide

16

Ca m

eca

ds

15

in s

it Stra

an

PAC I F I C O C E A N

14

n s t a i u n M o

e Hecat

l te Is Qu N C h ar l ot e n e E A O C

13

s Nas

Willis S A S K A T C H E WA N Fort C l e to Manning Takla Cap Reindeer Cree Lake Wa Lake n St.John e KnDixon b L er a a a Lake S k s w A even e ca ox Clear t Entr Lake a Turnor c L s a S b is B E R Peak Prin anc a Peace s 275 ters ce R e Terrac T Pe Loche La 5 A ac m Fort e Ri u ver e Mack Dawso Smit Gra Ma pert Desmarais McMurray enzie Churchill Lake hers s h High Uti Creek n ky IC eena H Isla am set Sentin Pinehouse Lake ill CT KitSik oust el Peak nd Prairie kuma Lake Peter Pond Buffalo AR AN o m n Church at 2 E G Les Ba 5 ser ra 1 Narrows Sla 5 F C n ve m Missinipe ort St. de Lake Lake O ffi Va V lle a yv Ja iew nder Prairie Lac La Ronge n B Stu mes O Sla P ve o Ronge h La La ts r Mor Primrose Lake ke oof ince a Lak ay e Pri Roy ss Isla esby Athabasca n Swan Hills nd Deschambault Islan al B R I ce George Cold Lake Cold Lake d 192 Lake Westlock Ocea Grand Centre COL TISH Grande n Fa Barrhead Montreal Lake an lls King U Lake Meadow C Mo Ed ac M rinville ew son Spruce he a Islan Whitehorse Bell Que B ab tch d Grove F r a s eI A Quesnel Co o a Prince St.Walburg Ath Hin Char en Rivers In ka s la to n La let lo Albert Plate r bra Lloydminster Leduc Soun tte Mount Sir Nipawin Rocky do au Mona d Camrose Wainwright r S Wilfrid La rch M Mountain ers Inlet ford W v Battle 3 North ur i il 5 o ier 3 u li e 35 3 n Wet b a 05m m tain askiwin ms C A N A D A Port R Moun a Tisdale Ho t o us lfor Me e Battleford t Wad oM Cape H Lake Moun Lacombe dingto Scott ardy tns le Martensville Kicking Queent Red Deer att Unity 4016mn Hu d s on oon B kat B Sas e Ho rse Pass 3313m ss Bay eer Lanigan Wynyard Olds Biggar 1627m Red D C Clinto n Vanc ampbell Riv Wedg St. John's Drumheller Rosetown Outlook L il e lo o us e M Ba o tro u r nff ounta et Wa Chase Edmonton Golden ve in Kindersley 2891m Ly tt Islan r Courte Oyen Vancouver Calgary Saskatoon on nay Squ K mlo d Invermer Charlottetown Lake Diefenbaker Fort Qu'Appelle Victoria e Merria amish o p s tt Okotoks St. John North Lumsden High River Québec Vernon Winnipeg Travers Nana Regina Halifax Swift Current Vanco imo Reservoir Kelown Thunder Bay Jaw e For u Moos t v Cro e ws Regina Montréal r nes UN Medicine t Pass Ma Hat OTTAWA Ric Redcliff IC cleod Penticto aKim ITE Old Wives Lake Weyburn berley 1356m n D S Esquimhmond Leth TAT brid s ge l a l boia lt i Toronto Assini ES OF Castlegar Cran AMERICA n Cy press H brook Pincher Creek d MtRoc kglen Val Marie Victor Milk River Woo Cardston ia

12

I

Scale 1:14,700,000 Km 0 25 50 0

25

100 50

150

200

100

250 150

300

350 200

250

300

350

Miles

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

J

K

L

M


pe Ca ecla H

N O RT H A M E R I CA : CANADA P

GREE

ak Pe eau b r Ba 616m 2

r

D A Nk )

ma

A C Ice

S

T

196

of nce Pri ales d W fiel Ice

S ou

n d s De

Is von

on DevCap Ice

n

st ca

ound er S

g e nt

e Re

r deu Bro s u l a in Pe n

inc

d rar She

Q

B a f f i n i k

den B or sula n i Pe n

rset S ome Is la n d

X

Y

Top layer thaws in the summer 1

Marginal areas of permafrost thaw in summer Unfrozen ground where temperature is more moderate

 Along the northeastern coast of Baffin Island the mountains rise to 8000 ft (2440 m). Glaciers move down through the valleys to the sea, eroding wide U-shaped valleys.

Exposure to three phases of mountain-building and subsequent erosion over millions of years has molded the ancient Canadian Shield into a series of basins and ridges.

Fertile prairies stretch The Mackenzie river, flowing north from the southern rim over the permafrost, forms a wide of the Canadian Shield, river channel with many tributaries. south into the US. Together with the Peel river it has created a long, narrow delta at its mouth. The entire river freezes during the winter. Great Bear Lake

2

3

i q

t a

B a y r ate pe K Ca enry H e

a

B af fin

rd ffo Gi

Davis St ra q

m Ho Bay

l u ch Hantzs

Gu

Pr

pe Ca

l an d

In l e t

La

W

nd

Rowley

es

V

Permanently

d ior se F q) Gri usuitu (A

n Jo

U

 Permanently frozen ground frozen ground known as permafrost is common in Canada’s northern tundra. It thickens farther north, becoming hundreds of yards deep in parts of the Arctic.

Glaciers on islands in the Arctic Ocean are the last remnants of the ice sheet that once covered and shaped Canada. Hudson Bay is the center of the Canadian Shield, a huge, eroded plateau marked at its southern extremity by a string of lakes running southeastward from Great Bear Lake to the Great Lakes. In contrast to the rolling relief of the Shield and the central lowland region, the Rocky Mountains rise to peaks of over 13,000 ft (4000 m), stretching 500 miles (800 km) along the west coast.

NL

ere m s d le El slan z i I gass ap

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The landscape

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it

The Great Lakes lie on the Canada–US border. The basins they now occupy were fashioned by repeated ice advance. At one time, Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan formed a single large lake, Lake Nipissing.

The Rocky Mountains were formed some 80 million years ago, when the Pacific plate was driven under the North American plate, forcing up the land.

Is la

lf

The St. Lawrence River is 2350 miles (3782 km) d lan long. It flows from the western shore of Lake y Is unk e l M s w Superior through the Great Lakes and on to Jen sland Ro a k e i I i l c o h t o h the Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, or th Cu m b e r l a n d S o Boo Iglo e ac ce r F nd e a i u B l l n n i u i c l d A s s l Lemie the St. Lawrence Seaway freezes between a ir P r ar le Isla Ha ux I Pe n i n k ) Cape an ic C a t o h d y c s Lake Ontario and Montréal. lan C l an pm Talo nce Bay Ar k s ng Cha d i I a l s l e (Spe i ju itte ett Lake ll la ad mm N o a d m C g  The Great Lakes are drained by Kin n A ke M H n su aruk Bay le La Kuga Bay) La cKeand lv il l a ks the St. Lawrence River which n William y ni ales M e (Pell Lo e nd t ma W u i a d w s d n P l s flows down through a wide lu Isla Bo ay Islan nin nI qa ay) e B F I en r o o av b P i i H s B h e r B ay t tectonic depression. It forms a Gjoa er Me t a In c o tuuq) a olu h l s y s g a n u (Uqsuq e ita B broad estuary for much of its bi R nd ns er ds and ulse ro Isla rchest t Pe n i n s u l a eni l an Rep (F Hay et course, the width varying from 1.2 ru art eP Isl ek Is Do es ors sitt x mi our) e n n o d p D a o m n F n V miles (1.9 km) in the upper reaches Ca pe ce tt lli Ki arb sla Ca bur y an Bu Ki Fox gI to 90 miles (145 km) at its mouth. eH dv is T Bi ak eC sA Sal and L e ( U p han k n Isl o V Ho taq pato t n p p W el ager Bay m ur Ca uaq Ak land N A es tha rb o a Q arl Is aq N U Ch sland S o u Is l a n dCoraliHq)a jju m av k I a c lu h d l k a Ba l g g a u s n y n i vi s e (S ai n ott Isla q’ al ko in giq ant U B a con Evan s N ed a k itu an cN Na k p i a S t ra i t l K v L M o ji le H rfa s Ivu su Gy land les Ge ake in va ake Is euil n e Baker L p a é a Baker L aq) r C ll g F P A w nittu ux da ape Lo Chest Un (Qama ca ne l erfie Ken C d’ La nse ld In Pay Ri a c er ND s d t M a t let v iè n k L Inle th iv Coand re à Isla rfield or R LA la B Cheste N est la R Inlet s I a in k lein W Ran e Ka n yND D O ove lls alle ay ac U C a A L le a B ) F V c d Wh arjuaq e Yathkyed lou ill py se FO BR awa oo il l Cani sia (Tikir Ott ands lw ir rch ap oo rv apisc Lake Tas au ffe mal rvo hu H G EW LALittle Mec Isl e ati h S ese C t on na Sc il l N & o Rivi gt o Poin R C hu r c h int re Eskim in r M k k c a t iè rr bou a t a ia a u n a v j L r A b ) k H ar au iko Ta Inu rison ke l’ E H At ac ar La eph cà La Tha-Anne L s La ire rt H e o c l o J l r a a P i l i ( L env C p i ne k n Thlewiaza e Bi Nueltin ti or roo ua de s vièr i e h r R C o i s r e q e B Lake ic vo au Petit Baleine lua ier ty M A Lak nt iki ser isc ois Ci t-P de la Ré niap San ie ’A ini Lake or -S C ill d a e h d w Nejanil c r o r a C u sc Ch av Île br on r up Cape H aa gn iviè Seal r E La an k Ga chill rande R che s api e) l s r Chur r e a e i B and ujju lein a vo -Îl Lake e l ine Cabot B cocane Ku la-Ba er pt Tadoule Isl ser an y s d le rtrti am Se Ré ouag Strait e Ba Île ade Po nier s-Ca é Tatn -de ao ge) e e r p t N c a s o i e sp C c c e e M É u n a a G (Po n l q a a M L c rt M G ney eto nd M t Ja G Se (Fo ake Isla vern r on m South ibi Indian L t Se ng yd U B u n s r o M er 8 o a a S th L F é s i 6 e i Sou pe d ca 12 sp Ch CE D d et ssin om ina wn ar n Ca slan Ga ton raqu RIN AR sta Q -C s Op waka ga Eastmai Mi D Edw tteto gow Waskaioke l a n Baie ont ane e c I G l W P c a e N t C a o a L e L ds L rs lo Lynn Lake pb ED A ce as s-M Mat an Gillam isk m t hu m ISL Prinand har ids Gl Betsiamites e-de ou Win e Leaf Rap uper Ca on Bat atha an ew ki plit Lak eR Isl C nn i S s t M e i d h e N ak A L l m l c r e t C re Granville Thompson Ca Aki nd Ste t-Joi viè K rsid edia hers Mt 0m Ri on k n Islaon E WW I Cmme Sh Am uro M ous 82 ans Ekwa skat o v n n t x E l o N a r B u r nt w m to e pi Su Tr lifa Lac Ri ds ChaIslandganisht) t-Je t L ak awa e N S cton o Ha au cS i un a per Trou fax Att p ke Gods Lak a k m g a U i L s m u a t L n B n a rd de o n u m o Nottaw c t o s BR isk ug Oxfo alir Wabow Ed -L Sachig uti e For y WFort R M omo t Joh sor Win e bo al l u i o H e n F d n c e h o ( to t r i an C Mols d K Lak Creigh Ha Lak ry Or ain ind wa Ch quiè vière ton Alb an n r ri cto S W ge Lake n ric c Gr oui e Fa er Jon Ri -Paul rid de A r G Sto os e k i e B B a t M L o r d Mau S F i T O Islan erv rice ieam A e mi Ba urg Rés M A N I es tag y Lak aga Ma s eorg e esbo Lake Sand Caribou Kes Lake Lake The Pas Lake y e t u d a r n k l a c q G S iè O Cedar Tu har North Lake Attawapis s ébe Riv St C La Poplar ir da tibi mo Grand R I h Qu Trois- ndville rvo a ok ne ac Abi A oran e s ut g a s A id r é ap g R N O L n r R e ch rst T mi mo p e Berens mo Co uyn d'O Cabo ar Hea oga pin m N o l Y n u u a R g r V s O t Lake rc ls Ke c g me D g min Po Hil Swan River asin gla heTrou stron érô l d usk Tim 64 Lon Arm gat onts St-J ava ear oir Lake eph ville Kap m k A s su y L p i e ld y s v Ba G L r t.Jo ak Ste es-M ke ew Rése ozois a a c Seul S dL ake Canora Mountain a N d L L L n d D e a w R l a y on 831m n alls kout ale t irk in ke bur Kip Ot Ear F Nipig Eriksd Gimli atho eye K x Loo unta taw bro es Lac ay Siou Fol gon Mar Top Mo a Yorkton Dauphin B ing Pem Hawk ke a Nipi am n a ip h e g t d T L y o s r Dr G Riding mi Selkirk No e Nipis 640m a 's c des aga rr y Mountain Waw Tem Lak eg Kenora Eagle Lake eine LMa illes Lacs der Bay Ba y s ille ip n Elevation Population ith a in y Minnedosa Prairie H ckv n B W bach a ur Sm Falls Thu Bro ola rk’s libur ton Portage la lt rie Sudb y Lake n n tein u in a S a a k H n 1 million to 5 million a o R ighlands u lls k S .Ma o sp an ti B t m E A ar d s on C a le nd g F Carly Bra Ste oun ey Winkler Su p e r i o r 6000m / 19,686ft Kin 500,000 to 1 million ds oe Killarn n arr y S lin ke imc the WoRoainy River Forratnces itou Melita er rg i a o La Lake of ke S F Riv Man land Geo y P i a 100,000 to 500,000 d r L a 4000m / 13,124ft h Is w a Ba land g Blin t a ou sh On Midood L ak O ke 50,000 to 100,000 bor w Peter m 3000m / 9843ft a g e n L i a l ls 10,000 to 50,000 Col rkh Fal Mapton 2000m / 6562ft ara g a below 10,000 Ni m rie rt E Braner 1000m / 3281ft n Fo he

of

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58 le Ve 7 Gr rte C m Mou Ne a nt w au han Bu Fall nd ain f xB n s ou cha as el-P Bu ST qu o rg n d ns G eo M PI es rt l a G ander C IQ ER M U (to E RE ar n an y d de ape Fr Fr LO & sto an N r eel w Bo ce s n Cl G ) na ar Ba ran vi en St s nk d ta .Jo Ca v i l rb le h on Pl n’s ac St. ear Ca en Joh tia pe n’s Ra ce

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Strait of Bell e Isle

a ir

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Roes Welcome Sound

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i Hudson Stra

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Simpson Peninsula

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d

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xe Fo sin Ba

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16

E

16

500m / 1640ft

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250m / 820ft

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100m / 328ft

La

nia Sar r lai C . t eS Lak r

to mil HTahomas

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c Kit n do Lon

s

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n

 Isolated pillars, known as hoodos near Red Deer river in the badlands of Alberta are a product of wind and water erosion, especially flash floods. The badlands lie in the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains, which creates a semiarid climate.

o ont Tor

ro

L a k e Mi c hi g an

Great L ak

Hu

CA AMERI

17

sea level

L

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

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9


Ross R iver Pe lly

nt

n

ai

ns

j

Mount H 2743m unt

n

Hy la

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s

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ai

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Ca

m

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M

o

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U

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ha

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F ra se r

i

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Fraser

P la te a u

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d

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N

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Williston La ke

o

it

UN I OF TED AM ST E R AT E IC S A

l ay

ns

M

Stra

Vancouver

S

D

Sikanni Chief Pink Mountai n Wonowon

M

ai

s Nas

d lan t Is Pit

Hecate

n

C

RIC

Great Snow Mo untain f 2896m hi e Si k anni C

Sustut Peak 2470m

E

wa Winnipeg

Regina

E F AM U N I T E D S TAT E S O

B

Ontario

che kat

Thompson

Trutch

Ware

s

Churchill

Vancouver Victoria

ut

Saskatoon Calgary

C

n av

Manitoba

S as

CEAN IC O

Alberta Edmonton

nd sla eI

Nu

t h w e s t Te r r i t o r i e s

Fort McMurray

ott

CIF

British Columbia

Kamloops

10

arl

PA

Nor

Prince George

A

The transportation network of the western provinces is dominated by east–west routes that weave through mountain passes and spread across the plains. Access to some northern areas is restricted to air travel.

O

Whitehorse

17

None

h nC

T OR A

Yukon Territory

16

24,041 miles (38,694 km)

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

aerospace chemicals coal engineering food processing hydroelectric power mining oil & gas timber processing

Dawson

15

6459 miles (10,401 km)

Major industry and infrastructure

BE AU SE F

s

Hudson's Ho pe Cranber Junctiory k S ee n n Kitwanga Hazelto Takla n New Haz Lake Seven Sist Pine Pass elton Dixon ers Peaks 869m Entran Mackenzie Granisle Babine 2755m ce P McLeod a Cape K T er race nox Smithers Lake rince R Lake i upert Masse n Sentinel Peak Telkwa t s 2515m Porcher a n Graha e e H Port Ed Sk ouston Island Stuart ward Fort St.Jam Islandm es Douglas Kitimat Burns Lake La ke Port C ua Channel rt Queenlements Fraser Lake Charlo Sin tte Ootsa Lake Vanderhoof clair Mills Sandsp it Banks Kemano Moresb Prince c Island Ne Eutsuk La Island y George ke Princess Royal Island Aristaza bal Barkerville Nazko Island Quesnel Ocean Fa Hagensb org lls Likely Anahim La d Bella Coo ke Ma Cape St. an Bella Bel la rguerite James Isl Burke la Channel Mount Queen Williams Sa Alexis Cr Namu 2908m ugstad Charlott Lake Kleena Kleeeek M e Dawsons L ne Rivers In onarch Mountain an Ta le di tla Lake Sound t 3533m ng Rivers Hanceville 192 Inlet Cape Cau Mount Wad 100 Mile House tion dington Que 4016m en Mount Queen C Cape Sc ha Bess 3313m ott rlo Knight tte Clinton Port Har Winter Inlet Str dy Mount Gilbe Harbou rt ait r Cache Creek 31 09 m Po Port Alice rt McNeill Bute Inlet Cape Coo Sa Lillooet k Ashcroft Vancouve yward Pemberton r Campb ell River Whistler Wedge Ly tton Island Mountain Gold Riv er 2891m Tahsis Powell Rive Comox r Bosto  Much of the Yukon Territory Squamish n Bar Courtenay un No rth is uninhabited tundra. Industry o Se chelt Va aS ncouver Hope Port Parksville No o t k Gibsons is based on the extraction of Tofino Alberni Richmon d mineral resources, and to a N an Burnaby aimo Ucluelet La smith Vancouver lesser extent, on the scattered Chilliwack nd Bamdy Langley u o fie ld Lak S e Cowichan Abbotsford forests of the south. ley Duncan Bark tr ait Victoria o f J Esquimalt uan d e Fu c a G H I J

Quee

14

82,438 miles (135,145 km)

in

Mount Lloyd George 2972m

BRITI SH COLU MBIA

Meziadin nction StewarJu t

Portlan d Inlet

C

13

The western provinces contain a wealth of mineral resources. Alberta holds the bulk of Canada’s fossil fuels; the other provinces contain reserves of metallic ores, such as zinc, lead, and silver. Isolation from markets has slowed the development of manufacturing, restricting it to the large cities like Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Calgary. Hydroelectric power is widely exploited, although there is increasing concern about potential ecological damage.

Transportation network

I

Transportation & industry

Mount Pa tt 2729m ullo

F

12

N

nt

1,230,547 sq miles (3,187,120 sq km)

 Large, highly-mechanized and often very specialized farms, requiring huge investment but little labor, characterize modern farming in the prairies.

100

t

8 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km)

90

Nelso

Mount Roos evelt 2972m Mount Sylvi a 2942m Prophet River

ta

Fi n

80

Fo rt

a e c i n O m

70

n

r

n Muncho La ke Fort Nelson

ka

60

Total land area

ou

50

hi Kec

M

40

M

a

30

s

20

u

Mount W 2515m ill Bronlund Peak 2594m

e en

aStikine

10

Population density

I

0

o

Y

o

C

11

ake

Creek tik S in e

Mount 2787m Edziza

Sk

Liard Rive r

ar

K

C

Telegra ph

Coal River

ea se

Dease L

ve

a

D

Be

si Cas

Teslin

Go o d H ope La Cassiar ke

Mesza 2164mh Peak

Moun ra 3136m t Ratz

T

Watson Lake Lower Po st

C

2173m

Nakin a

Mount M urra 2162m y

Upper Li ard

Atlin Simpson Peak

Atlin L ak e

S

nd

White hor Joh se

E

R

ou

al

M

Co

y

Fi n l a y

ll

li Tes

L ak e La Labergke e Cham pagne

W

Pe

Aishih ik

ou Al se k

H

a

Faro

e

s ns R T tai a i n un Mo nt yn ou Selw ie M Keele Pe 2972m ak

l an

Gleno

rural 17%

 Established in 1907, Jasper National Park lies in the heart of the Rocky Mountains. It is noted for its spectacular alpine scenery and contains part of the large Columbia Icefield.

enz

D on

e

ITE

lu m

cMil

Glenly 2190m on Peak

M

A

O

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St e w a r t

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The urban/rural population divide urban 83%

Mack

r Ha

on

n

UN I OF TED AM ST E R AT E IC S A

l Pee

Wind

M

e Cre

s o

s

10

ia

F A U N I T E D S TAT E S O

IC MER

Keno H ill Mayo

rt te wa

A

Vancouver

nt a

P

Regina

Calgary

ou

ek

White 880m Pass

pasture cropland forest wetland barren tundra

n

Kamloops

Ogilv ie

major towns

Winnipeg

Saskatoon

Victoria

Ontario

Manitoba

wa

Edmonton

Prince George

Thompson

che kat

Alberta

cier

cattle cereals fishing fruit timber

Churchill

S as

CEAN IC O

British Columbia

El

CIF

Fort McMurray

t

Nu

h w e s t Te r r i t o r i e s

rd Gla

agricultural distribution

ut n av

Peel

n

Klua L ak e n e

Moun t Log 5959m an

S e wa

Plain

Minto

g

ek

in

PA

Nor t

Koid ern

Sa

Whitehorse

ek

Burw ash L andin g

T OR A

Territory

Beav er Cr e

Coffe

l Nis

Wheat farming is the economic mainstay of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, which contain 82% of farmland in Canada. Cattle are also raised on the prairies. Forestry and fishing are the most prominent resource-based industries in British Columbia. Despite the mountainous terrain, fruit and specialized grains can be grown Dawson in the Okanagan and Fraser valleys. Yukon Land use and BE AU SE F

w D a

Using the land and sea

Eagle

YUK ON in s TERR I TO R Y

S

it e

16

p

Glenb oyle

Stewa rt Riv er Wh

6

u rc Po

M

 The Fraser River valley is a major area of settlement in British Columbia. Railroads cross the Rocky Mountains via this valley.

Bo

ie

Daw son

L

zie Bay

O g i lv i e

Clinto n Cre

k Yu

5

Ma ck e n

Old C row Porcupine

Arcti c Cir cle

O g i lv

4

British Moun tains

ountains son M

The mountains of the west coast, incorporating British Columbia and the Yukon Territory, descend into the vast, flat prairies of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The empty lands and fertile soils of the prairie provinces attracted migrants, and the descendants of early European immigrants still make up a large proportion of the population. The mechanization of agriculture has reduced the need for labor, and rural population densities remain low. The majority of the people live within 100 miles (160 km) of the southern Canada–US border, and in British Columbia, one of the leading Canadian provinces in terms of economic wealth. The Yukon Territory, in the far north, remains a relatively unspoiled wilderness, containing large, untapped mineral reserves. This province has a significant population of Native American people, many of whom maintain a traditional lifestyle.

K

t S a

hard

Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, S a s k a t c h e w a n , Yu k o n Te r r i t o r y

for

e Hersch el Islan d

Ric

WESTERN PROVINCES 2

au

Sn ak

Canada:

1

Be

G

s

F

Ro s

E

e

D

in

C

E ag l e

B

D S TA TE (AL S O AS F A KA ME ) RIC A

A

Lia rd

NORTH AMERICA

E

F

U


N O RT H A M E R I CA : CANADA – WE ST E R N PROVI N CE S N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

The landscape

The Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains is the source of two major rivers, the Athabasca and the North Saskatchewan.

Mount Logan rises 19,551 ft (5959 m). It is the highest peak in Canada.

The massive Rocky Mountains form a continental divide between rivers flowing eastward and westward. The interior plains lie east of the mountains, stretching from the Arctic Circle south into the US. Covered with glacial deposits from the last Ice Age, these are interspersed with hilly regions and long, steep escarpments.

U

V

W

X

Vegetated island

Y

Bar

River flow is diverted by deposited sediments

1

Sand flat

 Braided rivers are shallow and fast-flowing. The interlaced branches are formed when excess sediments, which can no longer be transported, are deposited. The sediments collect in the river channel forming bars and sand flats. Islands form when the bars are colonized by vegetation.

The badlands of Alberta were created when east-flowing rivers, swollen by meltwater at the end of the last Ice Age, cut deep, wide canyons producing eroded, barren landscapes.

2

 Across the tundra of northern Manitoba, widespread permafrost inhibits water from permeating the soil. This causes rivers like the Churchill to flow in many channels, which can be frozen for up to six months during the winter.

South Saskatchewan River

Map key

3

Population 500,000 to 1 million

The Nelson and Churchill rivers drain northward across the Canadian Shield to Hudson Bay. The shield covers three-fifths of Saskatchewan.

100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000

4

10,000 to 50,000 below 10,000

Setting Lake

The Rocky Mountain Trench is the longest linear fault in the world. It has formed a straight, flat-bottomed valley between 2–9 miles (4–15 km) wide, and up to 3280 ft (1000 m) deep.

Elevation 6000m / 19,686ft

5

4000m / 13,124ft 3000m / 9843ft

Hundreds of islands dot the fjord-indented coast of British Columbia; the largest is Vancouver Island.

2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft

The Alberta and Saskatchewan plains bear strong testament to past glaciations. The Assiniboine, Saskatchewan and Qu’Appelle rivers occupy flat-bottomed, steep-sided valleys eroded during the last Ice Age by glacial meltwater.

Three major passes cut through the Rocky Mountains: Yellowhead, Kicking Horse, and Crowsnest. They are all used as transportation routes through the mountains.

250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft sea level

The Cypress Hills rise to 4806 ft (1465 m) above the surrounding plain. Having escaped the last glaciation they contain unique plant and animal life. The silvery lupine, bunchberry, and lodgepole pine all grow in the cool, moist climate of the hills.

Scale 1:8,250,000

 Ancient granite outcrops, part of the Canadian Shield, rise above the surface of Setting Lake, which was initially formed by meltwater from the last Ice Age.

6

The lowlands of Manitoba are a basin that once held the vast post-glacial Lake Agassiz, remnants of which include Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Manitoba.

7

Km

200

250

Fort McMurray

A L B E RTA

G

ie

G

Fort MacKay

Cl

Foster Lakes

Tur nor Lake Frobisher Lake e Loch La

ear water

ke Macoun La

Ch ur ch il l

Fox Mine

Hone

ids Leaf Rap le Lake Granv il

d

Go

a attaw Sham

Ilford

t

Thomp

son

k Sipiwes

Ha ye

T

N

13

H

ab

eg

14

up in

e

tc h

Ba t

Por c

I

m

S ou th S

P

lu

Saskatc North

an

o

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Edmonton

a sk a

r

ip

n

se

asca

ill

s

in W

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t

m

La

oky

a

B e av e r

e

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Nelson

Nipi n

s

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Athabas ca

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r

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m Tatna

n

Nels o

Hay es

Gillam

ak e Split L Kelsey o wo

iver Weir R

agan House Churchill Lake Pukataw Oxford Peace River Taylor Peace ke ke a La Grimshaw e L us s ho row r rd Pete Pine Buffalo Nar Desmarais Fairview Oxfo ake Charles issi ssing Missinipe i l Utikuma Lake Lake Gods Lws k L ak e Pond Spirit River K Go d s C h u r c h Sandy Bay Rycroft Sipiwes abowden Sandy Lake Lake L ak e Narro W osse Donnel -Cr Gift Chetwynd Dawson Creek Lake g ly à-la n Îlee lin ti s k Conk a Falher Set e arrow Snow Lake Lac La McLennan Cross L Tupper Pelikan N L ak Lesser Slave Lake High Prairie Ronge L ak e Hythe Sexsmith e Kinuso Creighton erry Portage Ponton Beauval La Ronge n L ak Island nb Beaverlodge Slave Lake ra C Molso Calling Lake Flin Grande ValleyviewFaust Wembley Smith ant Flon Primrose Prairie Wallace Tumbler Ridge ult House Hondo Cormor Amisk Mountain Lake Deschamba Norway Lake Lake 1259m Doré Lake it i Lac La Biche Boyle Lake p Cold Little Smoky Wa Swan Hills Cold Lake Montreal se Athabasca and Hou Pierceland The Pas Moose Lake Lake Green Lake Fox Creek Cumberl Grand Centre tchewan tray Mount Sir Alexander a Bonnyville Westlock S t t l e Sm o k y askesiu Lake Lake adow Lake Smoky Lake W Me k ake s Wes 3274m Li Cedar L Candle Lake St.Paul Sa Whitecourt Barrhead Big River Redwater Tobin oiceland Elk Point Rapids Poplar d n Morinville Fort ra t don N G Mayerthorpe Ch Willing or t h ille Grande Cache Carro Fr Sas St.Walburg St.Albert Saskatchewan Easterv a Meath Park er Two Hills iv in s R a k aw ip atc i N Sherwood Edson Spruce Grove River t Rapid s e o od wayn n u r wo Mar irit h re r Sp e rt Be Evansburg ew Turtleford Grand Park Mundar Prince Albe Ca McBride th Barrows asq son Vegreville Vermilion Little B e re n s P Plain A Stony n sly s Gla Mount Robson Hud Birch HillMelfort Devon s ShellbrookDuck Hinton Drayton Valley Mannville Bay 3954m il l Tofield Blaine Lake ewan iver Lloydminstere Lashburn North wan iver H Yellowhead Pass Birch R Lake he Edmonton Leduc Camrose Viking Tisdale Lake Tête Jaune Ca tl Maidstone .Louis osis Dauphin R St d b in a m for e ttle che 1131m Jasper Ba ock P ve uck Baynas Winnipeg er n D aw er es Daysland Wainwright ak R Cut Wetaskiwin sth W rd Ro Pine D ito Haffo dle Naicam mville Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier in id su M M an p y Sw G wan Marsden Knife Battleford Waldheim n an o to n C 3505m Valemount ke Rimbey Ponoka w ng Killam La o vi Jasper k r er el S Riv Rive Hardisty Borden Aberdeen Watson K Bashaw B Benito National Park Nordegg Unity Fisher Wilkie egosis lle Bentley at Lacombe t Winnip tagan ost Martensville Preecevia Kinbasket Car iboo Duckntain HumboQldui Stettler tle Prov ranch Manigo Lakes n en ll B oon Lake ad Sylvan kat r W Sas t e Rocky klin Mountain ay u House Lake h Mac o er Mountain s b n r ern Fis M ga orqu Casto el ni N n sh th La A oo E at ai rd sk Mica Mount Columbia Sa sack ount Coronation Red Deer Wynya Allan g ton ach Blue River Biggar Baldy M sin Kam hin Creek u Lac River Arborg 3741m Canora Youn Kerrobert Delburne Delisle ria Be Innisfail lin 831m Daup Ste.Rose d ib Victo s oe am Lake Co oi Rob Consort Columbia ale e Fall Clearwater Trochu Dundurn Watrous Daf Fo Theodore w sd in Sundre Olds iley ry n ie lu P Sm ik a v r d re E e ch R Grange Icefield McC d Deer Raymore ountain Hanna Gimli Yorktonats Three Hills Rosetown Outlook eg Bea Bonnet Youngstown id e k ip Re br a n h Little Fort M Kicking g t L co rc st sley in lt u in La Morrin Didsbury Kinder Sa Chu ussell Rid Davidson nW k Poin Jasmin Lac d awa Horse Pass R Lake anitoba Oa nt Teulo ll ssburn elville Crossfield Carstairs Drumheller Pinur Alsask Rogers Pass 1627m nburg uthey alM y Rountain M e re a Eston Elrose Elbow Beiseker Re Barrière Lake Louise Airdrie Oyen Eatonia 1327m Strasbourg So o B carres Langeelle Esterhaz ak a St.Laustone Stonew ausejo ennie L k e M dD al B ir o in n h lk d Golden Banff Cochrane S Calgary R e berla paw Gla S u'App Foxwarre n h e wan er am Q ee ak c en re rt Ch nb t N av r e Glacier efe a Fo a Cr Di k e Lake sa ead Strathmore ip ge Falcoen Revelstoke irie WWinnipeg Sas Canmore ach inn.A IndianGHrenfell Qu’Appell Minnedo e la Pra Lumsden r Riverhurst W g o Regina Be n Chase g Mount Assiniboine ta Leader n L ak r re o P y Ste Bassano MeacG 3618m Sicamous Salmon Arm Balgonie Whitewood min Hamiotaivers arberr y ach olphe Cabri Stewart Valleaplin Tuxford Regina Okotoks n C St.Ad Ch R Steinb Turner Valley Black e ib o i ooso a Enderby th M n Diamond ey in f i ley dl o k eg Val s s Se Jaw R Brook Fox Kamloop Armstrong an Radium Hot Springs High River lo Lake Woods Langbanirden Brandon As rbert Moose Kipling Carm Morris St.Ma Logan Lake s V Swift Current He Hodgeville Old Wives Lake Invermere Nanton Vulcan Bow City ss olland s kler n ra ri Cold H o G u strea in ey s w o m b r u S is W ne llo e o Nakus ins K p Ye Vern le Ardill Tompk Em Milesto Suffield Pilot Manit Travers Reservoir Merritt on Okanagan Gull Lake elbourg Weyburn ton Carly Reston vain en New d Medicine Hat Grav Pangman Moun al Mord Altona ough Kelowna Lake Redcliff Vauxhall Denver Redvers Melita Boisse Elkford Claresholm Ponteix Maple Creek lle St r yst ow vi a C oi ad xb ib R lac e O lsh Kaslo y e sin dil Wa Peachland Wes e in ch Crowsnest Pass As Ca Lafle Taber City tbank Delora Killarn Balfour Kimberley Sparwood 1356m Fort Coaldale Tribune Bienfait Bow Island ll s Shaunavon Willow Bunch Horizon ff Lethbridge ss Hi Macleod Princeton Summerland Carndu an Crawford BayFernie n Foremost Cy pre d Mankota ev inton ai ten st Creek M nt Pincher E Eas ou M Coleman Wood Nelson Penticton Magrath Raymond Coronach Robsart Cranbrook Castlegar Rockglen Grand Oliver Milk River Climax Val Marie Cardston Creston Forks Osoyoos se Trail Hor Wild Kingsgate Roosville Rossland

S A S K AT C H

ay

C ap e

BA O T I MAN

House Nelson

9

rchi l l

C hurc hi

e dian Lak South In askaiowaka W L ak e

Lynn Lake

Southend

B

I O

h

n

mer Herch

n Southern India ke a L

nd Rei

r Hills Fort Clea St.John Hine s Creek

rc

ke

o Kinoosa

o

R

Peace

n

Manning

Bi

o

S e al

Brochet

Cree Lake

s

A

to

M

t un

s on

et

South

Wollaston Lake ke Wollaston La

Pasfield Lake

e ik

s

ga

ch a in

Ch

s ca

at

a Wab

Be

Twin Lakes

n ai

ard

Lac Broch

d

ds

Beatton River

Ath aba s ca

R

i ch

Co

L ak e

C hu

Fort Vermilion

y

c du-La Fond-

Tadoule

n ra ch

u

Cape hill Churc hill Churc y Lampre

tle

ne

Lake Claire

Phelps Lake

a

Ha

Rainbow Lake

Fort Chipewyan

ce

Black Lake

rL

Fontas

a Pe

High Level

ke

Wi l li am

Mountains

Hay

Fond-du-Lac Stony Rapids

ca abas Ath

Peace Point

Caribou

La

Meander River

Neja

ake Caribou nilini L

e

Uranium City

Hay

Petitot

Selwyn Lake

8

L ak e

S e al

ve Sl a

Bistcho Lake Indian Cabins Steen River

E

I

R

O

T

I

Nueltin

Reindee

R

S

Cr ee

R

a c Fa r l a

E

M

T

H

V U T A N N U

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

ll

150

100

Miles

Lit

50

250

200

Nel son

25

0

150

100

n

50

25

Bu r

0

b

As

l

N

r

ve

ut h

So

Red River

e

n

tains oun lM

s

s

O k an ag

Columbia Ri

i

er

S

l rce Pu

n tai un i n s n t a o u

Mo

Calgary

Kootenay

M

irk

a

a bi m er iv

Selk

i a

15

an

N I T E

D

S

T A T

E

S

O F

C A I E R M A X

Y

16

16

17

Z

11


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

Canada: EASTERN PROVINCES N e w B r u n s w i c k , N e w f o u n d l a n d & L a b r a d o r, N o v a S c o t i a , O n t a r i o , Pri n ce E dwa rd I s l a n d , Q u é b e c , St Pi e rre & M iq u e lo n (to Fra n ce)

N U N AV U T

Ivujivik

2

8

Colonized by both the English and the French during the 16th century, Canada’s eastern provinces are still marked by their dual influences. They contain the last fragment of once-sizeable French territories, the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. French remains Canada’s second official language and Québec’s first language. The population of the eastern provinces is highly concentrated in the south, especially along the border with the US. A recent decline in fishing in the Atlantic provinces has encouraged a steady flow of westerly migration to more prosperous regions. The north, around Hudson Bay, remains snow-covered for most of the year and the indigenous Inuit people make up the bulk of its sparse population.

n

Salluit

S

Déception

Mansel Island

Péninsule

Cape Smith Smith Island

t

Kangiqsujuaq

irnituq’ e Puv Lac Nantais

Akpatok Island

Lac Klotz

d’ Ungava

Puvirnituq

Ottawa Islands

Ri v

ière

Ko ga

uk aud Kangirs Arn

U

Lac Payne

Gyrfalcon Islands

luk

Lac aux Feuilles

Scale 1:7,750,000 Inukjuak (Port Harrison)

Km 0

50

25

5

25

0

150

100 50

200

Ri v i è re

200

150

100

au

e xF

Tasiujaq

u

uc

King George Islands

k

kD

k Nis

North Belcher Islands

ib i

S e ve r

a aw

ha

o h se

op i

an y

ng

m at t

se

oo mi

M

i

ag

am

s

St o

ig

we

he As

r

I

Kinu s

e es

s

Réservoir Cabonga

hog Grou

nd

s s ag i

t

n

o

M

Gatineau

Na

Mi ssi

t

12

Réser voir Dozois

Montréal

Kitch

uga

To

rborough

Guelph Burlin ronto gton Cambridge

L a k e O nt ar

Fo Woodstock Ham Hamilto Sarnia rest ilton London Brantford St.n Catharin Strathroy Tillsonburg Niagara Fallses Wallac St.Thomas Simcoe Nanticoke Fort Erie Lake St.Clai eburg West Port Burwell Windsor rChatham Lorne

ie L ak e Er Leamington

UN

IT

ED

i

o

higan

Lake Mic

OTTAWA

Stratford ener

S

Essex

B

Lac St-Jean St-Félicien Alma Chicoutimi Roberval Les Escoumins St Hérbertville Jonquière La Baie Tadoussac ce Rivière-du-Loup La Malbaie St-Pascal La Tuque Baie-St-Paul Lac Kempt La Pocatière t-Joli n-Por St-Jea Montmagny

Malartic Val-d'Or

Réservoir Ville-Marie Decelles Lac Kipawa

s ia mi te s

Réservoir Baskatong Charlesbourg dbur y Québec Lévis St-Ignace-du-Lac Grand-Mère Elliot LaSu ke Mont-Laurier Donnacona Blind River Sturgeon Falls No rth Bay Shawinigan Espa Nor Maniwaki Mattawa Cap-de-la-Madeleine th Channel Massey nola Lake Gore Bay St-Félix-de-Valois Trois-Rivières Thetford-Mines Nipissing Powassan Callander Ottaw a Deep River Ste-Agathe-des-Monts rges Manitoulin Little Current Sorel Victoriaville St-Geo South River Petaw Joliette awa Island Manitowaning Drummondville Fort-Coulonge St-Jérôme Pembroke Burk’s Falls Repentigny os Asbest Mirabel Georgian Parry Sou Barr y's Bay Renfrew Buckingham Lac-Mégantic Lachute St-Hyacinthe Tobermor y Gatineau nd Hawkesbury Laval o Ma Arnprior Hull ke Sherbroo Huntsville n daw Ottawa Châteauguay Granby Nepean Bay Bracebridge Haliburton H aska Magog St-Jean i g Carleton Place Cowansville h Wiarton Banc roft l Cornwall Midland a n Perth Smiths Falls e Gravenhurst ds Owen Sound c Lake en Collingwood Orillia Brockville wr Simcoe a Twee d Kincardine L Barrie Lindsay . Peterborough St All nover iston Gananoque Newmarket Mount ForesHa TrentonNapanee t Orangeville Belle Wingham ville Kings ton Markham Cobourg Lester B. Pearson Goderich Bram Port Hope pto Oshawa Clinton Mississa n Sca

Pelee Island A

es

sea level

Larder Lake

Réservoir Pipmuacan

aur i

100m / 328ft 17

Thessalon

Rouyn-Noranda

u

Dolbeau-Mistassini

Réservoir Gouin

t

250m / 820ft

Lake Temagami Capreol

Lebel-sur-Quévillon

Lac Abitibi Amos

ur

500m / 1640ft

Gogama Englehart Gowganda New Liskeard Cobalt

L

a

n e r

lib

Elevation

Chapleau

Chapais

Ha

below 10,000

Lac Manouane Mistissini (Baie-du-Poste) Lac Péribonca Chibougamau

u ro n ke H

10,000 to 50,000

Lac Albanel

Normétal La Sarre

La

50,000 to 100,000

Foleyet

Wawa

Timmins Kirkland Lake Matachewan

Sault Ste.M arie

ERICA OF AM

100,000 to 500,000

Lac Mistassini

Matagami Be

Cochrane

Michipico ten Island

ES

500,000 to 1 million

Lac Evans

aw a

Smooth Rock Falls

Iroquois Falls

Lac Plétipi

Be

e Super ior

AT 1 million to 5 million

16

Hornepayn Kapuskasing e Manitouw adge

Terrace Bay St. Ignace Island Maratho n

ST Population

15

Hearst

tish

-M

D Map key

Kesagami Lake

ts O on M

u re de R pe Riv iè

rd uta

E 16 14

Nott

M

ibi s s in a a ag Mi att

Tip Top M ountain 640m

L ak

Mont Yapeitso 1135m

O aux

T

Thunde r Bay

de Gran Rivièr e

La

ll

a Falls

Réservoir de Caniapiscau

ière

Nipigon

co w

Ri v

Mille L acs

Lac Bienville

ps a au

rt

Lac des

Kakabek

B al e in e

y

eine

Atikok an

13

Waskaganish (Fort Rupert)

Moose Factor y

g

Lac d'Iberville

Eastmain

Eastmain

Moosonee

e nt

Longlac

e la

e

Q U É B E C

Réservoir Opinaca

Fort Albany Charlton Island

ze

Lac Nichicun Lac Naococane

Opinaca

Akimiski Island

u

b Al

a Kenog mi

l a B a l e in

Lac Sakami

Wemindji

a

L ak e

I

Ka p i s k a

South Twin Island

élè

Lacs des Loups Marins

Chisasibi La Gra nde Riv ière (Fort George) ux Radisson Rése r voir la Grande De North Twin Island

Swan

can

Fort F rance s

L ak e Nipigon Geral dton

Little Cur

ed

Ka n

Bay

s

rri Ha

12

n Lake

Ignace

Rainy

N

Ogoki L ake Armstro ng

Ri v i è r e d e

James

t api ska Attawapiskat

Missisa La ke

Peti te

Kuujjuarapik (Poste-de-la-Baleine) G ra n d e R i v i è r

bi Abiti

U

okout

Sturgeo

L ak the We of oods

Attawap iskat Lak e Lansdow House ne

taw

Lake St. Joseph S av a n O g ok i t L ak e

ul

Dr yde n

ak e

i

Ear Fa

Sioux Lo

R

Slate Fal ls

lls Lac Se

At

O N T A R I O

Red L ake

River

skwin Oto

ge

Ekwan

ne

Pickle L ake Al bany

d

Lac Guillaume-Delisle

ère aux M

Lac à l’ Eau Claire

Long Island

on

ak e

S

Winisk La ke

ak e

Cat Lak e

Trout L

n

t Su

to n

tt

ribou L

P i p e s to

s

Wi n i s k

Shibogam a Wunnum Lake min Lake

L ak e

North C a B e re n

w Fa

Big Tro ut Lake Big Trou t Lake

S a n dy

Kenor a Keew atin Eagle L

e

Sachigo Lake Sachigo Lak e

Sandy Lake

MA

Wa

s pa

Winisk

S ac

o hi g

vi Ri

Lac Minto

Belcher Islands

Peawanuc k

Su

N

ak e

k

u sca

Stull L

so a

i ap

O

T

A

B

Sanikiluaq

ok

ni Ca

n

7

Rainy

n H u d s o B a y

Fort Seve rn

10

poka Islands Nasta

Sleeper Islands

P é r ib o n c a

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

K

Miles

Bl a c

n g

Lac Tassialouc

 Rocher Percé, is 290 ft (88 m) high. Lying off the southeastern coast of Québec, it is a sanctuary for sea birds.

6

r

Cap Hopes Advance

Quaqtaq

es

4

196

ill

3

M

H u d s Charles Island o

Riv ier ed

1

L

ST I

ES T A J

OF

ER

AM

A C I

16

K

L

M


N O RT H A M E R I CA : CANADA – E AST E R N PROVI N CE S N

O

P

Q

R

S

The landscape

a

U

V

W

X

Y

 Labrador’s indented coast is a product of past glaciations, which caused sea level change, and wave erosion. There are countless offshore islands, fjords, and exposed headlands.

The Péninsule d’Ungava is littered with erratics – isolated rocks which were carried by glaciers and deposited away from their place of origin when the glacier melted.

Much of eastern Canada is part of the Canadian Shield. Glaciers have scoured the land leaving deposits that have dammed and diverted streams, to create a rocky landscape strewn with lakes and swamps. Much of the ground is subject to permafrost, which further impedes drainage. The uplands in the far east are the most northerly extension of the Appalachian mountain chain.

i t

T

1

2

The eroded highlands of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland are part of the Appalachian mountain chain, formed over 400 million years ago.

ds Button Islan

Lake Superior is the world’s largest expanse of fresh water, covering 32,150 sq miles (83,270 sq km). It is crossed by the Canada–US border.

L

t ga rn

A Hebron

Laurentides Park

A

s

Cod Island nds Okak Isla

D

Ge

e

à

le

R

atsivik South Aul Island Nain

re

Ba

 At the Bay of Fundy, incoming waves are funneled down the long, narrow, steep-sided bay. These topographical features cause fast-flowing tides which can rise 70 ft (21 m).

Transportation & industry

in

Me

to fB el

O

Str

maine Ro

ashquan Nat

ère La Tabati

ur ton Harbo Harring

ove Sally's C

n Manicouaga

Corner

le

aerospace vehicle manufacture chemicals fish processing food processing hi-tech industry hydroelectric power mining timber processing

SE

Hudson Bay Schefferville

New fou nd land & L abr ador

Ont ar io Québec

le Belle Is

Is

le

St. John's

Thunder Bay

auld Cape B ony St.Anth

New Br unsw ick Pr i nce E dward Island E Québec Nova Scot ia O C

Sault Ste. Marie

Halifax

Montréal OTTAWA

Toronto kton Roddic rey Islands G A rs e d U NITE RIC aun Port S D S TAT E S O F A M E ay B e it ay e B Fogo Island erte Baie V am D t re No

orne Gros M 808m

e Deer Lak Brook

R

A

A TL

N

TI

8

9

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

C

Transportation network

10

84,522 miles (136,325 km)

h

in a

t-Paul Rivière-S n ti us ug St-A

osti Île d’Antic

Port-Menier Hong ued

Major industry and infrastructure

A

y Red Ba Forteau

a

M

pson ope Sim Port H

Natashquan

Mingan re Havre-St-Pier Longue-Pointe Moisie Détroit de Jacques-Cartier

AD

l

ob

H

BR

e

nt

it

M aly

ou

Litt l

Lac-Allard

Port-Cartier

ns

In

on

ai

ilt

LA

right Cartw

Ea g

lle

am

e

an

rl

7

W

Atikonak Lac

Ashuanipi Lake

Sept-Îles

Rigolet

LAND D N U NEWFO AD OR R & LAB

est River North W lls se Bay Churchill Fa oo G ylle Happy Va Ch urc hil l

Petit Lac Manicouagan x ro u l ts G on

Manicouagan

o

Lake Melvi

Moi sie

t i

d

t

k

a i n s t n Réser voir o u Manicouagan M a n M

 The tides at the Bay of Fundy are among the highest in the world. At low tide the tree-topped rocks have been likened to flowerpots.

k

to

ir i

ecat eM

Gagnon

on

ai

Mont Wright 899m

a

arris Cape H

Lo M on g R a un tai nge ns

Labrador City

r

A

Lake Joseph

Makkovik

Reservoir

Shabogamo Lake

A

Hopedale

Kan a

Schefferville Petitsikapau Lake

Smallwood

E

nds Lac aux Goéla ikamagen Lake

b

S

L

a

6

Both Québec and Ontario have a diversified manufacturing sector located in the south. Across the rest of the region, industry is largely based around local resources, which accounts for the large number of fish and timber processing plants and mines. Many of the fast-flowing rivers are also gradually being harnessed for hydroelectric power.

e

ualok Tunungay Island

Kogaluk

Lac Champdoré

Att

5

O

or g

Ri v i è

la

4

The bay is 94 miles (151 km) long

Tidal waters are channeled down the bay

 The forested Laurentides Park incorporates part of the Laurentian Mountains. Within its boundaries are over 1600 lakes.

R

n ai nt ou

Kuujjuaq

Lac le Moy ne

Bay of Fundy

B

M jjuaq Kangiqsualu

Saglek Bay

3

Steep cliffs bound the bay

N

a

B

a v a

To

y

Port Burwell

1858 miles (2998 km) 20,602 miles (33,159 km)

ista Gander nder Bonav Ga ay

vista Bona

B

L ak e s Grand nd Fall s Gra Buchan ke a L n ia Red Ind

11

376 miles (606 km)

nville Clare

ndland u o f w e N

B ay

ia

nt

14

S

P

A

E

it

an

16

A

N

T

C

M

I

15

ob

O

C

Q

R

Sault Ste.Marie

capital cities major towns

 Prince Edward Island is the only Atlantic province with notable agricultural land. The island is Canada’s leading producer of potatoes.

pasture cropland forest tundra

S

T

U

Nova Scot ia

Montréal

OTTAWA Toronto

Halifax

A UN

V

W

ITED

E S TAT E S O F A M

X

RIC

A TL

N

T

E

A

N

IA

C

L

64

O

13

O

T

Using the land & sea

N

of

N

A OV

T CO

y

A

12

ce

la

Gu

N EW B RU N S W IC K

N

Trinity

y

aw

of

S

L t.

Ba

e

ce

lf

La

nc

Ba

. St

e wr

n re

Ba y

o P as Baie-Trinité The majority of Canada’s large sa ville ande-Vallée ge Stephen onear Mont-Louis Gr  Fish processing is a major Godbout Carb ports lie in the east. Since the s ont eau eorge n’s e Baie-Com .G k h a St Ste-Anne-des-M o L e ille g .J ap industry in the Atlantic provinces. e C St Murdochv 1960s the region’s rail network Hauterive Meelpa hn’s at Gaspé -Ch Jo s Cap t. S ' tes iami r Fogo Island, off Newfoundland, Bets e has been steadily reduced; ues-Cartie Matane Mont Jacq rg Percé o 1268m Forestville e has barely a thousand inhabitants Newfoundland recently lost tia aspé G cher Percé Mont-Joli Burgeo Placen St . n ai e s u l e d e G GrandeRo-Rivière nt but it is able to sustain a its last remaining line, the ou n Table M Amqui Avalon la r Breto m é n i nw-Richmond Chandler u n o w rb 7m a Long-Cross Island line. to ay number of cod canneries. 58 s H a P Ne Cape R Peninsu ape Race Mar y s de la nel-Port Rimouski Île an C y h C e C D ues Dalhousi q d Ba eleine n as ad B ra M x r G ab au Campbellton aleu Caraquet TroisBank P e ot Ch Pistoles r Shippagan S t rai Cabano t Kedgwick RRE & Tracadie Cape t Bathurst o Edmundston ST PIE LON North With thin soils restricting farming to the south, the Neguac IN C E UE PR Q leton N I Car nt ch M Mou ea B ce) St.Léonard 820m Ingonish land o Fran Chatham Tignish ED WA R D mp Is (t ca n ti to hé le forests that grow in vast unbroken tracts across eastern re C ast wc Cape B ines Grand Falls Ne IS LA N D ard Island Plaster Rock Sydney M Bay w Richibucto Ed e Canada provide an important source of revenue. nc ri P Glace Souris s The urban/rural population divide Invernes e Sydney Kensington Doaktown Summersid Coastal communities rely heavily on the rich fishing n w Charlotteto Shediac No r urban 84% rural 16% thu grounds of the Atlantic Ocean, although foreign Hartland m y rview St ra b e r l a n d kesbur Moncton Rive it Port Haw Minto Woodstock S Glasgow herst t . Jo h n competition and overfishing have resulted in strict ew Am N ay B le o vil Sack bu ct h Antigonis C he da Fredericton Oromocto ssex 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 so policies to conserve stocks. an Su C ill gh Sprin Truro LA s in Hampton McAdam Population density Total land area as Ba BR n i n M Saint Joh A St.Stephen ur bo D Kentville ar H t 21 people per sq mile 1,076,227 sq miles O x Shee lifa Ha or ds R Win (8 people per sq km) (2,787,431 sq km) Grand Manan d y SE th n on ou Middlet Island Dartm u A F ifax al Hudson Bay d H n la a Is e bl g Sa Digby ur nb Lune Land use and New fou nd land Bridgewater Lake agricultural distribution & L abr ador Rossignol Liverpool Québec cattle St.John's Shelburne Ontar io Yarmouth cereals New fishing Thunder Bay Pr i nce Cape Sable Br unsw ick fruit E dward timber Québec Island IC

17

A

Y

Z

13


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

Southeastern Canada The southern parts of Québec and Ontario form the economic heart of Canada. The two provinces are divided by their language and culture; in Québec, French is the main language, whereas English is spoken in Ontario. Separatist sentiment in Québec has led to a provincial referendum on the question of a sovereignty association with Canada. The region contains Canada’s capital, Ottawa, and its two largest cities: Toronto, the center of commerce, and Montréal, the cultural and administrative heart of French Canada.

The cities of southern Québec and Ontario, and their hinterlands, form the heart of Canadian manufacturing industry. Toronto is Canada’s leading financial center, and Ontario’s motor and aerospace industries have developed around the city. A major center for nickel mining lies to the north of Toronto. Most of Québec’s industry is located in Montréal, the oldest port in North America. Chemicals, paper manufacture, and the construction of transportation equipment are leading industrial activities.

 The port at Montréal is situated on the St. Lawrence Seaway. A network of 16 locks allows oceangoing vessels access to routes once plied by fur-trappers and early settlers.

Gaspé Sault Ste.Marie

Major industry and infrastructure

 Niagara Falls lies on the border between Canada and the US. It comprises a system of two falls: American Falls, in New York, is separated from Horseshoe Falls, in Ontario, by Goat Island. Horseshoe Falls, seen here, plunges 184 ft (56 m) and is 2500 ft (762 m) wide.

4

car manufacture chemicals engineering finance food processing hi-tech industry mining iron & steel

5

is s

K apuskasing

M

Fire River Oba Lake

Québec

North Bay

textiles paper industry timber processing capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

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ario Lake Ont

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ERIC

Transportation network

Mo

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15

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La 14

F S O

WabatongushPeterbell e i Elsas Lake Porcupine a Mi ssanabie Missina Dog skw ibi Timmins Kabenung Puka Lake Lake u Ramore Lake Night Hawk Manitowik La Foleyet Hawk Junctio ke Lake n Ken oga mis si Whitefish Michipicoten Lake Windermere River Ho Rouyn-Noranda Racine Lake rwood Wawa Lake Kirkland Lake Lake Lac Cadillac La Lac Lac Langlade Lac Tessier Michipicote Nemegosenda ke Virginiatown Beauchastel n de Montigny Tiblemont Anjigami Island Lake Kenogami Lake Larder K Monet Malart ic ino Lake Lac Guéguen Paradis Lake Oskélanéo Lac Chapleau Kek Mattagami Lac I v an Lac Opasatica Tarzwell Fournière Matachewan Val-d'Or Lac Capitachouane Rush Lake Borden Lake Louvicou rt Matchi-Manitou Lake Lac Rapid e-Deu x Lac Lac Barrière Rollet Lac Villebon Rice Lake Englehart Kormak Lac Péronne awaRéservoir Sabourin Lac Opeepeesway Lac Yser ane Lac des M on t real Gogama Elk Lake i Lac Rém u igny Lac Gow Decel Granet gan les da F o r t Dix Milles ne a ho Lac Minisinakwa Sultan Lake Earlton a Échouani c Agawa w Lac a des t t Mesomikenda Simard Lake O Wenebegon Camachigama Quinze Shining Tree Gowganda Bay Frater Wakami Lake New Liskeard Lake Winneway Lake na Lake Lac des Montreal Makobe awa Bis We cot h stre asi e c Angl iers t Augustines River Lac Grand-Lac-Victoria Lake Lake Haileybury Ba Lac Lake Réservoir Belleterre Bay Biscotasing Wan Mitchinamécus Lady Evelyn Grand Cabonga Latchford Cobalt Timiskaming Lac McLennan Ramsey Lake lac Victoria Lake Ville Batchawana Lac Lac Anima Nipissing -Marie Lac à la Truite Bay Réservoir Obabika Lenôtre Lac Lecointre Lake Lac Dozois Ranger Lake Lac Lake Douaire Lake Temagami Saseginaga Lac p Ogascanane Wa Goulais Rive Wabos Ranger Lake Temagami Notawassi Rocky Island r Lac Lac aux i s Lac Lake s Chi nigu chi de l’ Écorce Lac Onaping Rabbit Lac des Foins wa n Byrd Lake Lac rde Dumoine Lake Lac Kondiaronk Lake Polonais Lac Sault Ste.Mar Kirkpatrick La Ga Echo Kikwissi Lac Brûlé ke ie Capreol Lake Kipawa Lac Piscatosine Wakomata Cartier Lac Marten River Lac Delahey Ste-Anne-du-Lac Wicksteed Lake Wanapitei Lake te RiverQuirke Dix Milles Lac Rock Lake W hi Réservoir Mont Réservoir Lake Thorne Témiscaming Lac Bleu Chavannes tl e Lake Stu River Vall Chelmsford Kiamika Lit Lac Desbarats ey Baskatong Sir-Wilfrid Garson Tilden Lake Lac 783m Elliot Lake eo Beauchêne Lac du Fils Ag Nilgaut Sud new Tom bur iko n Lak y e Grand-Remous Hagar tinenda Lake Iron BridgMa Lac Désert Hilton Beach Lake Lac e Lac Ste-Véronique Balsam Creek Verner Mont-Laurier Thessalon Estaire Stur Maganasipi Bryson St. Joseph's Spanish geon Falls Lac North Bay Lake Maniwaki Panache West Arm an Espanola Island Nominingue Blind River d Masse Talon Mattawa Lac Lac Lake Nor Lake Nipissing Lac Great La Cloche y L’Annonciation a th Ch w a t t Ma St-Patrice Duval Whitefish Falls Pythonga Notre-Dameannel Callander Alban Monetville Deux Island es Meldrum Bay Rolphton Lake NosbonsinRivier Bigwood de-Pontmain Wolseley Bay Little Current g Stonecliffe Powassan Lac Cockburn Rest R oule i v h e r c Gore Bay a Pickere Gracefield Killarney Fren des Sables Lake Schy Island l Cedar Lake DeepPRiver Manitou Lac Lost Channel Lac du Loring Lac Dumont eta Lake Burntroot McGillivray Squaw Island Chevreuil w Evansville West Bay Kazabazua a Danford Lake Lake wa Lac Kawigamog Lake Petawawa Lake Wikwemikong Britt South River FortRéservoir ua z Great Duck M Simon a agnetaw Sundridge Providence Bay Manitowaning Lavieille b Barr on Île des Coulonge Big l’ Escalier an Bo Bernard Island Lac Allumettes Opeongo nne Pembroke Trout Ard St-André-Avellin beg Lake c here South Baymouth Heney Île du Lake Lonely Island Dunchurch Burk’s Falls Lake Bonnechere Montebello Fitzwilliam Island Cobden Grand Calumet Round Lake Ahmic Canoe Aylen Shawanaga Thurso Rock Shawville Lake Eganville Barry’s Lake Lake Bear Lake Buckingham a l e n Lake n aw ha Bay Golden Lake Renfrew Manitouwabing Novar Gatineau Whitney Bark Rockland Ott Main CCove Isla ue Parry Lake Huntsville nd ng Hull Tobermory Arnprior Sound Lake Vernon Aylmer Hay Lake 16 M Cabot Head Cape Hurd Calabogie ad Parry Rosseau Casselman Nepean Lake aw Lake of Bays Lake Latchford Bridge Ottawa Bruce White Lake Island k aska r Mayno o Joseph Dorse oth t Lake Almonte tor s Pen a insula M Baptiste Centennial Lion's Head Norcan Rosseau Baysville Carnarvon Richmond C Monkland oon Carleton Lake Winchester Cape Croker Lake de Bala Place Mississippi Lake y Lake Bracebridge Upper Haliburton Cl Griffith Bancroft eau Lake Weslemkoon Canada Muskoka S Mar Minden eve at Village Island dChristian Lake Crotch rn Gravenhurst Island Perth Smiths Falls uth N Ormsby i pp i s Wiarton un s i s s e i o l Lake M nda Population Penetanguishene Morrisburg Norland Iro nS Cloyne Chand Cape Rich Washago Big Gull Lake Jasper Cardinal Sauble Beach Boat we ce K a Catchacoma Lake os Coldwater Midland 1 million to 5 million Lake Lingham Big Rideau Lake Dalr ympl Not Mea ren w e taw ford asaga Elmvale a s Alvanley Sharbot Lake Lake Prescott Lake aw Balsam Laker t h a L a k e 500,000 to 1 million Orillia Owen Sound Bay L Bobs Lake . Kasshabog Wasaga Beach Crosby Forthton Port Elgin Fenelon Falls Kaladar No au Collingwood Lake 100,000 to 500,000 Brockville b Bobcaygeon Lake Madoc Stony Tweed Beaverton Verona Markdale Stayner Charleston Lake Simc oe Bridgenorth Lake Havelock Marmora 50,000 to 100,000 Tiverton Chesley Angus Lansdowne Barrie Kincardine Lindsay Gananoque Campbellford Durham Peffe 10,000 to 50,000 rlaw Dun dalk Han over Cookstown Peterborough Trent Sau Kesw Point ick Lake geen Foxboro Alliston Clark Tee Uxbridge below 10,000 Scugog Millbrook Frankford Kingston Mildmay Shelburne Napanee swater Bradford Newmarket Lucknow Mount Forest Belleville Rice Port Perry Wolfe Island Port Albert Aurora Ma Trenton Amherst Lake itla Elevation Luther Orangeville Wingham Brighton Picton Richmond Hill Newcastle nd Island Lak Bolt e on Cobou Palmerston rg Wellingt Goderich Whitby Long Point Port Hope on Arthur Caledon Markham Oshawa th Listowel Pickering Salmon Point Fergus Lester B. Pearson 500m / 1640ft M Point Petre Clinton d Scarborough 16 Brampton Seaforthi t l a n d Elmira Ba 250m / 820ft Waterloo Gue lph Hensall yfield Mitchell Mississauga Kitchener Milton New Hamburg 100m / 328ft Grand Bend Oakville Cambridge Exeter Stra tford t h St.Marys Kettle Point sea level Dundas Burlington Lucan Parkhill Brantford Hamilton Forest Wo odstock Hamilton Ausab St.Catharines Sarnia London Caledonia Grim Ingersoll W sby Thorold Grand e l l a Niagara Strathroy Nor Corunna PetroliaWatford wich Dorchester Falls Niagara Falls nd Mount Brydges Hagersville CayugaWelland ham Till m son n bur e g Jarv is d Fort Erie Sy St.Thomas Glencoe Dunnville Simcoe  Montréal, on the banks of the Port Colborne Syd Nanticoke Welland Dutton Aylmer Rutherford St. Lawrence River, is Québec’s Canal Port Wallaceburg Dresden Port Burwell Long Point Stanley s leading metropolitan center and one Bay me ThamesvilleWest Lorne Lake of Canada’s two largest cities – St.Clair Windsor Long P Ridgetown oint Stoney PointChatham Toronto is the other. Montréal clearly Blenheim La Salle reflects French culture and traditions. Staples Tilbury Amherstburg Essex Pointe aux Pins Wheatley Kingsville Leamington A H I J K L M Pigeon Point Pelee Bay

Map key 13

ST

E AT

The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 finally allowed oceangoing ships (up to 24,000 tons [tonnes]) access to the interior of Canada, creating a vital trading route.

Manitoulin Island

12

New Brunswick

Québec

Lake Huron

I UN

Esnagi AmyotLake Lake Negwaz u Dubreuilville

M

Transportation & industry

Southern Ontario, Southern Québec

3

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N O RT H A M E R I CA : SOU T H E AST E R N CANADA S

Using the land & sea

T

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214,230 sq miles (555,000 sq km)

lnu

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64 people per sq mile (25 people per sq km)

Lacs Nouvel

Lac au Brochet

Réservoir Go Manic Deux Fra n

 Pumpkins are just one of the crops grown in the Niagara “fruit belt.” The mild climate, moderated by the lakes, allows the cultivation of a wide range of fruit and vegetables, including cherries, apples, peaches, grapes, and asparagus. Fruit and vegetable growing is confined to southern Canada, due to the colder climate and short growing season of the northern regions.

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Réservoir Manic Trois

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The urban/rural population divide

mon Sch s Rivière aux Rocher

u s t o uc

I UN

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Y

capital cities major towns

cattle fish cereals fruit maple syrup timber tobacco

New Brunswick

Québec

X

Land use and agricultural distribution

Gaspé

The productive Niagara “fruit belt” on the shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario is a major farming region, although available farmland is being challenged by urban expansion. Québec is Canada’s leading producer of maple syrup and dairy products. In the north, farmland gives way to extensive areas of forest, partly used for commercial logging. Fishing occurs in Atlantic waters and in the Great Lakes.

urban 87%

W

Moi sie

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Honguedo Pas e Cap de la sa ge c Baie-Trinité Madeleine n Godbout Mont-Louis Grande-Vallée e on Franquelin ix St-Yv Pointe à la Cro r Petit-Cap Marsoui D a rt m Lac Labrieville h ou Baie-Comeau onts Portneuf w Cap-Chat Ste-Anne-des-M deleine Lac a Hauterive M Murdochville a Chute-auxVola t Itomamo Péninsule de Mont e e n Outardes Jacques-Cartier Lac Manicouagan L é Yo Gaspé es . S s 8m Cap de Gasp och c rk 126 o s-R hiway sse rette Onatc au Notre-Dame-de-Lo t Gro mites ic-Ch Mi lt h Betsiamites C L sta ss s S a uxt Barachois ini Matane As Pointe Verte G ra nde R Mon oc hu Colombier Percé ne iv i ho Lac Poulin apm St-René-de-Mata é ère n us h P Dolbeau-Mistassini h s e es Rocher Perc o S de Courval rtneuf Baie-des-Sabl Lac M a t a n ua Forestville ir Péribonka p n St Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire Cap d’ Espo Matapédia de-Rivière an e-M Ri Gr c oli abe Say Mont-J v ar Lac Delisle ntegu Chandler Amqui Baie-des- Pointe au PoiPère e Trenche St-Ambroise Lac auSt-Félicien n Boisvert Baco Ma s Causapscal Alma Escoum -N Steouski Ste-Blandine gers t Rim n St-Jean Ma or A d d LacRoberval Île du Bic Jonquière New-RichmonPort-Daniel Pointe de l’ Ouest ChicoutimiSa rguerite m gue n Chambord inac Nouvelle Lac Humqui ay Les Escoumins St-Fabien e vill ur ier tville Hérber Supérie Routh Carleton es La Baie Paspébiac Pata Lac eronnes Lac-Bouchette Tr Bonaventure Laterrière pé L’Anse-St-Jean Grandes-Berg en Restigouche y Kénogami St - J ean Ba Réservoir ité-des-Monts Ch Trin r La c C u e ussa les e isto Tado hal Trois-P Boilleau h Gouin uc o Lac des rd g Saga i Rist Lac Ha! Ha! Commissaires e Baie-des-Rochers M St-Arsène ban u Parent R Mont-Apica Van Bruyssel St-Siméon St-Hubert Lac Rivière-du-Loup Rapide-Blanc s Témiscouata e Sanmaur Lac nai Casey n Notre-Damet Clermon Windigo St-Alexandre Niverville ano e Cab du-Lac La Malbaie Lac-Édouard Flaman Dégelis Lac Croche La St-Hilarion on Lac Pohénégamook Réservoir St-Pascal il l Manouane Blanc erm Rivière-Bleue Île aux 12 La Tuque Baie-St-Paul Coudres St-Pacôme Lac ière- La Pocatière e-Riv Petit Kempt is anço St-Fr Lac L’Islet St-Jean- de l’ Est Île aux Port-Joli Ste-Perpétue-de-l'Islet Beaupré Oies Lac Île d’Montmagny Mékinac Lac St-Pamphile Rivière-à-Pierre e Orléans Devenyns ug  In contrast to the boreal forest Lac-St-Charles esbourg M at Charl awin St-Raymond which spans northern Canada, the St-Raphaël Ste-Apolline e n Lac Ste-Thècle Lévis Réservoir Gaspé Peninsula (Péninsule de An Cap-Rouge Antique Charny Taureau St-Tite St-Casimir Gaspé) is covered with a band of E tche St-Michel-des-Saints mi Daaquam Donnacona St-Ignace-du-Lac Grand-Mère n mixed coniferous-deciduous e Ste-Claire Shawinigan r e n c Ste-CroixSt-AgapitCh woodland, including sugar and red Riv a arie ShawiniganSte-M i è St-AlexisL’ Ass re d S maple, cedar, and eastern hemlock. om u Chêne . des-Monts Sud p S tMansea u St-Joseph-de-Beauce Trois-Rivières Cap-de-la-Madeleine our Palme St-Donat c Labelle Louiseville St-Prosper can East-Broughton Mont Daveluyville Bé Lac Tremblant St-Georges St-Félix-de-Valois Plessisville 968m St-Pierre Nicolet Thetford-Mines St-Jovite St-Léonard Pierreville rea Victoriaville Ste-AgatheSorel St-Fra eloupe Lac La Guad nço Disraeli des-Monts The heart of southeastern Canada is the lowland area Tracy i ck o Warwi e s St-François let Joliette Ste-Adèle St-Gédéon Lavaltrie Drummondville Lafontaine Laurentides surrounding the St. Lawrence River, the principal outlet for L'Assomption Asbestos St-Jérôme St-GermainLac Aylmer Pine Hill Weedon de-Grantham the Great Lakes. The lowlands are bordered to the east by Mascouche Repentigny e Centr Varennes C Lachute Mirabel Terrebonne Richmond St-Hyacinthe Lac-Mégantic an extension of the Appalachian mountain chain and to the Acton-Vale èr or Winds ilaire Mont-St-H Mont e Hawkesbury Laval East Angus S vière Noire Mégantic Vankleek Hill Ri north by the Canadian Shield. The Champlain Sea, which 1105m Sud urn RoxtonWob Dorval t Sherbrooke Verdun  The wooded Gaspé Granby Valcour Ri gau d mo flooded the area during the last glacial period, deposited n Waterloo Vaudreuil Châteauguay Rock Forest ton St-Luc Peninsula (Péninsule de Gaspé) le n iervil Eastma Chart Mercier Alexandria includes the Notre Dame and clay over much of the area. St-Jean Cowansville Magog Salaberry-deLancaster s Valleyfield Napierville Shickshock mountains (Monts Dunham Coaticook nt n Raisin o Lac M tto Lac Mont Chic-Chocs). These are a Ormstown In 1971, large quantities of Cornwall Memphrémagog Hereford 841m in Su Champla Dundee northerly outcrop of the marine clay liquefied and iè

F

u

Ea

O

S S T A T E

I T E D

The Laurentide Scarp, along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, is a 2000 ft (610 m) escarpment, marking the rim of the Canadian Shield.

13

Appalachian mountain chain.

flowed into the Saguenay River, killing 30 people. Large landslides often occur on waterlogged slopes.

The flat plains of the St. Lawrence Valley were formed when the area was inundated by the Champlain Sea during the last glacial period.

14

Scale 1:3,250,000 Km 0 5 10

20

30

40 50

60

70

15 0

5

10

30

20

40

50

60

70

River bank or bluff

Miles

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

Earthflow Sand

Lake Superior

Clay

River

Lake Huron

 Point Pelee is a worldfamous site for bird migration. Over 250 species of bird have been sighted on the sandspit which forms the southern tip of the Canadian mainland.

N

O

P

Q

Lake Erie

R

S

Lake Ontario

T

The Great Lakes moderate the climate of the area surrounding the St. Lawrence River. Their water, which cools more slowly than the land, acts as a reservoir for warmth, extending the growing season into the early fall.

U

V

Mount Royal, around which the city of Montréal has developed, is the result of an igneous intrusion which occurred between 135 and 65 million years ago.

W

X

16

 In the lowlands around the St. Lawrence, earthflows have developed along gentle river banks where sand overlies clay, making the surface layers very unstable. When the slope’s natural equilibrium is disturbed, an earthflow can occur.

Y

17

Z

15


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

The United States of America

1

C O T E R M I N O U S U S ( F O R A L A S K A A N D H AWA I I S E E PA G E S 3 8 - 3 9 ) The US’s progression from frontier territory to economic and political superpower has taken less than 200 years. The 48 coterminous states, along with the outlying states of Alaska and Hawaii, are part of a federal union, held together by the guiding principles of the US Constitution, which embodies the ideals of democracy and liberty for all. Abundant fertile land and a rich resource base fueled and sustained US economic development. With the spread of agriculture and the growth of trade and industry came the need for a larger workforce, which was supplied by millions of immigrants, many seeking an escape from poverty and political or religious persecution. Immigration continues today, particularly from Central America and Asia.

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 Washington DC was established as the site for the nation’s capital in 1790. It is home to the seat of national government, on Capitol Hill, as well as the President’s official residence, the White House.  The clear waters of Niagara Falls cascade 190 ft (58 m) into the gorge below. It is one of America’s most famous spectacles and a leading tourist attraction. The falls are slowly receding and the gorge may one day stretch from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie.

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 Mount Rainier is a dormant volcano in the Cascade Range, Washington. This 14,090 ft (4392 m) peak is flanked by the most extensive glacier outside Alaska.

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25,467 miles (41,009 km)

aerospace car manufacture chemicals coal electronics engineering food processing hi-tech industry oil & gas

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Major industry and infrastructure

Jacksonville Orlando

Transportation in the US is dominated by the car which, with the extensive Interstate Highway system, allows great personal mobility. Today, internal air flights between major cities provide the most rapid cross-country travel.

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research & development textiles tourism capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

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Port Lavaca

Aransas Pass

Corpus Christi

Kingsville

Laredo

re Is l a n d

Raleigh

Nashville Atlanta

52,388 miles (84,361 km)

Victoria

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Saint Louis Los Angeles

3,875,040 miles (6,240,000 km)

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northeast led the economy. Today, heavy industry has declined and the US economy is driven by service and financial industries, with the most important being defense, hi-tech, and electronics.

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N O R T H A M E R I C A : U N I T E D S TAT E S O F A M E R I C A N

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The landscape

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The high, rugged mountain ranges of the west are about 80 million years old, geologically young compared to the old, eroded, Appalachian mountain chain, which dates from when North America and Europe were joined together as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, 400 million years ago. In contrast, the Great Plains and Mississippi Basin have a low relief and fertile soils.

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Barrier beaches, bars and spits are typical of the Atlantic coast. These sand formations around Cape Hatteras stretch along the coast for 200 miles (320 km).

Death Valley, California, 282 ft (86 m) below sea level, is the lowest point in the western hemisphere, and one of the hottest places on Earth. Temperatures of 135° F (57° C) have been recorded here. Monument Valley’s striking sandstone spires and pillars (buttes) have been formed by the action of wind, water, heat, and cold.

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 The massive drainage basin of the Mississippi covers 1,250,000 sq miles (3,200,000 sq km). It includes all areas drained by the Mississippi and its chief tributaries, the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, and drains the entire region from the Appalachians to the Rockies.

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Map key Elevation

Population

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above 5 million 1 million to 5 million

4000m / 13,124ft

500,000 to 1 million

3000m / 9843ft

100,000 to 500,000

2000m / 6562ft

50,000 to 100,000 1000m / 3281ft

10,000 to 50,000

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International Falls

The Everglades are a vast area of sawgrass swamp covering 4000 sq miles (10,300 sq km) of southern Florida.

Missouri River

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The Great Smoky Mountains, part of the ancient Appalachian mountain chain, formed a natural barrier to early settlers attempting to penetrate the country’s interior.

Most of the US is drained by the great Mississippi River system. At its mouth, where levées are breached, floodwaters are carried to the swamps through a series of channels. This region is known as the bayou.

The deep gullies of South Dakota’s badlands are created by periodic, torrential rainfall, which erodes the soft soils and rocks. Their form has been greatly affected by changes in land use.

 Devils Tower, in Wyoming is a 1280 ft (390 m) intrusion of basalt rock, which cooled to form octagonal pillars. In 1906 it became the first US National Monument.

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Niagara Falls

250m / 820ft

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San Francisco

Buffalo

Saint Louis Greensboro

Los Angeles San Diego

Birmingham

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New Orleans

Houston

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Orlando

Gulf of Mexico

Land use and agricultural distribution cattle pigs poultry citrus fruits cotton fishing fruit corn peanuts shellfish soybeans timber tobacco wheat

Raleigh

Nashville Atlanta

Phoenix

Miami

capital cities major towns pasture cropland forest wetland desert mountain region

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The urban/rural population divide urban 76%

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Population density

Total land area

98 people per sq mile (38 people per sq km)

2,959,045 sq miles (7,663,631 sq km)

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100

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 Farming on the Great Plains and in the Midwest is characterized by large-scale, mechanized wheat farms.

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 Fakahatchee Strand is part of the extensive subtropical swamps in the Florida Everglades. The swamps support a wide variety of animal life, including many rare birds, fish, alligators, and crocodiles.

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Over half of the US is used for agriculture, typified by the large cereal grain farms and cattle ranches of the Great Plains and Midwest prairie regions. Although wheat and corn are still primary crops, a diverse range of fruits and vegetables are grown in the fertile areas, particularly near the east and west coasts. Despite the abundance of cultivable land, inadequate soil management has resulted in a third of the topsoil being lost through wind and water erosion.

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NORTH AMERICA G

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USA: NORTHEASTERN STATES

Map key Population above 5 million 1 million to 5 million

C o n n e c t i c u t , M a i n e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , N e w H a m p s h i r e , N e w J e r s e y, N e w Yo r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a , R h o d e I s l a n d , V e r m o n t

100,000 to 500,000

The indented coast and vast woodlands of the northeastern states were the original core area for European expansion. The rustic character of New England prevails after nearly four centuries, while the great cities of the Atlantic seaboard have formed an almost continuous urban region. Over 20 million immigrants entered New York from 1855 to 1924 and the northeast became the industrial center of the US. After the decline of mining and heavy manufacturing, economic dynamism has been restored with the growth of hi-tech and service industries.

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Du Bois Slipper y Rock Ridgefield Haven West Warwick Haven Nanticoke Muncy B ea Karthaus ve r Milford Sussex New City Mount Kisco Wilkes BarreDingmans Ferry a New Castle ve r Lock Have k C Rey noldsville Clearfiel Montgomery n Br Bridgeport Lake Ossining Ringwood d Re d b an ek st e e Berwick Norwalk r Spring Valley Newton Milton Pun Arthur xsutawney Curwensville W S oun d C Grassflat i East Stroudsburg Ellwood City Bu Stamford IslandMattituck Wanaque g le Lewisburg tler v e r Bloomsburg Freeland Ea g a Beaver Falls l n Miffli Wayne Plains Mahoning White nburg o Stroudsburg e Yonkers ld Sound Beach Danville L D Hopatcong Bellefonte Ba New Rochelle New Brighton Paterson Sunbury KittanningCreek Lake Jim Thorpe Bangor State College Hackensack Smithtown Selinsgrove Beaver Dover er Shamo Lehighton kin Clifton Dixonville Morristown Tyrone Natrona Heights Aliquippa Am n Belvidere Bernardsville bridge Brentwood Mastic La Guardia New Kensington Indiana Pottsville a i Easton Phillipsburg 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Columbia Lancaster Bedford Point Pleasant Abington Willingboro Berlin Coatesville Silverton Uniontown Mount Holly Chambersburg McC onne llsbu Toms River Camden Masontow rg Browns Mount Morris Upper York West Chester Point Marionn Cherry Hill Mills Seaside Heights Darby Mount Davis Red Lion Hyndman Kennett Square Chester Tu Gettysburg 979m Greencastle Island Hanover Oxford Philadelphia Beach New Freedom Mu Lindenwold Penns Grove l li Barnegat Pitman n i Carneys Point P r Glassboro Manahawkin ar Pennsville Elmer Surf City r B Salem Buena Egg Harbor City Long Beach Vineland Island Mays Landing Bridgeton 64 Millville Brigantine Pleasantville Atlantic City Somers Point Ventnor City Port Norris Ocean City 22 Woodbine Delaware Cape May Court House Bay Villas Avalon North Wildwood North Cape May Cape May Cape May B C D E F G H L M

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2108 miles (3389 km)

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Pittsburgh

12,872 miles (20,592 km)

A

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4813 miles (7700 km)

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5

500m / 1640ft

340,090 miles (544,144 km)

New Yorkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commercial success is tied historically to its transportation connections. The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, opened up the Great Lakes and the interior to New Yorkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s markets and carried a stream of immigrants into the Midwest.

Mai ne

A D A A N

Elevation 1000m / 3281ft

The principal seaboard cities grew up on trade and manufacturing. They are now global centers of commerce and corporate Ver mont Portland New administration, dominating the regional Hamp shi re Syracuse economy. Research and development facilities Albany Rochester support an expanding electronics and Buffalo Massachusett s New York communications sector throughout the region. Boston C on ne c t ic ut Pharmaceutical and chemical industries are Hartford Providence Pennsy lvania R ho de Island New York important in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. C

below 10,000

Transportation network

Transportation & industry

4

10,000 to 50,000

 Chelsea in Vermont, surrounded by trees in their fall foliage. Tourism and agriculture dominate the economy of this self-consciously rural state, where no town exceeds 30,000 people.

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50,000 to 100,000

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500,000 to 1 million

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N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – N O R T H E A S T E R N S TAT E S P

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 The Hancock Tower dominates the skyline of Boston’s business district. New England’s principal city has grown through land reclamation within Massachusetts Bay.

Eagle Lake

Fish River Lake

Churchill Lake Eagle Lake Chamberlain Lake

Houlton

Mount Chase 744m

W

X

Y

1

Pennsylvania has a large rural population and a major agribusiness sector dominated by livestock-raising. Fruit, vegetables, and nursery plants are grown throughout the region, with Mai ne fishing on the coast. Cranberries and maple syrup A DA N are traditional products in New England. CA Ver mont Large areas of cropland in the north were returned to forest New York New in the 20th century. Albany Hamp shi re

ive

Van Buren

V

Using the land & sea

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Madawaska

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Rochester Buffalo

2

Massachusett s Boston

3

C on ne c t ic ut Pennsy lvania

New York

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Pittsburgh Island Falls Harrisburg C Patten Seboomook Chesuncook Mattawamkeag O din Philadelphia Katah t Moun Lake Lake Lake C New Jerse y icook I net 1605m put s Chi W t e s Mill man 14 T Sher M N Virg i nia ar Lakes Moosehead Millinocket 12 yl LA Lake Lake an AT h fort D e l a w a r e Dan d Millinocket Land use and Boundary Bald Mountain Pemadumcook Pe 1109m n ob s co Lake agricultural distribution Vanceboro t Ri Jackman v White Cap Mountain Big Squaw Mountain Mattawamkeag 974m 1111m cattle r Greenville West Moose Rive poultry The urban/rural population divide Grand Coburn Mountain oln Linc cranberries 1133m Lake Tumbledown tion a s a n t R i v e r Junc e nvill Brow fishing Mountain r urban 83% rural 17% Milo odland Lake c Wo Sebe 1080m Lake aff ais Flagst Cal fodder Guildford Big y Ba Bigelow Mountain fruit Aziscohos Lake 1265m of l maple syrup e Lake c Lake n n Stratto e am 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Bingh Fundy n timber Eastport Memphremagog Milford Con af Mountain n Sugarlo Tow Old La Rangeley 1291m Population density Total land area Lubec major towns Sebasticook ntain Gore Mountain e Mou Lak Lead r dne Saddleback Mountain a s Gar Lake 466m 1015m Colebrook Bangor Rive r 1255m pasture Newport Madison 335 people per sq mile 162,258 sq miles Blue Mountain Brewer Mooselookmeguntic cropland (120 people per sq km) (420,232 sq km) Machias Island Pond 998m field Pitts pden e Skowhegan Ham Lak Lake ham Gra Barton forest nd Isla Farmington ss Cro Bucksport Milbridge Jonesport Old Speck Mountain and Groveton Oakl Wilton 1274m Ellsworth Winslow Great Wass Island r Rumford Searsport  Foreign competition and Guildhall Lancaster Blue Hill Rive Livermore Petit Manan Point China Lake g in Lyndonville depletion of stocks in the g Falls Bar Harbor Belfast Berlin An dros co Bethel Moore Augusta Mount Desert Atlantic fishing grounds caused a Reservoir Littleton Island Mount Washington decline in fishing in the seaboard Deer Isle Camden South Paris e 1917m Norway Swans Island it states. Recent years have seen a Gardiner h land Rock P W Mount Lafayette Lewiston Waldoboro gradual recovery; Massachusetts Thomaston Lisbon 1600m i n s Auburn Haut au Isle Vinalhaven in now annually ranks third or Woodsville t a Pleasant Mounta 64 Wiscasset Bridgton Island 612m North un fourth in the US in terms of the s Seal Island Conway inicu Mo Sebago Lisbon Mat Bath Falls value of fish landed. Conway Island Lake Brunswick Boothbay Ragged Island iv e r Squam North Windham Harbor Lake Lake Westbrook Plymouth Winnipesaukee Gorham Casco Bay Mount Cardigan land Lebanon 951m Port South Portland Meredith Wolfeboro Elizabeth Cape Saco Bristol Km Laconia Alfred 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sanford Biddeford Kennebunk Northfield Claremont Farmington Rochester Sunapee Lake 40 80 90 100 30 60 70 0 5 10 50 20 Miles Somersworth projection: Lambert Conformal Conic York Harbor Concord Charlestown Dover Henniker Suncook Kittery Hillsboro Newmarket Portsmouth Goffstown Exeter Hampton Manchester Keene ugh  The islands, inlets and Peterboro Amesbury Milford Newburyport promontories of Maine’s Haverhill Jaffrey coast extend 3500 miles Methuen Plum Island Nashua Winchester The marshy lowlands of the Atlantic Coastal Plain dwindle i v e r Lawrence (5630 km). The tidal range is Cape Ann Winchendon Lowell toward the north, giving way to the rocky coast of Maine. ester Glouc Athol particularly high, varying Danvers Fitchburg Leominster Salem Beverly between 12 and 24 ft Quabbin Uplifted over 400 million years ago, the Appalachian Woburn Lynn Reservoir (3.7–7.3 m). Medford Clinton Malden Mountains have since been carved into several discrete Logan International Barre Hudson Cambridge

M

The landscape

10

ck R

Massachusetts Bay Boston

ranges by the region’s main rivers and heavily denuded by successive glacial advances. This broad upland belt, with the younger Adirondack Mountains, is bounded by the Great Lakes in the northwest.

Quincy Framingham Dedham Weymouth

Stoughton Randolph Marshfield Auburn Palmer Race Provincetown Whitinsville Brockton Point Stafford Southbridge Mansfield Bridgewater Kingston Woonsocket Springs Plymouth Attleboro Cape Cod Cape Cod Taunton Putnam Greenville ket Pawtuc Orleans Bay Storrs Providence ence East Provid Buzzards Bay Cranston Danielson Somerset Barnstable Nauset Beach Moosup Fall River Warwick South Yarmouth Fairhaven Jewett City nis Hyan Tiverton New Bedford Island East Falmouth Monomoy Colchester y Rhode a Norwich Falmouth sB Island d cket r Nantu Kingston Newport zza Great Point Sound Bu Oak Bluffs New London Edgartown ound Westerly S Rhode Island Martha's Groton nd ucket Isla Niantic Sound Vineyard Nant Nantucket ck Fishers Island Blo Island Island Block Gardiners Island Point Montauk Southold Montauk Sag Harbor

ICUT

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Scale 1:3,000,000

G u l f

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Me

H U S E T T SNewton Worcester

8

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NEW HAMPSHIRE

a

in

The narrow Finger Lakes of northwestern New York State were formed by glaciers cutting into deep deposits of material from an earlier ice advance.

R HOD E ISLA ND

A N E C

The lower Connecticut River has cut down into the flat, clay valley floor, which previously formed the bed of an ice-dammed lake.

The Adirondack Mountains were formed when the deeply buried basement rocks were forced upward in a dome by as much as 2 miles (3 km).

12

Green Mountains

Deposits of glacial till from the last Ice Age are up to 1000 ft (300 m) deep around Lake Ontario.

The Genesee River in New York State has eroded a canyon 800 ft (240 m) deep through the Appalachians. The river continued to cut downward as the land was uplifted.

11

13

Southampton

O

15

Softer rock is eroded more quickly

Force of water continues to undercut cliffs

 The Niagara Falls were created where the Niagara River reached an escarpment capped by hard limestone. This was gradually eroded, exposing softer rock strata. Plunging water continues to erode the softer strata causing the falls to recede upstream.

N

Lake Erie, receiving water flowing from the rest of the Great Lakes, drains via the Niagara Falls, into Lake Ontario, which lies 325 ft (99 m) below.

River fed by water from the Great Lakes

Resistant rock

O

Q

Cape Cod, Long Island and the islands between them mark the top of a great terminal moraine, formed at the front of the ice sheet which once covered the land. This ridge of deposited material was subsequently flooded by rising seas.

Dingmans Ferry

 The waterfalls at Dingmans Ferry are typical of those found in villages on the “Fall-line,” where rivers drop from the Appalachians to the coastal lowlands. These locations provide waterpower and are often at the navigable head of the river.

P

14

Cape Cod

Niagara Falls

The Atlantic Coastal Plain is part of the continental shelf, which extends several hundred miles out to sea, providing a rich environment for marine life.

R

S

T

U

Rising sea levels have flooded river valleys along the coast, creating rias such as Long Island Sound.

V

W

X

 At Provincetown, Cape Cod, complex and powerful ocean currents continue to modify the shoreline, washing away some 3 ft (1 m) of the lower cape each year, while extending the beaches in the north.

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NORTH AMERICA C

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G

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USA: MID-EASTERN STATES

1

100,000 to 500,000

6000m / 19,686ft

50,000 to 100,000

4000m / 13,124ft

10,000 to 50,000

1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft 250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft

Covington Newport

sea level

Cincinnati

Florence Alexandria Independence Walton Warsaw

Scale 1:3,250,000

0

30

20

5 10

20

40

50 30

60

80

70

40

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Miles

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

N A I Louisville D I N

70

80

Valley Station

A

Falmouth Carrollton Williamstown Bedford Owenton

River

30

Km

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

ng

5

 The Bluegrass region of Kentucky centers on the town of Lexington. This exceptionally fertile rolling plain is well known for its thoroughbred horse-breeding ranches.

2000m / 6562ft

Major industry and infrastructure

In the urbanized northeast, manufacturing remains important, alongside a burgeoning service sector. North Carolina is a major center for industrial research and development. Traditional industries include Tennessee whiskey and textiles in South Carolina. The decline of open-pit coal mining in the Appalachians has been hastened by environmental controls, although adventure-tourism is a flourishing new industry.

3000m / 9843ft

below 10,000

adventure-tourism car manufacture coal electronics engineering finance food processing hi-tech industry mining research & development textiles

M

500,000 to 1 million

0 5 10

Transportation & industry

L

Li cki

4

K

Elevation

Population

Key events in American history took place in this diverse region, which became the front line between the North and the South during the Civil War of the 1860s. Strong regional contrasts exist between the fertile coastal plains, the isolated upcountry of the Appalachian Mountains, and the cotton-growing areas of the Mississippi lowlands to the west. While coal mining, a traditional industry in the Appalachians, has declined in recent years leaving much rural poverty, service industries elsewhere have increased, especially in Washington DC, the nation’s capital.

3

J

Map key

D e l a w a r e , D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a , Ke n t u c k y, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Te n n e s s e e , V i r g i n i a , W e s t V i r g i n i a

2

I

River

B

io

A

Oh New Castle La Grange Cynthiana Eminence Shelbyville Frankfort Georgetown Paris Jeffersontow

n

S

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K E N T U C K Y

Ken

UR

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N I L

OI

iver

I

Brandenburg Mount Washington Taylorsville Versailles Lexington Lawrenceburg Irvington Shepherdsville Salt River Henderson Hawesville Lebanon Nicholasville Cloverport Radcliff Junctio n Owensboro Wilmore Uniontown Bardstown Vine Grove Morganfield Hardinsburg Whitesville Harrodsburg Richmond Elizabethtown Gre Herrington Springfield Fordsville Rough River en SturgisSebree Riv Lake Lancaster l Lake g h u l o Danville R ing R er Dix Calh on oun 6 Leitchfield Hodgenville F ork Lebanon Livermore Berea Stanford iver Providence io R Hartford Madisonville Oh Upton Marion Earlington Munfordville Campbellsville Central City Morgantow Mount n Green River Liberty Smithland Greensburg Vernon Brownsville Paducah Cal Dawson SpringsGreenville Lake Horse Cave vert City Princeton Green River 26 Eddyville Pennsy lvan ia Cave City Columbia Russell Springs Wickliffe Smiths Grove Crofton Maryland Baltimore Glasgow Somerset Cadiz Ohio Jamestown Ben ton Bow Hop ling kins Bar 7 ville dwell Indiana Burnside Auburn Edmonton Green Lake WASHINGTON DC Delaware Lake Barren Cumberland Charleston Monticello Russellville Elkton Louisville Barkley River Illinois Ma yfi Cli eld nton W.Virginia Virginia Lake Burkesville Franklin Murray Hickman Scottsville Kentucky Tompkinsville Albany Whitley City Richmond Missouri Fulton Cla rksville Portland Union City Stearns South Fulton Nashville Spri Celina Pur ngfi year eld Tiptonville Reelfoot Lake Arkansas Lafayette Martin Dover Oneida Tennessee Dale Hollow Raleigh Paris Ridgely Ob Memphis North Dresden Gallatin Hartsville Huntsville ion Lake Goodlettsville Carolina Erin Old Hickory Lake Mississippi Livingston Jamestown n River Ashl n o and i Alabama Georgia b Gre Gainesboro enf d ield O Hendersonville Charlotte Newbern R i v City Jacksboro Carth age Sunbright e McKenzie Dyersburg Lebanon Dyer McEwen Camden Cookeville Algood White Bluff Nas Lake City hvi lle Trenton South Columbia Huntingdon Monter r ey Waverly r R Dickson Nashville Bruceton d Dee ive Carolina ive Center Hill Forke Wartburg Smyrna C Milan Franklin Halls Lake O Oak Ridge Sparta C Smithville Alamo Humboldt Harriman TI Crossville Murfreesboro Kingston Du Hatchie Ripley AN Rockwood Bel ls L Ri Bro Woodbury Centerville AT wnsville 9 Lexington Parsons R iv Lenoir City Spence Sprin r g Hill e r Linden Jackson Transportation network Loudon Covington Columbia Munford Chapel Hill McMinnville Spring City Watts Bar Hohenwald Decaturville Lake Pikeville 452,218 miles 5737 miles er Mount Millington Henderson Shelbyville Buffalo Ri Sweetwater Riv (723,548 km) (8267 km) Pleasant ee Dayton Arlington Whiteville Madisonvill e Manc hester Lewisburg Waynesboro Bartlett Tullahoma Altamont Memphis Adamsville Somerville Tims Ford Athens Tellico Dunlap 18,336 miles 4404 miles Bolivar Tracy Germantown Lawrenceburg Lake Plains Savannah (29,503 km) (7081 km) Memphis Chickamauga Monteagle City Soddy Daisy Moscow Collinwood Middleton Selmer Lynchburg a Etowah Lake Pulaski Collierville 10 H i w s se e R i v e r Grand Junction Whitw ell Fayetteville Winchester Iron City Benton Tennessee’s rivers are part of an important inland Saint JosephElkton Elk River Jasper Cleveland Hiwassee Ardmore South Pittsburg bulk transportation network. Memphis connects Chattanooga Ducktown Lake with New Orleans in the south, and with cities as

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TENNESSEE

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Ten ne ss

v er

A

distant as Minneapolis, Sioux City, Chicago, and Pittsburgh, via the Mississippi and its tributaries.

MISSISSIPP

26

11

22

The landscape The eastern tributaries of the Mississippi drain the interior lowlands. The Cumberland Plateau and the parallel ranges of the Appalachians have been successively uplifted and eroded over time, with the eastern side reduced to a series of foothills known as the Piedmont. The broad coastal plain gradually falls away into salt marshes, lagoons, and offshore bars, broken by flooded estuaries along the shores of the Atlantic.

12

13

East Ridge

A L A B A M A

I

Natural Bridge in eastern Kentucky is an arch 78 ft (26 m) long and 65 ft (20 m) high. It has been shaped from resistant sandstone by gradual weathering processes, which removed the softer rock lying underneath.

 Farmland on the eastern shores of Chesapeake Bay is sustained by artificial drainage. The area also provides refuge for a variety of waterfowl.

The Allegheny Mountains form the northwestern edge of the Appalachian mountain chain. Continuous folding has formed rich seams of bituminous coal.

Appalachian Mountains

The many inlets of Chesapeake Bay are the flooded tributaries of the main river valley, which have been inundated by rising sea levels.

The Mammoth Cave is part of an extensive cave system in the limestone region of southwestern Kentucky. It stretches for over 300 miles (485 km) on five different levels and contains three rivers and three lakes.

14

Salt marshes such as Great Dismal Swamp, develop where the coast is sheltered. Vast areas of such marshland have been reclaimed for farmland and settlement. Cape Hatteras is the easternmost point of an offshore barrier island, a wave-deposited sand-bar which has become permanent, establishing its own vegetation.

The Mississippi River and its tributary the Ohio River form the western border of the region.

15

Barrier islands The Cumberland Plateau is the most southwesterly part of the Appalachians. Big Black Mountain at 4180 ft (1274 m) is the highest point in the range.

16

A

20

B

C

D

E

F

G

Barrier island

 Barrier islands are common along the coasts of North and South Carolina. As sea levels rise, wave action builds up ridges of sand and pebbles parallel to the coast, separated by lagoons or intertidal mud flats, which are flooded at high tide.

The Blue Ridge mountains are a steep ridge, culminating in Mount Mitchell, the highest point in the Appalachians, at 6684 ft (2037 m).

 The Great Smoky Mountains form the western escarpment of the Appalachians. The region is heavily forested, with over 130 species of tree.

17

Tidal inlet These intertidal mudflats become submerged at high tide

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N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – M I D - E A S T E R N S TAT E S N

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 Natural Bridge is one of Virginia’s most popular attractions. The unique 214 ft (65 m) high stone “bridge” stretches across a 200 ft (60 m) deep gorge.

U

V

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Chester New Cumberland

1

18

18

Weirton Wellsburg

A PENNSYLVANI

Wheeling

Gunpowd

eytown Hagerstown TanWestminster Thurmont Cockeysville Boonsboro

Claymont

Wilmington Newark

2

NE

Moundsville

O

30

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The 22 v er Bamberg Denmark Lake North Island Moultrie Barnwell Branchville Kentucky Bluegrass around Lexington r Corne Sa ks Monc l ke McClellanville ha Saint George Ehrhardt Edi tch is a major horse- and cattle-rearing sto Cape Island ie Riv Summerville Ri Ruffin er Allendale Cape Romain ve Creek e region and poultry is important in Goos Bull Island Cottageville Fairfax 14 Hanahan Hampton North Charleston Walterboro North and South Carolina. Cotton,

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capital cities major towns pasture cropland forest

The urban/rural population divide

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20

30

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50

60

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Population density

Total land area

149 people per sq mile (59 people per sq km)

235,226 sq miles (609,212 sq km)

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Missouri

100

90

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Louisville

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WASHINGTON DC

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16

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Mississippi

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Georgia

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64

South Carolina’s traditional crop, has declined significantly but remains important in western Tennessee. Forestry is widespread in upland areas.

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 North Carolina is the leading grower and processor of tobacco in the US. Europeans adopted the habit of smoking from the Native Americans, and tobacco became the main export crop for European colonists.

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The Blue Ridge mountains in the north are skirted by the gentle hills of the Piedmont, whose rivers drain south on to the great flat expanse of the coastal plain. Sandy barrier beaches and islands dominate the sea shore, tracing round the swampy limestone arm of Florida. In the west, the Mississippi meanders toward its delta, crossing the thickly mantled alluvial plain of the interior lowlands.

22

Sandbars, deposited by waves breaking offshore, form barrier beaches along much of the coastline, creating sheltered lagoons and salt marshes behind them. Delta lobe

The delta of the Mississippi over 5000 years ago

The landscape

B

ek

 In Providence Canyon, Georgia, the Chattahoochee River has cut straight down through the sandy bedrock, to leave sheer rock faces and pinnacles, which have been smoothed by subsequent weathering.

Mississippi Delta

Atchafalaya Bay

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 The cypress swamps of the Mississippi Delta form in the backswamps behind the leveés of the river and in the multitude of subsiding delta basins.

17

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Brasstown Bald in the Blue Ridge mountains of Georgia is the region’s highest point, at 4784 ft (1458 m).

14

16

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At De Soto Falls, Alabama, the Little River descends into the deepest canyon east of the Mississippi, with sheer cliff walls up to 700 ft (230 m) high.

Piedmont

15

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Key West

Cathedral Caverns near Huntsville in Alabama is a system of vast limestone caves, with a main opening 1000 ft (300 m) high and 150 ft (50 m) wide.

The Mississippi is the world’s third longest river and moves over 1000 million tons (tonnes) of sediment a year, creating deep alluvial plains. Flooding is a constant threat in lowland areas.

13

Bog u

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major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

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The Yazoo River flows parallel to the Mississippi through a common floodplain. The confluence of the rivers is deferred downstream because flood deposition has built the Mississippi channel up above the level of the Yazoo.

OC

Melbourne

oil textiles tourism

aerospace car manufacture chemicals coal defense electronics engineering food processing

12

IC

Major industry and infrastructure

NT

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AT

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Atlanta’s Hartsfield International airport is one of the busiest in the world. A dramatic rise in the use of regional air transportation has helped to integrate the major cities of the southern states.

N.

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6179 miles (9942 km)

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16,597 miles (26,555 km)

 The French Quarter is the traditional cultural center of New Orleans. The city, extensively damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, once thrived on the cotton trade but now relies mainly on tourism and on oil from the Gulf of Mexico.

8

ona R

River

5116 miles (8186 km)

O u a c hit a R

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441,625 miles (706,600 km)

A S E X

7

Greenville

T

6

Transportation network

D ugd e m

Florida’s tourist trade is only part of a flourishing service sector, which has swelled the principal cities of the south. Petroleum and mineral extraction has made the Gulf Coast a major industrial region. Traditional textile production remains important in Georgia, while advanced new industries have grown from the NASA Space Program.

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Batesville Yocona Rive Pontotoc r Water Valley Enid Lake Tutwiler Charleston Okolona Coffeeville Sumner Pittsboro M Mound Bayou Grenada er v i R Lake Rosedale Skuna Drew Y Houston sh a Calhoun City lobu Cleveland Ya iver Grenada Ruleville R

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Transportation & industry

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B Bayou D'Arbonne Cotton Valley ou Mayersville Bernice Lake Oak Grove ay Homer Farmerville B Rolling Lake Providence Lake Yazoo City Pickens Ri v e r Fork Lake ar l Bastrop Shreveport Philadelphia MindenClaiborne Pe Sterlington Providence Arcadia Carthage r Bossier City e Cross Lake v i R Wes t Mon roe k Canton Lake Grambling lac Ruston Rayville Wallace gB Driskill Mountain Delhi Bistineau Bi Monroe Ross Barnett Madison Lake Tallulah Ringgold 160m Reservoir Ridgela nd Decatur Vicksburg Meridian Jacks on Morton Forest Edwards Clinton Jonesboro Pelahatchie Winnsboro Newton Mansfield Raymond Brandon Black Lake Columbia Cou iv e Newellton Logansport shatta r Crystal Springs Raleigh Winnfield Clear Lake Paulding Quitman Saint Joseph Saline Lake Port Gibson Mendenhall Olla r Bay Springs Tullos ve Natchitoches Hazlehurst Harrisonburg ssi Heidelberg Magee Zwolle Clay ton Mi Jena Lak e Iatt Many Lake Saint John Fayette Laurel Jonesville Ferriday Colfax Brookhaven Toledo Collins Vida Natchez lia Catahoula Prentiss Ellisville Bend Meadville Monticello Lake Boyce Reservoir Bude Pineville Oak Vale Ale xandria Ver non Lake Ho m Ri Petal Re d Rive r o c hit to Leesville McComb Hattiesburg Gloster Newllano Columbia Marksville L e af R New Augusta Lecompte Magno ive lia Woodville Purvis Liberty Bunkie Simmespo Beaumont Tylertown Centreville rt De Ridder Lumberton Kentwood Clinton Re Merryville Oakdale Franklinton dC Wiggins Jackson Bogalusa re Ville Platte Saint Francisville Oberlin New Roads Zachary Mamou Ragley Amite t to Port Barre De Quincy Eunice Baker Livingston r Kinder Opelousas Basile Hammond Port Allen Ocean Denham Springs Picayune Sunset Church Mo ss Blu ff Sulphur Springs PonchatoulaCovington Vinton Iowa Welsh Jennin Point Plaquemine Baton Rouge Gulfport gs Rayne Mandeville Breaux Bridge Gonzales Lake Bay Saint Louis Biloxi Lake Charles Long Beach Slidell Maurepas Crowley Lafayette Waveland Pass White Castle Lake Arthur Saint Martinville Broussard Christian s s i s s i p p i Lake Pontchartrain Mi Horn Donaldsonville Sabine Int ra Kaplan New Lake Laplace Kenne co a Calcasieu r Metairie Island Lake Abbeville Iberia Napoleonville Lutcher New Orleans Borgne sta Lake lW Hahnville Jeanerette Grand Lake at e r Luling New Orleans Six w ay Chandele Lac ur des Chalmette Mile Lake Allem Baldwin Cameron ands Gretna Sound White Lake on Franklin Lake Verret i li Lake Thib x Morgan City odau r m ay e Pecan Island Salvad or Raceland V B Patterson Breton Sound Ba ssi y Larose Marsh Island Houma ssi Pointe a la Hache Cut Off Atchafalaya pp Port Sulphur Galliano C iR Shell Keys Bay Golden Meadow ive r Barataria 40 Point Au Fer Island Bay Mississippi Venice Timbalier River Delta Grand Isle Terrebonne Bay Isles Dernieres Bay West Bay Garden Timbalier Island East Island Bay Bay

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The South has maintained a separate identity and outlook throughout the history of the US. Defeat in the Civil War (1861–65) brought chronic poverty to the former confederate states, while the subsequent liberation of four million slaves began a struggle not resolved until the 1960s, when the Civil Rights movement achieved an end to legal racial segregation. Many parts of the South have experienced rapid change. Tourism and retirement communities, together with agriculture, have fueled growth in Florida, while defense-related industries have boosted the growth of cities such as Miami and Atlanta. Many people retain a strong attachment to their history and Springhill culture, evidenced by Creole-speaking Cajuns in Louisiania and Plain Dealing Haynesville Hispanic communities in South Florida. Vivian

3

Tunica

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Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi

Ri ve r

USA: SOUTHERN STATES

1

ha nd eleu r

A

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Lake Okeechobee is actually a shallow, slow-moving river, 150 miles (240 km) long and 50 miles (80 km) wide.

Present-day delta

 Over the last 5,000 years the lower course of the Mississippi has moved back and forth over great distances. These changes, caused by varying sediment loads and human modification, have resulted in a “bird’s foot” delta with several lobes, each reflecting the river’s different historic position

F

G

Across Florida the coastal plain is mostly less than 75 ft (25 m) above sea level. The land is underlain by limestone, pitted with hollows which have been filled by over 10,000 lakes.

The Everglades lie in a limestone hollow formed over two million years ago, which has gradually become filled with swamp deposits.

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Oneonta Marietta Ale Tucker Rainbow City Carbon Hill Smyrna Lexington Russell Lake Mountain Aberdeen 50,000 to 100,000 o Stone Sulligent F Jacksonville Buchanan y Warrior oe Atlanta Decatur513m Monr er r Washington Jasper Vernon Ashville 10,000 to 50,000 ul b o rs M Conye F Point East Cordova Anniston Bremen Clark Hill Martinez Madison Greensboro ust Gardendale ve r Loc Forest Park below 10,000 Fayette West Point Ri Lake Carrollton l li Tarrant Pell City C e a p Atlanta ld e a usta Hartsfie gton Oxford Heflin x Aug Covin h Thomson Fairburn Birmingham City Columbus Lu Logan Martin Jonesboro don ee Leeds Gor Ocon t Mountain Cheaha Lake For McDonough Bankhead Hueytown Lake Elevation Warrenton 734m Eatonton Reform Peachtree City Vestavia Hills Talladega Lake Lake Bessemer Newnan De Soto Falls ta Lake Spar icello Tuscaloosa Mont Wedowee Franklin Jackson Alabaster r Childersburg Griffin Wrens Sinclair Northport Carrollton Waynesboro West Point Ashland 4000m / 13,124ft Hogansville Columbiana Brooksville Aliceville Lake Milledgeville sville le Sylacauga Barne isvil Lou Tuscaloosa Roanoke La Grange Calera Macon ick Hardw 3000m / 9843ft No Gray ey Alexander r Montevallo xu Sips Lay Lake Forsy th ve Greenville be Wadley Sandersville Millen City Ri e Gordon ston Centreville 2000m / 6562ft a p o Lafayette e r Thoma l l a T Rockford Brent Macon Sylvania West Point Wrightsville Dadeville Eutaw Clanton Manchester Lanett Mitchell Knoxville Martin 1000m / 3281ft Greensboro Lake De Kalb Og Lake Lake Harding Talbotton er Swainsboro Opelika 500m / 1640ft O ns Warner Robi ho o Fort Butler Dublin Livingston pe Statesboro Springfield Auburn Valley Demopolis Marion ter Met ran Wetumpka City Coch Phenix Prattville 250m / 820ft Perry Tallassee York Columbus Soperton Tuskegee Hawkinsville Buena Vista Montezuma r Selma ve Vidalia Lyons Claxton 100m / 328ft Al a b a a Ri ve Montgomery orpe r y Ogleth Cit an Linden Eastm Garden Ca m Cusseta Unadilla no Pembroke Ellaville Mount Vernon Savannah o ch Hayneville sea level Preston ee R Union Springs Reidsville iv Tybee Island Mcrae Richland Vienna Butler William Bill Dannelly Glennville ville Providence Abbe cus Ameri nd Sou Reservoir Ossabaw Hinesville Alta Canyon Ri Camden ma Fort Deposit Cordele ver Hazlehurst Lake Blackshear Eufaula h Georgetown Ossabaw Island Baxley a Ri Clayton o Thomasville Greenville C ve Saint Catherines Dawson Ludowici Walter F George at Island Troy illa Cuthbert Ashburn Fitzgerald Jesup Reservoir Grove Hill Waynesboro elo Sound Sap C a Ocill Luverne Brundidge Alma Fort Gaines Sapelo Island Douglas Albany i l t l Monroeville A a r Abbeville Morgan a Jackson Sylvester R S Darien Tifton r Ozark Blackshear Satilla Riv Elba Blakely Chatom a Saint Simons Island Evergreen son Pe Pear Newton r Andalusia Headland Nashville Waycross ve Camilla Brunswick unta Nah Daleville Enterprise Colquitt Opp Jekyll Island cu Adel Moultrie Dothan Cone Leakesville Saint Andrew Sound Lakeland Homerville Pelham Brewton R Hartford w Geneva  Mangrove swamps and Donalsonville Citronelle Woodbine Atmore Florala Cumberland Island Banks islets merge across Bainbridge Kingsland Lucedale Folkston Lake Cairo Graceville ys Mar t Bay Minette Sain Whitewater Bay, in the Okefenokee Saraland Quitman W Valdosta Lake Thomasville dina Beach McDavid nan De Funiak Bonifay Chipley Marianna it h Fer mp Swa e Big Creek Everglades National Park. Statenvill er lac Seminole Crestview Springs Amelia Island oo v Fargo Lake Lake Chattahoochee c Yulee Ri Alligators, crocodiles, Ri Prichard Mobile Milton Iamonia Sound ve r sau Quincy ve r Nas r i Jaspe Tillmans R endangered aquatic Monticello w Lake Daphne Corner ello ville Hol m Green Y Valparaiso ille nv Ensley kso Jackson Jac Atlantic Beach mammals such as Ferry Pass Fairhope Theodore Blountstown Choctawhatchee son Lake Crystal Madi Moss Point ch West Pensacola Pensacola manatees, and a great Lake Tallahassee Macclenny Jacksonville Bea Bay Bristol oc Bayou La Batre Foley Warrington e h Gulf Breeze Talquin Lakesid Destin variety of birds Fort C Live Oak Orange Park Pascagoula Mobile Lynn Haven Bay S inhabit the Dead Lake S oun d Santa Rosa Island Walton Beach Lake City Watertown Crawfordville Gulf Shores Perry Panama City Dauphin er Marks Panama City Beach Saint subtropical Lake Butl Bay Parker Middleburg Island s ine w Mayo ust e r Aug nt d Sai S a nt a sanctuary. Apalachee Saint An Wewahitchka Starke Fe R iv e er Saint J r i ve r Bay Anastasia Island Branford os e Carrabelle High Springs do Wal Alachua ay Port Saint Joe aB GainesvillePalatka col Dog Island Trenton Crescent Apalachicola lachi Flagler Beach Cape San Blas Lake Cross City Apa Saint George Island Island Vincent Saint Bunnell Orange Lake Crescent City Bronson Ormond Beach Lake Williston George Daytona Beach South Day tona

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North Naples Naples

 Duck Key is one of the chain of limestone and coral islands that form the Florida Keys. The Overseas Highway, completed in 1938, extends 100 miles (160 km) from the mainland to Key West along causeways and bridges.

pasture cropland forest wetland

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 Cotton production, once an economic mainstay, has fallen by more than 50% since 1900. Soil erosion, pests, and new farming techniques have shifted cotton farming west toward Texas and California.

NT Orlando

soybeans sugar cane timber major towns

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100

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253,046 sq miles (655,364 sq km)

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149 people per sq mile (57 people per sq km)

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Land use and agricultural distribution

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Tallahassee

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Population density

Savannah

Baton Rouge

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Georgia

Montgomery

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Jackson

cattle pigs poultry citrus cotton fishing peanuts shellfish

rural 28%

t h a u i n l o

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ai n

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The urban/rural population divide

In recent years a wide variety of cash crops has been grown in lands once dominated by cotton. The semitropical Florida climate has made it a world leader in the growing of citrus fruit. Georgia has a similar reputation for peanuts; elsewhere soybeans, sugar cane, poultry, and cattle are important. Fishing takes place in Atlantic and Gulf waters, with shellďŹ shing in the shallow Louisiana bayou. Te n n e s s e e

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Ocala

 New Orleans was devastated by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Around 1200 lives were lost across the region. Florida and the Gulf coast are prone to hurricanes every fall.

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23


NORTH AMERICA B

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F

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I

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K Kerrick

Texline

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USA: TEXAS

Dalhart

Hartley

H i g h

Dawn Hereford

Enochs 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Population density

Total land area

84 people per sq mile (33 people per sq km)

261,797 sq miles (678,028 sq km)

100

90

major towns

Whiteface Levelland

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13

Extensive forests of pine and cypress grow in the eastern corner of the coastal lowlands where the average rainfall is 45 inches (1145 mm) a year. This is higher than the rest of the state and over twice the average in the west.

The Rio Grande flows from the Rocky Mountains through semi-arid land, supporting sparse vegetation. The river actually shrinks along its course, losing more water through evaporation and seepage than it gains from its tributaries and rainfall.

14

In the coastal lowlands of southeastern Texas the Earth’s crust is warping, causing the land to subside and allowing the sea to invade. Around Galveston, the rate of downward tilting is 6 inches (15 cm) per year. Erosion of the coast is also exacerbated by hurricanes.

15

Big Bend National Park Oil deposits Edwards Plateau is a limestone outcrop. It is part of the Great Plains, bounded to the southeast by the Balcones Escarpment, which marks the southerly limit of the plains.

16

17

A

24

B

C

D

E

Oil accumulates beneath impermeable cap rock

Oil trapped by fault Impermeable rock strata

Oil deposits migrate through reservoir rocks such as shale

 Flowing through 1500 ft (450 m) high gorges, the shallow, muddy Rio Grande makes a 90˚ bend. This marks the southern border of Big Bend National Park, and gives it its name. The area is a mixture of forested mountains, deserts, and canyons.

Laguna Madre in southern Texas has been almost completely cut off from the sea by Padre Island. This sand bank was created by wave action, carrying and depositing material along the coast. The process is known as longshore drift.

Padre Island

F

G

H

I

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Salt dome

 Oil deposits are found beneath much of Texas. They collect as oil migrates upward through porous layers of rock until it is trapped, either by a cap of rock above a salt dome, or by a fault line which exposes impermeable rock through which the oil cannot rise.

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Fort Davis

Marfa

Crane

Grandfalls Imperial McCamey Girvin

Coyano s

Saragosa

Valentine

The Guadalupe Mountains lie in the southern Rocky Mountains. They incorporate Guadalupe Peak, the highest in Texas, rising 8749 ft (2667 m).

Royalty

Pecos

Balmorhea

Mount Livermore 2554m

ta ti in s

The Red River flows for 1300 miles (2090 km), marking most of the northern border of Texas. A dam and reservoir along its course provide vital irrigation and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area.

The Llano Estacado or Staked Plain in northern Texas is known for its harsh environment. In the north, freezing winds carrying ice and snow sweep down from the Rocky Mountains. To the south, sandstorms frequently blow up, scouring anything in their paths. Flash floods, in the wide, flat riverbeds that remain dry for most of the year, are another hazard.

D

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Penwell

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40  Cap Rock Escarpment juts out from the plains, running 200 miles (320 km) from north to south. Its height varies from 300 ft (90 m) rising to sheer cliffs up to 1000 ft (300 m).

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Fort Hancock

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San Elizario

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M are y law De k c R i oe r r a D i a b l o

MEXICO

Andrews

Sal

El Paso

M usta ng Dra w

Dell City

un Hueco Mo

Canutillo El Paso

12

s

Tokio

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Houston

San Antonio

11

t

Brownfield

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N

iana

Austin

10

Ropesville ur Sundown Dr aw Meadow

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Te x a s

Texas is made up of a series of massive steps descending from the mountains and high plains of the west and northwest to the coastal lowlands in the southeast. Many of the state’s borders are delineated by water. The Rio Grande flows from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, marking the border with Mexico.

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Dallas

New Mexico

 The huge cattle ranches of Texas developed during the 19th century when land was plentiful and could be acquired cheaply. Today, more cattle and sheep are raised in Texas than in any other state.

ul

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Arkansas

El Paso

Draw

Littlefield Anton

Morton

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Amarillo

9

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cattle goats sheep cereals cotton

S

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The urban/rural population divide

pasture cropland forest barren

8

Dimmitt Run

Springlake Muleshoe Earth Olton Sudan Amherst

M

5

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Bovina

36

Land use and agricultural distribution

Vega Wildorado

I

 Dallas was founded in 1841 as a prairie trading post and its development was stimulated by the arrival of railroads. Cotton and then oil funded the town’s early growth. Today, the modern, high rise skyline of Dallas reflects the city’s position as a leading center of banking, insurance, and the petroleum industry in the southwest.

Farwell

Cotton production and livestock-raising, particularly cattle, dominate farming, although crop failures and the demands of local markets have led to some diversification. Following the introduction of modern farming techniques, cotton production spread out from the east to the plains of western Texas. Cattle ranches are widespread, while sheep and goats are raised on the dry Edwards Plateau.

n Ri ve r

Adrian

Using the land

4

Channing adia C an

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3

C

First explored by Spaniards moving north from Mexico in search of gold, Texas was controlled by Spain and then by Mexico, before becoming an independent republic in 1836, and joining the Union of States in 1845. During the 19th century, many migrants who came to Texas raised cattle on the abundant land; in the 20th century, they were joined by prospectors attracted by the promise of oil riches. Today, although natural resources, especially oil, still form the basis of its wealth, the diversified Texan economy includes thriving hi-tech and financial industries. The major urban centers, home to 80% of the population, lie in the south and east, and include Houston, the “oil-city,” and Dallas– Fort Worth. Hispanic influences remain strong, especially in southern and western Texas.

X

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NORTH AMERICA: USA – TEXAS

26 R

d w ater

Pa

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Spearman

W ol f C re ek

Lipscomb Higgins

Morse

V

Sunray

Pringle

Dumas

Stinnett

W

X

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Miami

K

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P l a i n s

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El Paso

Te x a s Austin San Antonio

Corpus Christi

A

M

d

293,509 miles (496,614 km)

3229 miles (5166 km)

10,681 miles (17,089 km)

845 miles (1359 km)

3

The sheer size of Texas promoted the development of an extensive road and rail network. The highway system, although well-developed, is concentrated in the east.

26

O

2

Transportation network

MEXICO

A

H

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

Houston

L

o E s c a r p m e n t

Dallas

Fort Worth

iana

Phillips Briscoe Pampa Mobeetie Skellytown Lake Meredith Lefors Wheeler White Deer North Fo r Panhandle M d Riv e r Amarillo Conway c C l el lan e e k McLean Cr Shamrock Alanreed Bushland Groom Claude o F r t k l Sa Red Canyon Goodnight Ri ver Clarendon Buffalo Lake Hedley Wellington Lelia Lake Happy Dodson Memphis Lakeview Nazareth Estelline Silverton Tulia Childress Hart Turkey Carey Kress Quanah Odell Tell Quitaque

Fritch

New Mexico

1

mining oil textiles

chemicals defense engineering finance food processing gas hi-tech industry

Arkansas

uis

Borger

Oklahoma

Industry in the 20th century was largely concentrated on the processing of local raw materials, especially oil – deposits were discovered under 65% of the state’s area. The technological demands of the oil industry and defense-related institutions, particularly NASA, have stimulated the development of numerous electronics and hi-tech firms which, alongside many national corporate headquarters, are based in Dallas– Fort Worth and Houston.

Canadian

Major industry and infrastructure

Amarillo

Lo

Sanford

Ca

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Transportation & industry

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n Burkett Cayuga Novice pso Grove Richland Tim Bend Hico E V Spence Proctor Center Lake Whitney May Lake Neches Cushing Garrison Winters Brownwood Reservoir Meridian Reservoir Rusk Robert Lee Hubbard Streetman Gustine Cranfills Whitney Lake Comanche Garden City Appleby ville s lby ham She Wort Bronte tine Sterling City Pales Aquilla West Coolidge Gap Coleman Blanket Alto No Talpa e Fairfield Mexia rth Elkhart Brownwood Hamilton Clifton Ballinger Nacogdoches San Augustine Co iv Bangs Valley Mills Bellmead Teague nc Priddy e ood Oakw r d o C elan ren Miles h Chi Grap o l or oR Midkiff Mullin ad Waco Mart Groesbeck Wells Sam Rayburn Bronson Crawford ive oR Paint Rock Latexo Hemphill r yo oir Evant iv Gatesville McGregor iver Rockwood Buffalo Star Thornton Lufkin ReservBro Kennard u er addus eland ddle Concho River O C Fisher Lake i Lake Pin kett San Angelo Croc M e Goldthwait tt Mercury Jewe ton Millersview Apple Springs Diboll Hunting Bruceville Marlin Limestone Knickerbocker Moody Twin Buttes Springs Kosse Centerville Adamsville Belton Brookeland Texon Best Lohn Richland Zavalla Leona Austonio Reservoir Bremond San Saba Lometa Troy Lake Melvin Mertzon Lott Big Lake Groveton Rankin Lovelady Rochelle Cove Killeen as Eden Brady Cr Copper n Corriga Temple Christoval eek Burkeville Normangee Weldon Franklin Lampasas L Brady Chester mesneil Jasper Barnhart Rosebud a m Kempner Col Newton Camden Madisonville Trinity Belton pa rt Calve e cett r Salado Dou Voca on s Roganville as R Cherokee ive Lake Livingst Menard Iraan North Zulch Hearne i v e r Holland Rogers Buckholts Camp San Saba Bon Wier ba R Riverside San Sa Woodville ton Bartlett Litt ngs Kirbyville ron Briggs Livi Came Pontotoc Lake Buchanan le e Florenc Burnet Eldorado River Bryan Fort McKavett Huntsville Sheffield Bertram Granger Mason Llano Goodrich Milano Coldspring London Llano Rockdale Ozona Warren Buchanan Dam R iv er College Station Georgetown B r a New Waverly Shepherd Leander zo Buna Marble Falls Thorndale Anderson Hutto Kountze Taylor C Travis is Lake Will olo sota bee Sonora Roosevelt Nava Sils Junction Round Mountain Round Rock ra Lexington Cleveland Lake Conroe Saratoga Mauriceville Manor Elgin Somerville r Courtney Conroe Splendora ive Ri Washington Lake Vidor Orange McDade Harper Fredericksburg ed e r na l e s R Magnolia ver Daisetta Sour ds rville lan Some od P Wo e Pe Th Johnson City Giddings Beaumont Brenham Prairie View Lake co Dayton Mountain Home Port Neches Pandale Juno Dripping Bastrop Houston Spring Carmine Hempstead Nederland Blanco Springs Buda Cedar Groves Kerrville ble Hum Ingram Smithville Creek Kyle Port Arthur Bellville Rocksprings Mont Belvieu Winnie Dale Comfort Waring c hua Ana Pumpville e Grang l La Stowel vi San Marcos Lockhart Center Point Gu ada l upe ls Fayetteville Sealy Brookshire River Carta Baytown R Langtry Canyon Cistern Martindale Valley na ade Medina ar mbus Pas Colu Weim Lake ia Hunter Flaton Barksdale Leakey Boerne High Island Waelder Wallis Sugar Land Missouri City Galveston New Braunfels Camp Luling Schulenburg Bandera Comstock Eagle Lake Pearland Bay Wood Richmond Moulton t Schertz Seguin d City Islan ue B gue Rock n Lea Utopia East Bernard Rosenberg Alvin ce a l c Gonzales Bolivar Peninsula Amistad sR ones Escarpme Garwood Hallettsville San Antonio ive Reservoir Port Bolivar Texas City Glen Flora r Concan lo r r Shine le Leesvil Del Rio Sweet Home Galveston Castroville ad o Wharton Hondo La Vernia Danbury R Brackettville Nixon Smiley Yoakum Knippal Sabinal on Island vest Gal a Saspamco n mbi leto Colu t po Ang Wes El Cam Stockdale Natalia Me son Cline Jack Lake Uvalde d Louise Sweeny Devine Floresville Cuero Spofford Danevang Clute Lav Gu Ganado Poteet a ad Moore Bay City Poth Yorktown eport Edna ay Fre Quemado aston Batesville Markham Lake Texana w La Pryor Falls City Pleasanton r Nordheim pe Thom e Nursery Blessing at Runge Jourdanton r Pearsall W l a ria Victo st 64 Karnes City Kenedy Charlotte L eona R Vanderbilt Palacios tracoa Charco Fannin i ve r In Christine Matagorda Point Comfort Sa Eagle Pass Goliad n Dilley Crystal City A Lavaca er Bloomington Portca r io Pettus n t o n i o R i v e r Lava Matagorda R Big Wells Choke Canyon Mineral Matagorda Peninsula Berclair Bay Bay Lake Millett Carrizo Springs Port O’Connor Three Rivers Cotulla Tivoli ift e Fowlerton Beevill Seadr Tilden San Catarina George West Refugio Skidmore Woodsboro Antonio Bay Artesia Wells Matagorda Island Lake Corpus Copano ece Christi Mathis Bay Aransas s Rive Sinton Encinal 40 Rockport Bay San Jose Island Sandia Odem Taft Seven Sisters es Aransas Pass Orange Grove R i v e PortlandIngles ide r Population Freer Robstown s Port Aransas Corpu San Diego Alice i Mustang Island Christ 1 million to 5 million ti nd Chris us Corp Bay e ll 500,000 to 1 million Bishop Drisco Benavides Chapman Ranch Kingsville Laredo 100,000 to 500,000 Flomot

ARK

Whiteflat Matador

B

a

Lockney Aiken Floydada Petersburg

c

Hale Center

te R

NS

hi

iver

iver

O

sR

yac R

iv

elina

Ri

r

ver

R

R i ve

r

a R iv

s River che Ne

asot

wa

init y Ri ver

Ho

Tr

rd Draw

er

r

sR

Pl a t e a u

do

s

ive

d

sR

r

Austin

8

9

S a b in e R i v e r

Nav

S

A

7

S I A N A U I

tto

e

Ang

Nech

ity

a

nR

nB

Tri n

ca

Leo

Pe

w

a

6

L

C

Cle ar F

ork

a p

er

ver Ri

Dallas

X

Ed

E

5

AS

r

R o c k

a

A

10

ive

r

Co

San Antonio

i

ive

Bra

tN

Sabi na l River

Wes

iver

zos River

De

Houston

r

in

x

r

o

12

M

ve

sco

Ri

Ata

i ve

a lu

ive

ca R

aR

Nue ce s

e

c

11

r

sa R i v

F

iver

R ive r

f

13

r

Nu

M

f

o

l

Nue

Map key

c

Gr

u

R io

14

G

a

E

Realitos

Premont

Lo

sO

m

l

Mirando City Hebbronville

Falfurrias

San Ygnacio Agua Nueva

Norias

X

Santa Elena

Lopeno

Linn

Salineno

 The Texas hill country is the most southerly extension of the Great Plains. Although farming is the primary source of income, the beautiful hills, valleys, and lakes are a major tourist attraction.

N

O

P

I

Hargill

Rio Grande City

Raymondville

Edinburg Elsa Edcouch Rio Hondo Grulla Mission Pharr Weslaco Harlingen McAllen Donna Mercedes San Benito Port Isabel

40 Q

Lyford

San Perlita

C

Los Fresnos

Brownsville

O

15

10,000 to 50,000 below 10,000

 Padre Island is a sand bank. It extends 113 miles (182 km) along the southern coast of Texas.

Armstrong

Guerra

Falcon Reservoir Roma Los Saenz

Encino

50,000 to 100,000 Riviera y Baffin Ba Sarita

d Islan Padre re Mad Laguna

Zapata

o s Creek

Elevation 2000m / 6562ft 16 1000m / 3281ft

Scale 1:3,500,000

500m / 1640ft

Km 0

20

10 10

0

40 20

60

80

100 60

40

250m / 820ft 80

100m / 328ft

100

Miles

V

W

17

sea level

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

X

Y

Z

25


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

USA: SOUTH MIDWESTERN STATES

1

28

Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma

b li

pu

e

O A D

no

ado

Colby Goodland

S alin e

Mount Sunflower 1231m

Oakley

Sharon Springs Sm ok

is

Leoti

Scott City

Ri

o New Mexic

ve

Johnson

Lake McKinne y Gard en City

pi sip

sis

er R

Mis

Louisiana

Beav

ar

ro n

Rive

Hooker Beaver Optima Lake

Guymon

B e av

R

e d Coldwater Ashland

Buffalo

er

i an

O K

Ri

rk dR

Hobart Altus Lake

Chickasha

ive r

Mount Scott 751m

Wichita Mountains

Tom Steed Reservoir Altus

500m / 1640ft

Eldorado

Snyder Cache

Re d ve r Ri

100m / 328ft sea level

Okarche

Binger Minco Cordell Tuttle Fort Cobb Reservoir Wa shita Rive r Carnegie Anadarko

S a l t Fo r k R e d R i v e r

Hollis

Apache Lake Ellsworth Rush Springs Elgin Marlow

Lawton

Duncan

Walters Comanche

Frederick

Davidson

Grandfield Waurika Lake Waurika

24 Terral

The Ozark Plateau is a wooded, hilly region of rivers and narrow, winding lakes. The Lake of the Ozarks was created by the damming of the Osage River in 1930.

Scale 1:3,250,000 Km 0 5 10

Crowleys Ridge is a long, sandy ridge, rising from the Mississippi floodplain. It was formed over thousands of years by the deposition of sand blown eastward from the Great Plains.

0

5

20 10

30 20

40 50 30

60

70

40

50

60

70

Miles

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

Underground water reserves NE CO

16 NM

 Lake Ouachita, in Arkansas is one of a number of irregularlyshaped lakes found among the ridges of the Ouachita Mountains.

Extent of the aquifer

WY

KS

MO

OK

AR

Kansas Red River

Oklahoma

TX

 The Ogallala Aquifer, beneath the Great Plains, is the largest known source of underground water in the world. There is concern about the rapid depletion of this finite water supply by irrigation schemes.

17

A

26

B

C

Devil’s Den is a dry badland area. The rugged landscape, strewn with large boulders, is the eroded remnant of a spur extending from the Arbuckle Mountains to the west.

D

E

k

er Ri v

ad

Fo

e Cre

on rr

an

Kingfisher Watonga

Clinton Weatherford El Reno Hinton

Burns Flat

Mangum

250m / 820ft

hC

Ri v

n

below 10,000

a di a

s

Erick

Enid

t Nor

an

n

Sayre

10,000 to 50,000

a

ey

Cim

Elk City

50,000 to 100,000

Re

15

Cleo Springs

i

100,000 to 500,000

The Great Salt Plains of northern Oklahoma cover 45 sq miles (116 sq km). The arid, white flats were left by the gradual evaporation of an ancient salt lake.

14

Great Salt Plains Lake

Thomas ve Hammon Foss Reservoir Geary r Arapaho

Cheyenne

1000m / 3281ft

Missouri River

Ouachita Mountains

F

 The landscape of northeast Kansas is interlaced by rivers which have cut broad wooded valleys through the gentle hills. All the rivers in Kansas form part of the massive Missouri/Mississippi drainage basin.

Mississippi River

G

H

I

er

Fairview Seiling Canton Lake Okeene C Hennessey Taloga Canton

Washita R

Population

 The Mississippi, North America’s longest river, is joined by the Missouri, its main tributary, on a flood plain which spreads south to the Gulf of Mexico.

s k i a Ri v

Medicine e r Lodge Harper

Waynoka

No r t h

13

C hi k a Ri v

Anthony

Woodward

Vici

Map key

1994 miles (3208 km)

Kingman

k Tur

C

Shattuck Arnett

Elevation

Flint Hills is the region’s easternmost major escarpment. Steep, grassy uplands are interspersed with rocky, wooded ravines and outcrops of limestone and chert.

Stafford

Cheney Reservoir

a

Wolf

k re e

r

Collapsed limestone caverns led to the formation of Big Basin in Kansas; a depression 100 ft (33 m) deep and 1 mile (1.6 km) wide.

re e k eC

Alva Cherokee

Leedey

The landscape

12

ak

Fort Supply

24

The Arkansas River and its tributaries allow access to over half of the US’s navigable inland waterways. A system of locks and dams along the river provides Tulsa, in Oklahoma, with a navigable water route to the Gulf of Mexico.

Most of the region consists of high, treeless plains, which gradually descend east from the Rocky Mountains. Drainage follows this slope, with rivers flowing toward the alluvial lowlands of the Mississippi in the southeast. Between the plains and the lowlands lie various ranges of wooded hills, including the deeply incised Ozark Plateau.

sn

South Hutchinson

Kiowa

iv e

11

le at t

Pratt

Elmwood

4068 miles (6508 km)

16,185 miles (25,896 km)

Hutchinson

M l l s e di c in e Lod Hi ge

e r Rive r

T E X A S 380,307 miles (608,491 km)

Lyons Sterling

Ellinwood

r

Laverne

Goodwell

Kanopolis Lake

r

r

Transportation network

ive sR

Greensburg

Bucklin

R m

a ns ka Ar

Saint John

Fort Supply Lake

oil vehicle manufacture

 Agricultural produce from the plains is moved by barges along the Mississippi. The river now carries a far greater tonnage of freight than any other waterway system in the US.

Larned

Kinsley

Minneola

36

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

er

Forgan

Texhoma

Major industry and infrastructure aerospace engineering finance food processing gas mining

i ve

Ci

N

l

Te x a s

8

R iv

La Crosse

Jetmore

Big Basin

A

Hoisington Walnut Creek Cheyenne Bottoms Great Bend

Dodge City

Liberal

Keyes

Boise City

ee

Cimarron

Hugoton

r Elkhart

Smoky Hill River Ellsworth

K

Ness City

Ulysses

Black Mesa on D r y Ci m a r r 1516m

NEW M E X IC O

Dighton

Pawn

Syracuse Lakin Arka n sas Riv er

S a li n e R i ve r

P

Little Rock

Cedar Bluff Reservoir

Lincoln

Russell Wilson Lake

Hays

y Hi l l R i v e r

Ladder Creek

Tribune

Hil ls

Luray

Wa Keeney Ellis

Sublette Satanta Meade

Tennessee

Arkansas

Rive r

t

li

Color

ve r

Norton

Oberlin

ek Cre

36

Oklahoma City

10

cis

Montezuma

y Kentuck

Tulsa

Lovewell Reservoir Mankato Keith Sebelius Phillipsburg Cr e e k Lake Logan Kensington Smith Center Dog i r r i ive Kirwin Fo r k S o l o m o n R P ra Waconda No r t h Reservoir Downs Lake Stockton Beloit Osborne Hoxie S ol o m S o l o m o n Ri v e r th For k Ri v e o n Hill City Sou r Smoky Plainville

Atwood

ReSaint Fran

a

Il

Missouri

Oklahoma

9

or k

Kansas

Wichita

7

S

F o ut h

e

The processing of agricultural products, such as brewing and meatpacking, has been traditionally important in these states. In Kansas and Oklahoma, diversified manufacturing now supplements income from fossil fuels; Wichita has become a world center for aeronautical Iowa Nebraska engineering, an industry which Kansas also employs many people in Topeka City Saint Louis neighboring Missouri.

6

N E B R

r

r

Transportation & industry

5

ve

G

4

n

Ri

B ea

C O L O R

3

ca

The expansion of the US focused on this region in the mid-19th century. Settlers spread from the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers up onto the Great Plains. This treeless expanse, which early explorers had called the Great American Desert was turned into one of the world’s richest agricultural regions. But periodic droughts, coupled with overintensive farming, led to the “dustbowl” soil erosion crisis of the 1930s, the abandonment of many farms, and a mass exodus to the west coast. The land has since recovered, although the mechanization of agriculture has led to a decline in the rural population. In recent years, suburban residential development has spread rapidly across the wooded Ozark Plateau in the east of the region.

J

K

L

M


N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – S O U T H M I D W E S T E R N S TAT E S O

P

Q

R

S

Unionville

Princeton

Memphis Queen City

No

Green City

sR ive r Kahoka

r th F ab

i

Canton

us

Milan

Ri

Edina Monticello

sville

Y

 Gateway Arch, in Saint Louis, Missouri, is 634 ft (192 m) high. The huge steel arch symbolizes the city’s historic role as the “Gateway to the West”.

e

Bethany Albany Stanberr y

X

o in sM

Maryville

W

De

Grant City

Burlington Junction

om

Nodaway River

V

Lancaster

Th

A

A S K

U

I O W A

28 Tarkio Rock Port

T

Nelsoon River

N

1

ve r

I

Ri

wa ela

P l at t e R i v

ve

S

e Ri

C h ar ito n R ive r

Creek

Locust

iv e r

iv e r

B lu

lu e R

2

r

nR

ou

tle

Bi g B

ve

pso

s Mi s

Li t

Kirk So Mound City La Grange ut Trenton hF King City Pattonsburg a b ri iu s Ri Oregon Savannah Rive r Gallatin ve r Linneus Sabetha Shelbyville Palmyra e Maysvill Seneca Hiawatha othe Chillic field Brook Belleville Troy Saint Joseph Shelbina Hannibal Gran Marysville Hamilton Bucklin Macon r d Washington Elwood Stewartsville River D Frankfort eline Thomas Hill Monroe City Marc n Kingsto Waterville New London Horton alt Blue Rapids Concordia Reservoir rg Plattsbu Atchison Clyde Paris in Mark Twa Louisiana Mis Lathrop Keytesville Huntsville si s Holton Dearborn Brunswick Lake s ip Moberly Tuttle Creek Lawson Bowling Green bury Salis Platte City Nortonville Glasco Excelsior Springs n Clay Center Lake Westmoreland llton dalia Carro Van Ri Kansas City Sturgeon Perry Leavenworth Riley Richmond v Slater Glasgow Liberty Miltonvale er Elsberr y Lake Wamego Lansing Centralia Saint Marys Oskaloosa Gladstone Fayette Mexico Wakefield Manhattan ly Kansas City Kansa Cu hall tonWaver Mars Lexing v i e R r City s s a Minneapolis Milford s iv r Silver Lake Tonganoxie Kan Montgomery City Lake Independence Higginsville ater Ri Bonner Springs Troy Riv e r Saint Boonville ver Junction City w Springs Blue k Alma Topeka c arles Overland Park a n rdia Raytow Conco O'Fallon Ch Solomon Abilene ia Lenexa umb r Col Sweet Florissant is Lawrence e t Summi Lees v Leawood i ton Eudora rren Wa Springs Lambert-Saint Lou on ville lR ntz Fult l We and i iew Ashl Grandv H Clinton Lake r Olathe Noste Knob y r n e Salina Sm ok y v Cit i man ty R Her Hill 30 Pleasant ri Carbondale Universi Saint Louis Edgerton Belton Holts Sedalia i s s ou Clayton Council Grove Lake Warrensburg Baldwin City California Summit M New Haven Kirkwood Webster Groves Herington Holden Spring Hill Council Grove n City Lyndon n Tipto nville rson gto Harriso Jeffe Washin Ottawa Lindsborg Windsor Cole Arnold Garden City os Osage City Paola Union ho Pacific Ri Linn Camp Osawatomie Gerald ve Melvern Lake r r Marion Lake Pevely Owensville Stover Versailles McPherson iv e Clinton Adrian se R Lincoln Festus Hillsboro e Eldon Marion Cottonwood Emporia Lebo beu Hillsboro Belle s ag sC am ur Sullivan stal Butler r Cry O o e yg n B Falls an na Trum Florence Garnett S y Vien M w Harry Redmond Cit John Warsa e sR Little A Pleasanton i ve Appleton Reser voir Reservoir r Osage Beach Burlington r Riv kan Hesston r e Mound City City Lake of the Peabody er Madison Cuba Sainte Geneviev Le Roy Ozarks O s ag Dixon Bonne Terre Rich Hill Potosi Camdenton e Rive r Osceola Halstead Newton Desloge e Li t t l e O lvill itage Stee Herm la Rol Mi Ark s ag El Dorado Flat River e Rive r s Iola Moran El Dorado Pomme de Richland Riv a n s a Farmington Springs Yates Center e s Valley Center Lake Terre Lake Waynesville Bismarck ille ryv Haven r Eureka Per Nevada Scott El Dorado Fort nsville Huma Park City Toronto Lake Humboldt Wichita Salem Fredericktown e Andover Lebanon Ironton Stockton rs Buffalo Goddard Chanute Fall River Lake Taum Sauk Ho i an r Boliva N Augusta Ne Mountain Nin Haysville Licking Liberal Stockton Lake kR os nes Arma 540m or Derby h c ah Fredonia Jackson Lamar Centerville Girard eF Ri v Cape Girardeau Mulvane er Howard Marble Hill Greenfield t Fr an co i s e Grov ain Fair S Houston Pittsburg Neodesha Illmo Conway Golden City on Moline sto Marshfield Ellingt Scott City Parsons Willard Springs rR Burden Jasper Hartville ive r Chaffee Ash Grove arwater ont Cle dm Pie nton Carl Cherryvale Strafford Be ce Elk City Lake Eminen Advance Lake Wellington Junction Carthage ppapello Cabool Independence Oswego Springfield Winfield Spr ing River Republic Mo un ta in s Wa e Lak Sedan n Altamont ac Cedar Vale Columbus Galena Webb City Battlefield Seymour Mountai Winona Mount kR Charleston Grove Ozark Caldwell Joplin Bloomfield Sikeston Coffeyville Chetopa Van Buren Sarcoxie Vernon Nixa ive Arkansas City Willow Mountain View Caney r Baxter Springs ouse Ava reh Marionville Mo Springs Aurora Commerce Picher Dexter East Prairie Granby Monett Newkirk Poplar Bluff Welch Miami Bernie Neosho West Plains Purdy d Medford n Alto Blackwell Seneca Lilbourn New Madri Kaw Lake Bartlesville Dewey Galena Forsy th Malden Nowata Lamont Ponca City Doniphan le Cassville Gainesvil Anderson Branson Afton Campbell Oologah Pawhuska Gideon Pond Salt Fork Tonkawa Pineville Hollister Thayer Lake Arka Grove Barnsdall Creek Portageville Vinita n s a s Ri v e r Seligman Table Rock Lake Fairfax ng Chelsea rni Co t Grand Lake O’ Noel Piggot Nor fork Lake Skiatook Ar The Cherokees m Garber Sale Hayti Rector Hardy k a n s a s Hominy Lake Skiatook Berryville Bull Shoals Bl a c k B Pocahontas Rive Jay sville Riv Lake Lake Rogers Eureka e a r Cre e k Mountain Home Collinsville Kennett Caruther he Bentonville er r in Springs Green Hudson Kansas er n Cac Ash Flat Cleveland Harrison Cott ode Imb Claremore g ath Gentry r Rive Sen Pryor Pawnee Forest Lake r Perry Beave Turley Owasso Yellville Steele Locust Grove Walnut Ridge Springdale Calico Rock Keystone Lake Catoosa Paragould Hoxie Siloam ve r Stillwater iver Chouteau Gosnell Tulsa chville Ri bourne Mel Lea R ville ville r Hunts Fayette s n Springs e Springs Sand Gibson o Fort v Broken ite theville arr Jasper Bu f fal o Ri Monette Cave City a Bly Lake nil Arrow Ma R Cim Cushing Sapulpa ive Marshall Prairie Grove r Jenks Bixby Coweta Wagoner Lake City oro Perkins esb Drumright Jon Fork West View n Mountai Guthrie Tahlequah Osceola Batesville Mounds Bristow Trumann Haskell Stilwell Tuckerman D e v il's s t o o Stroud B Fort Gibson n anto y Lep Ferr M Greers ou Harrisburg rked Tree Muskogee Tenkiller Ferry D e n nt Newport Lake Ma Chandler Edmond a ton Clin r Lake ngs e in Wellston Heber Spri D e e p F k Ri v The Village Little R or Okmulgee s Bradford Vian Sallisaw Clarksville Checotah Bethany Choctaw Prague Turrell Ozark Alma Midwest Henryetta Muldrow Warner Okemah Yukon Buren McLoud Van r City ve No Bald Knob Marion r t h C a n a di an Ri Fort Smith Oklahoma City Shawnee le ia Ear Robert S Kerr son 20 Arkoma Jud Lake Russellville Augusta McCrory Moore Barling Charleston Paris Reservoir rcy his nne Sea Tecumseh mp Eufaula Wy e Me anell st Lake Spiro Dard We Newcastle Wetumka Pocola Greenwood erville Plum s e Seminole Atkin anell Dard Stigler Thunderbird er Norman Wewoka Riv Magazine Eufaula Lake n Conway Arkansa an s RivMorrilto Mountain 839m Noble Booneville Lake Conway Beebe Forrest City di e Quinton r Holdenville a e yvill Perr Hughes Danville Ola n Mansfield Poteau Purcell Lexington Cabot Des Arc Ca Konawa Hartford e e Ri v e r ey mell v nkl Mau Bri a Lake McAlester Krebs Waldron LaF Jacksonville Heavener e Lindsay Maumelle Marianna rc h Wilburton Mud Fou Stratford dy North Lonoke Carlisle Hartshorne k Roc e B Littl Ada rendon Cla k hita Roc Ouac le Lake Lake Litt Pauls Valley Sardis Kiowa Talihina Marvell West Helena Hot Springs Village Blue Mountain Wynnewood Rich Mountain Helena 799m England Mountain Pine Clayton 817m s n i a t Mena n u ton o Ben er M eek McGee Coalgate r rt r Ida t C i v ttga Moun e v Stu e i s h er h or iv Ca Hot Springs Creek Lake R ami c Sulphur e Wild ArbDavis Atoka Lake ddo iR Mounuckle Ki Altheimer Lake Hamilton Mo u 22 tain vern Mal t ood Wit n Glenw De Atoka t ain s s De Gray Pine Bluff ar Sheridan Broken Bow Arka ita Amity Lake Bo White Hall o n s Healdton gg R i v e r Tishomingo Lake as R Sa yC li n Lake Greeson ive Gillett reek Antlers e Arkadelphia Lake Pine Creek r Dickson Ringling Lone Lake Texoma Ardmore Dierks ro Caddo eesbo Murfr Grove Ba Hugo Lake Wright City Madill Li t t yo City Queen De Star n l e Miss o u Riso Hugo Broken Bow B Dumas Durant Lockesburg Land use and Nashville Marietta ive Gurdon Litt Fordyce River r l d e e agricultural distribution Idabel Colbert R Millwood Lake ive Prescott r Bearden McGehee cattle Arkansas Monticello Ashdown City poultry Warren Hope Red River Hampton Dermott Camden cereals corn ens Smackover Steph cotton Lake Village Lake Chicot Texarkana Stamps Waldo Ou e fodder in Montrose Lewisville a ch Magnolia al burg Ham i S t a rice R ive Fouke 24 r North Crossett soybeans ado Dor El ora Eud t sset g Erlin Cro Lake Bradley Strong major towns

L

er

re River

ub

Soldie

p Re

3

pi

a

L

R i ve

r Creek

li c

r

I

e

Bl

N

4

O

M I S S O U R I r

Ri

ve

ec

Ri

ai s

5

S

ve r

I

S

Mar

A

Ne

S

Bi g R

de

ive

KE

NT

ranci s nt F r S ai Ri v e

r

er

er

SE

ge

NN

ive r

Cache

I

e hit

pp

ssi

t Me

IS

Ri

th

iR

ar

iver i ta R ac h

ve r

Ou

ur

olo

me

R

SS

w

Rive r

MI

13

14

pasture cropland forest

L O U I S I A N A

15

Iowa Nebraska Kansas City

Missouri

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Tulsa

Oklahoma

100

Total land area

54 people per sq mile (21 people per sq km)

271,436 sq miles (702,992 sq km)

Little Rock

T e x a s

Louisiana

Q

R

S

T

U

Tennessee

ssip

Oklahoma City Population density

Arkansas

pi

New Mexic 0

 A combine harvester works the land on the great plains. A hundred years ago this region, also known as the prairies – the French word for pasture – was covered with tall, wild grasses.

16

y Kentuck

o

rural 35%

is

Kansas

no

Saint Louis

Topeka Wichita

urban 65%

li

The urban/rural population divide

Il

Colorado

22

V

W

X

Y

Missi

e

Miss i

ou

Cl

Kiam

12

SI

i ch

i

Ri

B ay

r

P

11

PP

W

Creek

Ri v

h

O

10

TE

nci

int

Sa

River

River

Fra

ed

L' A ng u i l

sR

l e R i ve r

Bl a

Crowleys

ck

Riv

I l li

er

ES

Rid

i

no

h

gy

B lu e

s Wa

A S

Using the land

N

E

r

Riv

Lit tl

eR

t Poin

Sp

W

og

M o u n t a i n s

The problems of a harsh continental climate, with severe winters and hot, dry summers, are partially offset by the rich soils of the plains. Kansas is a major cereal crop producer, ranking first in US production of wheat and sorghum. Rainfall increases toward the east, favoring the cultivation of soybeans, cotton, and rice, with corn concentrated in Missouri. Huge herds of cattle are raised in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri.

20

Ri v

E le ve n

er

A R K A N S A S

c h i t a O u a

Y

Os

Ca

Bl

eek

nt r re Cu

t Cr Br y a n

ive r

y Riv

O

L A H O M A

T E X

UCK

ag

eek

ive r

g ris R

C an e

a

z

k

r

er

ive

r

gu

Riv

y Cr

oR

di Ve r

P

u

a

ive

eek

pi

Cr

s ip

a Rive r

si s

Bi g P in e

Fl in t H i l l s

s sa

e

t

a

l

6

17

Z

27


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

USA: UPPER PLAINS STATES

C Fortuna

357,212 sq miles (925,143 sq km)

L ittl e M ud dy R

A

Creek

N

ll

B

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Although it escaped the last glaciation, the limestone bedrock of southeastern Minnesota has been eroded by surface and subterranean streams, leaving a network of underground caverns and steepsided valleys.

South Dakota Badlands

17

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 Chimney Rock is a remnant of an ancient land surface, eroded by the North Platte River. The tip of its spire stands 500 ft (150 m) above the plain.

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The Minnesota landscape contains many post-glacial features, including its numerous lakes, boulder-strewn hills, and mineral-rich deposits.

 In the badlands of North and South Dakota, horizontal layers of sandstone have been eroded by rivers, leaving a landscape of narrow gullies, sharp crests and pinnacles.

15

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 Badlands are formed by stormwater run-off. This flows down the impermeable strata of the escarpment and saturates the permeable strata, leading to mudslides and the formation of gullies.

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Kansas

These states straddle the Great Plains and the lowlands of the central US, with Minnesota lying in a transition zone between the eastern forests and the prairies. The region was shaped by repeated ice advances and retreats, leaving a flat relief, broken only by the numerous lakes and broad river networks that drain the prairies.

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Nebraska’s central location has made it an important transportation artery for east–west traffic. Minnesota’s road network radiates out from the hub of the twin cities, Minneapolis–Saint Paul.

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683 miles (1098 km)

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Food processing and the production of farm machinery are supported by the large agricultural sector. Mineral exploitation is also an important activity: gold is mined in the ore-rich Black Hills of South Dakota, and C A NA DA both North Dakota and Nebraska are emerging as major petroleum producers. Nor t h D a kot a

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32

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 Water erosion along the Little Missouri River has carried away sedimentary deposits, creating rugged landscapes known as badlands.

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The popular image of these states as agricultural is entirely justified; prairies stretch uninterrupted across most of the area. Croplands fall into two regions: the wheat belt of the plains, and the corn belt of the central US. Cash crops, such as soybeans, are grown to supplement incomes. Livestock, particularly pigs and cattle, are raised throughout this region.

Grenora

 Dark, fertile prairie soils in the southeast provide Minnesota’s most productive farmland. Hot, humid summers create a long growing season for corn cultivation.

in

Using the land

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4

Sherwood Westhope Bowbells Mohall Upper Des Lacs Lake Kenmare Powers Lake Lake Darling Des

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Lying at the very heart of the North American continent, much of this region was acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The area was largely bypassed by the early waves of westward migrants. When Europeans did settle, during the 19th century, they displaced the Native Americans who lived on the plains. The settlers planted arable crops and raised cattle on the immensely fertile prairie land, founding an agrarian tradition which flourishes today. Most of this region remains rural; of the five states, only in Minnesota has there been significant diversification away from agriculture and resource-based industries into the hi-tech and service sectors.

3

Crosby Columbus Portal

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 Along the shores of Lake Superior in Minnesota, the average number of frostfree days can be as few as 90, and frosts may occur in any month of the year.

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Gannvalley Slayton Howard Westbrook Woonsocket Presho Mapleton Pipestone Colman Blooming Prairie Mountain Lake Kennebec Rushford Root River Vivian nd Windom Truman New Richla Dell Rapids Ellendale Stewartville Chatfield Jasper Edgerton Fulda Chamberlain Houston Oacoma Preston Winnebago Wells White River Colton Trimont Heron Lake Kimball Spring Valley Plankinton Mitchell Caledonia Alden Garretson Brewster Salem Fairmont Lakefield Austin Luverne Spring Grove Hartford Valley Springs Blue Albert Lea Alexandria Le Roy Harmony Adrian Worthington JacksonSherburn Bridgewater Earth New Albin er Stickney Hills Spirit Lake v Lake Francis Case a Ri Northwood Lake Mills Sioux Falls Cresco ow Lake Park Estherville 11 Lakota r I Lansing Rock Rapids Ri Corsica Parker Winner Spirit Lake pe Tur Decorah Platte ng ve Armstro p e y Center Osag Okoboji Manl West Buffalo Sibley Lennox ke Ea U Waukon Freeman Parkston r InwoodGeorge y st Armour Milford Lake Canton Colome Fo City Calmar ft Forest Ke y Bancro r Rock Valley Sheldon Tripp Olivet a Pa Gregory n City Hartley Graettinger New Lake Andes ha R Clear Lake Maso Emmetsburg Menno Burke Postville Monona Marquette Lake Andes iver Hull Sanborn Nora Springs Hampton Viborg Centerville Algona Scotland Wagner Britt Bonesteel Garner Sioux Center Primghar Spencer West Union les City Clermont Char Pickstown Avon Whittemore Orange City Beresford Fredericksburg Tyndall Nashua Elkader Hawarden Sumner Sioux Sheffield Paullina Yankton tte Guttenberg p Rapids Spencer Springfield Belmond Butte r oli Faye i Riv Akron Trip on Springview o Allis er Lynch in Remsen Laurens Hampton Vermillion Lewis And Clark Lake es ldt Clarion wberry Point Ni o br a Riv Humbo Marcus Cherokee Mis Dows ein Stra l Rock Waverly Oelw Shel Crofton ra Riv Mars Point Elk Le e s City our r Alta Dakota er ury Pocahontas Aurelia i Ri Niobrara rg ersbu Eagle Grove lle Asb ve Ackley Park Waterloo Stuart Storm Lake Storm Lake Manchester Dyersvi Bassett Hartington r North Sioux Center buque Falls Iowa Falls Evansdale Du ar Kingsley City Ced E Dodge Fort l Ponca Atkinson Ainsworth kho Holstein Sioux City Long Pine Independence Epworth De Webster City rn Creighton Riv son City Sac City Hud Sioux South s e O'Neill Laurel Cascad Early Quasqueton er Rockwell Moville La Porte ipin No City Plainview Dakota City Sergeant Eldora Grundy Reinbeck City ico rt h Central Monticello Bellevue Ida Odebolt Randolph Emerson n R City Bluff Ra Lake City Stratford Hubbard Center Traer Center Point Maqu Grove Sabula Lake cco ok e ive Ewing Gowrie Sloan t Conrad Maquoketa r on Roland Wayne Dysart Vinton View Story City Schleswig Pierce Winnebago Anamosa a River Ri rion Preston Ma r v Neligh shalltown Newhall Boone Mapleton Carroll er Jefferson State Center Mar Cal Pender Toledo Cedar Rapids Oxford Junction Clinton Tilden am Norfolk Onawa Decatur C Ogden u Tama Nevada Belle Plaine De Witt ed Glidden Scranton Ames Brewster Denison Elkh Wisner Elgin ar Mechanicsville Melbourne Camanche orn 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29


NORTH AMERICA A

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Isle Royale 28

Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

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Laurium Hancock Outer Island Houghton Portage Fourteen Mile Point Lake w Stockton Island ena Mount Ashwabay we Ontonagon Mad eline Islan 437m d Superior Chequamegon Point Porcupine L'Anse Mountains Iron River Mount e Ashland Washburn Big Manitou R a n gLake Curwood c i b Falls e iver 603m Bessemer Gogebic Gog Lake Saint Croix Wakefield Hurley Bond Falls Michigamme Flowage Gile Flowage Ironwood Michigam Flowa me ge Namekagon Lake Nelson int Reservoir Watersmeet Rive Lake Lac Vieux r r Turtle Flambeau Hayward Desert Crystal R Flowage Lac du roix Lake Iron River Falls Lac Court t C Y e l lo w R n Flam i beau Chippewa Bru i Woodruff Ore SaGrants Park Falls Spoonerilles The Great Lakes region is the center of the US car industry. Since the burg Eagle River lePRiniveeRr iv Minocqua er r Long N Shell Lake Fre P o p p l Ri v e r Willo der w ic Reservoir Lake early part of the 20th century, its prosperity has been closely A e Lake Superior Bone Lake D P i Phill Ric Rhine ips e M lander A Riveke Lake Nokomis linked to the fortunes of automobile manufacturing. Iron and r Lake H Balsam ic am Crandon Fl i Lake Cameron Blue Pelica n R h steel production has expanded to meet demand from this Timms Hill mp r High Lake Falls Lad e u ysm ith v Bar J ig La ron i 595m Tomahawk k Reservoir Amery industry. In the 1970s, nationwide recession, cheaper a pl Chetek Wisconsin Ap New Ric n McCaslin hmond Mountain Cornell Bi River Glenwood City ntario foreign competition in the automobile sector, g Miller Dam 509m Hudson ke O Merrill Antigo Lake La Flow dC pollution in and around the Great Lakes, and the Wissota Stanley age Medford Re Saginaw Abb Milwaukee Riv k otsfo er rd Fal r Colfax Re ls Wausau Yo dR Oconto Lansing collapse of the meatpacking industry, centered on Chippewa Falls Stratford Rib Mountain Me w Madison ie Detroit iv Keshena Falls u Prescott nomonie e Er Ne r E a Wittenberg er 586m a RiveEau Altoona Lak w Big Eau Plein e e Reservoir Ellsworth Oconto Chicago Chicago, forced these states to diversify their ipp River Claire Cleveland Mosinee Shawano Shawan Loyal Spencer Ch o Toledo Mo Mars ndo Lake hfiel vi Du Bay Durand d industrial base. New industries have emerged, notably Lake Lake Pepin River Osseo Steve o ns Poin l t Neil lsvil le Ohio electronics, service, and finance industries. a Peoria r Plover Independence si Indiana iver Columbus Alma Springfield Wisconsin Waupaca R New London Whitehall Blac k Rapi Rive ds r Falls Transportation network Indianapolis Kaukauna Fo Nekoosa Weyauwega Illinois ssiArcadia Cincinnati p pi Petenwell Lake Poygan Appleton Menasha Neenah 540,682 miles 6550 miles Ri Galesville Lake Wautoma Winneconne (865,091 km) (10,480 km) Trempealeau y Holmen Tomah Cast Oshko le Rock sh Chilton k Frien dship r uc Rush Lake Lake Sparta ve nt i 24,928 miles 2330 miles Wes e t West field La Crosse K Berlin Lake Winnebago Salem (39,884 km) (3748 km) Ripon Buffalo Lake Mauston Green Lake Fond du Mont Pucka ello Hills way Lake Lac boro Elro y Westby Waupu n La Farge Few areas of the US have a comparable Wisconsin Dells Lomira Reedsburg Viroqua Portage system. Chicago is a principal transportation Beaver Dam Lake iv e Bara Rich boo land Beaver Dam terminus with a dense network of roads, n B a Cen a Major industry and infrastructure ter r a b o o R Lake Juneau West Bend railroads, and Interstate freeways that Wisconsin Sauk City ColumbusHartford Waunakee Sun Prairi sin River research & development radiates out from the city. car manufacture n o c e Menomonee is Mus Lake W Mend Falls coda Spring textiles coal ota Watertown Prairie du Chien Middleton Oconomowoc Wauwato electronics Green sa Mono na major towns Madison Jefferson Delafield Fennimore Dod engineering geville  Ever since Ransom Olds and Henry Ford Verona international airports StoughtonWaukesha finance Lan cast Lake er Koshk Greenfield Mineral onong started mass-producing automobiles in major roads New Glarus Platteville food processing Point Franklin major industrial areas Whitewater Detroit early in the 20th century, the city’s ville iron & steel DarlingtoEvans n Elkhor n Dick Haz eyville el name has become synonymous with the Janes Burl ville ington oil Green Shullsburg Delavan American automotive industry. East Dubuque Charles Mound Monroe Beloit Lake Geneva Union 376m Grove South Beloit r Harvard Antioch Galena ve Lena ca r e tonica Riv Loves Fox Lake Park Woodstock Freeport  The dunes near da Rockford Belvidere Waucon Sleeping Bear Point rise Arlington Savanna Mount r Byron Genoa Heights 400 ft (120 m) from the Carroll Much of this region shows the impact of glaciation Schaumburg Mount Morris Oregon banks of Lake Michigan. Sycamore Elgin Polo which lasted until about 10,000 years ago, and O’Hare Rochelle They are constantly being Geneva Sterling De Kalb Dixon resculpted by wind action. Wheaton Morrison extended as far south as Illinois and Ohio. Although the Rock Falls iver Prophetstown Plano Aurora Amboy Sandwich relief of the region slopes toward the Great Lakes, kR M oc r Yorkville Moline Mendota R ive Rock Island Ri v R Joliet G n e r e because the ice sheets blocked northerly drainage, East Geneseo Shorew ood Milan Moline Ottawa Channahon most of the rivers today flow southward, forming part 28 r Orion Cambridge Peru Illinois Rive Morris Princeton Ed wards Riv er La Salle Marseilles Kewanee Hennepin Lake Michigan of the massive Mississippi/Missouri drainage basin. Aledo Braidwood Galva Henry Senachwine Lake Erie is the shallowest of the d e r s o n C r e ek n Lake e H Streat Toul or on Dwight five Great Lakes. Its average Oquawka Galesburg Chillicothe Lacon Mino The many lakes and marshes of nk Pontiac depth is about 62 ft (19 m). Monmouth Knoxville Wisconsin and Michigan are the Storms sweeping across from Abingdon result of glacial erosion and Elmwood Canada erode its shores and Peoria Heights El Paso Roseville Gilman deposition which occurred Peoria cause the silting of its harbors. Fairbury Onarga Washington Bushnell during the last Ice Age. Canton East Peoria Pekin Gibson Ma com b Carthage Tremont The Appalachian plateau Bloomington Normal City Paxton r Hamilton stretches eastward from Lewistown e Le Roy Rantou Havana ek l Ohio. It is dissected by e Southwestern Wisconsin Cr Farmer City n Mason City Sugar a streams flowing west i B e l l I is known as a “driftless” Clinto n Mo Rus unt hville into the Mississippi and Champaign Urbana area. Unlike most of the Lincoln Clinto Sterling Petersburg n Quincy Ohio rivers. Salt Beardstown Savoy cK region, low hills Lake Cre ek ee C Virginia reek Monticello protected it from Tolono Springfield Riverton Decatur erosion by the Tuscola Jacksonville Mount Arthur Lake advancing ice sheet. Sprin gfield Pittsfield Chat Winchester ham Sangchris Lake Zion Arcola Auburn Sullivan Roodhouse Pawnee Virden Most of the water used in Charleston Taylorville Girard White Hall Lake northern Illinois is pumped Pana Mattoon k Carrollton e e Shelbyville r from underground reservoirs. C Noko mis Carlinville Shelbyville Toledo c o u pi n Ma Due to increased demand, Litchfield Lake Lou Yaeger Hardin Casey sk many areas now face a Jerseyville Gillespie MountHillsboro ska Lake Olive Ka Sara water shortage. Around Brighton Effingham nton Coffeen Lake Altamont Joliet, the water table was Alton BethaltoStau Greenville Vandalia lowered by more than Wood River Glen Carbon Edwardsville 700 ft (210 m) over the Carlyle Granite City Highland Lake Louisville ab Olney last century. as Collinsville East Saint Louis hR O'Fallon Flora iv e Cahokia Salem r Carly le Belleville Columbia Centralia Freeburg Illinois plains Mount Fairfield Nashville Albion Waterloo Vernon Marissa Ohio River Grayville Glacial till Red Bud ip Most recent Present-day Rend Lake pi Sparta Sesser Ri Pinckneyville till deposits river or stream Carmi ve Mcleansboro Steeleville r Mississippi Benton Older till Christopher West Frank Channels caused fort River Chester sheet Johnston City by outwash from Murphysboro Herrin Eldorado Relic landforms from the last melting glacier Mari Bedrock on Carbondale Harrisburg glaciation, such as shallow Bald Knob  As a result of successive glacial basins and ridges, cover all but Unlike the level prairie to the north, Lake of Egypt v 314m er  The plains of Illinois are characteristic depositions, the total depth of till Anna the south of this region. southern Indiana is relatively rugged. Elizabethtown Vienna of drift landscapes, scoured and Ridges, known as moraines, up Limestone in the hills has been dissolved along the former southern Jonesboro Golconda flattened by glacial erosion and covered margin of the Laurentide ice to 300 ft (100 m) high, lie to the by water, producing features such as e River

Transportation & industry

4

Siski Cumberland wit Bay Point Long Point

A

T

The states bordering the Great Lakes developed rapidly in the second half of the 19th century as a result of improvements in communications: railroads to the west and waterways to the south and east. Fertile land and good links with growing eastern seaboard cities encouraged the development of agriculture and food processing. Migrants from Europe and other parts of the US flooded into the region and for much of the 20th century the region’s economy boomed. However, in recent years heavy industry has declined, earning the region the unwanted label the “Rustbelt.”

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M

Thunder Bay Passage Island Blake Point

USA: GREAT LAKES STATES

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with fertile glacial deposits.

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south of Lake Michigan.

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sinkholes and underground caves.

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Metropolis Mound City Cairo


N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; G R E AT L A K E S S TAT E S S

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8

urban 74%

Michipicoten Bay

0

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Total land area

189 people per sq mile (73 people per sq km)

243,513 sq miles (630,674 sq km)

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 Farms like this one stretch across more than 67% of Illinois, covering 44,800 sq miles (97,170 sq km). The state is the second largest US producer of soybeans, which are used for animal feed and oil.

12

 Lake Superior is the largest of the Great Lakes and attracts millions of tourists each year. Valuable mineral deposits such as iron and copper are mined close to its shores.

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Map key Population

Elevation

1 million to 5 million

16

500,000 to 1 million

1000m / 3281ft

100,000 to 500,000

500m / 1640ft

50,000 to 100,000

mostly replaced family farming in the Midwest, some communities, such as the Amish people in Ohio, retain traditional farming methods, cultivating their small holdings using limited machinery.

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projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

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Scale 1:4,250,000

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Munising Hulbert Lake Newberry Cleveland Rudyard Manistique Drummond Seney Cliffs Basin Lake Island o r t Marsh Munuscong N h Chan nel Lake Milakokia Lake Fo Indian r Lake Patterson Point Islands er Les Cheneaux Manistique Saint Ignace Iron Mountain ts of Mackina Garden Island Gladstone Str ai Norway c Hog Island High Island Niagara Escanaba Bois Blanc Island Garden Beaver Cheboygan Peninsula Island Powers el Summer a Mullett Lake Douglas Lake North Fox nn Island gB ha Island Lake Black Lake Burt Bi C Saint Martin n Rogers City Mai Island South Fox Walloon Stephenson North Point Petoskey Lake Washington Island Pe Chambers Charlevoix Island Grand Lake Ri s h Cat Head Island Lake Charlevoix Long Lake North Manitou Point Boyne City Menominee River Island er Bay Jordan East Alpena nd Marinette Door South Manitou Leland Gaylord hu Torch Lake North Point Peshtigo Fletcher Thund Atlanta T er Bay Island Peninsula Bellaire Oconto y Pond Lake Otsego a Point Point Bear Sleeping South B Lake Lake Glen Elk Sturgeon Bay Hubbard Lake Long Lake Traverse City Crystal Lake A u Sa bl e R i v er Kalkaska Algoma Harrisville Grayling Mio Beulah Green Bay n Roscommo Luxemburg r Lake Higgins Oscoda ive Lake Saint Helen Kewaunee De Pere eR A Lake City Au Sable Point ste Houghton Lake u Gr ni Cadillac Tawas City Houghton Manistee Tawas Bay Pointe Aux Lake West Branch Lake Mitchell Two Rivers Big Sable i ver Charity Barques Point Manitowoc Island Cleveland Standish Harrison Ludington Hamlin Lake Baldwin Point Sand Gladwin u q Elkhart Lake e r Harbor Beach t te Pe r e M a Bad Axe Ri Saginaw Plymouth Reed City ve r ing Bay Sebewa Hart Sheboygan Big Rapids Ri Essexville Cass City ewa River Little Sable Point ver White Chipp er Bay City Cedar Grove rMidland Riv er e Cloud Mount e v t Caro i Carrollton i R Fremont R Pleasant Wh s s ne er Whitehall Saginaw Ca Sandusky Pi Riv Port Washington Alma Frankenmuth gon Vassar Marlette Cedarburg Croswell ske Ithaca Stanton u M Mequon Mount Mayville Brown City Cedar Springs Chesaning Muskegon Heights Muskegon Sparta Imlay r Morris Yale Norton Shores Coopersville Comstock Greenville aple Rive Whitefish Bay Flushing er Lapeer City Belding M Grand Haven Owosso Port Huron Park Milwaukee Ionia Saint Gran sville Mary West Allis Flint d River Grand Rapids Burton t Durand Lake Almon Cudahy ss R iv er Portland LoJohns Saint Clair Wyoming o k in g Gl a Fenton e Orion o Holly Rome Kentwood eR East Wind Point Holland Marine City Grand Ledge Lansing iver Rochester Hills Racine K al a Waterford Wayland Lansing ma Mount Clemens Howell Pontiac Gun Hastings Holt Mason Sterling Heights Kenosha o Whitmore Southfield Allegan River Lake Charlotte Clair Shores Saint Eaton Zion Lake Novi Leslie Gull Lake Rapids Otsego Warren Lake South Haven Waukegan Livonia oit Saint Clair Battle Creek Kalamazoo Detr North Chicago Ann Arbor Ypsilanti Dearb orn Hartford Mundelein Jackson Paw Paw Lake Marshall Detroit Metropolitan Portage Highland Park Vandercook Lake Paw Paw Trenton Conneaut Benton Harbor Vicksburg Spring Arbor Des Plaines Milan Clinton Rockwood City Union North Kingsville Schoolcraft Saint Joseph Evanston Tecumseh Carleton D Jonesville Dowagiac Three Rivers Devils e Ashtabula Skokie t Dundee r Coldwater o it R iv er Hillsdale Lake Adrian Berrien Springs Pr Geneva Oak Park North Madison Monroe n Cassopolis Rivairie Buchanan River Raisi Blissfield West Sister Bronson Hudson Chicago Sturgis er Niles Lambertville Island Mentor Painesville Burbank Morenci Fremont Willoughby Chardon o Toled Kelleys Island Sylvania Michigan City South Bend Oak Lawn Oregon Lagrange Euclid Harvey Elkhart and Clev Swanton Gary velod La Porte Mishawaka Cle Maumee eland Heights Mosquito Creek n Clinto Port Goshen urg Angola ewo Perrysb Lak r Hammond Merrillville Wauseon r Lake Sandusky Lorain Garfield Heights ve North Liberty Ligonier Rive Koontz Archbold Butler Cortland age Gibsonburg Chicago ia Parma Solon Bryan Lake Bremen Kendallville Napoleon Port Valparaiso Fremont Vermilion Elyr Heights Crown m dha ille Win Warren Albion Strongsv g Clyde Bowlin Plymouth lin Hebron Ober Defiance s Garrett Auburn er Knox Brunswick Peotone Point Ravenna Nile Bellevue Norwalk Wellington Medina Deshler Green Bass Lake iver Riv Manteno Youngstown Holgate Fostoria Tallmadge Columbia City umee Tipp Bourbonnais Demotte Tiffin own Struthers Warsaw re tint th a ecan o Baltimo Aus swor North rd Wad North Willa Lodi M an Akron Berlin Boardm Kankakee Blancha Leipsic Findlay Ri C ree Judson Winamac Fort Wayne Paulding ver Barberton rd Columbiana e ney r North Manchester New Haven Rittman Greenwich Morocco Rochester Alliance Lak Ottawa River Carey Ho estine ive Pal Rensselaer t Van Eas ille m y Orrv Sale s ton and R Shelb Columbu Can Ashl North l Lake Shafer Bluffton BucyrusCrestline Grove Ee Huntington Waba DecaturWert Canton Iroquois River Monon sh Upper Sandusky ster Delphos Lima n Minerva Mansfield Woo Kentland Logansport Wabash Salamonie sillo Ri Mas n Galio erp East Liv ool ve Ada Forest Peru M Lake Clear Fork Reservoir Brewster andy Creek Spencerville Watseka r Monticello Mississinewa S Carrollton Wellsville Loudonville Kenton iss moBluffton Berne Fort er e Dov k g Lak Lake ni Delphi Strasbur Wapakoneta Shawnee Atwood Toronto Sciot ar Cree Fowler Marion Hartforde R Celina o Riv Marion Mount Knox Lake Millersburg New Philadelphia Sug Brookston r Cr e ek e e Steubenville Saint Marys Kokomo Grand Lake Wildcat Gilead Mount Vernon Uhrichsville Leesville Lak Hoopeston City ive Lafayette e Bremen Indian Lake Gas City Lak New pan R Tap Norton Mingo Junction ive Portland sh Minster Fairmount Campbell Gambier Richwood West Lafayette Cadiz r West a ba Lake Loramie Delaware Tipton Elwood Hill 472m Bellefontaine on wn hoct ersto Cos com New Albany ersailles Williamsport WAttica Lafayette Frankfort Alum Creek Alexandria Piedmont Martins Ferry Sidney Lake Johnstown Salt Fork Lake Union City Danville Lake Muncie Piqua Marysville Westerville Newark Cambridge Covington Winchester ington Barnesville Worth Urbana Tilton Covington Lebanon Noblesville Lake s n mbu Dillo Anderson Greenville Colu Gahanna Heath Troy Tipp City Springfield Senecaville Byesville Clarksville Whitehall Westville Crawfordsville Carmel Lake Fortville London Zanesville Vandalia Pickerington New Castle Newport Brownsburg hatan Point Pow Obetz Lawrence Grove Huber Heights ore Baltim Greenfield Fairborn City Danville Dayton Richmond Crooksville i in Woodsfield Ashville Beavercreek g u v aster m Lanc Rockville Creek e Deer Indianapolis Connersville Kettering Plainfield New Matamoras McConnelsville r Xenia Paris Lake Greenwood CirclevilleH Logan Glouster Brookville Miamisburg Greencastle Devola R Shelbyville ock e Oxford Lake Sabina t i gton Washin Terre Haute h Middletown Marietta Kingston ing Ri Nelsonville Franklin Court House ve The Plains Mi a Brookville roc t a t a l Cagles Mill a ter Martinsville F Chillicothe Mason Wilmington Belpre Gre Marshall Lake Edinburgh Hope ns r Greensburg ield Athe Greenf Fairfield Pisgah ek Farmersburg Spencer Batesville Springdale SharonvilleBlanchester Cr e Lake Lemon Columbus Ellettsville Wellston Paint Hillsboro North College Hill Nashville Hill rn Washbu Pomeroy Jasonville Norwood Sullivan Jackson Bloomington S a n dVersailles Cincinnati Williamsburg 409m Linton Robinson Aurora Middleport Monroe Lake Bloomfield New Richmond Peebles Lucasville Vernon Rising Sun Carlisle Ri Oh Gallipolis Bedford Brownstown io R iver Union West M u scatuc k Ri West Portsmouth Lawrenceville ver Madison Vevay Ripley Austin Wheelersburg Portsmouth Vincennes Loogootee Scottsburg Hanover Shoals Bridgeport Washington Ironton Salem Paoli ite River Petersburg French Lick Wh South Point Charlestown Mount Carmel Patoka Lake Jasper Princeton English Huntingburg New Albany Ferdinand Fort Branch Jeffersonville Corydon iv e Boonville r Tell City Evansville Oh Cannelton io Rockport Ri ve  Although large-scale agribusiness has r

pasture cropland forest

A

Sugar Island Sault Sainte Marie Lake Nicolet

3

major towns

cattle pigs poultry corn fruit soybeans timber

es

Whitefish Bay

2

Land use and agricultural distribution

Whitefish Point

Tahquamenon Falls Tahqu amen on Riv er

1

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N

Crisp Point

Y

C

ch i g am me R iver

10

X

Using the land

rural 26%

Population density

s nt Mary S a i R iv er

Negaunee Ishpeming

A

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Marquette

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nn

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Au Sable Point Grand Island

V

The urban/rural population divide

C

Manitou Island Keweenaw Point Point Isabelle Keweenaw Peninsula ay w B Point Abbaye Big Bay Point H Mou uron nta i

U

250m / 820ft

10,000 to 50,000 100m / 328ft

below 10,000

17

sea level

V

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Y

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31

rk Yo


NORTH AMERICA A

B

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D

E

F

G

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USA: NORTH MOUNTAIN STATES

1

3

4

Using the land

500,000 to 1 million

5

C

IC OCEAN

N

A

D

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Population density

Total land area

26 people per sq mile (10 people per sq km)

487,970 sq miles (1,263,716 sq km)

4000m / 13,124ft

50,000 to 100,000

3000m / 9843ft 2000m / 6562ft

below 10,000 1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft

 The Snake River has cut down into the basalt of the Columbia Basin to form Hells Canyon, the deepest in the US, with cliffs up to 7900 ft (2408 m) high.

10

40

60

250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft sea level

 Fine-textured, volcanic soils in the hilly Palouse region of eastern Washington are susceptible to erosion.

20

100

80

80

60

40

100

Miles 10

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

100

90

C

8

A

Blaine Lynden Ferndale

t h N o ro t a D a k

6

A

0 10 20

rural 26%

0

0

100,000 to 500,000

10,000 to 50,000

Km urban 74%

Elevation

Population

Scale 1:4,250,000

The urban/rural population divide

Wheat farming in the east gives way to cattle ranching as rainfall decreases. Irrigated farming in the Snake River valley produces large yields of potatoes and other vegetables. Dairying and fruit-growing take place in the wet western lowlands between the mountain ranges.

M

Map key

I d a h o, M o nta n a , O rego n , Wa s h i ng to n , Wyo m i ng The remoteness of the northwestern states, coupled with the rugged landscape, ensured that this was one of the last areas settled by Europeans in the 19th century. Fur-trappers and gold-prospectors followed the Snake River westward as it wound its way through the Rocky Mountains. The states of the northwest have pioneered many conservationist policies, with the first US National Park opened at Yellowstone in 1872. More recently, the Cascades and Rocky Mountains have become havens for adventure tourism. The mountains still serve to isolate the western seaboard from the rest of the continent. This isolation has encouraged West Coast cities to expand their trade links with countries of the Pacific Rim.

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Transportation & industry

Oreille River

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CIF

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Oroville Mount Baker er Northport San Bellingham 3254m Orient Tiffany Mountain Mount Bonaparte New Metaline Ju hal an em Cape Flatte 2512m Friday Harbo Isl 2212m Mou ry Falls nt Logan r Washington ands Anaco Tonasket rtes Neah Bay 2770m Montana Mazama Str Republic Mount Vernon Skagit River ait Kettle Falls Priest Ro ckport Winthrop Clallam Bay of Jua Oak Harbor Portland Colville Lake n de Franklin D. Billings Ad Fuc a Roosevelt Stanwood Eugene Port AngelesPort Townsend Coupeville Lake Arlington Darrington Forks Sandpoint Sequim Chewelah Lak e Ma rys Oregon ville Glacier Peak Chelan Idaho Newpor Hunte t Ev rs 3213 O ere m tt l Boise ympic Priest Wy o m i n g Pateros Pocatello Monroe River M o u n tMoaunt Olympus 2428m Edmonds Grand Coulee i n Califo s Twin Falls Deer Park Redmond r rnia Queets Banks ive Cheyenne Bremerton N e v a d a ult R Lake Wilbur kan Qu in a U ta h m r Bellevue Skykomish e Ent u v e iat i Coeur R l Po e rt Qu Or o inault chard C le Land use and o Spokane Taholah d'Alene Seattle Leavenworth C o l o r a d 8 Seattle-Tacoma Coulee City Davenport Humptulips agricultural distribution Coeur Kent Moclips Wenatchee Tacoma d'Alene Crab Cr Shelton eek Cheney Copalis Beac Pacific Beach major towns fruit cattle Auburn Lake h Eph Odes rata Roslyn sa Sprague Plummer Olympia Aberdeen potatoes poultry Puyallup pasture Cle Elum Hoquiam Rosalia Saint Elm Gr timber cereals a ay Qui s ncy Ha rbor cropland Montesano Lacey Moses Lake Ritzville Maries Tekoa Thorp Westport Gr forest Mount Rainier Ellensburg Potholes ayland Tenino Ea ton vil le Ewan 192 4392m Reservoir al Garfield Willapa Bay Centralia is use River Vantage Bev Warden Benge alo erly Othello Palouse Raymond River Cheh Potlatch South Bend 9 alis Oysterville Colfax Deary Packwood Deary La Mo Crosse ssy roc k Morton Winlock Long Beach White Pass Tieton Selah Washtucna Pullman Connell Yakima Y iver Toledo 1362m Moscow e r v i Ilw ac o Cape Disappo R Vader intment Minerals and timber are extremely important in this Colton White Swan Wapato Mount Saint Hel Eltopia WestportCathlamet a R Sunnys ens Mount Ada Pomeroy ide Astoria ms 2549m Top pen i ish Ke ver region. Uranium, precious metals, copper, and coal are all lso 3741m Eure ka Granger Clarkston Lewiston Longview Raini Richland Seaside er Pasco Prescott Dayton Cougar er Mabton mined, the latter in vast open-cast pits in Wyoming; oil Asotin Kalama R iv Waitsburg 10 Lake Wallula Prosser Kennewick m Saint Helens Winchester Bickleton Wallula Touchet Walla Wall Woodland Trout Lake and natural gas are extracted further north. a Vernonia Paterson College Place Nehalem Yacolt Goldendale Timber Wh Manufacturing, notably related to the aerospace and ite Milto Stevenson nTillamook River Boardman Salmon Freew Vancouver mbia Forest Grove Ba Hermiston ater Wishram Portland Hood River electronics industries, is important in western cities. iver Cape Meare y Col u s eR Arli Hillsboro ngton Pendleton Portland Biggs Tillamook Beav The erton Dalles Gibbon Gresham C A A Moro N Pilot Rock Mount Hood D A Hebo McMinnville r Oregon City 3424m Newberg Grand Rond Enterprise e Kent Seattle Heppner Woodburn Tygh Valley La Grande Lincoln City Spokane Keizer Great Falls Condon Da Tacoma llas Union Silverton Monmouth Matterhorn Washington Lewiston Helena M o n t a n a Salem Ukiah Pasco 3049m Fossil Warm Springs North Powd er Yaquina Ba y Portland Spray Billings Dale Albany Newport er Salem Toledo Riv Haines Mount Jefferson er Lebanon Corvallis 3199m Council Eugene Waldport Long Creek Baker Madras Mit che ll Oregon Boise I d a h o Cambrid ge Sweet Home Junction City Pocatello Casper John Day Harrisburg Sisters Prineville Twin Falls Huntington Mount Vernon Wy o m i n g Can yon City Califo Eugene Redmond Florence rnia Springfield Strawberry Mountain Mapleton Brogan Weiser Three Sisters N e v a d a C ro 2755m Bend Cheyenne Ut a h o ke d 3157m R iv er Sene ca o Cottage Grov Payette C o l o r a d 13 e Reedsport Ontario ay Vale Lakeside Umpq ett Transportation network Oakridge ua R e r i ve e Nyssa River v No i rth R Harpe Major industry r u e h l r Ma Bend 347,857 miles Emmett Cape Ara and infrastructure Sutherlin (556,571 km) Juntura go Caldwell Burns Coos Bay Crescent N orth U m pqu a Rive adventure tourism r Coquille 4200 miles Ro se burg Nampa Bandon Mount Thielsen Crane Lake aerospace (6720 km) Myrtle Poin Winston 2799m Chemult t Owyhee Wagontire coal 14 Myrtle Creek Ri Silver Lake ddle chemicals Harney Lake Cape Blan 12,354 miles Malheur co Union Creek electronics (19,766 km) Lake Murphy Port Orford Crater Lake food processing Mount Scott Jordan Valley mining 1108 miles Sum 272 2m mer Lake Wolf Creek (1782 km) oil & gas Frenchglen Merlin Mount McLou Paisley ve Gold Beach timber processing ghlin Chiloquin e Ri Gr O wy h u Burns Junction g o R 2894m ants Pass ee Ea gle Point The Union Pacific Railroad has Lake Abert major towns Upper 15 Ce nt ral Pistol Rive been in service across Wyoming Point Med international airports Klamath Valley Falls r ford Lake since 1867. The route through major roads Bly Hart Mountain Kerby Brookings 2331m the Rocky Mountains is now major industrial areas Klamath Falls Altamont Ashland shared with the Interstate 80, Worden Lakeview Merrill a major east–west highway. Seattle Tacoma

a

B a s i n

r

C

P

i

C

b

a

A

m

H a r n e y

Ri

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Goose Lake

C A L I F O R N I A

16

 Seattle lies in one of Puget Sound’s many inlets. The city receives oil and other resources from Alaska, and benefits from expanding trade across the Pacific.

17

A

32

B

C

D

E

34

N

E

V

 Crater Lake, Oregon, is 6 miles (10 km) wide and 1800 ft (600 m) deep. It marks the site of a volcanic cone, which collapsed after an eruption within the last 7000 years.

F

I

J

A

34

K

L

M


N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – N O R T H M O U N TA I N S TAT E S P

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Powder River

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No

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Marbleton

H

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7

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Sheridan

Manderson

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Lizard Head Peak 3914m

Daniel

Saint Charles Preston Cokeville Bear Lake

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Gannett Peak 4207m Fremont Peak Hoback Peak 4189m 3311m Pinedale

Kemmerer

D

Lovell

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Crow Agency

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Downey Montpelier Paris

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6

28

Wibaux

Miles City

Vananda Forsyth

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Jackson

American Falls Thayne Pocatello Grover Reservoir t Bancrof Minidoka American Falls s Soda Spring Smoot McCammon

Oakley Rogerson

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Blackfoot

Palisades Reservoir

n ho os

Jackson Lake Grand Teton 4197m

B

Frannie

Fortress Mountain 3684m

T

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Ingomar

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Bighorn Lake

Powell

Dead Indian Peak 3723m Trout Peak 3732m

Sylvan Pass 2603m

Idaho Falls

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Kimberly

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Craters of the Moon National Monument

Carey

Yellowstone Lake

Ashton ys

Granite Peak 3901m

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Bridger Red Lodge

Canyon

Dubois

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Billings Laurel

Mammoth Hot Springs

U

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Hyndman Peak 3681m

Ketchum

Glenns Ferry

O

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Island Park

Circle

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Silesia Boyd

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Yellowstone National Park

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Mus sels he ll

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Bozeman

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Castle Peak 3606m

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Cr a z y Mo u n t a i n s Clyde Park Big Timber

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Roundup Ryegate

Ringling

Belgrade

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Mount Edith 2890m

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Borah Peak 3859m

Horseshoe Bend

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White Sulphur Springs

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Sidney

N A A T N O M

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Lost Trail Pass

I D A H O kB For

Stanford

Three Forks

L

Roy Hilger Lewistown Grassrange Winnett Moore

Bi

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2869m

Culbertson

Wolf Poplar Glasgow Nashua Point ve r er Fort Peck Mi ss ou r i R iv Vida

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Melstone

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Anaconda

Twin Peaks 3182m

Mountains

Boise

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Canyon Jefferson Ferry Lake City Deer Townsend Lodge Crow Peak Boulder

Salmon

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Monarch

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Garrison

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Smith

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B

River

Cascade

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Mount McGuire 3073m

Mi

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Augusta

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Fort Peck Lake

Great Falls

Fairfield

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Baldy Mountain 2018m

Big Sandy

Winifred

Philipsburg Hamilton

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M

Malta

Fort Benton

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Drummond Stevensville

Elk City

Salmon

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Dodson

r

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Choteau

C

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B la ck f oo

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Rocky Mountain 2863m

Orchard Homes

Clearwater

Mountains

Tet

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O

M

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Headquarters Dworshak er Reservoir r Riv ate Orofino rw Peak ea Grave l 2521m C Nezperce Kamiah Lowell Cottonwood

Conrad

Harlem

Havre

Chester Lothair M ari

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bin

Dupuyer

Hungry Horse Reservoir

Ronan

Missoula

Big Creek

Shelby

Lake Elwell

Flathead Lake

Pot Mountain 2176m

Idaho City

Gildford

Plentywood

Scobey

A DAKOT NORTH

Mount Brown 2121m

Chinook

5

A

8

Loring

Cut Bank

Browning

Bigfork

ns

Rocky Mountains

r

Kootenai River

D

 Water from the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park deposits minerals as it cools in rock pools. Long periods of deposition have created these rock terraces.

G

Babb Logan Pass 2026m

L

R

Ca

Somers

Smiths Ferry Lowman

The contorted rock shapes at “Craters of the Moon” National Monument in Idaho were left 2000 years ago by the sporadic upwelling of viscous lava from fissures in the basalt plateau.

The plateaus of the Columbia and Snake rivers represent one of the world’s largest accumulations of lava. Over 5 million years ago, successive flows of molten basalt buried the existing land surface by up to 450 ft (150 m).

Sweetgrass Sunburst

Columbia Falls

Kalispell

Polson rk Thompson Falls Kellogg Plains Mullan Wallace De Borgia Saint Regis Avery Superior

Cascade Reservoir Cascade

1

3

Opheim

Whitefish

Snowshoe Peak 2655m

New Meadows

 Piney Buttes are the remnants of an older, higher land surface gradually weathered and eroded into isolated outcrops with flat tops and steep sides.

The Continental Divide, or watershed, crosses the Lewis Range. From here, rivers flow east to Hudson Bay, south to the Gulf of Mexico and west to the Pacific Ocean.

Devil’s Tower

Rudyard

Libby

Grangeville

Y

2

A

Mount Cleveland 3190m

Eureka

Bovill

X

Coast Ranges

N

ai

Grand Coulee and the lesser coulées (ravines) were cut by cataclysmic floods, from the release of an ice-dammed lake, at the end of the last Ice Age.

W

Molten rock wells up from the Earth’s core

A

Trout Creek

V

The Cascades are glacially scoured volcanic mountains, the highest of which is Mount Rainier, a dormant volcano at 14,409 ft (4392 m).

 Devil’s Tower in Wyoming is an igneous intrusion, formed below the Earth’s surface. Molten rock intruded through cracks in the overlying strata and cooled. Over time, the softer rock layers have been eroded away, leaving only the tower standing.

Clark Fork Lake Pend Oreille

U

Great Plains

Surrounding strata eroded away

Molten rock cools, forming parallel columns

T

Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, killing 57 people and devastating a huge area. Columbia Basin

Glacial valleys on the seaward side of the Olympic Mountains receive about 142 inches (3600 mm) of rain per year, supporting the only true rain forest of the northern hemisphere.

The Rocky Mountains are flanked by lower parallel ranges, which spread onto the Great Plains in the east and surmount the broad lava plateau which extends westward. The Cascade Range divides the Columbia Basin from the coastlands, where the low areas around Puget Sound are broken by the steep, volcanic Olympic Mountains and the wooded hills of the Coast Ranges.

Moyie Springs Bonners Ferry

S

llo

O

La

N

Baggs

R C O L O

A D

O

36

33


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

S

1 million to 5 million

Kla

ma

50,000 to 100,000

S cott R

Klamath

th

2000m / 6562ft

10,000 to 50,000

Ri v

Orick

er

1000m / 3281ft

below 10,000

500m / 1640ft

100m / 328ft

Arcata Eureka Humboldt Bay

Blue Lake

in

Ri v

sea level

ity

Thompson Peak 2741m

Clair Engle Lake R iv e

er

r

Weaverville

Ferndale Fortuna Rio Dell Scot ia Cape Ee lR Mendocino ive r Weott

Hayfork

Va

nD iv e

0

I da ho

Ore g on

r

0 5 10 5

20 10

30

40 50 30

20

60 40

70

80 50

60

70

80

Miles

Covelo

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic Laytonville

Oakland

C

a

Las Vegas

r

n

FI C

ia

O

C

Los Angeles

EA

N San Diego

190 miles (360 km)

Upper Lake Clear Lakeport Kelseyville Lake Point Arena Boonville Hopland Clearlake

Ukiah

In California, the motor vehicle is a vital part of daily life, and an extensive freeway system runs throughout the state, cementing its position as the most important mode of transport.

ve r

Middletown Mount Saint Helena

Healdsburg 1324m Calistoga

Santa Rosa

Sebastopol

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

MEXICO

Cloverdale

Gualala

Bodega Head

Petaluma

A

 Gambling was legalized in Nevada in 1931. Las Vegas has since become the center of this multimillion dollar industry.

7822 miles (12,595 km)

Willits

Mendocino

Ri ian Russ

CI

Bakersfield

Ar izona

PA

li fo

2944 miles (4710 km)

P

aerospace car manufacture defense film industry finance food processing gambling hi-tech industry mining pharmaceuticals research & development textiles tourism

Fort Bragg

211,459 miles (338,334 km)

r

Carson City

Sacramento

Transportation network

ive

Major industry and infrastructure

lR

Ely

Snow Mountain 2151m

Ee

Nevada

Uta h

Reno

San Jose

7

Garberville

Km

San Francisco

6

nR

Scale 1:3,250,000

Nevada’s rich mineral reserves ushered in a period of mining wealth which has now been replaced by revenue generated from gambling. California supports a broad set of activities including defense-related industries and research and development facilities. “Silicon Valley,” near San Francisco, is a world leading center for microelectronics, while tourism and the Los Angeles film industry also generate large incomes.

5

uze

Transportation & industry

4

Novato

San Rafael

Point Reyes

8

 The General Sherman sequoia tree in Sequoia National Park is around 2500 years old and at 275 ft (84 m) is one of the largest living things on earth.

Wheeler Peak is home to some of the world’s oldest trees, bristlecone pines, which live for up to 5000 years.

C

a

li fo

Las Vegas

n

Arizona

r

ia

Los Angeles

C

EA

34

B

Sacramento San Francisco

O

A

Reno

Amargosa Desert

N San Diego

Death Valley

MEXICO

The sparsely populated Mojave Desert receives less than 8 inches (200 mm) of rainfall a year. It is used extensively for weaponstesting and military purposes.

 Named by migrating settlers in 1849, Death Valley is the driest, hottest place in North America, as well as being the lowest point on land in the western hemisphere, at 282 ft (86 m) below sea level.

17

Nevada

pasture cropland forest desert

C

16

major towns

FI

15

cattle citrus fruits fruit irrigation timber vineyards

CI

The San Andreas Fault is a transverse fault which extends for 650 miles (1050 km) through California. Major earthquakes occur when the land either side of the fault moves at different rates. San Francisco was devastated by an earthquake in 1906.

Idaho

Oregon

Land use and agricultural distribution

PA

When the Hoover Dam across the Colorado River was completed in 1936, it created Lake Mead, one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, extending for 115 miles (285 km) upstream.

California is the leading agricultural producer in the US, although low rainfall makes irrigation essential. The long growing season and abundant sunshine allow many crops to be grown in the fertile Central Valley including grapes, citrus fruits, vegetables, and cotton. Almost 17 million acres (6.8 million hectares) of California’s forests are used commercially. Nevada’s arid climate and poor soil are largely unsuitable for agriculture; 85% of its land is state owned and large areas are used for underground testing of nuclear weapons.

Utah

14

Using the land

C

The Great Basin dominates most of Nevada’s topography containing large open basins, punctuated by eroded features such as buttes and mesas. River flow tends to be seasonal, dependent upon spring showers and winter snow melt.

Sierra Nevada

11

As ridges are eroded they fill intervening valleys with sediments

I

The dramatic granitic rock formations of Half Dome and El Capitan, and the verdant coniferous forests, attract millions of visitors annually to Yosemite National Park in the Sierra Nevada.

Daly City

F

 Molten rock (magma) welling up to form a dome in the Earth’s interior, causes the brittle surface rocks to stretch and crack. Some areas were uplifted to form mountains (ranges), while others sunk to form flat valleys (basins).

San Francisco

I

Most of California’s agriculture is confined to the fertile and extensively irrigated Central Valley, running between the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada. It incorporates the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys.

10

Rising molten rock causes stretching of the Earth’s crust

C

The broad Central Valley divides California’s coastal mountains from the Sierra Nevada. The San Andreas Fault, running beneath much of the state, is the site of frequent earth tremors and sometimes more serious earthquakes. East of the Sierra Nevada, the landscape is characterized by the basin and range topography with stony deserts and many salt lakes.

9

192

Extensive cracking (faulting) uplifted a series of ridges

The landscape

The urban/rural population divide urban 92%

The Salton Sea was created accidentally between 1905 and 1907 when an irrigation channel from the Colorado River broke out of its banks and formed this salty 300 sq mile (777 sq km), landlocked lake.

C

D

E

F

 The Sierra Nevada create a “rainshadow,” preventing rain from reaching much of Nevada. Pacific air masses, passing over the mountains, are stripped of their moisture.

G

Etna

g e s R a n

Mckinleyville Tr

250m / 820ft

Orleans Salmon Mo unt ai n s

iv er

3000m / 9843ft

t C o a s

4000m / 13,124ft

100,000 to 500,000

K lam h River at

n s t a i u n M o

500,000 to 1 million

ins unta Mo you Happy i k Camp is

h a t

Crescent City

Mad

3

Smith River

Elevation

Population

The Gold Rush of 1849 attracted the first major wave of European settlers to the West Coast. The pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and dynamic economy continue to attract immigrants – despite the ever-present danger of earthquakes – and California has become the US’s most populous state. The overwhelmingly urban population is concentrated in the vast conurbations of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; new immigrants include people from South Korea, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Mexico. Nevada’s arid lands were initially exploited for minerals; in recent years, revenue from mining has been superseded by income from the tourist and gambling centers of Las Vegas and Reno.

m l a

Map key

USA: CALIFORNIA & NEVADA

1

H

 Without considerable irrigation, this fertile valley at Palm Springs would still be part of the Sonoran Desert. California’s farmers account for about 80% of the state’s total water usage.

I

J

0

10

20

30

40

50

rural 8%

60

70

80

Population density

Total land area

142 people per sq mile (55 people per sq km)

265,785 sq miles (688,357 sq km)

K

L

90

100

M


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2236m

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Kumiva Peak 2511m

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Honey Lake

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Empire

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Gerlach

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Westwood

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Eagle Lake

Paradise Valley

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Observation Peak 2427m

Red Bluff

King Lear Peak 2720m

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Matterhorn 3304m

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Fox Mountain 2494m

Madeline

Fall River Mills

Burney

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Lower Lake

Adin Bieber

McAfee Peak 3182m

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Eagle Peak 3015m

Big Mountain 2593m

Mountain City

Granite Peak 2966m

Duffer Peak 2864m

Massacre Lake

Cedarville Middle Alkali Lake

Alturas Canby

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Catnip Mountain 2223m

Jackpot

Owyhee

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Fort Bidwell Upper Alkali Lake Lake

Trident Peak 2558m

O

H

A

D

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McDermitt

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N

W

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Clear Lake Reservoir

Mount Shasta Mccloud Dunsmuir

Shasta Lake

Wa r n e r M o u n t a

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O

Goose Lake

Mount Shasta 4316m

Weed iv

Tulelake

Lower Klamath Lake

Yreka Montague

G

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E

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32

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32

Becky Peak 2840m

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Quincy me s Roberts Creek Mountain Carson Humboldt ri 3089m T Sink Nixon Salt Marsh Newark Virgina Peak Black Orland Portola Paradise Mount Callaghan 2550m Lake Butte Chico 3105m Wadsworth Lake Diamond Peak Lake Oroville Loyalton Fernley Elk Creek 3235m Downieville North Schell Peak Sierra City Reno Sparks ee River Hazen Willows Eureka Mcgill 3622m ck Oroville Tru Austin Mount Lola Fallon Biggs Reno-Cannon 2787m Gridley Mount Moriah Lahontan n Summit Mountai 3673m Ruth Truckee Virginia City Live Oak Reservoir Ely 3189m Grass Nevada Donner Pass North Kings Mount Hamilton Valley City Colusa Shoshone 3275m 2160m Bunker Hill Beach ba River rson Ri ve r Peak Fairview Peak W Yuba City Yu Ca 3497m Rive r a lk Marysville 2531m 3143m erican m e Tahoe City A Carson r City k Olivehurst R For Lake Wheeler Peak Connors th Arbuckle 3981m Tahoe Pass Minden Cac m tain 2354 Moun Yerington Currant South Lake Tahoe Mount he C Lincoln Auburn 3509m E Gardnerville re ek Jefferson Lund Schurz ive r 3642m Roseville RocklinSou rR Gabbs Arc Dome Freel Peak th For k Am er ic an Riv er ke Currant Knights 3588m al Citrus Heights Camino Echo Summit 3317m Morey Peak Landing Wellington Woodland North 3123m 2249m Round Mountain Placerville Highlands Folsom Walker Lake Lake Berryessa Markleeville Carmichael Saint Helena Davis Sacramento Luning Mount Grant r Rive Hawthorne 3425m Sutter River nes Mount Patterson Vacaville lumne e Dixon um Ione Mina k o s 3558m Creek M Troy Peak Co Sonoma West Point Devils Gate Jackson 3443m Galt 2292m Camanche Napa Fairfield s Spring Arnold Warm Bridgeport Reservoir Eagle Peak San Vallejo San Andreas Rio Vista Matterhorn Peak 3610m Pablo Murphys Lodi Columbus 3738m Bay Yosemite Mono Lake Martinez Columbia Kawich Peak Salt Marsh Tonopah National Richmond Calaveras River Angels Montgomery Pass Worthington Peak 2866m Sonora Concord Lone Mountain Camp Pioche Park 2185m Lee Vining 2697m 2776m Berkeley Walnut Creek Stockton 36 Tioga Pass Jamestown Peak Boundary Panaca Mount Dana 3031m Mount Diablo 4005m 3978m Manteca River Don Oakland 1173m Pedro El Capitan June Lake Owens Reservoir Stanislaus Oakdale Metropolitan OaklandTracy 2483m Cactus Peak Ri Half Dome Caliente Goldfield 2281m Mount Irish Livermore Riverbank Modesto Coulterville 2900m El Portal 2664m Mount Ritter Crowley Lake San Francisco Hayward r e Tuo lum ne Riv 4010m Lake McClure Ra Fremo Merced Peak San Redwood City nt ng e Turlock d River 3574m Mariposa Mateo r ce Patterson e Alamo M Elgin Milpitas Palo Alto Livingston Sunnyvale Santa Clara Atwater Bishop Groom San Jose Los Gatos ah Mount Humphreys Lake Merced ute Le Grand Pescadero 4263m Gustine Mesa Ri Pine Big n i qu Chowchilla a Felton Jo Los Banos Mormon Peak Morgan Hill Gilroy North Palisade 2260m 4341m San Luis Dos Palos Santa Cruz Reservoir Madera Beatty Watsonville Friant Pine Flat Lake Mesquite Hollister Monterey iv Independence San Juan Bautista Castrov ille Bay nR Hayford Peak Clovis Mendota Fresno 3021m Daylight Pass Marina Salinas Logandale 1316m Sanger Pacific Grove Indian Springs Fowler Seaside Lone Pine Overton Monterey Reedley s Selma i Gonzales v Death Carmel er Mount Whitney in Kingsburg Towne Pass Dinuba as Valley 4418m Owens dy Mud Peak 1511m Soledad Ri Echo Bay sR Badwater v er Lake 1635m Woodlake ng Jumbo Peak Charleston Peak Basin -86m KiHanford Point Sur Visalia 1757m o u 3632m Olacha Peak San Benito Greenfield s Lemoore h Las Vega Nort d 3695m Mea Exeter Lake n Olancha Mountain as Veg Las t Tulare Lindsay 1597m King City Pahrump a i n Paradise East Las Vegas Stratford Haiwee Telescope Peak Strathmore on s ders Hen Sequoia Coalinga McCarran Reservoir Corcoran 3368m Hoover Dam National Tulare Lake Bed Tipton Park Sloan Boulder City Pixley Porterville Avenal Johnsondale Tecopa Earlimart Alpaugh San Miguel Jean Delano Kingston Peak 2232m Trona g Mcfarland Kernville e Ivanpah Ridgecrest Inyokern Lake Lost Hills Clark Mountain Paso Robles Wasco Isabella r 2417m e Cambria v Lake Atascadero Ri Searchlight n r Shafter Mountain Pass Piute Peak Oildale Ke Lake Th o

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Needles

Ludlow

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11

12

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13

Lake Havasu

Cadiz Lake

N

Santa Santa Paula Simi Valley Barbara San Bernardino Mountain San Antonio s Joshua Ventura Chan San Burbank Glendale 3067m San Gorgonio Twentynine Palms Tree nel Pasadena Bernardino Mountain Oxnard Thousand 3505m Alhambra Ontario Yucca Valley Santa Cruz Island Oaks Beverly Hills Redlands Springs Whittier Pomona Banning Desert Hot C ol Santa Monica ora e Riversid Inglewood Fullerton d Los Angeles San Jacinto Peak Palm Springs o R Santa Rosa Island 3293m Desert Center Torrance San Jacinto Anaheim Corona Indio rA Sa q ueduct Cathedral City Hemet Santa Mounta A San Coachella Long Beach nt n ta Ana Ro Mecca ai

Parker Dam

Danby Lake

14

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South F o

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1455m

Johannesburg

A O N A R I Z

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rk Kern

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2570m

Ford City

Santa Barb ara San Miguel Island

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Bakersfield

Buttonwillow

Lamont Arvin California City Buena Vista Tehachapi Taft Taft Lake Bed Mojave Harper Lake Heights pi s Boron er a Maricopa Riv h n ave Barstow ac tai Moj h Santa Maria S Rogers Yermo Mount Pinos Lebec Te u n Rosamond an Lake o Raf 2692m M Rosamond Lake a el Mou Los Alamos Tejon Pass ntai Ord Mountain Lancaster 1273m ns 1923m Mountain Oro Grande Santa Ynez Big Pine Palmdale River 2081m Victorville Apple Valley

Arroyo Grande Nipomo

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C A L I F O R N I A

Black Mountain 1104m

San Luis Obispo

10

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Morro Bay

Pismo Beach Grover City

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San

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Los Angeles

ra

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R

15

iv

Palen Dry Lake

e

B

Vista

Oceanside

Escondido

Carlsbad

Julian Ramona Poway

Encinitas

Santee La Mesa

San Diego

Coronado

N

O

P

Q

R

S

U

Lakeside

El Cajon National City

ho Palo Verde co a C late an M al ou nta ins Niland Calipatria ch

ell

Westmorland

na gu ins La nta ou

Santa Catalina

oa

Salton Sea M

San Clemente Island

Gulf of

Temecula

Fallbrook

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Island s  The towering granite cliff of El Capitan typiďŹ es the Yosemite Valley, which is often choked with tourists during the summer months.

Santa Catalina Island ar ba ra Pa ssa ge

edr Laguna Beach oC ha San Clemente n Avalon nel

s in ta

t er Ou

San Nicolas Island

San P

sa Toro Peak Mo un 2657m

C

Channel

Santa Barbara Island

a s n

Huntington Beach

Imperial El Centro

16

Sonoran D e s e r t Imperial Dam

Brawley

Laguna Dam

Holtville

17

Calexico

I C O X E M

40

Chula Vista

X

Y

Z

35


NORTH AMERICA

I D A H O

H

up Hog tains n Mou

G

Range

s

a

B

t

a Indian Peak 2984m

U T A H 3453m

r

Creek

s h

Kanab

ve

ff Cli

a

t

e

olo

d

ra d o

D

e s

River

e

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Williams

Bill Williams Mountain 2821m

W

n

le C

Humphreys Peak 3851m

Ash Fork

pi

i

Gr a

Ri

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P

no

rey Aub s Cliff

Flagstaff Meteor Crater

k

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te

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Cr

on

vel

Che

r

o Rive

pa R iver

Hassayam

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lorad

rde River

Co

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CALIFOR

s

an

ta

kM

Cr

oun

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Ri

tains

ve

r

E

F

X

an ge

Sells Keystone Peak 1892m Baboquivari Peak 2357m

I

C

 The flat tablelands (mesas), and the isolated pinnacles (buttes) which rise from the floor of Monument Valley are the resistant remnants of an earlier land surface, gradually cut back by erosion under arid conditions. G

H

I

J

K

O L

Sierrita Mountains

 Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado river was completed in 1964. it provides hydroelectric power and irrigation water as part of a long-term federal project to harness the river.

jo R

A

Nevada

an

Riv

ne C rica

Moenko

v er

Californ ia

al

P aria

Hur

B ig Sandy Ri

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

D

fs

C

if

36

B

E

40

E X I C O

A

Tuba City

M

Tucson

M

Li tt

aw oh M

New Mexico

Phoenix

a s T e x

Albuquerque

a

Winslow Aquarius Sedona Mormon Lake Mountains r Chino Valley C Jerome Clarkdale o Hutch Mountain rr BuGranite Mountain ek Cottonwood 2601m re 2324m rC a Camp Verd r i e a e a Riv M Prescott Cl er nta Baker Butte Mayer Sa

ntain

Arizona

i Mou

Ok lah om a

Sante Fe

chemicals coal defense finance food processing hi-tech industry oil & gas mining research & development winter sports

s

Colorado

in

Colorado Springs

ta

Kansas

Utah

D e s e r t

a

Denver

e

S o n o r a n

un

sk

t

ARIZONA

Mo

Salt Lake City

The Colorado Rockies are crossed by 32 mountain passes, some as high as 12,183 ft (3713 m). The Eisenhower Tunnel west of Denver carries Interstate Highway 70 straight through the Continental Divide.

a

Kaibito Plateau

Lake Havasu Mohave untains City Mo B il lW 2462m i ll i am s River Ala mo Lake Parker Buckskin Mounta Mogollon Payson ins ns McDowell Mazatzal tai un Bo Mountains Mountains o Wick enburg rM Horseshoe Reservoir va Lake Vulture Aztec Peak rcu hala Mountains Pleasant a Ha u Bartlett Reservoir 2345m iver q ains r a Morr R istow H unt n lt o M El Mirage Sun City Big Horn Peak Ea Theodore g 1061m Litchfield Peoria Paradise Valley Roosevelt Lake Signal Peak Scottsdale Park Glendale 1487m Avondale Phoenix Superstition Claypool Tolleson Sky Mesa Apache Junction Globe Kofa Mountains Buckeye Tempe Miami Harbor San Carlos Guadalupe Chandler Mountains Superio r Gila Bend Castle Dome Peak G il San Carlos aR Mountains 1155m Reservoir ive r r Floren Hayden ce Rive Gila Bend Coolidge Gila Winkelman Casa Grande Yuma Wellton Table Top Somerton 1333m Mammoth Eloy Sand Tank S Gadsden San Manuel Mountains San Luis Oracle Sauceda Mountains Marana Ajo Mount Lemmon Growler 2791m Mountains Tucson South Tucson Gila

W y o m i n g

15

bra

none

Major industry and infrastructure

I d a h o

Ne

8627 miles (13,881 km)

a

Canyon en Navajo Mount Gl Rainbow Bridge 3166m Page Glen Canyon Dam

Seligman

Picacho Butte 2210m

r

Lake Powell

teau

Mohon Peak 2286m

ash

14

4059 miles (6515 km)

Crossman Peak 1554m

coni

Mount Hillers 3268m

c

o

Grand Canyon

eW

13

232,434 miles (373,986 km)

Kaibab Plateau

Es

us

Transportation network

New industries have helped reduce the region’s dependence on the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels. Precision manufacture has grown rapidly, particularly in Arizona and Colorado. Salt Lake City and Denver are well-established financial centers and New Mexico, the main US producer of uranium, is a prominent region for nuclear research. Colorado is the most important US center for winter sports.

Hualapai Peak 2566m

Oatman Yucca

34

Transportation & industry

Kingman

Hualapa

 The intricate stalactites of Carlsbad Caverns have grown with the seepage of calcium-rich water over the last 100,000 years. The huge caves are home to around 100,000 Mexican freetail bats..

Cl

12

Riviera

Co

Peach Springs

l

Kanab Fredonia

Pla

t Cerba ins ta Moun

11

Bullhead City

Wash

 In the arid landscape of Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona, the grain of prehistoric trees has been preserved as a fossil imprint in the rocks. The bogpreserved trees were gradually turned to stone by seeping mineral-rich water.

Lake Mohave

mento

Petrified Forest

Mount Tipton 2179m Sacra

Shifting gypsum sands produce a constantly changing land surface, overwhelming plants and any other obstacles in Tularosa Valley.

Red Lake

s t a i n M o u n

10

Orderville

o

P l Plateau Cany Mount Dellenbaugh d on 2156m n

Lake Mead

B l a c k

The striking color effects seen in the Painted Desert come from minerals such as gypsum and haematite, combined with ambient heat and dust.

Mount Trumbull 2447m Shivwits

Grand Wash

9

Mount Bangs 2442m

Rainbow Bridge is the world’s largest natural arch. The 309 ft (94 m) span probably began to grow when the sandstone spur of a meandering creek was breached during a flash flood.

Hatch Tropic e n o

C

Kanarraville La Verkin Hurricane Washington

Santa Clara

Saint George

Escalante

Brian Head 3446m

Cedar City

Enterprise

Lost Peak 2291m

Mount Dutton 3365m

Parowan Panguitch

Newcastle

Parts of the Grand Canyon, which cuts through the Colorado Plateau,are 16 miles (25 km) wide. The Colorado River has cut down 6262 ft (2000 m), exposing rock strata more than 2 billion years old.

8

Paragonah

as

Little Salt Lake

Modena

The parallel basins and ridges, which run north– south along the Great Basin, reflect a major series of block-faults in the underlying bedrock.

7

n

i

Creek

De ep

r e G

N E V A D A

Strawberry Reservoir Spanish Fork Maple ton St raw b err y Payson Salem River Eureka Santaquin Mount Nebo Mona 3620m Nephi Helper Fountain Green Fairview Price Levan Wellington Sevier Desert Spring City Mount Oak City Pleasa Sevier Bridge Reservoir nt Hiawatha Hinckley House Ephraim Delta Huntington Range Scipio Manti Orangeville Notch Peak Centerfield Gunnison 2943m Castle Dale Mayfield Holden Redmond Ferron Fillmore Salina Emery Sevier Aurora Lake Kanosh Richfield Glenwood Frisco Peak Elsinore San Rafael Mount Marvine Knob 2944m 3539m Monroe 2414m Delano Peak re Marysvale ek Milford 3710m Loa Hanksville Bicknell Beaver r Junction Minersville e iv tR Circleville Otter Creek Fremon Mount Ellen 3512m Antimony Reservoir Blue Bell Knoll yC

34

ta

Uin

Orem Utah Lake Provo Springville

Granite Peak 2154m

dd

Sand dunes, 600 ft (180 m) high, have been deposited in San Luis Valley, by winds funnelled through the San Juan and Sangre de Cristo mountains in the Rockies.

The Rio Grande has its source in several meltwater streams, which have cut deep valleys into the platform of the San Juan Mountains.

Riverton Midway

Heb Deseret Peak American er City Lehi 3362m Pleasant Grove Fork

Mu

Lake Powell

R a n g e

Over 13 million years of weathering has created thousands of spires and pinnacles from the alternating rock strata of Bryce Canyon.

6

Wah Wah Mountains

dry for extended periods, leaving a pan of evaporated mineral salts in its center.

South Salt Lake Holladay Park City Cottonwood Heights Sandy City

nge

5

a Confusion R

The arid, rocky expanse of the Colorado Plateau is dissected by immense canyons of the Colorado River. Desert lies to the north and south and branches of the Rocky Mountains run east and west. The Great Salt Lake and Desert lie within the Great Basin, a barren region of parallel mountain ranges that extends into Arizona.

Water level of lake varies according to quantity of run-off received from  The Great Salt Lake is an snow melt ephemeral lake; it can remain

Magna Kearns Grantsville West Jordan Tooele

Dutch Mount 2376m

The landscape Lake is fed by seasonal snow melt

Coalville

Salt Lake City Val Verda

Bonneville Salt Flats

4

Mudflats

Lake

Wendover

Ibapah Peak 3684m

North Ogden Huntsville

South Clearfield Ogden Layton Kaysville Farmington Bountiful North Salt

Desert Peak 2152m

This arid region, characterized by expansive plateaus and spectacular canyons is home to several distinct peoples. The ruins of cliff dwellings built a thousand years ago by the Anasazi people still exist today, and native Americans own one-third of the land in Arizona. Spanish and Mexican conquest and settlement left a hispanic presence which is strongest in New Mexico. The Mormons, who came to the Great Salt Lake seeking religious freedom in 1847, were among the earliest Anglo-American settlers and now make up over 70% of Utah’s population. The region’s mineral wealth drove rapid development in the 20th century, yet the constraints of a fragile environment, including widespread water shortages, may limit prospects for growth. When water evaporates it leaves a salt pan

Brigham City

Great Willard Salt Plain City Ogden Lake

c h a t a s

Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah

3

M

ro use C

Grouse Creek

W

USA: SOUTH MOUNTAIN STATES

1

32

Snowville Lewiston Richmond Bear Trenton Smithfield Lake Garland Logan Tremonton Providence Wellsville Randolph Hyrum

tains oun

ee

G

Sa

F

Marble Can er y on

E

Colorado Riv

D

CaBryc ny

C

ree k

B

G rea t S al t Lak e De ser t

A

Sahuarita

Green Valley

Apache Peak 2342m Mount Wrightson 2881m

Patagonia

Nogales

M


N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – S O U T H M O U N TA I N S TAT E S N

R

S

T

U

 The Bonneville Salt Flats are in the Great Salt Lake. Sodium chloride (salt), magnesium, and other minerals are commercially extracted from these flats.

32

V

W

X

Y

Scale 1:4,000,000

32

0 10

NEBRASKA

W Y O M I N G

at

iv te R

er

20

40

10

0

60

20

w Bo ine ins dic nta Me ou M

ke R ive

Sierra Madre

itt le

Sna

C o f any Lo on do re

100

80

80

60

40

100

Miles

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

Julesburg

2

Map key

28 Pl Sterling Halligan ut h Reservoir So Iliff Black Mountain Reservoir Diamond Peak s Butte ee Pawn 3310m 2944m Kings Peak 1638m Wellington Sterling Elkhead 4123m Walden Haxtun Cache La P s Collin Fort Mountains o Holyoke u dre Rocky Peak s Clark n Ault i R Eaton a Jackson i ve t Mountain 3947m n L u Craig sor o Wind rvoir a Y m Hayden p Rese itt a Maeser Springs National Prew R Steamboat iver Vernal M and Greeley Riverside Park Lovel Reservoir Parkview Mountain Reservoir Evans Brush Estes Park Berthoud Roosevelt 3748m ins Oak Creek Otis Lake PlattevilleWigg Lyons Grand Fort Danforth Longs Peak Myton Longmont Orno Peak Akron Morgan ite River Yuma 4345m Hills Wray Fort Lupton Wh Dacono Duchesne 3691m Lake r Kremmling r Granby Boulder Lafayette Brighton Bonanza ve Rangely Ri Meeker Green Mountain Broomfield ree a od r Denver relwo k Sher Reservoir Berthoud Pass ve Ari er Ri Arvada Denv Go Last Chance 3494m Commerce City Strasburg Joes r t Ridge Grays Peak Whea n Golde Bonny Aurora 4349m Evergreen Vail Reservoir Englewood Mount wood Lake Rifle Glenwood Springs Minturn Evans 4138m Littleton Sunnyside Burlington Mount of the Stratton Roa Breckenridge fs Flagler Castle Rock rin Holy Cross if Powell 4125m Carbondale Mount l g Limon Fo C 4269m B rk oo Cheesman Tennessee Pass 3177m an kC Pr Lake Ro ice Collbran Hugo Aspen lif Leadville Fairplay Rive r Lake Palme fs r Snowmass Mountain Mount Elbert Fruita 4295m ir 4399m Reservo Antero Green River Woodland Park Calhan Bi Castle Peak Grand Junction Orchard Pyramid Peak gS 4348m 4273m Grand Mesa Mesa Manitou Springs and Kit Carson Cheyenne Wells Buena Cr Somerset y Cr Mount Harvard Paonia e Elevenmile eek Vista e gs Sprin k rado Colo Peak Pikes Crested Butte er 4395m Hotchkiss n Reservoir 4300m Canyo Park Taylor v Elk Peak West i nR 3973m r R Reservoir Fountain iver Delta nc Eads om Co er l pa v Moab Ar i Haswell Canon City R ya 26 s k hg Gunnison a s a n Salida Montrose re Mount Peale Great Plains Ro orge Adobe Creek Pla Blue Mesa Reservoir 3877m G Reservoirs tea Florence Pueblo rvoir Lake Rese u Ordway Meredith Holly La Sal Cochetopa Hills A rk r Las Animas an s a s Ri ve Lamar Granada Ark Uncompahgre Peak Fowler ansas R 4361m Saguache John Martin iver Rocky Ford Lake City San Luis Peak La Junta Reservoir Ouray ain Mount Peak orn e Creston Greenh 4271m Peak Handies 3763m 4357m Telluride Monticello Creede R 4282m La Garita Muddy Creek Abajo Peak no Mount Wilson Center Huerfa Silverton 3463m Mountains Reservoir 4342m rg enbu Wals Blanding Vista Pass Del Norte Monte Electra Windom Peak Wolf Creek Blanca Peak 3307m Springfield Walsh 4372m 4292m Lake Alamosa Hesperus Mountain Vallecito Summit Peak 4033m Fort Kim Cortez 4054m Reservoir Bluff Garland La Jara Pagosa Springs San Luis Trinidad Mesa De Maya San Juan Durango Peak s Fisher R Branson 2082m Manassa 2934m Culebra Peak r

Flaming Gorge Reservoir

1

Km

Population 500,000 to 1 million 100,000 to 500,000

r

50,000 to 100,000

3

10,000 to 50,000 below 10,000

Colo

fs

Ri

Crystal River

if

ve

r

sh

Riv

do

ylo

Ta

C

lo

ra

iso

U

2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft 500m / 1640ft

5

250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft sea level 6

r

ins

nta

r

Devil R

g

3000m / 9843ft

ou

n

M et

W

a

K

rty

ive

Di

Gree n R

S

D

A

R

O

L

Hors e Creek

nn

e ng Ra

Gu

er

O

Ru

ch at S aw

Cl

O

C

O

4

4000m / 13124ft

K A N S A S

R

an

ange

Ro

Roan Plateau

eR

rad

o

Gre

en

Ri

ve

Elevation

iv

er

e

iver

de

an

nge

Duncan

M

Mount Graham 3267m

Jorn

Central Bayard Hurley

nt ou

Lordsburg

C

Valley

imas

Playas Lake

E O

MoLos P un i ta

La Mesa

ve

Ri

Pu

iv er

M

E X I C O

Land use and agricultural distribution

Eunice

G M uad ou a

Orogrande

Wind Mountain 2219m

Anthony

Carlsbad

Salt Lake Loving

Malaga

X P

C

I

Jal

15

pasture cropland forest desert

The urban/rural population divide

O

ra

nd

40

Q

major towns

cattle cereals cotton fruit irrigation

24

Big Hachet Peak 2550m Animas Peak 2597m

Albuquerque

Arizona

New Mexico

Hobbs

Columbus

Douglas

M

Organ Peak 2704m

G

Miller Peak Bisbee 2885m

Deming Florida Mountains

Mesilla

Río

Sierra Vista

N

Animas

hi ric ahu a

Mount Glenn 2292m Chiricahua Peak Tombstone 2986m

ins Mounta

Cochise Head 2472m

Las Cruces

Pyramid Mountains

Willcox Playa Benson

Hatch

Cookes Peak 2563m

Colorado

Phoenix

Artesia Lake McMillan

Denver

Utah

Lovington

Mountains

a

O k l ah o m a

Dexter Hagerman

Sacramento

Tularosa Mescalero La Luz Cloudcroft Alamogordo Mayhill

sk

Sante Fe

Tatum

Ruidoso

bra

Salt Lake City

Roswell

3649m

pe lu ins a nt

Willcox

re s ns

An

Reiley Peak 2326m

s ain

Bassett Peak 2336m

tains Moun ndres

Silver City

Capitan Peak

3073m oun tains Capitan Fort Stanton Sierra Blanca Peak

Ne

W y o m i n g

a s T e x

Clifton

b i im ta M oun M

no

o u Morenci nt ai ns Pi Pima Thatcher na le Safford

go nt llon ain s

Portales

11

I d a h o

Texico

Elida

ita nM

Carrizozo

A San

M

Elephant Butte Reservoir Truth Or Consequences Caballo Reservoir Hillsboro

Whitewater Baldy 3321m

Clovis

Melrose

Corona

Cap

r

Fort Sumner

Yeso

Gallinas Peak 2633m

S

la

Horse Mount ustin 2911m an Ag 3287m of S Mount Withington Tularosa ins 3083m ReserveMountains Pla Pelona Mountain 2808m Eagle Peak 2983m

Escudilla Mountain 3174m

Lake Sumner

Vaughn

M E X I C O

Socorro South Baldy San Antonio

Gallo Mountains

o M ou M

Gi

a

ive

Laguna del Perro

s no ins

N

Bl

R ck

N E W

Magdalena

Estancia

Willard

V a l l e y

Baldy Peak 3476m

Whiteriver

Madre Mount 2913m

Alegres Mountain 3118m

Grady

Santa Rosa

10

Kansas

Lakeside Greens Peak Mcnary 3089m Eagar

Tucumcari

Manzano Peak 3078m Mountainair

I

Rim

Quemado

ek

Black Ra

re

Rio Sala do

Ladron Peak 2797m

R io ada D el Mu G e r t o ran de

Concho

C

Show Low

Saint Johns

A

Silver

Snowflake

Los Lunas Belen

Canadian River

Califo

uerco oP Ri

Holbrook

Moriarty

Ute Reservoir

Pec os R

Isleta Pueblo

Manza Mountano ins

Laguna

T u l a r o s a

l

Río

T

San Rafael

Zuni

Joseph City

River

Zuni Mountains

Conchas Lake Conchas Dam

as

Sanders

Livestock, particularly cattle ranching, is the main source of agricultural income. The region has a long growing season and areas of rich soil, but depends heavily on water for irrigation. Crops include corn and wheat in eastern areas, and chili peppers, fruit, and cotton aided by additional irrigation.

Nara Visa

T E X A S

Las Vegas Jemez Pueblo Santo Domingo sR Gall iv Pueblo in Lamy San Felipe Pueblo Mount Taylor ueva Villan Bernalillo 3445m Rio Rancho Estates Anton Chico Corrales Milan Paradise Hills Alameda Grants Albuquerque Los Ranchos de Albuquerque

Thoreau

Chambers

Watrous

er

Pue b

Crownpoint

Gallup

Petrified Forest

Gr

Window Rock Gamerco

olo

9

Using the land

Mosquero

Santa Fe

N

oC

Tesuque

Wagon Mound Roy

Peco

Ganado do Wash ra

Truchas Peak Pojoaque 3993m

Los Alamos

Fort Defiance

Ocate

ek

U

ins Tohatchi

Polacca Keams

Espanola

Springer

Turkey Mountains

Cre

nta

Cuba

Clayton

Ute

ou Chinle

M o u n t a i n s

s

ha

rgo

aM

Abiquiu Reservoir

ma

26

Cimarron

Eagle Nest Lake Taos Ranchos De Taos Dixon Chimayo Mora

8

 A glacially eroded valley in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. There are 1500 peaks exceeding 10,000 ft (3000 m) within the state, six times the number of major mountains found in the Swiss Alps.

OKLAHOMA

Nevada

ain nt ou

La

O

sk

Rio C

n

Raton

rnia

M

Questa Wheeler Peak 4011m

Bloomfield

Huerfano Mountain 2278m

hu

u

Navajo Reservoir Tierra Amarilla El Vado Reservoir no

rga

toi

n

C

Kirtland

Ca

Ship Rock 2188m

Farmington

4282m

Costilla

Chama

Dulce

M

Kayenta

Aztec

Shiprock

Pastora Peak 2869m

i s t o C r

ua

r ive

Valley

re

e

Sa nJ

uis Valley nL S a R ío Grande

o

Monument

r

d

Y

d

7

R

S

e

urban 80%

0

 Cattle ranching was introduced to New Mexico via Texas in the 19th century, and has become the principal agricultural land use across this region. T

U

V

W

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Population density

Total land area

34 people per sq mile (13 people per sq km)

424,852 sq miles (1,089,965 sq km)

X

16

rural 20%

Y

90

100

17

Z

37


NORTH AMERICA C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

USA: HAWAII

1

The 122 islands of the Hawai‘ian archipelago – which are part of Polynesia – are the peaks of the world’s largest volcanoes. They rise approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) from the floor of the Pacific Ocean. The largest, the island of Hawai‘i, remains highly active. Hawaii became the US’s 50th state in 1959. A tradition of receiving immigrant workers is reflected in the islands’ ethnic diversity, with peoples drawn from around the rim of the Pacific. Only 2% of the current population are native Polynesians.

3

Transportation & industry

43 miles (69 km)

none

none

Lána‘i

O

C

E

N

ahi

an

l

ne

Ch

H A W

20

80

60

40

100

A I I

i

iw

P

lák

iC

C

D

E

20

40

50

60

70

Total land area

189 people per sq mile (73 people per sq km)

6,423 sq miles (16,636 sq km)

F

G

80

100

90

Saint Paul Island

14

Saint Paul

Pribilof Islands

H

Saint George Island

I

Saint George

Vega

e

250m / 820ft

nd

R

Amak Island 50

100

150

200

250

t

i

a

n

I

l

s

Unimak Island Cold Bay False Shishaldin Volcano Pass Deer Pogromni Volcano 2857m Island 2002 m Pauloff Akun Island U nim Harbor a k P as s Ak Sanak Islands Akutan Islandutan Makushin Vo Tigalda Island lcano Avatanak Island 2036m Unalaska Island Dutch Harbor nd Krenitzin Isla Umnak Islan d

a

d

n

Segula Island Semis opoch Is noi sland Little Anvil land S it k Peak 1 I in Carlisle sland Tanag 2 Amc Ka Great S Amu Yunaska Isla Island ass 21m hitka P Islan a Is naga Islanitkin Atka nd a Garelo T kt Nikolski Islan land d Seguam i anaga V d a Is d Is la la n Is nd A Herbert Islan d la Kanag tka S o land d 1806mlcano e gu Amukta Is 1307m a Volcano nd a la nd mP Cape S Island s Amlia Is asmik Ada Kagalask P ass tains s n o f u F o o u M r la k nd Dela Island a a ss Isla Islandrof A n d r e nadn o f I s l a n d s s

F

I

C

ds

ss

I

an

Pa

C

s

Isl Fox

e

D

Is

250

or

A C

t

200

Fenim

P

sea level

u

Point Rat I

a

100m / 328ft

150

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

a Isla

nd

100

Miles

ir Isla

500m / 1640ft

50 25

0

l

Kisk

25

s

d

Agattu S Shem s trai Aga t ya Islan t d Islantu CKrugloi ape d SabaPoint k Buld

1000m / 3281ft

B

0

A

tk

2000m / 6562ft

Km

c hi

3000m / 9843ft

below 10,000

Ne Wra Cape ar ngell Is Attu Attu l a Islan n d

Am

4000m / 13,124ft

10,000 to 50,000

38

30

Scale 1:9,000,000 Elevation

A

on ukiver

B

100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000

13 rural 11%

Population density

Map key Population

r St

A

lin Eto

14

10

ze

0

 The island of Kauaµi is one of the wettest places in the world, receiving some 450 inches (11,500 mm) of rain a year.

Ha

urban 89%

major towns

A

Kuskokwim Bay

The urban/rural population divide

Hilo

E

Aropuk Lake n Newtok Ba y Tanunak Tokso ok Bay Mekoryuk Nightmute Cape Mohica n Nunivak Chefornak Dall Roberts Moun Island ait Lake tain 510m Kipnuk Cape Mendenhall Kwigillingok

Ka Lae (South Point)

Hawai‘i

pasture cropland forest mountain region

I

N

S

Hall Isla n Glory of d Russia C ape Saint Mat Upright thew Island Pinnacle Cape Island

12

Saint Marys Mountain Village Scammon Bay Pitkas Point Hooper Bay Chevak

G

Ná‘álehu

Maui

cattle fishing fruit sugar cane

R

A

E

ha

Captain Cook

sto

lB ay Kotlik Hamilton Emmonak Alakanuk Sheldons Point RY

11

Kea‘au Cape Kumukahi Mountain Páhoa View Mauna Loa 4169m Kílauea Caldera ‘Ápua Point Páhala

Sound

Norton

Camp Kulow Northeast Caiye pe Southeast Ca pe

Hilo

Kealakekua

bue

Solomon Nome Cape Nome

ce Island

N

192

Mauna Kea Wailea 4205m Honomú Papá‘ikou

Hawai‘i

Kailua-Kona

N

E

sea level

Honoka‘a Laupáhoehoe

Kalaoa

Cape Rodney

Saint Lawren

10

100m / 328ft

Waimea

Kaho‘olawe

C

l

Kivalina

Cape Espenberg

Savoonga

t Cape

250m / 820ft e nn

Cape Hanamanioa ha C há ihá nn en u l A ‘ ‘Upolu Point el Háwí Hálawa

Keáhole Point

Gambell

Southwes

B

eik

O

A

13

O

t Cape

500m / 1640ft

Pu‘u ‘Ula‘ula (Red Hill) 3055m

R iver

Pa

‘ Al a

Kaho‘olawe

E

Land use and agricultural distribution

Northwes

1000m / 3281ft

Maui

uk

Little Diomed e Kougarok Island Mountain 875m Cape Wales Brooks Mountain Prince Seward 883m Bre of Wales vig er Mission Riv Port Claren ce rin z Teller Ku it Cape Douglas Council

122

9

2000m / 6562ft

kp

Shishmaref

3000m / 9843ft

Kauná Point Lánai

RUSSI FEDER AN ATION

4000m / 13,124ft

Honolulu

P A C I F I C

tze

Elevation

C

12

8

Ku

HI SEA

ircle

below 10,000

C

UKC

Arctic C

10,000 to 50,000

Ha wa i Moloka‘i ‘ i

O‘ahu

 A raft of timber from the Tongass forest is hauled by a tug, bound for the pulp mills of the Alaskan coast between Juneau and Ketchikan.

Population

100

r

Kaua‘i

571,951 sq miles (1,481,296 sq km)

100

90

7

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

192 Ni‘ihau

1 person per sq mile (0.4 people per sq km)

CH Map key

80

80

Point Hope

50,000 to 100,000

Ka

Ha rbo

11

60

40

70

6

arl

I

60

Total land area

e Wevok

Miles

Pe

F

50

Cape Lisburn

Kahuku Point Kahuku u Waimea Lá‘ie a K Waialua Hau‘ula Ka‘ena Point Wahiawá Ka‘a‘awa Pearl Mókapu Point Mákaha City Káne‘ohe Wai‘anae Nánákuli Waimánalo Beach Makakilo City Moloka‘i Honolulu nel ‘Ílio ‘Ewa Diamond an Point Kalaupapa Cape Hálawa Beach h Head C Kualapu‘u Channel Lá‘au olo Nákálele Point ail Point Kaunakakai n a h nel Wailuku Pá‘ia Kailua C i h o KalLána‘i CityLahaina Pukalani Kíhei Haleakalá Hána Lána‘i

The volcanic soils are extremely fertile and the climate hot and humid on the lower slopes, supporting large commercial plantations growing sugar cane, bananas, pineapples, and other tropical fruit, as well as nursery plants and flowers. Some land is given to pasture, particularly for beef and dairy cattle.

10

20 10

0

I

40

5

100,000 to 500,000

O‘ahu

30

Ko

Kaulak

0 10

Using the land & sea

Hilo

Hawai‘i

Km

C

20

Population density

Kaho‘olawe

A

Scale 1:4,000,000

A

10

rural 32%

Maui

 Haleakala’s extinct volcanic crater is the world’s largest. The giant caldera, containing many secondary cones, is 2000 ft (600 m) deep and 20 miles (32 km) in circumference.

Hawaii relies on ocean-surface transportation. Honolulu is the main focus of this network, bringing foreign trade and the markets of mainland US to Hawaii’s outer islands.

P

0

4

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

food processing military base textiles tourism

Hanalei Kílauea Anahola Nohili Kapa‘a Kahala Point Point Líhu‘e Kaua‘i Kekaha Kaláheo Waimea Kóloa n Ni‘ihau Pu‘uwai nel ‘Ele‘ele Makahú‘ena Point ha Kawaihoa Point iC ‘ a

urban 68%

Moloka‘i

6

Lehua Island Kii Landing

The ice-free coastline of Alaska provides access to salmon fisheries and more than 129 million acres (52.2 million ha) of forest. Most of Alaska is uncultivable, and around 90% of food is imported. Barley, hay, and hothouse products are grown around Anchorage, where dairy farming is also concentrated.

Honolulu

P A C I F I C

Transportation network 4102 miles (6600 km)

Using the land & sea

3

Ha wa i‘ i

O‘ahu

Major industry and infrastructure

5

M

The urban/rural population divide  The island of Moloka‘i is formed from volcanic rock. Mature sand dunes cover the rocks in coastal areas.

Kaua‘i

Ni‘ihau

Tourism dominates the economy, with over 90% of the population employed in services. The naval base at Pearl Harbor is also a major source of employment. Industry is concentrated on the island of O‘ahu and relies mostly on imported materials, while agricultural produce is processed locally.

4

2

L

B

1

K

St ra it

B

er in g

A

O

C

E

A

N


N O R T H A M E R I C A : U S A – H AWA I I & A L A S K A N

O

P

Q A

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Land use and agricultural distribution

RC

T

S

CEAN IC O

U

V

major towns forest barren tundra

Valdez Anchorage

Cordova

Homer

Juneau

PA

SE

BERING

CI

OCEA

FIC

X

Y

1

Almost 650,000 people live in Alaska, a wilderness of ice, forest, mountains, and plains, purchased from Russia in 1867 and twice the size of Texas. The discovery of large oil reserves has brought prosperity to the US’s “last frontier,” while advancing the need to preserve natural habitats and the traditional livelihoods of indigenous peoples, such as the Aleuts and Inupiaq.

DA

Fairbanks

W

USA: ALASKA

CANA

Alas ka

fishing reindeer fruit

T

N Ketchikan

A

2

3

196

Point Barrow

ay

Sm i

ta

ku

pa

Ku

s

ut

So

j ek

k

er

re e

Riv

na

va

lo

Fjords are found along the coast where valleys, deeply excavated by large glaciers, were inundated by rising seas.

Eagle

8

le y

ver Ri

za

rC

er

r

Suntranaelli Lake Usib Minchumina Healy rk Deborah McKinley Pa Mount 3761m

kw

Koyukuk

ve

Ka n Rivtishn er a

im

Salc

The arc of the Aleutian Islands marks the boundary between the Eurasian and Pacific tectonic plates.

Ch arper Mount H 1994m

ha

Big Delta nction Delta Ju

A

H i l l s

Che

s College Fairbank iver R Ester le

N

Y uk o n Ri v er

Chatanika

North Po W Nenana oo Anderson

7

Alaska Range

River

No rt

k lac

R

R

Circle

Circle

iver

n

s

ika

Arctic

R ck

u

r iv e

an

West Fork Glacier

Yukon River

v

sik

ek Coal Cre rings na Hot Sp

r ive

er

iy

Mo uh

ins nta

at To Ch

B

Cr ee

Central

Riv

Kaltag

Shaktoolik

Tanana Y Minto ills es H Manley Hot Springs n i r a n a R n KokKokrines iver Ta Ruby

ver

Cape Darby

Debauch Mountain 1040m

uk

1517m

Koyukuk Galena

Nulato

y Ba on

Huslia

e

d

Golovin

Koyuk

B eav

Mount Tozi

1682m Mo untai ns i Livengood R art tain Moun Wolf on Ramp

N en a na Ri

Elim

Haycock r

Hughes R ay

K

ge

Stevens Villa

Little

ek

Bir ch

k

iv e

S

A

t

u

Ri

River

r

kR

River

H

a og

Fo

Birch Cre

A

P orc

e pin

Chalkyit Bla rt Yukon

n uko

Y

Allakaket iver uk R yuk Ko

t

a Fl

6

ar

er

Peninsula

L

ills

Tag agawik Rive r

Buckland Candle Ko yu

A

S hee n

Christian

uk R

Riv

Goodhope Pen ins Selawik Lake Bay ula Deering Kiwalik

H ne Za

n

R i ve

r

ive

Fork North Ri ver K o y u kuk M K o id d l e yuk Fo uk rk Riv er uk

John

wi ld Ba

ri Wa Selawik

r

R

rk ve r Fo r Ri la

s

ountain Spike M 1139m

5

A

M Ch i dd an l guk Mountain Ch Nor a n d th F or da e 1350m ns i a l a r Rk k Ri v er iver Anaktuvuk Pass n t a n ata gu Ati o u Mount N ss 1448m Mo Tututalak Mountain No ata k Ri Doonerak Pa v er Al E n d i c o t t 2320m 1364m atn Chandalar Noatak aR n ma ise W d M o u n t a i n s S Mount Igikpak iver Bair Venetie c hw Chandalar R atka 2594m ive Mou oy ntains K Ko k Ambler r buk Bettles Fo Kotzebue Kiana a Rive n h Kobuk a R z r d Noorvik ountains iver Shungnak Ho ng M Beaver

k

illage

Arctic V

er

n

a

e

g

Riv

ith

er

Sm

Coleen

Anak

C ha

o

ChanEast Fo d a la r k rR iv

er

r Riv

ndle

Riv er

lik Kil

Ku

D e L o n gMishe

lip Phi

4

The ten highest mountains in the US are all in the Alaska Range, Mount McKinley (Denali), at 20,321 ft (6194 m) is the highest.

Brooks Range

The Yukon Delta is a fan of alluvial material eroded by the Yukon River and its tributaries. It is approximately twice the size of the Mississippi Delta.

C

B M o u n t ar ins o

s

tu vuk River

Awuna

Rive ut Ridg r e

er

Looko

Riv

r

Riv

kpo wruk Riv er K o k ol i kR i

ilik

ve

Itk

uk ok R Point Lay iver

ru k

e

Ut

i t R i ns ver

u k Ri v

Atqasuk

Icy Cape

s

er

Canning Rive r

Riv

Pr

M

de

R ive r

ea

Cape Halkett ay Ha eB rri son Bay Point ho Martin ud y C a m d e n B a y Kaktovik oint Prudhoe Ba Teshekpuk ation P Lake Demarc Deadhorse lik n r ub ai lson S h u n t Mount Miche n o gh M n 2699m ou Greenou amberli Mount fM Mount Ch 2749m zo a 07m n 22 g a Kon R om Umiat lin Franktains n er Davi i dson Moun ver i a R t e Mou Colvill un nta in Mo

Ikp ik p

Point Franklin B rd Pe a

The mountains of the Pacific coast culminate in the heavily glaciated Alaska Range and extend west, to the Alaska Peninsula and the great volcanic arc of the Aleutian Islands. The interior plains are drained by the Yukon River and bounded by the bare, jagged peaks of the Brooks Range to the north.

BEAUFORT SEA

y Ba th

s

Barrow

Wainwright

The landscape

O C E A N

T I C C A R

Chicken

 By August, the Alaska Range is covered with autumnal tundra vegetation.

e Dot Lak

yes Mount Ha M entas 4216m ta

9

itn

Sus

Susitna R iv er

Nab es na Riv er

Ba

y

y

B

at

ut

ue

n

e

Bly i

e

g

a

it

a

a

R

ak B

tra

x

Transportation & industry

mS

ay

n

Nushag

s

Chatha

le

vi ch

a

M

o

t

ou nt ain

s

St

ra

M

it

A

Cook Inl e

12

C

ay

G

laska of A f ul

A

n

B gak Nush a k a hag Nusninsula Pe nds la

I

h

es

Sh e

i n u s t u l i a a n

al

rc

fW

A

eo

r

n e e l PA

nc

e

Pri

d

ay

a

11

l

a

pper Riv Co e

Ta lke e tn aM

a

k

s

Co

rk

No

K u Hol s i tn k o a k w er

A

kw im R iv er

ali k

Bristol Bay

k a s l A

10

pp e

ountains

sko

Ku

i

a

Fo

rth

t

n

u

o

M

i m

a

Kusko

iak R iv er

sa r

Kilbuck Mountains

ork

An

Kus

hF

A nv ik Riv er

r

ve

Ri

ky

ut

arod River

afs

R

e

g

D

n

a

N

d it

I n no k o Ri ve r

An

Poorman

Di sh na Rive r

t Island Stebbins Saint Michael

dre

Ka

Unalakleet

ns

N Yukonu l a Riv t o er

ss Tanacro Mo Tok Tetlin un West Fork Glacier ay t a Von Frank Mountain i Northw 1374m The surging ice mass shears Cantwell Denali Paxson u tzo 8 a Lake Summit ley tin along the glacier margin Mentast Slana Mount McKin4m Mountains Medfra Ophir I 619 r r i) e nal v (De i Nikolai ina Rive ount Sanford aR a Mount Foraker Chistoch r M k Deep crevasses divide the Mcgrath So Takotna Nabesn Grayling 5304m Gold Cree 4949m a Gakona Wr front of the surging glacier Chisan na Shageluk a rry ka Cu m n ul well ru G gell Mo Fare D into large ice blocks Mount 36 Anvik untains 61m a llen rangell 4317m ter Paradise Ye Talkeetn Flat Glena lackburn nt Bona nt n Mount W Copper Cen Bonasila Dome Mount B Montana Mou  Surging glaciers make a in m zl Ta 551m thy 5005m Ri Tonrsinahitina 4996 Chickaloon McCar Lake Holy Cross v rapid and dramatic advances, C Crooked ear Skwentnaine er uska C h u g a n B a C t t a n n u tto M h ch Su Marshall Creek r Mo Mount Gerd v er normally after periods of ke 4520m Pilot Stony River M oi t i n a R i v e PalmerRi ount Marcus Baker Russian 3431m Willow La M Station Houston un snow accumulation. West Wasilla Sleetmute Mission Chuathbaluk tai Susitna River Birchwood 4016maldez Kalskag Aniak Red Devil V Fork Glacier in the Susitna Eagle ns Napaimiut s Lower Kalskag Mount Torbert Spenard Anchorage e Pas Lime Village kwim River t Miller S a i n t E Steller Whit River Basin traveled 3479m Ellamar Tatitlek ko Mount 3236m cier Mounm Anchorage l 0m 8 i v ek 8 on ce 05 i a Ty a Tuluksak in 27 l Cairn Mountain s M R Whittier Pr iam 2.5 miles (4 km) in 1987. Hope Cordova ay g G Mount St Eliams Kasigluk Akiac Nyac w Will 1158m t g n a a o i k in hak S 5489 un er Sound Bethel Akiak Ki Malasp r r ook Kashegelok t a Klukwan Kenai rling Moose Pass Knight Redoubt ve Hinchinbr t Glacie Kwethluk Ste a Ri in es Yakuta Volcano 3108m nding Island nd Katalla B La la er a Is d Napakiak Napaskiak op n Co la Hain y tna s Soldo tn Kayak IsElias Ic Mesa Mountain Kalgin Island Ri rd silof wa ha K weth Ka Se t nd in la c v Is G Sa e l er luk Tikchik 996m Tuntutuliak k la c Cape mena Kenai u Montagu erese s Ri Lake Clark Tustu Lake ier Ya tavu Saint T ve Eek d Lakes eau r B Gus Ninilchik Ee k Ri ver Cape Cleare oun Nondalton Peninsula glas Jun S u o nt Poi r g D Ancho r I me c y g Ho S tra a Quinhagak Wood Koliganek Iliamna Lak Pedro Bay y i Island nt iralt ay Newhalen a Middleton Mo River iver ah Adm d encer achemak B Seldovia n mn Kakhonak KAug pe Sp lfin Cove Hoonelican R a Bay la a Lakes lish e s C n Eng i ustin I k l t k E I P New Stuyaho int oon ke d klu Aleknagik Ang Island Port GrahamGore Po Ekwok Tena Islan Ah M erick kobi f Island d Igiugig amishak Bay K e Chugach Islands a e K Twin Hills Y r Ton Goodnews go F Sound nned g Dillingham gass Levelock hicha y Ent e of oterusbur C Togiak Manokotak k Mount Douglas a K r Clarks Point an e Na Platinum nd Wal 2153m enson Entranc an c e Naknek t i o Kupre nd P n f Isla nt e o v r e z l t u Ekuk l u n S Cape sI King Salmon Kr a l Isla ange bo t a Mou be Sitka s Shuyak Island Afognak South Wr Newenham rem i n Hyder cum Kuiu d F o r e Zaland lin Edge 3201m Island Naknek Hagemeister s gedo n s t Is Eto d d la s n K I Mount Katmai sla n I llagi f la a Island y B r s t o Egegik o I n arm Revi 2047m it ake ay Cape Bara yers Island nder Point B Edna B Port Lions MOuzinkie e Large areas of Alaska are undeveloped, and much of the a a x M Constantine r n int ey Ale ck St Becharof Lake Chun etchiktaain Poand Port Omman n Sound Kodiak l of Cape Chiniak existing infrastructure is a legacy of Cold War military ck asaa KMounnette Is Cape Christia land o il k Karluk K w s Kla ig Pilot Point An lakatla land and Isl tion I a ak a di r s n t Ko I C o e Bay n r Larse Ugashik investment. Mineral ores, including gold, have been mined M Duke nd Co Cape Ikolik s Isla n Old Harbor Noye ker Island ydaburg haco sl Mount Chiginagak H for over a century, but the oil business now dominates the pe C Ba a d C n 2120m Isla Port Akhiok ll a D land e economy. Processing industries such as paper-pulp mills Heiden Is zon Ba y anc 192 ester ape Mu Alitak Sitkinak Island Forr ntr C 192 E Island ak Tugid supply Japan and other markets on the Pacific Rim. n s o Sutwik nd Dix Trinity Isla Island Chignik Aghiyuk Island Mount Veniaminof A E N C C O Port Moller 2507m TI Perryville Chirikof RC Ivanof Bay Mitrofania Island Island A Prudhoe Bay RUSSIAN Kupreanof Point Sand Point Korovin Island FEDERATION Squaw Harbor Big Koniuji Island Belkofski Unga Little Koniuji Island Transportation network Major industry King Cove Nagai T Island Alas ka rans-A and infrastructure l s Shu 13,524 miles 49 miles Fairbanks Nome magin I sland (21,760 km) (78 km) fish processing gold mining 482 miles none oil (772 km) Valdez timber processing Anchorage

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Over 40 million gallons (182 million litres) of oil are pumped through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline every day. The oil takes six days to travel the 789 miles (1262 km) from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez.

major towns international airports major roads

BERING N

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Cordova

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Juneau

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 The Trans-Alaska Pipeline has carried crude oil from Prudhoe Bay since 1977. The oilfield is the US’s largest and is estimated to be equal in size to the biggest oilfields of the Persian Gulf.

X

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39


NORTH AMERICA A

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 The rugged, desert landscape of the Sierra Madre del Sur is a product of complex tectonic processes, where the fold mountains in western North America, running north–south, meet the Caribbean mountain arc which runs east–west.

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Palomas Bahía de Puerto Pe San Felip ñasco Cerro Co El Sásabe Nogal e es e Ciudad Juárez Zaragoza 1213m zón Punta Estr org J ella n a Guadalupe Cabo Sa Naco Agua Prieta de S Sáric Bravos n Quintín Bahía Samalayuca Caborca San Qui Nogales Ascensión Tubutama El Desembo ntín Guz má n Ca El na Porvenir nea Altar que su n Imuris Laguna de Pitiquito Fronteras o A ci B a hía de Sa n Q ui ntí 16 Sabinal io ío a ón Rí Río Santa María Janos BAJA len Magdalena Br Gr Bacoachi a Punta Baj M d g an av Santa Ana a Lucero Cerro Viejo Las Trincheras a d Villa Ahumada od e Nacozari de 1646m io San Fern el Arizpe García Bah ía del Ro sar ando Isla Sa Benjamín Hi Bacerac Nuevo Casas n Luis ll Ca bo Qu Grandes Lobos La Libert erobabi Isla Gu ad adalup Banámichi e CALIFOR Moctezuma Galeana Cumpas N Isla Ángel IA Rayón Cerro Pica chos 1554m Huásabas Moctezuma de la Guard a Carbó Buenaventura El Sueco Mazocahui Pesqueira Cabo Tepo Punta Pr Ures Zaragoza Las Varas ca ieta ra e la Pa o n o S a dajera Isla RíoSan Pedro Gómez Farías s Bahía de de la Cueva Coyame Ojinaga los Ángel Tiburón Madera Namiquipa es Bahía Kino SO N O R A os Picacho del Centinela Rosarito h c Boquillas Isla Cedro Isla San Es 2896m Sahuaripa B ah ía El Sáuz S La Colorada s teban Temósachic Isla San Lo de erra Se ba st ía Manuel Benavides re ra nz n lB o Sierra de Ca Mu lato m s V Presa d Tó iz m Te Bac nichi ca ín o alli coripa híniva Isla Nativ 19 en e l Aldama Luis L. León L l a n o d e l o s El Arco 08m idad Suaqui Grande Yepachic La La Cuesta Punta Eu Caballos Junta ge Ortiz Bahía de nia CH IH UA HU A M e s t e ñ o s San Miguel Laguna OGuerrero Neg San Nicolás Yécora La Babia Tortugas ro jo Julimes Pr esa Cu de Liebre Bas auh ase tém ach Em Las Palom oc Guaymas ic palme Álvaro as Cusihuiriachic Meoqui Cabo Haro La Perla Obregón Delicias San Juanito Cerro Seberi Volcán Las Punta Sa San Francisco de Bor Tr es 972 n Pablo Vírgenes m 1996m ja Saucillo Ro sar Car io ichi c Esperanza Creel Laguna Ciudad Naica Santa Rosa San Ignaci San José Múzquiz El Guaje Río Conch o San Lucas lía Punta San Presa de la Camargo Ciudad Obre os Hipólito gó Río n Isl Boq a uilla Lo Isla San Mar bos Yaqui Bolsón de Uri co Tém s que Laguna Sa oris Nonoava COAHUILA Valle de Zaragoza Mapimí n Punta Abr Mulegé Ignacio Navojoa Urique eojos Samachique Sierra Mojada Ocampo a Cerro Encantado Etchojoa n Jiménez lle 1560m Alamos Rí Huatabampo Ba Ball e eza d oS Rosarito Laguna El Rey Hidalgo del Parral Guachochi an M Bahía Choix Presa San Juan Punta Púlpi Yavaros Mig Cuatro Ciénegas i gue San Francisco ta uel Hidalgo Carrillo Punta Pequ ico l eña del Oro Santa Barbara Escaló Es ter o de n Mo relo s Villa Punta San e Ores tes Pereyra Ag iab am po Ceballos JuanicoLa Purísima rt El Fuerte 192 Isla Carmen Comondú Villa Ocampo Loreto La Poza Gr ande Rí San Blas Guadalupe y Calvo Puerto Esco ndido Tlahualillo Sierra de los Alamitos Ahomé San Bernardo Santa SI NA LO A Santo Dom 2560m Isla Santa Ca María del Oro ingo Guanaceví talina Los Mochis Bermejil  Wave action has cut steep cliffs into lo Mapimí Inde BAJA Ejido Insurg San Pedro Topolobampo the igneous rocks of Isla Cedros, off the Guasave Santiago de los Caballe entes Gómez Palacio ros Ciudad Co Isla Santa Cr ro Mocorito El Palmito Torreón uz Pacific coast of Baja California. The island Badiraguato Isla Magda nstitución s Ciudad Lerdo lena Matamoros um a y a Angostura Tepehuanes amo Guamúchil is home to sea lions, reptiles, and deer. Parras oH í R Cabo San Lá R C e San A Luis del L Viesca Corder Isl zaro IF o a Bahía Santa María d San José San Carlos ORNIA Pericos Nazas Bahía Mag R Isla Altamura El Rodeo La Reforma Santa Rita Punta Coyote dalena M Bahía Pedriceña Santiago agdalena Tamazula Bahía Navolato Isla Santa M Papasquiaro Peñón argarita ua de Isla de SUR D U RANGO l Espíritu Santo Altata Blanco Cuencamé n a v a Melchor Ocampo La Paz San Juan del Río Cedros Pichilingue r en z o San Migu o Quila Guadal el Canat upe lán L Coacoyo San Juan de le SanCosalá Victoria La PazIsla Cerralvo Guadelupe El Dorado Río Villa Madero Cerro Camacho Prieto Punta Arena Juan Aldama Mexico possesses rich Cerro Huehuento 3100m de la Ventana Miguel Asua Atotonilco 3150m Durango Tropic of Ca mineral resources, limited La ncer Cru San Ignacio z Buenavista Nieves Otinapa Villa Unión Santiago El Salto Punta Arena Coyotitán Todos Santos Río Grande e de Dios agricultural land and the world’s Regocijo VicentNombr El Quelite Aserra e Saín Alto dero Miraflores Guerrero Santa Genoveva Cañitas Sombrerete largest Spanish-speaking Pueblo Nuevo Mezquital 2406m Concordia Z A C A T E C A S Villa de Cos Ma zatl Villa án Sa Unión e n José del Cabo population. Most Mexicans are Santo San Lucas an PJiménez S o del Teul Domingo Rosario Cabo San Luca Rí Laguna del Fresnillo s mestizo, although Amerindian Caimanero Valparaíso Ramos Escuinapa Zacatecas communities still exist in the south, Huejuquilla Guadalupe 192 Teacapán Ojo Caliente Jerez de Acap oneta almost 500 years after Spain destroyed the García Salinas Cerro la Ardilla Salinas Tecuala Villanueva 2874m Loreto Laguna NAY ARI T Monte Aztec empire at its height. Much of the arid north is Escobedo Agua Brava Colotlán AGUASCALIENTES Ruiz Tuxp Isla an sparsely inhabited, while Mexico City is one of the world’s most populous Isabe la Isla San Juanito Ojuelos Calvillo Santiago Ixcuintla Isla María Madre cities. Conflict with the US has long overshadowed Mexico’s development, but the Playa Los Corchos Aguascalientesde Jalisco Encarnación Isla María San Blas Teul Jalpa North American Free Trade Agreement offers the chance for a more benign relationship, Magdalena Juchipila de Díaz Islas Tres Marías Tepic Lagos de Moreno de Moyahua Isla María Cleofas Compostela de S which may help to offset Mexico’s problems of hyperinflation, foreign debt, unequal Las Varas Ixtlán Yahualica San Juan í Ahuacatlán tiago los Lagos wealth distribution, and political instability. Tepatitlán RSandeFrancisco Tequila Punta de Mita del Rincón Tala Bahía de Banderas Puerto Vallarta Atotonilco Ameca Miguel Cabo Corrientes Talpa de Alle Mascota nde Hidalgo Tlaquepaque el Alto The urban/rural population divide Cocula Chapala Ocotlán El Tuito o LermaPénjamo í R Tecolotlán Zacoalco urban 74% rural 26% Lago de La Barca La Piedad Ayutla JAL ISC O Chapala Sahuayo Cavadas Corn occupies much of the cultivated area. Commercial plantations Tomatlán Unión de Tula Sayula Zamora de Hidalgo of coffee, sugar, vanilla, and cotton are found along the Gulf coastal Autlán Grullo Tamazula Cotija Zacapú 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Ciudad Guzmán Los Reyes Chamela Nevado de plain and in irrigated parts of the arid north, which is otherwise used Zapotiltic

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Elevation

1 million to 5 million

4000m / 13,124ft

500,000 to 1 million

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U AT EM AL A

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Apatzingán de Rosales Nueva Italia Aguililla La Huacana Presa del Infiernillo

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above 5 million

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2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft

10,000 to 50,000

500m / 1640ft

below 10,000

G

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Distrito Federal

100,000 to 500,000

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Punta San Juan de Lima Punta San Telmo

Mexico: Administrative regions

Population

Manzanillo

Armería Tecomán Coalcomán

Map key

Mérida

Acapulco

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Volcán Paricutín 2774m Cerro Tancitaro 3859m

Tuxpan

Pihuamo

50,000 to 100,000

C

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Colima 4339m

COLIMA

Colima

La Barra de Navidad

pasture cropland forest desert

MEXICO CITY

C

17

40

755,865 sq miles (1,958,200 sq km)

Gulf of Mexico

O

A

140 people per sq mile (54 people per sq km)

La Huerta

capital cities major towns

cattle coffee corn cotton fishing shellfish sugar cane timber vanilla

lf

16

Total land area

Land use and agricultural distribution

Gu

15

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Population density

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for extensive ranching. Fishing is important, particularly shellfish for export. A soaring population has created the need for grain imports since 1980.

R

13

BELIZE

 Coffee beans spread out to dry in the sun. Coffee, grown mainly on the Gulf coastal plain, is Mexico’s most valuable export crop.

E

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250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft

192

sea level

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N O RT H A M E R I C A : M E XI CO N

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The landscape

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The long, narrow, extremely arid peninsula of Baja (lower) California is an elongated granite block, separated from the mainland by the flooded rift valley of the Gulf of California (Golfo de California).

The great central plateau rises gently southward from the Rio Grande, isolated from the coastal plains by the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental. The two ranges converge from east and west respectively, culminating in high volcanic peaks around Mexico City. Further ranges of the Sierra Madre rise to the south of the Balsas basin, skirted by the low-lying Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Istmo de Tehuantepec) and Yucatan Peninsula.

W

Wave action has constructed sand bars which shelter lagoons along the shore of the Gulf coastal plain.

X

Y

The dormant cone of Volcán Pico de Orizaba is, at 18,700 ft (5700 m), the highest peak in Mexico. In North America, only Mount McKinley and Mount Logan are taller.

1

Sierra Madre Oriental Rio Grande The heavily-forested Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Istmo de Tehuantepec) is a graben; a low-lying trough created by downward movement of the bedrock between two fault lines.

Formation of the Gulf of California

2

 Tropical rainforest abounds in the Yucatan Peninsula, a broad, low limestone shelf. Rivers are rare due to the porous nature of limestone, so the forest is mostly fed by streams and underground water.

3

Direction of plate movement 4

Baja California Transform fault

 The Gulf of California (Golfo de California) began to open out about 4 million years ago as a result of rifting and plate displacement along transform faults.

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Transportation network Tropic of Cancer

67,564 miles (108,746 km)

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Fast, modern highways or autopistas now link Mexico City with Toluca, Puebla and other satellite cities, yet distant centers like Chihuahua are still served by narrow roads and an outdated railroad network.

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 A stone figure reclines by the Temple of Warriors, within the Mayan city of Chichén-Itzá. The Maya civilization flourished across the Yucatan Peninsula between 200 and 900 AD.

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1801 miles (2900 km)

Tuxpán

El Alazán

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16,561 miles (26,656 km)

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9

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

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oil & gas textiles

brewing car manufacture chemicals electronics fish processing maquiladoras mining

n

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3994 miles (6429 km)

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e

Piguícas 3191m

Zacualtipán Tequisquiapan Ixmiquilpan Salamanca Celaya Huichapán Valle de Santiago HIDALGO n Juan Yuriria San Actopa Salvatierra

Moroleón

Oaxaca

AN

8

Major industry and infrastructure

Puebla Veracruz

Acapulco

Tam

i

Silao Irapuato

CE

Ciudad Mante

O r

Guanajuato

MEXICO CITY

de

Cerro del Tigre

2268m Tula Xicoténcatl González

Dolores Hidalgo

Tampico

C O

Antiguo Morelos Altamira Ciudad del Maíz Cerritos Tampico Ciudad Madero San Bartolo Ébano Laguna de Pueblo Viejo co Pán u Cárdenas Pánuco Rí o Rayón Estación Tamuín Río Verde Arriaga Ciudad Higos Laguna de Tamiahua Valles Santa María del Río Tanquián San Ciro Cabo Rojo Tempoal Magozal San Felipe Naranjos Tamazunchale San Luis GUANAJUATO de la Paz Jalpán í Tantoyuca Tamiahua

San Luis Potosí

Gulf of

7

Oil and gas on the Gulf coast are Mexico’s main sources of export income. Metal mining has declined but the country remains a leading global producer of silver. Manufacturing is heavily concentrated around the metropolitan area of Mexico City, while the duty-free movement of goods in the US border region, under the Maquiladora Mexico (twin plant) scheme, has created new hi-tech and service Mérida growth centers.

E

r ra

SAN LUIS Moctezuma POTOSÍ

arina

Matamoros

San Luis Potosí

I

Sie

Venado

la

r e M a d

Charcas

Ciudad Victoria

Jaumave

A

Nuevo Laredo

Guadalajara

IF

r a

Doctor Arroyo Mier y Noriega

Nevada 3644m

IC

C

r

Matehuala

Mazatlán

PA

e

Allende General Terán Saltillo Santiago S Laguna Montemorelos os an F General Madre o ConchMéndez erna Cepeda Rí LE Ó N nd o San Rafael Burgos Linares Hualahuises San Fernando Cruillas San Carlos Galeana Villa Mainero Concepción del Oro San José de Raíces Villagrán TAM AUL IPAS Nuevo La Ascensión Hidalgo Jiménez San Tiburcio Padilla Aramberri Abasolo Presa Vicente Río Sot o Soto la Marina La Pesca Zaragoza Guerrero Cedral Vanegas Cerro Peña M Catorce

ER

Monterrey Durango

ia

Matamoros

Cándido Aguilar

Cadereyta

Transportation & industry AM

MEXICO

fo

Hipólito Ramos Arizpe

Valle Herm

China

li

i

Monterrey

S O F

Ca

General Mariano General Bravo Río Bravo Escobero oso

TE

Ciudad Juárez

of

S

Reyno

Cerralvo

D S TA

lf

A

Hidalgo Santa Catarina

ITE

Tijuana

6

The highlands of Chiapas are a series of horsts, blocks of land thrust upward between two fault lines. Volcanic cones have developed where lava has flowed out from the faults.

IZ

la

C

O NUEVO

The unstable, earthquake-prone, upland basin around Mexico City was once a region of shallow lakes. Flood control measures and domestic consumption over the last four centuries have caused the virtual disappearance of this surface water.

 Popocatépetl is a dormant volcano, part of the Pacific “Ring of Fire.” The crater is over half a mile (1 km) wide.

do

R

Nueva Rosita Sabinas Río

Popocatépetl

Hon

E

Piedras Negras

Zaragoza Nava Allende Villa Unión

5

Río Balsas

A

Villa Acuña

Jiménez San Carlos

Sa

Spreading oceanic ridge

Edge of continental crust

M

Presa La Amistad

Sierra Madre Occidental

EM AL

A

Gulf of California

E

G

Golfo de ec Tehuantep

A

N

Tapachu

ero Puerto Mad

U

17

algo

Ciudad Hid

X

Y

Z

41


o

New River Belize City Hill Bank Lagoon

BELIZE

San Ignacio

a Benque Viejo del Carmen

Flores

San Benito

BELMOPAN Santa Elen

a cint ma su

CAYO

La Libertad

M

Sayaxché

Dolores

a

Middlesex

STANN CREEK

Turneffe Islands Lighthouse Reef

M

64

Dangriga

rC han nel a r r i e r

Xunantunich

Ciudad Melchor de Men cos

Lago Petén Itzá

n

C A R I B B ISLAS DE LA BAHÍA

Glovers Reef

Victoria Peak 1120m

Richardson Peak 1000m

ne

an d Río U

Sibu

Belize City R e e f

d

PETÉN

ac

E

lL

a

WALK

Tikal

L

 Lighthouse Reef is one of a series of coral reefs lying off the coast of Belize in the shallow waters of the Caribbean.

Bocar Bacalar Chico Ambergris Cay San Pedro

BELIZE P e ORANGE Indian Chur n i nAltun Ha ch s u l

ro

de

Caledonia

In

an Pe

COROZAL Orange Walk

Bel ize

X R ío S

r ra

40

M TOLEDO

E

San Luis

Monkey River Town

Lubaantun

A

Gulf of Honduras

San Antonio

ac

lb a

l

Ix c á

n

Isla de Guanaja Isla de Roatán Roatán ahía a B l e s d Punta Gorda la San Mateo Isla de Utila Is Ixtatán Barillas Modesto Mendez Sarstoon Bahía de Punta Mana Punta Caxinas EHUETENANG bique Amatique JacaltenanHU O go Sol Rí Punta Sal oma Trujillo Si Chisec Río Puerto Cortés Iriona Lívingston C er IZABAL La Ceiba to QUICHE Balfate o s ra ALTA VERAPAZ Puerto Barrios Limón in i í d Santo Río Cu Tomás de Castilla Brus Laguna D San Pedro Carchá ilco o S el e l o Nebaj Chajul Tela ATLÁNTIDA e u n COLÓN ó eg u El b Esto s d g r COR a TÉS Cuc a Cobán ah Tocoa A La Masica Lago de Huehuetenango Rí o C huma b r e Río Pico Bonito í 2435m m c San i l o o c h P Mora o t í Cri San anes o les stóbal Verapaz R Pedro Sula R Izabal Volcán Tacaná SAN a N Panzós Savá a iller 4093m MAR n El Progreso ca Laguna de Olanchito Macuelizo Cord Los Amates agu COS ecó Si l Volcán Tajumulco t e Villanueva R í o C h am o er r Jocón Caratasca BAJ s A San Esteban VER APAZ 4220m Santa Cruz del Potrerillos Río M YORO ina Qu é a de Ch SANTA Chichicastenich San Marcos u ac ús Rabinal Salamá S i Pico Pijol l a s M Gualán ang Santa e Monte GRACIAS Rita o Mucupina d e a r r BÁRBARA Totonicapán 2152m Quezalten A Zacapa Represa El Cajón2282m ango Lag CIUDAD DE A DIOS La Unión Colomba Victoria Yoro o de d e Dulce Nombre de Culmí Gualaco COPÁN Sant a Sololá GUAT Ciudad Tecún Um Santa Bárbara Cop r án Ati Ruin Río Co tlán as ate a Rosa r peq ue EM án Río ú e AL p W a m San A i Francisco de Chi Gua la Paz quim stat S oya ula Chimaltenango(GUATE La Sula de Copán Lago de Yojoa MALA CITY) co Libertad Catacamas Santiago Atitlán Patzicía Salamá Río Telica Tilapa Kaminalj Jalapa Retalhuleu Ciudad Vieja uyú Que zalte pequ e La Aurora Mazatenango San Luis Esqu Ant ipulas Gracias igua Guatemala Siguatepeque Comayagua Volcán de Jilotepeque Santa Lucía Aca Cedros Waspam Guaimaca Campamento Juticalpa Lago de Amatitlán OCOTEPEQUE Cerro Las Minas tenango Nueva Ocotepeque Cotzumalguapa Champerico e COMAYAGUA FRANCISCO gua R í 3976m 2827m Volcán de Pacaya a San Marc r os OLANCHO Juti o Gu ayap Montañas de Comaya apa Metapán La Palma le ue Pueblo Nuevo late 2552m l n INTI i BUC Á La Paz á Escuintla rd aq Cuilapa Tiquisate Coyo La al Asunción Mita Cerro Villa de MORAZÁN Cerro Zarzalar ío Co Cel La oJ Ulmukhuás Gomera Pital Esperanza Su m e 2250m San Antonio Rí Lago de Güija El Bocay d e 2730m El Semillero Chiquimulilla Teupasenti tr CENTRAL Embalse Cerrón LEMPIRA Marcala Barra Nahualate n E REGIÓN AUTÓNOMA Santa Ana DISTRICT EL PARAÍSO Grande a Chalatenango LA PAZ L e mp a Chalchuapa er Bonanza TEGUCIGALPA Volcán de San Salvador 1893m Toncontín San José Iztapa ill d Agu ilare s r Ahuach Wina ATLÁNTICO NORTE Sensuntepeque Co Danlí Río Go Volcán de Santa Ana 2365 apán Mejicanos La Rosita m Yuscarán Jalapa San Delgado Cojutepe Río Torola Ciudad Barrios Sonsonate El Paraíso JINOTEGA Cerro Saslaya Nueva que C Luis o r 1990m d Lago i e Sabanag San l de l u rande e Salvador ra Cacag uatiq 192 NUEVA Acajutla SANIlopango San Vicente Siuna San Francisco Mogotón Punta Remedios Ocotal 2107m SEGOVIA SALVADOR Volcán de San Vincente 2182m VALLE í La Libertad Zacatecoluca Chinameca Nueva Guadalupe b o Nacaome ho San Salvador Alamikamba ana C Santiago San San Lorenzo ío Somoto MADRIZ Mig uel R Volcán de R í Cerro de María San Migue oP Condega l 2130m La Unión Chachagón CHOLUTECA r inz Jiquilisco Usulután Pueblo ap o l k a 1804m San Rafael Amapala Choluteca Nuevo Lago de Makantaka El Salvador: del Norte San Juan de Limay Intipucá Gulf of u T m Apanás o í La Cruz de a R Cedeño ESTELÍ ra Administrative regions Cerro Musún Río Grande e Fonseca M Estelí a l t e a Somotillo g al p a Jinotega i l MATAGALPA 1700m ed Río Grande Potosí rd nd AHUACHAPÁN CABAÑAS Villa Nueva Punta La Sirena ra C o C ordil l e ra D ar i e n s e G SANTA ANA LA PAZ La Trinidad Río Kurinwas Cosigüina o Matagalpa Rí SONSONATE SAN VICENTE CHINANDEGA Sébaco LEÓN CHALATENANGO USULUTÁN Muy Muy El Viejo Ciudad Darío Esquipulas LA LIBERTAD SAN MIGUEL Chinandega Chichigalpa SAN SALVADOR MORAZÁN

N

100 60

40

80

100

o

Corinto

A

120

N

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic 10

Telica

León

Masaya

Jinotepe CARAZO

Casares

EX

M

E

oP at u

Golfo de Nicoya

SAN JOSÉ San Ignacio

SAN JOSÉ San Marcos Parrita

N I C A R AG UA MANAGUA

capital cities major towns

 Bananas are harvested throughout the year along the Caribbean coast. Bananas are a perishable commodity and the plantations rely on good railroad links to the ports for rapid distribution.

A

D

Rn a

C

Península Caldera de Nicoya Paquera

P

B

río Río F

196,721 sq miles (509,640 sq km)

er

197 people per sq mile (76 people per sq km)

ill

Total land area

90

A

80

SE

70

N

60

PUNTARENAS Grecia Heredia Alajuela Puntarenas San José

EA

50

GUANACASTE

Nicoya Puerto Jesús

B

SAN SALVADOR

E L S A LVA D O R

C O S TA R I C A '

SAN JOSE

E

C

40

Volcán Arenal Quesada Volcán Poás Volcán 1916m C o r d 2704m Barva il San Ramón l e r a 2906m

IB

HONDURAS

A

C

' Colon

N

PA NA M A

pasture cropland forest

PANAMA CITY

COLOMBIA

F

G

H

I

J

di o

RICA

C O S TA

Santa Cruz

Quepos

TEGUCIGALPA

O

30

Population density

A

42

20

Sardinal

R

GUATEMALA CITY

C

17

10

rd

BELMOPAN

FI

0

de

Cabo Blanco

BELIZE G UAT E M A L A

cattle bananas coffee cotton corn shellfish sugar cane timber

100

Golfo de Papagayo

Belize City

Land use and agricultural distribution

rural 53%

Los Chiles Upala

o In

S ío Ju a n Volcán Miravalles G ue uan2028m q lo ac pi s a st ALAJUELA San Car m HEREDIA e Liberia Arenal Puerto Bagaces Tilarán Laguna Altamira Viejo Filadelfia Cañas a

CI

urban 47%

Península Santa Elena

El Castillo de La Concepción

San Carlos

192

PA

The urban/rural population divide 16

RÍO SAN JUAN

A

15

oP au lay á

RIVAS

San Juan del Sur

La Cruz

O

Muelle de los Bueyes

C

About half of all agricultural produce is exported. Five commodities dominate commercial farming: bananas, grown on the humid coastal lowlands of the Caribbean; coffee; cotton; sugar, and beef on the Pacific side of the isthmus. Corn is the main subsistence crop and many varieties are grown, supplemented by beans, squash, and sorghum. Large areas of tropical rain forest are commercially exploited, causing concern about deforestation.

Volcán Mombacho 1365m

Co

14

Santo Tomás Acoyapa

Granada

Nandaime Lago de Nueva GRANADA Nicaragua Guinea da Morrito Alta Gracia Río Punta Gor Belén Volcán Concepción 1610m Rivas San Miguelito Isla de Ometepe

The natural beauty of tropical Central America belies the civil strife which has long plagued this region. The imprint of Spanish colonization prevails in the official language and Catholic religion of the people, who are mostly of mixed heritage. Indigenous Maya peoples remain most numerous in Guatemala. The US has frequently intervened in Central America, purchasing from Panama the right to build the canal in 1903, and sponsoring guerrilla activity in Nicaragua during the 1980s. Initiatives for a common market with Mexico offer hope of overcoming foreign economic dependency and attaining the relative prosperity enjoyed by Costa Rica. However, gaping disparities of wealth and land ownership remain fundamental obstacles to peace and stability.

Using the land & sea

os

MASAYA

San Rafael del Sur Masachapa

B E L I Z E , C O S TA R I C A , E L S A LVA D O R , G U AT E M A L A , H O N D U R A S , N I C A R A G U A , PA N A M A

IC

N I C A R AG UA

Volcán Momotombo 1360m

Boaco REGIÓN AUTÓNOMA Camoapa Lago de BOACO La Paz Centro uia ATLÁNTICO SUR Managua Si q o í Nagarote R E R MANAGUA La Libertad El Rama sconío Santo Domingo Tipitapa di d o i co CHONTALES MANAGUA Managua M R ío Juigalpa

Central America

13

Ri

la

el

ab

Is

E

Miles

11

i co T oT in t

lu tec a

LeRmío pa

C

120

s

20

80

o

10

60

0

40

Te

0 10 20

R m Ba

O

Km

LA UNIÓN

Río Coc o

R Pa ío z

ascorán

I EL SALVADOR F I C

Rí o

Río Achigu

ate

R ío

Rí o

Ríouya Hum

C

Scale 1:4,500,000

CUSCATLÁN

a de Montecil diller los Cor

r

pu l

9

A

H O N D U R A S e

d

mb re

a

S am

al á

Ja Río l ap a

M

R

8

oS

a

Río

P

Si e

lta

ga

r

oG ua ya

r

e

r ra

Gi U A T E M A L A

S

7

án

R

oy hix

Río Ulú

a

oX

Río

4

t a n

Carmelita

ón

3

Si e

C

K

Rocky Point

B

I

RETALHULEU QUEZALTENANGO TOTONICAPÁN SOLOLÁ SUCHITEPÉQUEZ ESCUINTLA CHIMALTENANGO SACATEPÉQUEZ GUATEMALA EL PROGRESO JALAPA SANTA ROSA JUTIAPA CHIQUIMULA ZACAPA

2

a

J

Corozal

M

1

c

O

Ho nd

Guatemala: Administrative regions

u

Chetumal Bay

N R iv e w er

Y

C

ya

B

Río de la Pa sión

A

ts

NORTH AMERICA

K

L

M


NORTH AMERICA: CENTR AL AMERICA N

O

P

Q

Over 40 active volcanoes line the Pacific coast north of Panama, including Volcán Tajumulco which, at 13,846 ft (4220 m), is the highest point in Central America.

 The 990 ft (300 m) deep crater occupied by Lake Atitlán (Lago de Atitlán) was created after a volcanic explosion caused the original cone to collapse in on itself. On its shores lie other volcanic cones.

S

E

R

S

The high plateau of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes is a horst, an upthrusted block of land. The limestone rock is deeply incised with canyons along the plateau edge.

T

U

V

Soil erosion and mass-movement of hillslope material is a major problem on the coastal hills of El Salvador, increased by deforestation and overintensive farming.

Arrecifes de la Media Luna

Y

1

The Sierra Madre range spreads west from Mexico, between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of Petén. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast, to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatún (Lago Gatún). A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.

Low, white limestone cliffs, mangrove swamps and coral reefs characterize the coast of Belize, which is part of the Yucatan Peninsula.

2

Deep ocean where swell is greatest

Main reef supports diverse fauna

Over half of the route of the Panama Canal runs through Lake Gatún (Lago Gatún), the highest stretch of the journey. The freshwater lake also acts as a holding reservoir for the canal, providing water to operate the locks.

The Gulf of Fonseca, the Río San Juan and lakes Nicaragua and Managua occupy a major rift valley, which runs across the isthmus.

X

The landscape

Lake Petén Itzá is typical of the swampy depressions or bajos of the Petén region, formed by intense weathering of limestone in the hot and humid climate.

Sierra Madre

A

W

3

Still waters Branching coral encourage the growth of  The coral reefs off the coast of Belize, globular coral

4

are distinctly zonal. Different Coralline features develop in the high energy water of the ocean from those in the enclosed lagoon. The main reef development lies in the deep ocean.

Lake Managua

5

Puerto Lempira Cabo de Gracias a Dios Arrecife Edinburgh

co Co Río Boom Laguna Bismuna

Lake Nicaragua (Lago de Nicaragua) contains around 400 islands, some of which are active volcanoes. Unique freshwater species of shark and swordfish have evolved over the long period since the lake was cut off from the Pacific by a belt of volcanic cones.

C o a s t

Cayo Muerto

Ku k

 An ox-drawn plough tills fields of tobacco in the Copán region of Honduras. Only about 25% of the land is cultivated, in this sparsely-populated country.

ala

IC

O

BELMOPAN

A

Prinzapolka

SE A

E L S A LVA D O R

Cayos de Perlas

CI FI

C O

C

500,000 to 1 million

4000m / 13,124ft

100,000 to 500,000

3000m / 9843ft

50,000 to 100,000 San Juan del Norte

2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft

below 10,000

Barra del Colorado Río Chir ri pó

250m / 820ft

C

Río Chi r r ip Atlántic ó o

CARTAGO

l

44

A

Limón

Turrialba

ParaísoC Cartago e n t ra

Cerro La Muerte Cerro Chirripó 3491m Grande 3819m

14,994 miles (24,135 km)

918 miles (1478 km)

1912 miles (3077 km)

3797 miles (6112 km)

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

Bribri Rí

12

100m / 328ft

13

R

I

B

Guabito oS ixaola Changuinola

B E A N

Archip de San iélago Blas ta San Isabel El Por venir

Portobelo

S E A

 Panama’s rain forests are home to many mammals which originated in North America, including jaguars, tapirs, and deer, as well as sloths, anteaters, and armadillos, which long ago migrated from South America.

re s

o KUNA YALA Colón AlaLag juela hag Aligandí C ordi l l e ra d e S an Cristóbal Ist Bla C Bocas del Toro San Isidro C o r Cerro Kámuk o m DE í s A o o R Punta Mosquito Gu lf of KUN Lag MÁ NA gres d i 3554m PA Cha Río Teribe vo Nue de de lle Almirante Archipiélago MADUNGANDÍ Dominical Gatún Chepo Pa D ar ie n ra P da Bocas del Toro Bor R ío Buenos la go a n La Miguel de KUNA DE de G ArenosaCa nam amá Panama City Serr BOCAS DEL Península F ener Aires no Í te ya ND T N Nor a Esc Ba COLÓ WARGA na a Coclé del n ía Punta océs al Se Laguna de Valiente il al l am de San Miguelito TORO rr a Ma Chiriquí an Balboa a PUNTARENAS jé D n ca e Golfo de los Mosquitos R ía Cortés PANAMÁCITY) Chiriquí Grand C Cerro Chucanti ar í La Chorrera Se Puerto Obald ío R G rr ab a (PANAMA 1439m ié Bahía de Palmaro sRío rande de Tér rVolcán Chimán Barú a n í a P e d a Santa Catalina n a ira í a Cap h m a t B Coronado Sur á de 3475m Cerro Peña e San Vito Ta b El Valle Punta Chame ñ Blanca Cerro Gaital NGÖBE asa Volcán Boquete a Archipiélago 1314m rá 1173m Cerro Chorcha Isla del Rey as Perl G de las Península o EMBERÁGolfito l BUGLÉ lfo CHIRIQUÍ 2238m n t r a CO CL É Penonomé San Carlos San Miguel de Osa La Palma WOUNAAN C o r d i l l e r a C e Fé La Concepción va Bra ta Pun Santa a Antón David Quebrada Cerro Santiago Río Hato Cerro Tacarcun Yaviza Isla San José Golfo de Cañazas DA RI ÉN Guabo 2121m Calobre 1875m l Unión San Mig uel Rí El Real adulce Alanje Pedrega Agu o S San Francisco Chocó Horconcitos Bahía Punta Garachiné é a nt Puerto Armuelles a Garachin Remedios Cerro Pirre Isla Sevilla de Parita Santiago Mar í a 1200m Las Palmas m Isla Parida b Monagrillo Parita í Golfo VER AG UAS Cerro Setetule de Chiriqu Montijo Ocú Soná 1220m tré Chi RÁPunta Burica BE os EM Sant Los Jesús Río de A a HERRER Las Tablas WOUNAAN Guarumal Ponug Macaracas uc Ch

aq

ue

54

A

M

54

O

Jaqué

16

BI

B al s a s

Tonosí

Río

Cerro Hoya 1560m

Pedasí Punta Mala

ú

A N

LOS SANTOS

de Azuero

Sa

á Golfo de Panam

uira oT

Rí o

E

15

un

Río San Pablo

e jo

Isla Cébaco Isla de Coiba

14

l de a n

Rí o

A

Península

C

A

P

C

O N

l én

ol a Cricam

Chir iquí Vi

I

Be

ío

Río

lce Du

F

M

A

N

I

11

sea level

Punta Mona

Telire Río

COLOMBIA

The completion of a major oil pipeline across Panama in 1982 has reduced crude oil shipments via the Panama Canal, further contributing to a long-term decline in canal traffic.

500m / 1640ft

Volcán Irazú 3339m

PANAMA CITY

N

10

10,000 to 50,000

Río Colorado

Siquirres Matina

A

' Colon

Transportation network

1 million to 5 million

ón

' SAN JOSE

PA NA M A

Elevation

Population

LIMÓN

chemicals coffee processing fish processing finance food processing mining textiles timber processing

C O S TA R I C A E

Monkey Point Punta Gorda

9

Major industry and infrastructure

MANAGUA

PA

Cayos de Albuquerque

8

Most manufacturing takes the form of cottage industries concentrated in the larger towns, and the production of food, tobacco, furniture, textiles, clothing, and footwear. The region’s oil and metallic mineral potential is largely unexploited. The Panamanian economy is dominated by service industries, and the country has one of the world’s largest free trade zones at Colón.

N I C A R AG UA

Cayos del Este Sudeste

Map key

Re Rí veno taz

N

SAN SALVADOR

Isla de San Andrés

Punta de Perlas Punta Mosquito Bahía de Islas del Maíz Kama Bluefields El Bluff Bluefields

Guápiles

EA

TEGUCIGALPA

(to Colombia)

Laguna de Perlas

B

PROVIDENCIA

Cayos King

IB

Kara

BELIZE G UAT E M A L A GUATEMALA HONDURAS CITY

SAN ANDRÉS Y

Barra de Río Grande

R

Cayos Guerrero

7

Transportation & industry

Belize City

C

M o s q u i t o

ya

Isla Santa Catalina Isla de Providencia

Wounta

EX

Ri o

Tuapi

Puerto Cabezas

M

Yablis

Cayos Miskitos Cayos Londres

Dákura

Río W awa

6

 A geyser erupts from the central cone of Volcán Poás, an active volcano in the Cordillera Central of Costa Rica, which frequently produces spectacular lava flows.

L CO

17

Y

Z

43


NORTH AMERICA A

B

C

J Great Sale Cay

Pelican Point

Freeport

N

Ex

a id or

O

o d e S a

ne

el

So

ys

ann

a

C

C

Cat Island Columbus Point

n

Ch

Great Guana Cay

ea

lag

as

c e O

hol

th

Kemp’s Bay

a um C Ex ma u

of

pié

I

Arthur’s Town

BAHAMAS

Great Exuma Island

an

chi

Anguilla Cays

Bannerman Town

ue

Nic

Behring Point

Andros Island

Cay Sal

Rock Sound

Andros Town

Ch

go é la ipi ch Minas de r A Matahambre

Guanabacoa Matanzas José Martí Cárdenas Guanajay Güines

ts

of

New Providence

T

Adelaide

Fl

 The large bar which lies submerged in front of Marina Cay in the British Virgin Islands, has been built up by waves, depositing a bank of sand which partially encloses the islet.

NASSAU

Linden Pindling

en

s de lo

Mariel Artemisa

i tra

Ar

(HAVANA)

Colorados

A

Southwest Point h an n e l e n ce C ov i d t Pr Eleuthera s a e r th Current Island No Nicholls Town Governor’s Harbour

Berry Islands

tar

GU

S

O F LA HABANA

LF

Cherokee Sound

San

M

Tropic of Canc er

I

EX

Great Abaco

To n g

3

64

Marsh Harbour

Grand Bahama Eight Mile Rock Freep ort Island Nor Moores Island thw e st P C h a ro v i d e n ce nn e l

Bimini Islands

M

L

2

L

T

 The Caribbean’s virgin rain forest, seen here in Jamaica, is increasingly at risk from agricultural, industrial and tourist development. On some islands, the rain forest has virtually disappeared.

Coopers Town

West End Point West End

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1

K

Little Abaco

A

16

Cockburn Town San Salvador d Cape Conception Island Santa Maria Rum Cay George Town

O

un

C

Tropic of Cancer

E

Little Exuma Long Island

l

A

Deadman’s Cay Samana Cay Clarence Town a g e Jovellanos Sagua la Grande ass Güira de Melen Ó ba P Cr istó s Col a bal ón Cayo O d lo na Crooked Island Cape Verde an s Palacios A r ld B Fragoso d e ConsoLo Isl Jagüey Grande Santo Domingo a ch Northeast Point lación del Sur Ragged Golfo de Ba e i p ham rra ed e Plana Cays s a g k h Caib Pen i i Pinar del Río arién ía d Island ínsula Guanahacab o Colonel Hill a C Cayo él e Bu e s ibes S Guane r o Long Cay a de Zapata Aguada de Santa Clara h a Range n C Cabo Coco a g a Vi sta P Placetas o Snug Corner n Pasajeros Mayaguana Cruces de San d e nel na g Cienfuegos Acklins Island Antonio C u aThe Carlton Southeast s s a Cayos de g a Pico San Juan Cabaiguán Nueva Gerona Morón Cayo Romano m Cabo Corrien a a Point S a n Fe P lipe tes Salina Point North 1156m ag ay Jatibonico Sancti Spíritus os Caicos Grand M ic ü Esmeralda Santa Fé e Ca Kew Caicos n Trinidad Cayo a Guajab Ciego a z de Ch Cayo Largo Isla de la Juve Za Providenciales Archipiélago de Ávila an ntud East Caicos los Canarreos nel Caicos West Florida Caicos Islands Nuevitas Little Inagua Harbour urn Cockb Golfo de Camagüey South Caicos A n a M a r i a Vertientes Northeast Puerto Padre KS TUR & Point Sa CAICOS ISLANDS n Pedro Gibara Ar Rosa Lake (to UK) Las Tunas Cabo Lucrecia Ja chi Great Inagua Holguín Banes rd pi Town Matthew i é

N

e

nos r g a San

de s í a no BaChochi

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r

e

ne

a

Scale 1:6,000,000 Km 80

40

100

120 140

160

60

80

100

t 120

140

160

e

Miles

projection: Lambert Conformal Conic

Little Cay man

8

GEORGE TOWN

Owen Roberts

Cay man Brac

r

Grand Cayman (to UK)

435 people per sq mile (168 people per sq km)

88,396 sq miles (229,005 sq km)

B

Discovery Bay Lucea St Ann’s Bay Clark’s Town Birchs Hill The Cockpit Dolphin Head Port Maria Browns Town Ocho Rios 551m 545m Country Don Christophers Point Claremont Grange Hill Alexandria Negril Cambridge Annotto Bay Savanna-La-Mar Highgate Buff Bay Little Mount Denham North East London 986m Point Port Antonio Ewarton Linstead Christiana Crab Pond Point Maggotty Frankfield Blue Mountain Bog Walk i Mandeville Chapelton

JAMAICA

C

Port-au-Prince r e a t Santo Domingo e r Kingston A n t i l l e s

cattle bananas coffee fishing shellfish sugar cane tobacco

D

Lee

San Juan

R ack Santa Cruz

Malvern 725m

Alligator Pond

b e Great Pedro a n Bluff S ea

Peak 2256m

Spanish Town

KINGSTON

May Pen Golden Portmore Norman Manley Bath Grove Old Harbour Port Royal Yallahs Hill 730m Port Morant Morant Bay Lionel Town Wreck Point Portland Long Bight Bay

SCALE 1:2,750,000

Portland Point

0 5 10 5

Puerto Rico

major towns

rd

Isl

Map key

se Les

F

Population 1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million 100,000 to 500,000 50,000 to 100,000 10,000 to 50,000

Elevation

an

2000m / 6562ft 1000m / 3281ft Barbados

500m / 1640ft 250m / 820ft

Tobago

100m / 328ft

Trinidad

SOUTH AMERICA

E

20 Miles

3000m / 9843ft

CARIBBEAN SEA

pasture cropland forest

20 Km 10

below 10,000

wa

Ant il les

100

Black River

N

r

90

S e a

Falmouth

nel

Hispaniola

E

S

Chan

Total land area

80

N

ica

AT L A N T I C O CEA

e

ma

70

Sangster

A

l

Ja

60

E

C a r i b b e a n Montego Bay

R A l’

50

B

l

er

40

B

Milk Riv

30

Population density

A

44

20

I

i

nnel

17

10

Cha

0

ca

Camagüey

Land use and agricultural distribution

rural 35%

ai

R

Toussaint Louvertu

ds

urban 65%

m

A

ri Ca

16

Ja

Manley

Portland Bight

PORT-AU-PRINCE

t

 Market traders in St. George’s, the capital of Grenada, sell a wide variety of fresh fruit and vegetables. The island is known particularly for its spices and is the world’s second-largest producer of nutmeg after Indonesia.

G

The urban/rural population divide

Jérémie

Cap Dame Marie Canal de la Gonâve Jimaní Dame-Marie Corail Miragoâne Léogâne NAVASSA Pétionville M a s s i f d e l a H ISLAND ot te Petit(to US) Pic de la Selle Aquin Goâve Chardonnières Cayes Jacmel 2680m Port Salut Île à Vache Pedernales Pointe à Gravois

0

Santiago de Cuba

Jamaica

Petite-Rivièree de-l’Artibonite Hinch CanSt-Marc iv iè r al d S t r ti e dador Île de la Gonâve -Mar e bo de Comen c n Mirebalais Arcahaie ite

KINGSTON

b

Cayman Islands

n

Port Maria Christiana Port Antonio Spanish Mandeville Blue Mountain Peak Town 2256m Black River May Pen Port Royal Norman Morant Bay

South Negril Point Savanna-La-Mar

s

15

H i s p

Golfe de la Gonâve

JAMAICA

Sangster

Montego Bay

ma ha Ba

14

ge

Gonaïve

A

Using the land & sea Agriculture has long been the basis of most Caribbean economies. Much agricultural land is set aside for cash crops such as ANMOERRTICHA sugar, spices, citrus fruits, bananas, and cocoa, which are grown for export. Diversification is being Havana encouraged to reduce the islands’ reliance on imported Cuba grain and vulnerability to price fluctuations.

sa

HAITI

C

13

s Pa

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Bahía de Guantánamo (to US)

The islands known as the West Indies form a great arc which trails eastward from the Gulf of Mexico almost to Venezuela, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. During the period of European colonization, which began in the 16th century, Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands struggled for control of the area. Some countries remained politically tied to their colonial rulers until late in the 20th century, and most islands’ economies still bear the legacy of the plantation system. A diverse mix of peoples, with roots drawn from Africa, East Asia, and Europe replaced the original Amerindian population, creating a unique and remarkably homogeneous culture, reflected in the various Creole languages and musical forms such as reggae and calypso.

12

Quemado

Guantánamo

Bodden Town

B A H A M A S , G R E AT E R A N T I L L E S , L E S S E R A N T I L L E S

11

La Maya

Maestra Sierra Santiago Pico Turquino Pilón 1944m de Cuba

Cabo Cruz

CAYMAN ISLANDS

The Caribbean

9

Campechuela

G

H

M

20

60

LO

40

sea level

I

J

K

CO

0

10

ve r

0 10 20

l s d a g o Santa Cruz del Sur Moa Mayarí Cueto e l de Punta Guarico a a Golfo de Re los Cauto ier r stal Sagua de Tánamo S Jiguaní in ri Bayamo C l Baracoa a Manzanillo de Palma Soriano Guacanayabo Maisí Punta de

Bl

7

Wi ndw ard Islands

G

L

A I B


NORTH AMERICA: THE CARIBBEAN P

Q

R

S

NORTH AMERICA

T

W

X

ma ha Ba

Major industry and infrastructure

Caribbean industry remains, with few exceptions, agricultural, and export-led, or service-based, supporting the flourishing tourist industry. However, several countries including Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Puerto Rico have developed important mineral industries, and Cuba is attempting to diversify its economy by importing capital goods to start up new manufacturing businesses.

Cuba Camagüey

AT L A N T I C O CEAN

Santiago de Cuba

G

211 miles (340 km)

2 wa

rd

Is

Puerto Rico

la

n ds

3376 miles (5434 km)

Lee

San Juan

r e a tPort-au-Prince Santo Domingo e r Kingston A n t i l l e s

Transportation network 661 miles (1064 km)

major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

Hispaniola

Cayman Islands

53,439 miles (86,012 km)

sugar refining tourism

fish processing finance mining oil refining

Havana

Jamaica

 Cruise ships, such as this one moored at Castries in St. Lucia, have become a popular way for tourists to travel round the Caribbean islands, stopping off at several islands for sightseeing and shopping.

CARIBBEAN SEA

r

Air links are well developed between most of the Caribbean islands. The importance of the tourist trade has recently encouraged many countries to upgrade their paved roads.

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SCALE 1:2,750,000

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4

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(to US)

SAN JUAN

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Tobago

LA

Arecibo Tortuguero

Barbados

AT

Isabela

GUADELOUPE g e

PUERTO RICO

A T L A N T I CLagunaO C E A N

Car ibb ean

 This rock stack on the coast of St. Martin in the Leeward Islands has been created by wave action which undercut the cliffs, forming an arch. Continued wave action weakened the arch, which eventually collapsed leaving a single tower of rock.

3

Trinidad

SOUTH AMERICA

Pa

1

s

Transportation & industry

Y

Wi ndw ard Islands

O

Ant il les

N

20 Miles

0

5

6

20 Miles

10

7

 The Pitons in St Lucia are two volcanic domes; the tallest is 2620 ft (798 m) high. Their steep slopes are covered in thick forest.

a n i o l a e

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VIRGIN BRITISH N ISLA DS

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Sombrero a) (to Anguill

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54

E

12

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AD TRINID O G A & TOB

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BONAIRE

(to Netherlands)

PORT-OF-SPAIN Tunapuna

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CURAÇA

VENEZUELA

Matelot Redhead

AT L A N T I C

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Lesser Antill es ARUBA O

(to Netherlands) TAD Reina Beatrix

AT L A N T I C O C E A N

Car ibbea n S ea

ST.GEORGE’S St.David’s Grand Anse

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Mount St.Catherine 840m Grenville

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SCALE 1:2,250,000

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9

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NTI

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SCALE 1:2,250,000

NT

Schœlcher

FORT-DEFRANCE

a

Scotts Head Village

AT L A

(to France) le Robert

Se

ROSEAU

MARTINIQUE

n

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la Trinité

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Rosalie

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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Gr T h e e na din e s

Cabo Francés Viejo Cabrera Bahía Escocesa Moca Nagua do Salce

Anegada Passage

Cabo Isabela Puerto Plata

Gregorio Luperón

W

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A

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an area of 6,886,000 sq miles (17,835,000 sq km). There are 12 separate countries, with the

nd

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Rise ific Pac C st P A Ea

Reaching from the humid tropics down into the cold south Atlantic, South America has

5

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3

Rio Grand

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Cedros Trench

2

TH

largest, Brazil, covering almost half the continent.

n rto ton Clipper Island

6

Greatest extent, North–South: 4750 miles / 7640 km

PLATE COCOS LATE P NAZCA

Greatest extent, East–West: 3100 miles / 4990 km

I

7

Punta Gallinas, Colombia 12° 28’ N

F

I

Equator

Punta Pariñas, Peru 81° 20’ W Cabo Branco / Ponta do Seixas, Brazil 34° 50’ W

9 Largest lake: Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru 3220 sq miles (8340 sq km) Highest recorded temperature: Rivadavia, Argentina 120°F (49°C)

10

C

NAZCA PLATE PACIFICPLATE

Most westerly point: Galapagos Islands, Ecuador 92° W

8

Most northerly point: Punta Gallinas, Colombia 12° 28’ N

ricorn Tropic of Cap

Antofagasta

São Paulo

Most easterly point: Ilhas Martin Vaz, Brazil 28° 51’ W

Highest point: Cerro Aconcagua, Argentina 22,833 ft (6959 m)

11

Lowest recorded temperature: Sarmiento, Argentina -27°F (-33°C)

Lowest point: Laguna del Carbón, Argentina -344 ft (-105 m)

12 Cape Froward, Chile 53° 54’ S

13

Antofagasta, Chile

Atacama Desert

Andes

Most southerly point: Cape Horn, Chile 55° 59’ S

Paraguay river

São Paulo, Brazil

Planalto de Mato Grosso

14

Cross-section from Antofagasta, Chile to São Paulo, Brazil

0 0

15

250 500 750 1000 Km 250

500

750

1000 Miles

line of cross-section

16

17

A

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B

C

D

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N AN AZCA PL A TA RC TE TIC PLA TE

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Gren n t i l l e ad Wind a Basin ds ward Islan

sula ata

L

N

Yu c

T

A

i

P

S a ce l

a

is e

ta

i

A

Represaú de Itaip

S

P

andez Juan Fern Islands

Neu q

R

ayo

oba órd de C

E

st

Cerro gua Aconca 6959m

veen Ro g g e B a s in

P

Du

los Islas de rados tu Desven

s Sierra

t

la y

ture

ue Man

om

as Salin des Gran la d

D

N a

Sa

Frac

S ao

Pil c

N

A E

Easter Island

ez Gom

Zone

a

Irir

A r ese a D cam Ata h n c r e

E

Basin

Tocant

e lto d so Gros

a Plan

o

o op ó Lago P

pl

G E

e Baía drc os São Ma

Represa ruí de Tucu

C

o

as

T

C

Chile

Jar

d ra

Pa r e c i s

an d e Gr

ng

I D

s Frac t u

Fo

Ilha de Marajó

ch im bo

pulo

Yu

ti

Ca

Mato Ra

Doldr um

Ce

H

o

e r u C h i l e

dos

on

an

B a s in

Al

da

C

i

I

R

Jip

Guaporé

S

P

al

pa

lt

b Ur u

r

il

e r mb a le PL a O ra AT N E PL Apu r i e n t O al r í m ac AT cc E id L ak e en Titicaca t

os

E

ve

m or é Ma

Co

rd

a

d

i eD

ha

ã

a ra

a li

E

ll

an

C

A

ay Uc

D A Co IC ER AM H CA UT A Z SO N

Zo

M

Ser

á Juru

U

u

Marañón

Ma

T

Arip

auá Tap

s

Roose

l

e

O

S

z on

ru

PLATE AFRICAN e re Z on

R

e ste

Am a

aí Jut

Basin

zon

Ama

Pa ru

az Am

sa Reprein a Balb

Amazon

I

ana Gui in Bas

Par u de O

s

Içá

N

Rea

ña

ur

Neg ro

Pur u s

Pe r u

Tr

b e ta

u Jap

ayo

Aa

O M

a end

Fr

t ac

Rio

Uaupés etá

di

T

Amaz Tum o s uc-H umac Mountain uari Baía de g Ara jó ra a M om

Napo

e ar

C a qu

L

Pu t um

Cordiller

Gulf of uil Guayaq Punta s Pariña

gos Galapa s d n la Is

o

i av Gu

Basin

orazo Chimb 10m 63

oc

Cauca

P

S e r ra a P a r im

da

Gambia Plain

3

Demerara Plain

T

Ridge

anama

T

Caro

a

Colón

a Vich

A

n nc ma Tre Cay Jamaica an m y ea a N C f ean S CA Gulf oras aribb a C RI u d n E o Grenad H AM TE N L e s s e Isrla de Tobago Punta s TH PLA BEA a b R ru e ta A ri B Bonair Gallina Marga d NO RI TE o Trinida CA PLA la Curaça Penínasujira Ma Sierra a u c dre d de la G osta Ni el Sur Cordillera de la C bian Lake ibo m lo o f o o C ca lf Gu n oc Mara Or i L ak e g u a Mi e seca Basin E Apur d d l Fon Nicara T C A e Am L f au ca Gulf oen N P AN rau ra eri o ari EA RIC A Mosqulfit f Pana D c IBB AMEE ma R Gu s o A TH AT u C a f t o re lf U PL Me na Hig hland s Isthm Gunama a n ch SO Guia emal Pa Urar icoera Guat O la r in su Penínzu ero de A

Basin

2

s

nP eni n

e

NORTH AMERICAN PLATE a SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE Barbud a Antigu upe o Guadel ica Domin ique Martin ucia Saint L rbados Ba

w a rd Is l a n d s

Lee G Pa r e iola rd n a p a is H n Rico Nevis a t Windw Yucata Puerto e r Basin A ugh s n o e t l i l r T h

i

-

a

I n d

ico Trench Puerto R

k

B

W e s t B an

Verde Cape s la Is nd

Ur u

ma

Ser ra do

Na re s

Z

A

Cub

Y

1

Mesop

t Ba ha

X

I D

F Grea

W

erde Cape V Basin

E s s e q ui b o

of

Pl

bee

ge

it s

V cer of Can Tropic

M

S t ra

U

a

Mexico Gulf of

T

For mo sa

keecho

id a

L ak e O

S

as

e

lor

Fa

R

ter

Ba y

al anaver Cape C

m ha Ba

S

Apa Mi s s i s s i p p i m e nt p r a Esc bee igs

he lac

Q

n

RICA

n

AME

P

ara g uay

O

Hat

N

San Islands

PLATE SCOTIA C PLATE TI C R A T AN

14

cle tic Cir Antarc

15

ell We d d Sea

I C A C T R A T A N

16

17

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

47


SOUTH AMERICA E

F

G

H

I

Physical South America

The Amazon river occupies a large depression in the Earth’s crust, formed by the uplift of the Andes. It is covered by thick volcanic deposits and layers of alluvium – these have been laid down by the Amazon’s many tributaries. To the north is the smaller Guiana Shield. Headwaters of the Amazon rise in the Andes

Section across northern South America showing Amazon Basin and its drainage pattern.

48

B

C

D

S C e

Tocantins

Ara gua ia

os a

Represa de Sobradinho

la

nd

Hi

pin

ço

S e r ra

do

n

ia

Ser ra

zil

Bra ue

ira

The Brazilian Shield and Gran Chaco

ar

tiq an da M

ha

ão

gh

A

S

Es

Se

r ra

rra

Do

Fra ncisc o

ura

s

da

do R oncador

or m

S e r ra F

S er r ad eM ara ca ju Pa

Par agu ay

N

ay

A

Ur ug u

am ot

Pa ran á

sop

C

C

Me

O

Mirim Lagoon

I C

de la Pl at a

T

P a m p a s

S H I E L D

N

The immense Brazilian Shield underlies more than one-third of South America. It is pitted with numerous volcanic intrusions, and a large basaltic plateau exists between the Paraná river and the Atlantic Ocean. The flat Gran Chaco lies to the west of the shield, covered by sedimentary deposits eroded from the Andes, and transported by South America’s mighty rivers.

L

A

n

P A T A G O N I A N P a t a g oC n i a hic o

Península Valdés Lago Colhué Huapí

A N

Tocantin s

Xingu

Ta

de ira

ac

Ch

an

Gr

ia

sea level

A

o

s e

d TE PL A

line of cross-section

A

NAZCA PLATE

physiographic regions

E

A

T

Volcanic intrusions

Young, folded Andes mountains

Major rivers drain to the south through the Gran Chaco

Ancient resistant shield

Gulf of San Jorge De se do

C

Bahía Grande

Stra it

250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft 17

SOUTH AMERICAN P LATE

Golfo de Penas

CTIC ANTAR

500m / 1640ft

l

uncertain

1000m / 3281ft

e ra

2000m / 6562ft

s

Jur uá cama Desert

Ata

aG

conservative

C

Planalto da Borborema

ná ra

Ser r

destructive

l

4000m / 13,124ft 3000m / 9843ft

na

constructive

Isla de Chiloé

C

iapó Ca do

Lagoa dos Patos

Color ado Río Ne gro

800

600

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Ser ra

Río

400

200

Miles

a

16

6000m / 19,686ft

M

(for explanation see page xiv)

0

800

Cabo de São Roque

E

Plate margins

Elevation

15

T

Map key

Salado

400 Miles

o ay m lco Pi

M

400 Km 200

ios

Madr e de D

ta

no

E

200

B

S

pla

0

Y

lti

T

E A N O C

C

600

400

200

S H I E L D

Cerro Ojos del Salado 6880m

B

I

O

bo im

S

S

I C

B 0

Lago Poopó

1000 Miles

os ad s r r ra j á a

P

A

13

Cross-section through the Andes showing the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate.

Planalto de Mato Grosso

N

s

Cerro Aconcagua 6959m

14

ci s

1000 Km 500

B R A Z I L I A N

an

Lake Titicaca

F Volcanic intrusions

South American Plate

Nazca Plate

pa d Guap a do oré sP a re

A

I

12

E

A

C

11

Y

T

Cha

e

0

Ilha de Marajó

Ser ra do Ca ch

d S

B

s i n

D

n

E

TE LA

N

A

The Andean Uplands run along the west coast of South America. They are being uplifted as the Nazca Plate is subducted beneath the South American Plate. They contain some of the world’s largest volcanoes, such as Cotopaxi, and Lake Titicaca which occupies a dormant site. The far south has many large ice-sheets and a fragmented coastline.

a

pa

500

0

Km

N

zon Ama

a M

N

D

ali ay Uc

A

P A

r us Pu

A

N Nevado Huascarán 6768m

NP CA RI E AT PL

9

B

-

Cordillera R eal

B

A

Mara ñón

A

G U I A N A

Represa Balbina

A Am a z o n mazon

Putumayo

z Ama on

E AM

A ZC NA

H UT SO

Punta Negra

U

Cotopaxi 5897m Chimborazo 6310m

0

Scale 1:30,500,000

S H I E L D Tumuc-Humac High l a n d s Mountains

ana

S

Gulf of Guayaquil

10

Gui

R

Jap urá

7

8

Pakaraima M ou

Co

E S PLAT COCO ATE L P A NAZC

The Andean Uplands

L

AT L

oco

ro Neg io

6

a

l

n

in Or

s ain nt

rdil le Co ra Occidental rd i l l e ra Co C e nt ra l rd ill e ra Ma O r gdalen a ien tal

Gulf of Panama

s

o

Bran co

Ca 5

a uc

Mouths of the Amazon

A

Lake Maracaibo

Gulf of Darien

Thick alluvium deposits

A

ul fo fV ene zuel a

4

M

The Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield

Three major physiographic regions characterize South America. The oldest, the ancient Brazilian Shield and the smaller Guiana and Patagonian shields, form the stable core of the continent. Stretching along the entire west coast are the younger Andean fold mountains with many summits rising to 20,000 ft (6100 m). These two diverse regions are separated by a number of sedimentary basins carrying South America’s large river systems to the sea. These Punta Gallinas include the massive Amazon Basin and the basin of the Gran Chaco. G

3

L

E

2

K

Se

1

J

M

D

do

C

ra

B

Ser

A

agellan of M Tierra del Fuego

E Cape Horn

0

Section across central South America showing the flat basin of the Gran Chaco and the ancient Brazilian Shield.

Falkland Islands

SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE SCOTIA PLATE

C

I

J

0

K

200

400 Km 400 Miles

200

L

M


PHYSICAL SOUTH AM ER ICA N

O

P

Q

R

S

Climate

T

Climate

The climate of South America is influenced by three principal factors: the seasonal shift of high pressure air masses over the tropics, cold ocean currents along the western coast, affecting temperature and precipitation, and the mountain barrier produced by by the Andes, which creates a rain shadow over much of the south.  Mild winters and cool summers typify the extensive Pampas grasslands of Argentina.

X

Caracas

Maracaibo

Y

Z

Georgetown

1

Cayenne

tundra cool continental warm humid semiarid arid humid equatorial tropical

Bogotá

Equator

Equator

Quito

Belém

daily hours of sunshine, January

2

Manaus

daily hours of sunshine, July

Altos

cold wind

Temperature

Recife Lima

Equator

Brasília

La Paz Santa Cruz

20° S Tropic of Capricorn

4

Belo Horizonte La Quiaca

40° S

Rio de Janeiro

pricorn Tropic of Ca

Average January temperature  Chile’s hyperarid Atacama Desert is renowned as one of the driest places on Earth.

Antofagasta

Tropic of Ca pr

icorn

5

Average July temperature

Temperature

Equator

Santiago Buenos Aires

6

Montevideo

Concepción Pam pero s

Rainfall

Porto Alegre

Córdoba

below -22°F (-30°C) -22 to -4°F (-30 to -20°C) -4 to 14°F (-20 to -10°C) 14 to 32°F (-10 to 0°C) 32 to 50°F (0 to 10°C) 50°F to 68°F (10 to 20°C) 68 to 86°F (20 to 30°C) above 86°F (30°C)

20° S Tropic of Capricorn

Asunción

7

Rainfall

40° S

8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) 16–20 in (400–500 mm) more than 20 in (500 mm)

0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) 4–8 in (100–200 mm)

Average January rainfall

Average July rainfall

Stanley

 Tropical conditions are found across over half of South America. When both rainfall and temperatures are high, hot humid rain forests prevail.

Shaping the continent South America’s active tectonic belt has been extensively folded over millions of years; landslides are still frequent in the mountains. The large river systems that erode the mountains flow across resistant shield areas, depositing sediment. Present-day glaciation affects the distinctive landscape of the far south.

8

Chemical weathering 1 Table mountains (left) are the eroded remnants of an ancient upland. As water percolates along cracks in these high, flat-topped mountains it forms intricate cave systems. Chemical weathering also isolates large blocks which then collapse, accumulating as rockfalls at the foot of scarp slopes.

Mass movement 6 Debris slides are common in the highlands of South America (left). They occur where soil on a slope is saturated by rainwater and therefore less stable. The actual slides are often triggered by earthquakes.

Smooth summit dissected by deep gorges

Scarp face left after soil has moved to the base of the slope

9

10

River systems

Rainfall

2 Along the Amazon (above) there is a great variation in rates of erosion. As the headwaters of the Amazon flow down from the Andes, they erode and transport vast quantities of sediment, and are known as whitewaters. Across the shield areas erosion rates are very low. These rivers, carrying rotting vegetation, are called blackwaters.

Runoff surges down caverns as waterfalls

The evolving landscape

Failure plane

Chemical weathering: Erosion of the Guyana Shield

Toe of debris slide

Mass movement: A section of a debris slide

11

12

Blackwater river

1

Whitewater river

Little erosion in shield areas

6

13

Confluence of whitewater with blackwater

2

River systems: Suspended sediments in the Amazon

4

14

Landscape

Folding

Deposition

5 Folding occurs beneath the surface under high temperatures and pressures. Rocks become sufficiently malleable to flow and not fracture as tectonic plates collide. In the Valley of the Moon in Chile (above), anticlines (or upfolds) and synclines (or troughs) have been exploited by erosion.

4 Large alluvial fans are found extensively across South America (above). Confined mountain rivers, carrying large quantities of eroded material, emerge from a mountain gorge onto the plains, where they deposit their load in huge fans.

uplifting land stable land sinking land glacier ocean current aluvial fan inselberg river

5

Unstable front in deep water, where ice is fracturing

Confined stream in the mountains Fold axis

Anticline

Subsequent fan

Syncline

Stable front

Mountain front

N

O

Glacier was grounded against a shoal

Fan forms as stream emerges onto the plain

Fold axis

Folding: Synclines and anticlines

3

Deposition: Formation of an alluvial fan

P

Q

R

Original extent of glacier Icebergs

S

T

Glaciation: Retreating glacier in Patagonia

V

W

X

15

Glaciation

16

3 As fjord glaciers in Patagonia (above) retreat, they become grounded on shoals. In deeper water the base of the glacier becomes unstable, and icebergs break off (calve) until the glacier snout grounds once more.

Y

17

Z

49


SOUTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

Modern South America’s political boundaries have their origins in the territorial endeavors of explorers during the 16th century, who claimed almost the entire continent for Portugal and Spain. The Portuguese land in the east later evolved into the federal state of Brazil, while the Spanish vice-royalties eventually emerged as separate independent nation-states in the early 19th century. South America’s growing population has become increasingly urbanized, with the growth of coastal cities into large conurbations like Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. In Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, a succession of military dictatorships has given way to fragile, but strengthening, democracies.

3

M

 Europe retains a small foothold in South America. Kourou in French Guiana was the site chosen by the European Space Agency to launch the Ariane rocket. As a result of its status as a French overseas department, French Guiana is actually part of the European Union.

Political South America

1

L

Scale 1:24,000,000 Km

4

0

100

300

200

0

100

500

400

600

300

200

700 800

400

500

600

700

800

Miles

Ciénaga

Barranquilla Cartagena

5

Cúcuta

Maracaibo

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

La Guaira Caracas La Cruz

San Cristóbal

Transportation Most major road and rail routes are confined to the coastal regions by the forbidding natural barriers of the Andes mountains and the Amazon Basin. Few major cross-continental routes exist, although Buenos Aires serves as a transportation center for the main rail links to La Paz and Valparaíso, while the construction of the Trans-Amazon and Pan-American Highways have made direct road travel possible from Recife to Lima and from Puerto Montt up the coast into central America. A new waterway project is proposed to transform the River Paraguay into a major shipping route, although it involves considerable São Luís wetland destruction.

Georgetown

Bucaramanga Paramaribo

Cayenne

Bogotá

Buenaventura Cali

6

Quito

Belém Manaus

Guayaquil

Santarém Trans-Amazon Highway

7 can er i y Am a n- hw Pa Hig

Trans-A Highwmazon ay

Fortaleza Teresina

Porto Franco Humaitá

Picos

Porto Velho

Salgueiro

Recife

 South America’s most extensive rail network is centered on the Argentinian capital, Buenos Aires.The construction of new rail lines ouward from this important port, allowed the colonization of the Pampas lands for agriculture.

Juazeiro Maceió

8 Callao

Barreiras

Feira de Santana

Lima

Aracaju Salvador

Cuiabá

Brasília

La Paz

9

Goiânia

Santa Cruz

Arica Campo Grande

São José do Rio Preto

Languages

Belo Horizonte Vitória

Ourinhos Antofagasta

Transportation major roads and highways major railroads international borders transport intersections international airports major ports

11

Rio de Janeiro

São Paulo Pan-Ameri Highwaycan

10

Asunción Apucarana

Salta

Santos Curitiba Paranaguá

San Miguel de Tucumán Resistencia Santa Maria

Coquimbo

Rio Cuarto

I

Buenos Aires

N

Montevideo

P

B

Mar del Plata

I

R

Bahía Blanca

S

W

Q

A

U

Puerto Montt

N

A

Neuquén Zapala

12

R

A

A

Talcahuano Concepción

A

San Rafael

Rio Grande

Rosario

C

Mendoza San Luis Valparaíso Santiago Mercedes

Porto Alegre

Sante Fe

Córdoba

Prior to European exploration in the 16th century, a diverse range of indigenous languages were spoken across the continent. With the arrival of Iberian settlers, Spanish became the dominant language, with Portuguese spoken in Brazil, and Native American languages such as Quechua and Guaraní, becoming concentrated in the continental interior. Today this pattern persists, although successive European colonization has led to Dutch being S H spoken in Suriname, English in Guyana, and French in French Guiana, ENGLISH while in large urban areas, DUTCH FRENCH Japanese and Chinese are increasingly common. A

K

E

Arequipa

A

Comodoro Rivadavia

S

E C

E U

U

A

A M

AR

G

Puntá Arenas

U

A

S

GERMAN

T

U

A

14

H Y

American Indian Germanic Romance

N

Language groups

G

13

R

NI

R

A

P A

15

O P

GERMAN

GERMAN

N

I

S

17

A

50

B

H

 Chile’s main port, Valparaíso, is a vital national shipping center, in addition to playing a key role in the growing trade with Pacific nations. The country’s awkward, elongated shape means that sea transportation is frequently used for internal travel and communications in Chile.

16

 Indigenous South American lifestyles have not been totally submerged by European cultures and languages. The continental interior, and particularly the Amazon Basin, is still home to many different ethnic peoples.

C

D

E

F

G

 Lima’s magnificent cathedral reflects South America’s colonial past with its unmistakably Spanish style. In July 1821, Peru became the last Spanish colony on the mainland to declare independence.

J

K

L

M


C a Qr i b b Re a n

S

Santa f of Gul zuela Marta ene CARACAS Barranquilla Maracaibo V Valencia Cartagena Maracay Valledupar Cabimas Barquisimeto Lake Maracaibo

BOGOTÁ R

ECUA D OR Ambato Riobamba Babahoyo Cuenca

a Am

gh

lan

B

E

A

2

N

3

Macapá Represa Balbina

azon Am

Manaus

Belém 4

Santarém

a

s i n ru Pu

s

a M

jós pa

São Luís

PA R Á

Fortaleza MA R A N HÃ O

u Xing

Ju r

C

1

AMAPÁ

C EA R Á

Teresina

H

an

ig

hl

Fra ncis co

ão

H

n ia

il

Posadas

Para ná

Tacuarembó Melo

s

Br

10

 Rapid urbanization was a feature of most South American countries in the latter half of the 20th century. In many cases, this unchecked growth has led to the development of sprawling slums, lacking adequate water and sewerage facilities.

A

12

E

Rí o

11

MONTEVIDEO

O

N

La Plata

Mar del Plata

Bahía Blanca

Río Ne gro

13

R G P a t A a g oC hic n o i a

N

E

icorn

C

BUENOS AIRES

Colo rado

Neuquén

Tropic of Ca pr

Curitiba

Florianópolis

URUGUAY

Santa Rosa

9

N

A

N

I Rosario

Vitória ESPÍRITO SANTO

Santa Fe Paraná

San Luis

Belo Horizonte

Juiz de Fora

RIO GRANDE Santa Maria Porto Alegre DO SUL

C

A

Puerto Montt

Rawson

Lago Colhué Huapí

Bahía Grande

Falkland Río Gallegos Islands

agellan fM

Punta Arenas

(to UK)

Strait o

Golfo de Penas

P

7

Salvador

Villarrica

Gulf of San Jorge Des ead o

 Perched high in the Andes like many of the cities in western South America, La Paz, Bolivia is the world’s highest capital city at over 11,500 ft (3500 m).

Maceió Aracaju

az Ch

n ra

e d Mendoza

Temuco Valdivia

ALAGOAS

SERGIPE

8

Campinas Nova Iguaçu RIO DE JANEIRO Niterói Osasco São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Sorocaba Santos

Londrina

Y

Resistencia Corrientes

Córdoba

Linares

Lota

P

o ac

s

G

Formosa

San Juan

Concepción

disputed territorial claim border state border

a

PAR ANÁ ASUNCIÓN Ciudad del Este

L

disputed de facto border

UA

T

full international border

Campo Grande MATO GROSSO Ribeirão Preto DO SUL á SÃO PAULO n ra

ata Pl la de

P A C I F I C

Borders

G

Pam

State capital

Viña del Mar Valparaíso SANTIAGO

S

MINAS GER A IS

SANTA CATARINA

Santiago del Estero

T

Country capital

RA

San Miguel de Tucumán

Salado

below 10,000

Salta

n

10,000 to 50,000

L

50,000 to 100,000

Recife

C

Desert

E Atacama

San Salvador de Jujuy

La Rioja

La Serena Coquimbo

I

O C E A N

100,000 to 500,000

PA

Pilc

ay Paragu

500,000 to 1 million

DISTRITO FEDERAL

GOIÁS

Santa Cruz

ayo om

1 million to 5 million

BRASÍLIA

SUCRE

Lago Poopó

A

O above 5 million

BA H IA

João Pessoa

I

C Population

L

Represa de Sobradinho

Natal

T

I

Oruro

Antofagasta

Map key

Cuiabá

Uruguay

F pricorn Tropic of Ca

Tocopilla

I

Goiânia

Iquique

N

Z

Cochabamba

s

Arica

A

A

LA PAZ

Tacna

Juazeiro

Planalto de Mato Grosso

BOLIVIA

Lake Titicaca

Palmas

M ATO G ROS S O

A

I

e

PERNAMBUCO Jaboatão

ds

Madr e de D

C

Cusco

E

R

PA R A Í BA

PI AU Í

TO CANTI N S

B

ios

d

C

Arag uai a

n

P A

Huancayo

Tocantin s

Ucayali

A

Porto Velho RONDÔNIA

Callao LIMA

O

Z

Equator

AC R E Rio Branco

Arequipa

N

O

(to France)

ds

Y

RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

P E R U

Trujillo

Hi

Surinamese territorial claims

X

 In April 1960, Brazil’s government began the move from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília, a futuristic new city built in the sparsely populated interior. Brasília is now the federal capital of Brazil.

C

A M A ZONAS

zon

ñó n ra Ma

Chiclayo

I

PARAMARIBO

French SURINAME Guiana

na

Amazon

Iquitos

Piura

Linden

A m a z o n

Putuma yo

T

GEORGETOWN

urá Jap

Caqu eta

N

claim

Boa Vista ROR AIM A

ro Neg ío

QUITO

Equator

Guayaquil Machala

ia

Pasto

Esmeraldas

A

CAYENNE

Ibagué

COLOMBIA

L

GUYANA

Gu

Cali

Portoviejo

co ino Or

o nVENEZUELA

a

l

T

W

Tocantins

L

s

Ta

Magdale na

Bucaramanga

Medellín Manizales Pereira Armenia

Barinas San Cristóbal

V

Ciudad Guayana Venezuelan territorial

de ira

Montería Cúcuta

A

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

Cumaná

Bra nco

Gulf of Panama

T

pa

A M A

N

Ca uc a

PA

Gulf of Darien

POLITICAL SOUTH AMERICA

S e a

Ushuaia Beagle Channel Cape Horn

STANLEY

Population Almost half of South America’s population lives in Brazil but, due to the large uninhabited expanses of the Amazon Basin, its overall population density is much lower than in other countries. During the 20th century the most important population trend was the movement from rural to urban areas, giving rise to great population concentrations in large cities like São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Caracas, Lima, Bogotá, and Buenos Aires. U

V

W

15

16

Population density (people per sq mile)

0–10 11–23 24–36 37–49 50–75 above 75

Y

17

Z

51


SOUTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

 Ciudad Guayana is a planned industrial complex in eastern Venezuela, built as an iron and steel center to exploit the nearby iron ore reserves.

South American resources

1

Agriculture still provides the largest single form of employment in South America, although rural unemployment and poverty continue to drive people towards the huge coastal cities in search of jobs and opportunities. Mineral and fuel resources, although substantial, are distributed unevenly; few countries have both fossil fuels and minerals. To break industrial dependence on raw materials, boost manufacturing, and improve infrastructure, governments borrowed heavily from the World Bank in the 1960s and 1970s. This led to the accumulation of massive debts which are unlikely ever to be repaid. Today, Brazil dominates the continent’s economic output, followed by Argentina. Recently, the less-developed western side of South America has benefited due to its geographical position; for example Chile is increasingly exporting raw materials to Japan.

3

C a r i b b e a n

4 Barranquilla

Maracaibo

Valencia Ciudad Guayana

Gulf of Panama

VENEZUELA

A

Georgetown

Paramaribo

Medellín

T

GUYANA

Bogotá Cali

aerospace brewing car/vehicle manufacture chemicals electronics engineering finance fish processing food processing hi-tech industry iron & steel meat processing metal refining narcotics

S e a

PANAMA 5

Industry

Caracas

Barquisimeto

Cartagena

French Guiana

SURINAME

L

A

(to France)

COLOMBIA

N

T

6

I C

O

Quito

A m a z o n

Guayaquil

pharmaceuticals printing & publishing shipbuilding sugar processing textiles timber processing tobacco processing wine oil gas industrial cities major industrial areas

C

Belém

ECUADOR

M

E A N

Manaus

7 Iquitos Fortaleza

A

Lima

BOLIVIA Arequipa

A N

Salvador

I

Brasília

La Paz

F

Santa Cruz Sucre

E

Arica

I Iquique

Belo Horizonte

C C

Chuquicamata

PARAGUAY

Rio de Janeiro

São Paulo

Antofagasta

E

Asunción

Ciudad del Este

O

11

Maceió

Cusco

Wealth disparities throughout the continent create a wide gulf between affluent landowners and those afflicted by chronic poverty in inner city slums. The illicit production of cocaine, and the hugely influential drug barons who control its distribution, contribute to the violent disorder and corruption which affect northwestern South America, destabilizing local governments and economies.

10

Recife

PE RU

C

Standard of living

9

B R A Z I L

Chimbote

Curitiba

C

8

Natal Chiclayo

P

 The cold Peru Current flows north from the Antarctic along the Pacific coast of Peru, providing rich nutrients for one of the world’s largest fishing grounds. However, over exploitation has severely reduced Peru’s anchovy catch.

B a s i n

I

O

San Miguel de Tucumán Corrientes

L

T

12

C

Porto Alegre Córdoba

N

Santa Fe

A

I

E

13

Rosario

Mendoza

Valparaíso

Santiago

Montevideo

A

below 999 1000–1999 2000–2999 3000–3999 4000–4999 above 5000

Industry

Valdivia

Argentina and Brazil are South America’s most industrialized countries and São Paulo is the continent’s leading industrial center. Long-term government investment in Brazilian industry has encouraged a diverse industrial base; engineering, steel production, food processing, textile manufacture, and chemicals predominate. The illegal production of cocaine is economically significant in the Andean countries of Colombia and Bolivia. In Venezuela, the oil-dominated economy has left the country vulnerable to world oil price fluctuations. Food processing and mineral exploitation are common throughout the less industrially developed parts of the continent, including Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru.

low 15 high Comodoro Rivadavia Gulf of San Jorge

16

Bahía Grande Punta Arenas

ra it of M

17

L

GNI per capita (US$)

Bahía Blanca Neuquén

(UN human development index)

 Both Argentina and Chile are now exploring the southernmost tip of the continent in search of oil. Here in Punta Arenas, a drilling rig is being prepared for exploratory drilling in the Strait of Magellan.

T

ARGE NTINA

C

N Standard of living

Buenos Aires

H

A

Talca

Concepción

14

Rio Grande

URUGUAY

Falkland Islands (to UK)

lan agel

St

Cape Horn A

52

B

C

D

E

H

I

J

K

L

M


SOUTH AMERICAN RESOURCES V

W

s

nd la

e s

A

A

N

on

rancisco oF Sã

n

I

gh

la

nd

s

d

F

Hi

Br

o

ac Ch

G

O

T

C

ili

s

az Br

Ch ay

n ra

Pa rag u

e

S al

ran

N

ad

d

A

o

E O

C

Car ibb ean S ea

I

Barranquilla

T

risk of desertification

a

L

n

la

o s

Or i

A T

n o co

Bogotá

Gu

polluted rivers

ia

na

Hi

Cali

marine pollution

ghl

heavy marine pollution

and

8

L

T

I

C 9

O

s

C

E

á

Manaus Ta p

B a s i n

aj

ós

a

ir

e

u

ad M

r us

ua i

a

Arag

n

P A

d co nc i s

Brasília S

H

s

Salvador

ig

I

ão

C

Fra

Planalto de Mato Grosso

e

12

R

n

ra

Curitiba

e

Ur u

g

Paraná

C

Porto Alegre

E

N 14

O Rosario

s

I

C

T

15

Using the land and sea

N

Pa

m

pa

n

Montevideo Buenos Aires

A

C ol or ado Rí oN eg r o

Ch

i co

T

L

barren land cropland desert forest mountain region pasture

A

P a t a g o n i a T

A

y

d

Córdoba

ua

major conurbations

Gulf of San Jorge

cattle pigs sheep bananas corn citrus fruits

Bahía Grande

S

13

São Paulo

G

A

 High in the Andes, hardy alpacas graze on the barren land. Alpacas are thought to have been domesticated by the Incas, whose nobility wore robes made from their wool. Today, they are still reared and prized for their soft, warm fleeces.

Belo Horizonte

Rio de Janeiro

Par a

Ch

u ay

s

ag Par

co

E A N O C

ac

Pi l

ay o

o

C

Br

az

I

ili

an

F m

Santiago

 The Pampas region of southeast South America is characterized by extensive, flat plains, and populated by cattle and ranchers (gauchos). Argentina is a major world producer of beef, much of which is exported to the US for use in hamburgers.

Q

Recife

Lima

 South America, and Brazil in particular, now leads the world in coffee production, mainly growing Coffea arabica in large plantations. Coffee beans are harvested, roasted and brewed to produce the world’s second most popular drink, after tea.

P

10

Fortaleza

ng Xi

Pu

A

Many foods now common worldwide originated in South America. These include the potato, tomato, squash, and cassava. Today, large herds of beef cattle roam the temperate grasslands of the Pampas, supporting an extensive meatpacking trade in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Corn is grown as a staple crop across the continent and coffee is grown as a cash crop in Brazil and Colombia. Coca plants grown in Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia provide most of the world’s cocaine. Fish and shellfish are caught off the western coast, especially anchovies off Peru, shrimps off Ecuador and pilchards off Chile.

N

Tocantin s

A

Marañón

A

Ilha de Marajó Belém

on Amaz

A m a z o n m a z on Jur u

Putumayo Amazon

Gulf of Guayaquil

Using the land and sea

O

N

Rio Neg ro

poor urban air quality

N

A

ds

T

Gulf of Panama Medellín

an

A

desert

A

7

hl

forest destroyed

L

6

Caracas

en

do

5

C

Maracaibo

Gulf of Darien

Magdal

Colora

N

A

tropical forest

l at a

o

d

national parks

de la P

C

Río

S al a

Environmental issues

Santa Fe Mendoza

n

Santiago

N

bauxite copper diamonds gold iron lead silver tin

Rio de Janeiro á

s

A N C E

São Paulo Pa

A

oil field gas field coal field

ac

o

O G

I

C

E

Mineral resources

an

I

e

n

 Copper is Chile’s largest export, most of which is mined at Chuquicamata. Along the length of the Andes, metallic minerals like copper and tin are found in abundance, formed by the excessive pressures and heat involved in mountain-building.

N

E

N

A

C

A

L

li

C P A

Uc ay a

O

Ne g ro

Amaz

B a s i n

IC

an d s

o

A m a z o n

T

E

T

Ri

ig hl

N

C

d

A N O C E

Quito

aH

O s

A

i an

land

IC

ra

Gu

Bogotá

igh

T

B a s i n

s

n

aH

N

e

d al e n a

u

Ca

M ag

l a

LA

ian

A m a z o n

I C

L

AT

Gu

LA

F

Medellín

Caracas o s

AT

n

ca

n Sea

L

1

n Sea

s n o

l a

Z

A

Caribbea

 Clouds of smoke billow from the burning Amazon rainforest. Over 11,500 sq miles (30,000 sq km) of virgin rainforest are being cleared annually, destroying an ancient, irreplaceable, natural resource and biodiverse habitat.

Y

Caribbea

I

Over a quarter of the world’s known copper reserves are found at the Chuquicamata mine in northern Chile, and other metallic minerals such as tin are found along the length of the Andes. The discovery of oil and gas at Venezuela’s Lake Maracaibo in 1917 turned the country into one of the world’s leading oil producers. In contrast, South America is virtually devoid of coal, the only significant deposit being on the peninsula of Guajira in Colombia.

C

The Amazon Basin is one of the last great wilderness areas left on Earth. The tropical rain forests which grow there are a valuable genetic resource, containing innumerable unique plants and animals. The forests are increasingly under threat from new and expanding settlements and “slash-and-burn” farming techniques, which clear land for the raising of beef cattle, causing land degradation and soil erosion.

A

Mineral resources

P

Environmental issues

X

gh

U

Hi

T

an

S

ili

R

az

Q

d

P

n

O

A

N

W

Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn

X

Y

cocoa cotton coffee fishing oil palms peanuts rubber shellfish soybeans sugar cane vineyards wheat

16

17

Z

53


SOUTH AMERICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

L

M

 Flowers grown in Colombia are exported all over the world, and include fine carnations and roses. Here, workers are cutting roses which have been grown in plastic greenhouses.

Northern South America

1

K

C O L O M B I A , G U YA N A , S U R I N A M E , V E N E Z U E L A , F r e n c h G u i a n a ( t o F r a n c e )

Fringed by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and the Caribbean Sea, South America’s northern region has a rich range of natural resources, some exploited for centuries by colonial powers including the Spanish, French, Dutch, and ARUBA British, others still to be fully explored. The prospects for further CURAÇAO (to Netherlands) Punta Gallinas (to Netherlands) economic development in Colombia, Guyana, and Suriname are BONAIRE Cabo de la Vela Cabo San Román (to Netherlands) Pe n í n sul a blighted by drug-related violence and political instability. de la Guaj ira Pueblo Nuevo Islas Las Aves Isla La Puerto Los Taques Venezuela, despite huge incomes from its oil reserves, Manaure Uribia Orchila López Pájaro Lo Punto Fijo remains less developed in other industrial Ríohacha s Golfo d Ro q A Puerto Cumarebo e Venezuela ues IR Coro La Vela de Coro Paraguaipoa AJMaicao sectors. French Guiana is an overseas Santa Marta Dibulla U Sabaneta G Guana Capatárida Barranquilla Ciénaga Pico Cristóbal San Juan de los Cayos San Luis Mirimire Sinamaica LA département of France, now seeking greater Colón

C

3

A

R

I

B

B

E

Is l

as

4

Tocuyo de La Costa de Barrancas Carrasquero La Cruz de Taratara San Rafael Dabajuro Pedregal daSan Juan Chichiriviche FALCÓN e var tadel Cesar Fonseca N Mapararí Tucacas a Altagracia r a r Sie ta M Sabanalarga Churuguara Mene de Mauroa S an Santa Catalina Villanueva Puerto La Concepción Aracataca La Guaira VARGAS Santa Inés Yumare Santa Rita Rafael Núñez Salamina Valledupar Siquisique San Francisco Aguada Aroa Morón Cabello Simon Bolívar Pivijay Fundación Cabimas Los Teques Petare La Concepción Grande LARA Duaca Robles Campo de la Cruz Turbaco San Felipe Rosario El Carmelo Tía Juana Río Chico MAG Arjona Carora Río TocuyoChivacoaYARACUY Cerro de Las Tetas Turmero MIRANDA D Güigüe Cagua AL Machiques Ciudad Ojeda San Juan Agustín Codazzi 3750m Ocumare del Tuy Cúa E Yaritagua Nepomuceno San Jacinto 5 CARABOBO San José Bachaquero Villa de Cura Mene Grande Quíbor San Onofre Plato Tinaquillo Río Claro ARAGUA San Timoteo El Tocuyo Sanare El Carmen de Bolívar Sarare Tinaco El Pao San Juan de Altagracia Zambrano El Difícil CESAR Lago de Humocaro Carache Tolú los Morros de Orituco Ortiz Ovejas Maracaibo TRUJILLO BajoAcarigua San Carlos Chiriguaná Barbacoas Corozal Betijoque Trujillo Gulf of Chimichagua Sincelejo Píritu Biscucuy El Sombrero Chaguaramas Libertad Since ZULIA Bobures Valera Boconó Ospino Lorica Momil SUCRE Villa Bruzual Darien Valle de La Pascua Magangué Mompós Encontrados La Puerta PORTUGUESA Chinú El Banco Sahagún 42 COJEDES Concha Las Mercedes Pailitas S San Benito Abad Santa Rosalía Arboletes Cereté San Carlos Timotes Barranco de Loba Ciénaga Guanare 6 Barinitas Sucre El Baúl Calabozo Casigua del Zulia de Oro San Marcos Montería La Gloria Barrancas GUÁRICO Guanarito El Guayabo El Vigía Mérida Acandí Majagual Planeta Rica Petrólea Barinas Río G u Arismendi Mesa Bolívar Pico Bolívar Gamarra Lagunillas 5007m u a na NORTE DE Morales Ciudad Bolívar Tovar re Ocaña CÓRDOBA Ayapel ío Ca MÉRIDA La Fría Aguachica Libertad Paso del Caballo R San Antonio SANTANDER La Grita Turbo Tierralta La Unión Abrego BOLÍVAR San Juan de Colón B A R I N A S pure Ciudad de Nutrias Camaguán Sardinata Caucasia San Antonio Pregonero Montelíbano Cerro Tagún Simití San Fernando Bruzual A del Táchira 605m Rí o Río El Samán de Apure Achaguas TÁCHIRA Cáchira Salazar Santa Bárbara Chigorodó Cabruta A Alto de Tamar San Cristóbal Population Rubio Río Ar pure Caicara Zaragoza 2350m Cerro El Viejo San Antonio de Caparo Palmarito Ríosucio auca del Orinoco Mantecal noco 4100m Pamplona 1 million to 5 million El Venado El Cantón Or i Matanza ío Toledo Mutatá Puerto Juradó Guasdualito 500,000 to 1 million Ituango Segovia Wilches Yarumal Río Arauca El Amparo de Apure Dabeiba Floridablanca Cubará R ío C a Remedios 100,000 to 500,000 La Urbana panaparo Amalfi Elorza Barrancabermeja Arauca Arauquita Frontino San Andrés Alto Musinga Cupica 50,000 to 100,000 ANTIOQUIA APURE SANTANDER Málaga 3850m Santa Rosa de Osos ARAUCA Golfo de San Gil 10,000 to 50,000 Rí o Cina ruc o Antioquia Bello Tame Cupica Puerto Berrío Socorro Anzá below 10,000 Charala Soatá Puerto Rondón Urrao Contratación Cravo Norte Bahía Solano Puerto Páez Río Meta Itagüí La Ceja Suaita Oiba Concordia Vélez Hato Corozal Envigado Belén Puerto Boyaca Puerto Carreño Elevation Nueva Antioquia Fredonia Abejorral Barbosa Golfo de Támara Paz de Ariporo Moniquirá Quibdó Tribugá Andes Sonsón Chiquinquirá BOYACÁ Sogamoso Pore Puerto Ayacucho Cerro Yaví Nuquí Punta Arusí Nunchia Caramanta Muzo 4000m / 13,124ft 2441m CALDAS La Dorada o Samacá Tunja CHOCÓ RISARALDA Ríosucio Labranzagrande Trinidad m o T La Palma Ubaté Anserma Río 3000m / 9843ft Yopal Tibaná Honda Manapiare de Juan San CUNDINAMARCA Istmina Pajarito Samariapo Pacho Miraflores CASANARE Manizales Condoto Cerro Paraque Nevado Tauramena 2000m / 6562ft Garagoa Zipaquirá Chinchiná 2030m del Ruiz Puerto Nariño Facatativá Pereira 5400m Maní Santa Rita ío Cartago Nevado 1000m / 3281ft Orocué R Ambalema El Dorado Cerro Ovana a d del QuindíoLa Mesa 1978m V I C H A D A V icha Armenia 5400m 500m / 1640ft o í Medina Calarca Ibagué Tocaima Zarzal R Rí o Muco Fusagasugá QUINDÍO Coello 250m / 820ft Girardot Rovira Puerto Gaitán Cabuyaro Restrepo oV Rí Yacuaray Espinal Tuluá Puerto Limón Villavicencio a San José de Ocuné San Fernando de Atabapo Buenaventura 100m / 328ft d Saldaña Ortega a Acacias ch Buga R ío U va VALLE DEL R í o Vi Chaparral Cerro El Nevado Santa Bárbara e 4560m San Martín Palmira sea level Natagaima i a r Puerto Inírida Rí Dagua CAUCA rt oO TOLIMA Prado uav Granada G Palmaseca o o r Rí T Ataco a San Antonio i l fo Río Itev iare M E T d A o i í Colombia Río r G Pradera Río Manacac ní I Ar Aipe Baraya Jamundí o Mesetas ia R ío are 11 Nevado del Huila Si Tello 5750m 192 Uribe CAUCA Neiva Suárez Morales Punta Reyes HUILA A M A Z Timbiquí Páez Hobo Maroa Mosquera Guapí GUAINÍA Silvia Gigante El Tambo R Iscuandé í San José del Guaviare R ío Gu ainía La Plata Timbío ab Volcán Sotará Popayán uay Garzón rida R í í o n I R G í o San Vicente del Caguán 4580m Morichal Patía 12 Altamira atía Bahía de Tumaco Bolívar San Agustín Río P Puerto Rico Timaná El Mango Tumaco Mercaderes GUAVIARE San Carlos Pitalito El Doncello de Río Negro Barbacoas Cabo Manglares La Unión Morelia Florencia NARIÑO Linares La Cruz Samaniego La Montañita Buesaco Sandoná Cartagena de Chaira Túquerres Pasto Mocoa Rí o V R ío Puerto Limón Fúnes Vau Mitú pés Nevado de Cumbal Puerto Umbría Río Ca Ipiales Pico da Neblina 13 q ueta 4764m 3014m Orito uá V A U P É S n R PUTUMAYO ío Ya Puerto Asís Río P Río S rí a n M i gu el pa po C A Q U ETÁ ay ris o Concepción Equator 56 Hacha La Tagua Lérida Puerto Leguízamo 14 Puerto Colombia

5775m

Se rr an ía de Pe ri já

Ernesto Cortissoz Soledad ATLÁNTICO Sitionuevo

autonomy. Most of the major population centers, such as Bogotá, have grown up in the temperate conditions of the high Andes or, like Caracas, at strategic points along the Caribbean coast.

Cartagena

Maracaibo

CARACAS

Maracay

Valencia

NA

Barquisimeto

er

ra

ca

Río G uárico

abá

na

gda le

t a l

e

n

as i l l e Río Ca uca r a O c C o c i d e n t a l r d i l l e r a C e C n t o r a r l d i l l

eta

i

n í a

M

r

O

BOGOTÁ

r

a

C O L O M B I A o

e

o

m

A

-

a

25

0

50

100

L

I

Z oC

aqu

etá

La Pedrera

A

C

17

oA

a yo

 Large open squares like the Plaza de Bolívar in Bogotá are characteristic of many cities founded by the Spanish.

150

A M A Z O N A S

Arica

R

oP

u tu

ma y

o

U

B

E

R

El Encanto

Scale 1:7,250,000 100

tu

P

16

Pu

m

15

50

Araracuara

 Scattered farms and villages have grown up on the gentle slopes of this Colombian river valley, utilizing the fertile soils for farming.

25

r

í

p és au

g

um

O R

n

i

o

u

q

Ca

ut

O

Río

0

a

as

o

er

C

A

r d

e g ro

E

Km

oN

P

ri

S

A A D

co no

z

ug

I F I C

l

L

Cali

N

U

Z

a

Río

C

E

R

Río Ma

to

O C E A N

Rí o A tr a

Medellín

N

ri

ién

Vn E

Bucaramanga

tu a

ar

e Ur

lD

od

de

o

D

E

s

Cúcuta

en

a

lf Go

PANAMA

Map key

200 200

150

Miles

58

56

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Ama

 The Orinoco river flows from its source in the southern Guiana Highlands to form a broad delta on Venezuela’s Atlantic coast. One of its distributary channels opens into a wide bay called the Serpent’s Mouth.

n zo Leticia A

54

General key

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

K

L

M


SOUTH AMERICA: NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

Transportation network

C OCEAN IFI

ve

leu

kF

po

ivier

ul me ai t re

ya

aR

R ivi

PO ND O

yR

on

er

in i Ri ve r

a rou

N e w Ri v

In the Guiana Highlands, Venezuela’s most remote region, the ancient crystalline rocks contain deposits of iron ore, gold, and diamonds.

Toonta rtu g ne e

rie

n e Ri

ah

iv e r

I

Z

58

Massif du Mitaraka

690m mu c - H um a c

L’O

ra Ri v er

r

ve

Ri

eR

bic

M Ra

r iv e

a R

Ma

ke

iR

S

on

P

FRENCH GUIANA

Mont Saint-Marcel 635m

Trois Sauts

Mo unt ain s

(Claimed by Suriname)

(Claimed by Suriname)

A

CAYENNE

ar

ns ai

Appikalo

er

At its northernmost reaches, in western Colombia and Venezuela, the great Andean mountain chain splits into three distinct ranges: the Cordillera Oriental, Cordillera Central, and Cordillera Occidental, intercut by a complex series of lesser ranges and basins. The relief becomes lower toward the coast and the interior plains of the northern Amazon Basin, rising again into the tropical hills of the Guiana Highlands. O

Tu

12

L Guiana Shield Alluvial plains

Angel Falls (Salto Ángel), at 3212 ft (979 m), is the world’s highest waterfall.

Igneous intrusions into the crystalline plateau which forms most of central Guyana have led to the formation of the many rapids that characterize Guyana’s rivers.

The drainage basin of the Magdalena River and the Cauca, its main tributary, covers over 20% of Colombia’s total surface area.

The landscape

N

Onverwacht

e gt

R

Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo) is not a true lake but a shallow inlet of the Caribbean Sea. It is the main source of Venezuela’s oil.

A

RIBO Mana PARAMA MAROWIJNE

Alimimuni Piek 728m

Riv

 The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is a granite massif which rises sharply from the Caribbean lowlands to snow-covered peaks, the tallest of which is 18,947 ft (5775 m) high.

Equator

N

B

7

pasture cropland forest wetlands mountain region

Nieuw Amsterdam

SIPALIWINI

ne

ó

CORONIE

nty

a

pec

t un ca o rai M

100

Îles du Sal ut Albina Iracoubo i Sinnamary St-LaurentParamaribo nr NICKERIE Corneliskondre Île du Diable o r ve du-Maroni 9 A Guyanais Spatial Centre R i St-Jean Kwakoegron Wasjabo Donderkamp P A Kourou Apatou Orealla Berg en Dal c i Herminadorp Tonate N Kaaimanston Apoera Brownsweg Brokopondo Citron Cayenne Rémire Matoury v er St-Élie Roura Kab W.J. van Délices Pointe Béhague e a Blommesteinmeer Cacao ena m L’Oyapok Bergi e de Régina Bai Pokigron 10 Grand-Santi Ouanary B Hendrik Top Poeketi Sa M 957m Tafelberg Djoemoe Boti-Pasi 1026m St-Georges (to France) W Saül i s i l he Lu e in Maripasoula Juliana Top gn ci e lm Apetina Monta e l’In ina 1230m R Ge B el l e v u e d Tapan be r m Camopi Pédima So ab 11 T Wageningen

er

Johi Village

90

8

E

WANICA COMMEWIJNE

ura

i

r er

ira

A

C

SARAMACCA

Co

Kuyuwini Landing

rán Untu ra de Sier p Ta

Jacobs Ladder Falls

s

d

Horqueta oco Minas

L

capital cities major towns

er

Orin

80

iv i

n

70

1,111,317 sq miles (2,879,060 sq km)

Groningen Totness Lelydorp

r

a

Boca Mavaca Río

e q ui bo R i v e

ima

l

60

78 people per sq mile (30 people per sq km)

SURINAME

Ka Mou nuku ntain Sauriwaunawa s

h

50

M

(Venezuela claims all of Guyana west of Essequibo river)

Lethem

g

Par

O N A S

Kurupukari

uni River

i

ra

La Esmeralda

Ituni

40

Total land area

New Amsterdam Rose Hall Corriverton Linden Nieuw Nickerie Friendship

E ss

er

Cerro Duida 2400m

Glendor Mount ain s

H

Si

Cerro Marahuaca 2579m

i n t a n u M o

s

FRENCH GUIANA

cattle goats bananas cereals coffee cotton sugar cane

rural 20%

RO KO

ar i

oM

P a k a r a i m a

Catisimiña

Ayanganna Mountain ru 2042m ota er Mahdia v Ri Kaieteur Falls

30

O

o Rivier leb

a

na

Santa Elena de Uairén

Uonán

ua

Sarariña

ag

Cabadisocaña

ar

Ve

uari

oP

Mount Roraima 2810m

I

Montag nes de la Tr inité

a n

Rí o nt

ba

20

Georgetown

G U Y A N A

Sa

10

GEORGETOWN

r anty

n

í

ida

ra

Caruana de Montaña

Z

A

R

AN

Land use and agricultural distribution

RU

Population density

Bartica

Rupun

i

al

Santa Maria de Erebato

Parika

C ou

Uruyén

G

Carapo

C

Essequibo Islands

zaruni Wineperu Rockstone Issano

Kamarang Imbaimadai

La

R ío C aro n

Auyan Tebuy Cerro Guaiquinima 2950m 2100m

Peters Mine

Enachu Landing

Cerro Venamo 1563m Salto Ángel

I

P

u

arag

B O L Í V A R

uM a i g u Cacuri

u sa

a c a r eo

Caño M

Caño Negro Canaima

Cuy un i

Aurora

0

Charity

Bara m

ver Cuy uni Ri

El Dorado

El Casabe

oP Caura

T

Port Kaituma r iv e

Kuracki

a

E

urban 80%

Spring Garden

ra

N

ni

ver Ri

G er

o

Tumeremo

Cerro Turagua 1838m La Paragua

Las Trincheras

Si

El Manteco El Callao

B

OR

OCE

6

B er

A

PA C

re

o M aca

Cañ

C Río

L

COLOMBIA UA D

IC

E

E

Matthews Ridge

BOGOTÁ

NT

M

U

Guasipati

Ciudad Piar

Medellín

4 LA

GEORGETOWN PARAMARIBO CAYENNE

VENEZUELA

The urban/rural population divide

Waini Point

Arakaka

AT

CARACAS

PANAMA

EC

3

Sea

Maracaibo

NA

Maripa

Caribbean

A

El Palmar

Upata

Embalse de Guri

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

R U

RI

Moitaco Borbón

Mapire Las Bonitas

L Wai

í on ar El Pao

E

 Vast oil reserves around Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo) form the focus of Venezuelan industry. Incomes from oil are used to invest in other industries and in the development of infrastructure.

NA

Ciudad Bolívar

R

2

SU

Soledad

L

A Z I B R

The Andean basins support cereals and potatoes. Livestock graze at higher altitudes and on the drier tropical grasslands known as the llanos; hardy goats are reared in scrubland areas. Grown at higher elevations, coffee is an important cash crop, as is cotton, sugar cane, bananas, citrus fruits, cocoa, and rice, farmed on the Caribbean lowlands. Coca is the most widely grown narcotic plant, with heroin poppies grown in Colombia and marijuana in lowland areas throughout the region.

T

Río

Ciudad Guayana

Zuata

GUIANA

P

Caripe Caripito San Puerto The Serpent's M Antonio Quiriquire out Clarines Aragua de Maturín Píritu Pedernales h Caicara Maturín Valle de Guanape Punta Baja Santa Rosa Punta Onoto de Mata San Mateo Aragua de Aguasay Anaco Zaraza Barcelona San Joaquín Cantaura MONAGAS La Horqueta Santa El Chaparro Ana El Socorro Tucupita Cañ Temblador San Tomé Pariaguán DELTA San José de Guanipa Tigre El Santa María Barrancas AMACURO de Ipire ANZOÁTEGUI o c o n Guayabones Curiapo Ori

SURINAME FRENCH

Using the land

A

Tataracual 1195m

DO

chemicals finance food processing iron & steel narcotics mining oil oil refining pharmaceuticals textiles timber processing

IC

M

UA

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

Pozuelos

Cali

1

YA

Barcelona

BOGOTÁ

Y

GU

Isla de Margarita Juangriego La Asunción Boca de Pozo Pampatar NUEVA Punta de Porlamar Puerto de Hierro ESPARTA Piedras Carúpano Río Caribe Araya Cariaco El Pilar Irapa Güiria Cumaná Casanay SUCRE Gulf of Paria Puerto La Cruz Guanta Cerro Cumanacoa

NT

COLOMBIA

Islas Los Testigos Isla La Tortuga

LA

OC Ciudad Guayana EAN GEORGETOWN VENEZUELA PARAMARIBO G UY A NA Cayenne

acc

64

AT

ram

Isla Blanquilla

X

ani

EC

Rivers are an important means of transportation in Colombia; many are extensively navigable. The Pan-American Highway runs through Colombia. In Venezuela, much infrastructure investment is linked to the oil industry.

A

E

W

Major industry and infrastructure

CARACAS Cumaná

Valencia

Medellín

2448 miles (3940 km) 22,429 miles (36,100 km)

V

Lit

3411 miles (5490 km)

Demera

S

Maracaibo Barranquilla PANAMA

P

N

U

Caribbean Sea

31,720 miles (51,054 km)

Many mineral resources are mined in Colombia, including fuels, gold, and precious and semiprecious stones. Revenues from coffee and exports of illegal narcotics are crucial to the economy. Venezuela’s major economic activity is the oil industry around Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo). Sugar and bauxite are exported from Guyana and Suriname.

A

T

Rivier

Transportation & industry

S

ivier

R

Copp

Q

C OC N EA

P

IFI

O

PA C

N

13

Inselbergs Table mountains

 The Guiana Shield is one of the oldest land surfaces in the world – probably formed more than 4 billion years ago. Chemical weathering over millions of years has created flat-topped table mountains and large numbers of inselbergs.

14

Over 80% of Suriname is covered by tropical rain forest.

15

Cordillera Occidental

16

Potaru river

Cordillera Central

 The Potaru river descends 741 ft (226 m) over a sandstone ledge at the Kaieteur Falls in Guyana.

Cordillera Oriental Colombia’s eastern lowlands are known locally as llanos, meaning grasslands.

Q

R

S

T

U

V

Most of the land in French Guiana is low-lying; here, the rocks of the Guiana Highlands have been eroded by rivers flowing toward the sea.

W

X

Y

17

Z

55


Manta

E

F

G

Zorritos

Sullana

Bahía de Sechura

Piura

Río

Qu

z

Pacasmayo

R ío

d

Virú

oS

Juanjuí

ech

in

ri

o

Bellavista

nc

a

l

ANCASH

l

Río Fo rtalez a

el

Pu

o rr ie ntes

Lagunas

Orellana

ara

Chiquián

ca

ya

ir

n

M

ay

ira

an

m

ria

Río A

lla

Bl a

Rí o

T a h ua ní a

s he a

R ío Tama ya

bu

Pucallpa ja

Ca

Río

Requena

Nauta

Iquitos

B

Equator

ío

I

Ri

oY

av

ari

v ar i Mi r i m o Ya

N apo

A

R ío

E R U UCAYALI P PASCO

a

Contamana

U Río

HUÁNUCO Puerto Inca

Huánuco

ñó

al

oN

oP

apo

ra y

oN

ura

Río Sam

R ío M

a

oC

m

tu

O

LORETO

Yurimaguas

Lamas

Pomabamba

Rí o

R í o Ar ab

Nevado Aguaytía Huascarán Tingo María 6768m

Bla

Huaraz

rico

Río

L

y al i Uca

Huarmey

l

a ler

Casma

i l

Península de Ferrol

usa

SAN MARTÍN

Nevado Huandoy 6395m

rdi

Caraz

ac

Moyobamba

h

M

ipena ga oA Rí

Tarapoto

Ca

ua

i

Saposoa

Huamachuco

Co

Chimbote

Salaverry

ul

ua

Nuevo Rocafuerte Rí Río Con o naco

Ag

Azu illera Cord a g lla ua oH

CARCHI TUNGURAHUA BOLÍVAR CHIMBORAZO ZAMORA CHINCHIPE

Ecuador: Administrative regions

Trujillo

Rioja

Río

Río

ORELLANA

PASTAZA

Chachapoyas

Cajamarca

LA LIBERTADche

Mo

r

San Pedro de Lloc

R

AMAZONAS

Bagua

ón

CAJAMARCA

o

Pimentel Chepén

Chiclayo

Lambayeque Ferreñafe

Jaén

Bellavista

C

LAMBAYEQUE

Pampa las Salinas Olmos

Viejo Embalse iroCerro 3934m Poechos Chulucanas San Ignacio Catacaos Cerro Bravo Laguna Ramón 3923m

PIURA

LOJA

Loja

Zaruma Saraguro

Zamora

AZUAY

antiag o

Punta Negra

d C a n al

el

Puerto Francisco de Orellana (Coca)

ECUADOR

Riobamba

Chimborazo 6310m

Ambato Puyo

Milagro Alausí Macas CAÑAR MORONA Azogues SANTIAGO Naranjal Cuenca Sigsig

Yaguachi Nuevo

Pasaje Machala Santa Rosa Tumbes EL ORO

TUMBES

Paita

Talara Punta Parinas

Guaranda

LOS

Baños

igu

O

SUCUMBÍOS

Río Sa n M

C

 Ecuador’s capital city, Quito, lies high in the Andes, nestling between snowcapped peaks. At 9350 ft (2850 m), Quito is the second highest capital in the world – La Paz in Bolivia is the highest.

B

13

Simon Bolivar

NAPO

Baeza

5704m

p ha Río C ona r o ío M

12

GUAYAS

Golfo de Isla Guayaquil Puná

Punta Santa Elena Salinas

Iliniza 5263m

Machachi

QUITO Antizana

COTOPAXI Cotopaxi Tena 5897m Latacunga

RÍOS Babahoyo

Sucre Balzar

Quevedo

Guayaquil

Bahía de Santa Elena

Jipijapa

Portoviejo

Calceta

Bahía MANABÍ de Manta Chone

Cabo San Lorenzo

Mariscal Sucre Pichincha 4794m

Santo Domingo de los Colorados

A

Equator

San Lorenzo

Tulcán Punta Galera ESMERALDAS Cotacachi Ibarra San Gabriel Ensenada 4939m de Mompiche Muisne IMBABURA Nueva Loja Rosa Zárate Otavalo (Lago Agrio) (Quinindé) PICHINCHACayambe Cayambe 5790m

Esmeraldas

Valdéz (Limones)

D

N

5

beli

am

eJ

E

Río M ara ñ

za

R ío Pas ta

s

192

S

The three states of Western South America share a similar geography and recent history. Dominated by the Inca empire until Spanish conquest in the 16th century, they achieved independence from Spain in the early 19th century. The precipitous terrain of the Andes presents severe difficulties for overland transportation and continues to be a barrier to national unity and stability. Although Ecuador is now a relatively stable democracy, the military is highly influential in Peru and Bolivia, while the drug trade and associated corruption discourages external aid and economic progress. Wealth and power are still largely concentrated in the hands of a small elite of families, who attained their position during the Spanish colonial period. Energy resources and political recognition for the indigenous peoples are becoming increasingly important issues, particularly in Bolivia.

BO LIVIA , ECUADO R , PE RU

a

4

D

y

o

3

C

H

J

K

L

M

Cotopaxi is the world’s highest active volcano, with a peak 19,347 ft (5897 m) high. A massive eruption in 1877 caused a mudflow which destroyed everything in its path for 150 miles (240 km).

54

ja

A

o

Z

below 10,000

10,000 to 50,000

I

50,000 to 100,000

100,000 to 500,000

500,000 to 1 million

1 million to 5 million

above 5 million

Population

Map key

L

sea level

R

Villa Bella

N

O

25

50 25

50

100

100

150

200

150

250

300 200

250

 Nevado de Illampu and Nevado de Ancohuma, at 21,275 ft (6485 m) and 21,490 ft (6550 m) respectively, form Illampu, the highest mountain in the Bolivian Andes.

Bolivian Andes

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Miles

0

0

Km

Scale 1:8,500,000

The Altiplano is a flat, high plateau lying between the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental at a height of up to 12,500 ft (3800 m). At its margins lie many spurs and alluvial fans.

Rolling hills and level plains typify the montaña and selva region, which makes up more than 65% of Peru.

Magma chamber

Lava flows

Falling ash

Q

300

The Bolivian oriente covers more than two-thirds of the country. It includes llanos – low alluvial plains, massive swamps, flooded bottomlands, savannah grassland, and tropical forests.

Zone of magma generation

P

 There are many large and active volcanoes in the Andes. Magma generated in the heart of the volcano erupts in a huge cloud of ash. Ashfall deposits are common throughout the Andes and the rock produced is known as andesite. This is rapidly soaked by heavy rain, causing massive debris flows.

Eruption column Subduction zone

Fast-flowing tributaries of the Amazon, which rise in the Andes, run eastward through the front ranges to reach the tropical lowlands. They cut valleys so deep that tropical environments can be found extending well into mountainous areas.

 Lake Titicaca, which forms part of the border between Peru and Bolivia, is the largest lake in South America and the highest significant body of water in the world at an altitude of 12,507 ft (3812 m).

Lake Titicaca

ã Fortaleza bun hu a ra s o A o Pa ca Rí í

100m / 328ft

250m / 820ft

500m / 1640ft

1000m / 3281ft

2000m / 6562ft

3000m / 9843ft

4000m / 13,124ft

6000m / 19,686ft

Elevation

The Peruvian Andes are relatively young mountains which are continually being uplifted, making the area very unstable, with frequent earthquakes. The transportation difficulties that they present continue to form a barrier to national unity.

The steepness of the Andean slopes means that avalanches and debris flows are an ever-present danger. A landslide starting from Nevado Huascarán in Peru in 1970 killed 20,000 people in 2.5 minutes when it engulfed an inhabited valley.

Much of eastern Ecuador is covered by the tropical rain forest of the Amazon Basin.

Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador each possess a high Andean mountain region and an eastern region consisting of tropical lowlands and the Andean slope leading down to them. Toward the south of the region, the mountains widen to form the high plateau of the Altiplano. Peru and Ecuador also have fertile, lowland coastal plains. A wide variety of environments include selva (tropical rain forest), montaña (mountain forest), and grassland.

The coastal floodplains are the source of Ecuador’s richest soils, enabling the cultivation of a wide range of crops.

ran

58

I

The landscape

R ío Pu tum ay

azon

Rí o Cu

Am

Western South America

B

ra

na

cu

pa

Nu

R

C Huaordillera garu nch

ío S

Río

all

R cu

P

aga u as oH Rí iya

Río

Rí o

o rit

e

oU

Hu

oC

ach it

Río

re

ia

g Ti rana

li

ng a

e

Ta

ich

a Rí o

a s hi ño

R í o T i gre Tap

Rí cu

Río

yo r ya e

oN

o bo o

Rí m Ta o nc Sh

56 R

1

A

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

SOUTH AMERICA

Río Made ra

P A


Callao

O

C

E

A

CHILE

N

C F I C I A P

22,429 miles (36,100 km)

D

E

G

E

LIMA

Chimbote

A

F

C

B

B

RA

IA

ZIL

Arequipa

Cusco

P E RU

M

a

a

O

r

oM

ro

Ixiamas

me oE

ío

idi

n

M ad

62

e

LA PAZ

i

a

ira

Villa Martín

Uyuni

Salar de Uyuni

Laguna Coipasa Salar de Coipasa

oL Ri

R R

e ío B

E L

Riberalta

Laguna Santa Ana Rogagua a cum Ya San Miguel o Río l os u att áp oR oM Rí Rí

ío

M

E N

San Joaquín Magdalena

B

R

es

I Rí oS an

R ío Itén

ez

B

Laguna Colorada

r ille

l

s

Rí o

62

TARIJA Yacuiba

Uriondo

Tarija

Huacaya

San Lorenzo

Villa Abecia

CHUQUISACA

o

Lagunillas Monteagudo

AY GU RA

Santa Cruz

TINA ARGEN

SUCRE

LA PAZ

BOLIVIA

cattle sheep bananas cereals cocoa coffee fishing rubber sugar cane

pasture cropland forest mountain region desert wetlands

capital cities major towns

Land use and agricultural distribution

M

N

A

Tu

ca

va

Naranjos

Rí o

ca

nt

o ra z ó

62

P

50

60

70

80

1,019,515 sq miles (2,641,230 sq km)

40

48 people per sq mile (19 people per sq km)

30

Total land area

20

O

Q

90

rural 31%

Population density

10

urban 69%

16

15

14

100

25

24

23

22

Laguna Mandioré

Laguna Gaíba

Puerto Suárez

The urban/rural population divide

0

n

Laguna Uberaba

oC

San Matías

A Y U G

Quimome San José

58

LA PAZ – legislative and administrative capital SUCRE – legal capital

 Clearance of the forest in coca-growing regions is encouraged by the Bolivian government. The inaccessible terrain makes policing the growers very difficult. Coca is a popular crop because it is simple to grow and to transport, and is very profitable when illegally processed as cocaine.

The coastal regions support a variety of cash crops including rice, sugar cane, bananas, coffee, and cocoa, watered by rainfall or by irrigation schemes. The grasslands of the high sierra are used mainly for grazing a wide range of livestock; cattle and sheep are reared, along with pigs, and the indigenous llama and alpaca. Subsistence crops, especially potatoes and cereals, are grown lower down the mountain flanks. Despite government incentives to grow alternative crops, coca, used for cocaine, is the Bolivian and Peruvian oriente’s most profitable commercial crop.

Esperancita

San Ignacio

Laguna Marfíl

A

Bolivia: Capital cities

R

Bañados del Izozog

A

n

Río T

SANTA CRUZ

Concepción

Santa Cruz

A R G E N T I N A

Tupiza

POTOSÍ

Atocha

Cotagaita

a

SUCRE

g

Padcaya Villazón

n

Chichas a de Cerro Huanchaca 5950m

rd Co

a

Potosí

t

u

R Río San Ra

 Llamas, with alpacas and vicuñas, are indigenous to South America. They thrive in Andean conditions and their wool is both exported and used in the manufacture of local textiles.

B O L I V I A

San Pablo z Sonequera ipe 5855m e L d a er ill rd Co

Using the land & sea

l

A

AZ

C

 At Potosí in Bolivia, silver has been mined for over 400 years.

O

R

B

Guayaquil

LO

Iquitos

CO

QUITO

192

Arequipat

n

r

B

A

e

E C UA D O R

C F I C I A P

A transcontinental highway is under construction to link Ilo, on Peru’s Pacific coast, to Porto Esperança in Brazil, via Puerto Suárez in Bolivia. Establishing port facilities on the Pacific coast is crucial to landlocked Bolivia’s further development.

4217 miles (6787 km)

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

car manufacture chemicals engineering fish processing food processing iron & steel mining narcotics oil pharmaceuticals shipbuilding

Major industry and infrastructure

d

l ca

13,326 miles (21,449 km)

TINA

AZ

ARGEN

R

AY GU RA

Santa Cruz

B

SUCRE

LA PAZ Cochabamba

BOLIVIA

u ar i Hua

L E I H C

1993 miles (3208 km)

Puno Arequipa

Cusco

P E RU

IL

Nevado Ausangate 6384m ío H

S

Transportation network

LIMA

Chimbote

BR Pucallpa A Z

A

Trujillo

Chiclayo

APURÍMAC

 The ancient city of Machu Picchu, in the Peruvian Andes was built prior to the Inca period. Its impressive ruins reflect a culture which had developed a high degree of sophistication.

c

E

26

E

The mountain regions are rich in minerals including lead, copper, silver, gold, zinc, and tungsten, though high production and transportation costs have meant that they are expensive to extract and vulnerable to price collapses. Foreign debt remains a major burden, hampering industrial development. Manufacturing tends to be small CO LO QUITO M scale and concentrates on products for local B I needs, including textiles, food processing, E C UA D O R Guayaquil Cuenca and pharmaceuticals. Narcotics are an Iquitos important, though illegal, export.

A

D

Piura

i

l

e

CUSCO

Cusco Andahuaylas Abancay Urcos

Salcantay 6271m Anta

l

ed r as

iam anu

PANDO

rtón Río O Puerto Rico

Co Laguna ri rdi de San Luis ller Laguna R í o T ui ch aC Macusani Huachi a ra Sicuani baya Chalhuanca Reyes LA PAZ Santa AYACUCHO Antabamba Rosa Palpa Cordillera Apolo San Ayaviri Puquio Ignacio Trinidad Laguna Apolobamba Nevado Pupuya Nazca Arapa Coracora 5818m ca PUNO Huancané Nevado Solimana Yau R Río 6323m Moho AREQUIPA Loreto Juliaca San Juan Laguna Puerto Acosta Nevado Coropuna de Serr Lake Lomas Parinacochas 6613m Sécure M an R ío Titicaca Sorata Nevado de Ancohuma Nevado Ampato oz ía Santa e s 6310m Puno ten 6550m oa Lucía Chuquibamba Chala Río es R í o I c h Ilave Achacachi Pa Coroico e Volcán Misti ila Volcán Ubinas Pucarani Punta 5822m Copacabana 5670m Sa Atico Colorada nM Desaguadero Rí igu oG Mazocruz el MOQUEGUA Laguna ran Camaná El Alto Viacha d COCHAB AMBA e Loriscota Independencia Cordille Mollendo ra de Inquisivi Moquegua Corocoro Coch Cocachacra Luribay aba Co Cochabamba Montero mb  The Galapagos Islands are Portachuelo r T r di l a e Tarata s C leraQuillacollo D es mainly composed of lava, with Warnes ru c a g uade ro Buena Vista Punata e Tarata s TACNA very little vegetation near to the Ilo Viru-Viru Comarapa coasts, although the wetter inland Tacna Oruro Nevado Sajama Mizque Rí Lago Uru Uru 6520m slopes are mantled with forest. Concordia o Aiquile Huanuni Samaipata La Yarada ne ORURO Poopó Uncía í o Gr a Vallegrande Lago Poopó Colquechaca R nd e Huachacalla Challapata Andamarca Sabaya cajahu

Huancapi

i

ViQuillabamba lca bam Machu Picchu ba Nevado

Par

s Pi

Puerto Maldonado

DE DIOS

ío

e la

Porvenir

A

N

o

25

isco

de

C Ur o u

od

Cobija

a

n

24

ío P

Ayacucho

Lircay

d

aman Iberia u

Iñapari

i

23

Huancavelica

r

MADRE

ahu

l

csara e Ta ra d ille ay d r ilcom Co R ío P

22

t

s

R ío T

dle

Rí o

e

21

Isla Española

an

HUANCAVELICA Huanta Chincha Alta

N

ío M

JUNÍN

Pampas

Huancayo

Jauja

Tarma

c

R Pisco Isla Sangayan Guadalupe Península de Paracas Ica Santiago ICA Bahía de la Independencia

Tambo de Mora

Imperial

Matucana

han

p

Transportation & industry

(same scale as main map)

PAC I F I C

O C E A N

Puerto Baquerizo Moreno Puerto Villamil

Equator

Isla San Cristóbal

Isla Santa Cruz

Puerto Ayora Isla Santa Fe

Isla Santa María

Volcán Santo Tomás 1490m

Isla Isabela

GALÁPAGOS

Isla Pinzón

192

LIMA

Chilca Mala

CALLAO Jorge Chávez

San Vicente de Cañete

Isla Genovesa

Isla Pinta Isla Marchena

Volcán Darwin (to Ecuador) 1280m Isla San Salvador

Volcán Wolf 1646m

Isla Fernandina Volcán Alcebo 1097m

Volcán La Cumbra 1463m

Equator

(Archipiélago de Colón)

Galápagos Islands

 A colony of marine iguanas basks on the rocks of Isla Fernandina in the Galápagos Islands. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution was inspired by the differences he found between the animal species on neighboring islands in the Galápagos.

Callao

Isla San Lorenzo

Puente Piedra

LIMA

Río C

Ca

qu

20

19

18

17

16

15

Huaral

s

i

Miz

o ma y lco Pi

PA

Chancay Ancón

Satipo

R í o Mi sha

gua

ur ú

R í o Cali A g ua e nt s es

eni

Río B

Sayán

San Ramón

to P

l

t

Río

C Y

acani

R ío Q ue t en a

S

Rio Yap

i pe

Lago Junín Junín La Oroya

R í o Al

R í o Sa nt o To m ás

o

eL

Huacho

a

í

o oC

z

i

o

ed

é m or

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so

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14

Río I nu y

s io

eD re d

ad

oM

i

im ur

Cerro de Pasco

O pe

C E oA

Oyón

ra lle ac rdi rím Co A p u o í R Rí

I D Río Itonamas

oN

r

Nevado Yerupaja 6634m

ra ille ba rd bam Rí

ar a i

hap a

Paramonga Pativilca Supe Barranca

o

R

PA

ari

ni eneshuay a

a

t ín oP

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up

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N R ag

peti

C

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ré ar ar

Para

e o mb

b

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P Rí o

vo ar

Río

Río Ve rd e

P

r En

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amba oM

Río

R

R

Rí o Río Verde

Río Ta

ío G

Ba

Sa

A Rí o o Ma m ío

Z Río

I

L SOUTH AMERICA: WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

IL

CHILE

N

IL

57


13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

U

A

BO

56

54

capital cities major towns pasture cropland forest

cattle pigs sheep citrus fruits coffee cotton soybeans sugar cane timber

Land use and agricultural distribution

BI

Equator

A

V

I

Manaus

EL

LI

U

SU

G

r

ar i é Ri o M

São Joaquim

L

A

Rio de Janeiro

AT

Santo Antônio do Içá

Tabatinga

C

E

Maraã

e

Alvarães Juruá fé

Tefé

m Ri o

10

20

30

55 people per sq mile (21 people per sq km)

Population density

ri

40

50

60

70

Ri o Do

a es

Missão

mi Catrimani

Boiaçu

Coari

Codajás

z

a

Eduardo Gomes

o

ra

oU at u m

ã

Borba

n

J

pu

oN

Itacoatiara

54

(to France)

FRENCH GUIANA

 The Pantanal region in the south of Brazil is an extension of the Gran Chaco plain. The swamps and marshes of this area are renowned for their beauty, and abundant and unique wildlife, including wildfowl and these caimans, a type of crocodile.

The floodplains which border the Amazon river are made up of a variety of different features including shallow lakes and swamps, mangrove forests in the tidal delta area, and fertile leveés on river banks and point bars.

Brazil’s highest mountain is the Pico da Neblina which was only discovered in 1962. It is 9888 ft (3014 m) high.

B

Rio

Calçoene

i PA R Á

ir i

Sete Ilhas

g Ara

Oiapoque

i u ar

Mo uth s

Sucuriju

Ilha de Maracá

Cabo Orange

Rainfall

N

T

I

Ri o

n

Dom

Represa Eliseu de Tucuruí

Belém

Bacabal

ú

São Luís

N

Recife do Silva

O

Gully

Codó

Chapadinha

na

íba

Piripiri

r Pa

The famous Sugar Loaf Mountain (Pão de Açúcar) which overlooks Rio de Janeiro is a fine example of a volcanic plug a domed core of solidified lava left after the slopes of the original volcano have eroded away.

C

Acaraú

Araras

Camocim Itapipoca Sobral Caucaia

Cascavel

Fortaleza

sea level

100m / 328ft

250m / 820ft

500m / 1640ft

1000m / 3281ft

2000m / 6562ft

3000m / 9843ft

Elevation

E A N

below 10,000

10,000 to 50,000

50,000 to 100,000

100,000 to 500,000

500,000 to 1 million

1 million to 5 million

above 5 million

Population

Map key

Q

The northeastern scrublands are known as the caatinga, a virtually impenetrable thorny woodland, sometimes intermixed with cacti where water is scarce.

 Large-scale gullies are common in Brazil, particularly on hillslopes from which vegetation has been removed. Gullies grow headwards (up the slope), aided by a combination of erosion through water seepage and rainwater runoff.

Parnaíba

São Luís Ilha do Caju Itapecuru-Mirim

eS ad aíIlha de

arcos ão M

P

The São Francisco Basin has a climate unique in Brazil. Known as the “drought polygon,” it has almost no rain during the dry season, leading to regular disastrous droughts.

Deep natural harbors such as Baia de Guanabara were created where the steep slopes of the Serra da Mantiqueira plunge directly into the ocean.

Overland water flow

Recife Manuel Luís

O

The ancient Brazilian Highlands have a varied topography. Their plateaus, hills, and deep valleys are bordered by highly-eroded mountains containing important mineral deposits. They are drained by three great river systems, the Amazon, the Paraguay–Paraná, and the São Francisco.

Direction of growth

Equator

C

Hillslope gullying

Guiana Highlands

Water seeps through hillslope

64

A

 The Iguaçu river surges over the spectacular Iguaçu Falls (Saltos do Iguaçu) toward the Paraná river. Falls like these are increasingly under pressure from large-scale hydroelectric projects such as that at Itaipú.

Pantanal wetlands

M

The Amazon Basin is the largest river basin in the world. The Amazon river and over a thousand tributaries drain an area of 2,375,000 sq miles (6,150,000 sq km) and carry one-fifth of the world’s fresh water out to sea.

L

Ilha Bailique of t he Ilha do Curuá Ilha Janaucu Macapá Ilha Caviana de Fora Ilha Mexiana arajó eM Ilha de a d Marudá Ilha Grande Marajó Vigia de Gurupá Castanhal Capanema Viseu Carutapera Porto de Moz Ilha Sirituba Turiaçu Alto Bonito São João de Cortes Tomé-Açu Portel

Altamira

s o Ir Ri Rurópolis Presidente Medici

a

Santarém

Am

n azo

Maracanaquará

Monte Dourado

Planalto

Oriximiná Óbidos Alenquer

Parintins

Itaituba Pimenta

Urucará

ham un d á

K

The Amazon Basin, containing the largest area of tropical rain forest on Earth, covers nearly half of Brazil. It is bordered by two shield areas: in the south by the Brazilian Highlands, and in the north by the Guiana Highlands. The east coast is dominated by a great escarpment which runs for 1600 miles (2565 km).

SURIN AME

100

I

The landscape

H

Tu m i g u c - Hu m Amapá a c Mo u nt ai n s h l a n d s AMAPÁ in

90

rural 22%

i Mounta

Manaus

Ri

Represa Balbina

u Ja

ca

i pe r

Manacapuru Caldeirão Iranduba Manaquiri Autazes Careiro Beruri

Novo Airão

Ri o

São Luís

Catrimani

Carvoeiro Moura

Barcelos

S ol im õ

Caracaraí

80

3,286,472 sq miles (8,511,970 sq km)

Total land area

G u nt iima aMouNormandia Pak ara Rosa n Conceição Santa do Maú Uraricoera Uaiacás a Boa Vista H Rio Cat ROR AIM A

Mount Roraima 2810m

LA

Tapurucuará R í o Ne g r o

Santa Isabel do Rio Negro

Pico Guimarães Rosas 2105m

E

54

E U Z

Recife

Fonte Boa

Japurá

A

Tonantins Monte Cristo

Foz do Mamoriá

Rio Japurá

Vila Bittencourt

Rio Içá

Se r

Vista Alegre

Porto Alegre

Curitiba

São Paulo

O

Salvador

Fortaleza

São Marcelino Pico da Neblina Iauaretê 3014m Rio U Içana au p é s

A I B

AY GU URU

NA

AY

BRASÍLIA

Belo Horizonte

BRAZIL

Carajás

Belém

AT L A NT IC

0

urban 78%

The urban/rural population divide

 The fecundity of parts of Brazil’s rain forest results from exceptionally high levels of rainfall and the quantities of silt deposited by the Amazon river system.

Brazil has immense natural resources, including minerals and hardwoods, many of which are found in the fragile rain forest. Brazil is the world’s leading coffee grower and a major producer of livestock, sugar, and orange juice concentrate. Soybeans for animal feed, particularly for poultry feed, have become the country’s most significant crop.

Using the land

M

COLO

Z

4

TI

EN

A RG

IC

T

N

EA

VENE

M

COLO

ns

ai

3

F

Brazil is the largest country in South America, with a population of 191 million – almost half the combined total of the continent. The 26 states which make up the federal republic of Brazil are administered from the purpose-built capital, Brasília. Tropical rain forest, covering more than one-third of the country, contains rich natural resources, but great tracts are sacrificed to agriculture, industry and urban expansion on a daily basis. Most of Brazil’s multiethnic population now live in cities, some of which are vast areas of urban sprawl; São Paulo is one of the world’s biggest conurbations, with more than 20 million inhabitants. Although prosperity is a reality for some, many people still live in great poverty, and mounting foreign debts continue to damage Brazil’s prospects of economic advancement.

Brazil

E

s

1

D

Rio Trombetas

C

Rio Jut aí

Rio Par u de Oeste

N

V

Ri

ran co

Rio B

ue poq

O ia Ri o

B

Rio Tocantins

EN

o Ju r uá

í

Ba

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Ri o

ta

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NA

A

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CH EN NA FR UIA G ME

Y

A AN

Rio Ja

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G U

T on az Am

R Grajio a

G

N

A B

58

RI

A

L Ri o

A

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

SOUTH AMERICA


Ri

E

Km

25

50

100

100

150

200

150

350

200

250 300

250

c oA

300

Ri

u

r us

350

o Ri

Boca do Acre

uá Tap a Ri o

400

ã un Ab io

B

Fortaleza

B

C

D

B

Manicoré

i

Recreio

rr a

Pereirinha

Se do

C

Barra do São Manuel

Jacaré-a-Canga

R

R

O

AY GU URU

NA

UA Y

I

Porto Alegre

Curitiba

São Paulo

L

RO N D Ô N I A

Represa de Samuel Itapuã do Oeste

E

mining oil printing & publishing textiles timber processing tourism

L

A

F

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

AT

Rio de Janeiro

R

Bandeirantes

M AT O

G

Tropic of Capricorn

62

60

oM an u

Manuel Zinho

Bom Futuro

Araras

60

A

Z

Parauapebas

ús da

Açailãndia

Carolina

Estreito

Grajaú

Conceição do Araguaia

Tasso Fragoso Alto Parnaíba Santa Filomena

Canto do Buriti São João do Piauí

P I AU Í

Colinas

Marcolândia Ouricuri

Tauá

Mossoró

Areia Branca Assu Macau Touros

Aracati

Salvador

A

Y

í

H

UR

oQ

Barra do Quaraí Ri

A uay

SANTA CATARI NA

Porto União

io C

Ur uguay Chapecó Curitibanos Três Passos an o a s R

do Sul

Ri o

Ja

Bagé

Tubarão

Pelotas Rio Grande

a go La

Lagoa Mangueira

K

Porto Alegre

Novo Hamburgo Canoas

Jaguarão Mirim Lagoon

Livramento Serra das E

Rosário do Sul R i o J a c u í a Caçapava tad Santana do do Sul ncan

UG

ta s

64

A

L

T

Ilha de Santa Catarina

Florianópolis

Joinville Itajaí Blumenau

Ilha de São Francisco São Francisco do Sul

Paranaguá

Ilha das Peças

Curitiba

Peruíbe

Ilha Comprida

r

L

M

A

N

N

 A gaucho in traditional costume herds beef cattle on the grasslands of the Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil.

T

I

O

e Taubaté Nova Niterói R I O D E JA N E I RO do Rio Tropic of Capricorn ra São Jose Iguaçu de r e S Janeiro São Vicente dos Campos a Santo s b Ilha de São i ac a Ilha de Santo Amaro Sebastião anap

Guarulhos

Ponta Grossa

Se r r a d o Pa

Belo Horizonte

(Brazilian Highlands)

M I NAS G E R A I S

Campinas

São Paulo

Criciúma RIO GR ANDE Bento Gonçalves Ararangu á Caxias do Sul D O SUL Santa Cachoeira Santiago

Maria Alegrete

Uruguaiana

Ri o I b i c u

São Borja

T

PARAN Á

BA H I A

P l a n a lt o C e n t r a l

BRASÍLIA

de Xavantes Armando Laydner

Erechim Lages g ru Santa Rosa Santo Ângelo Passo Fundo RioU Ijuí Ijuí oP Carazinho elo Cruz Alta

IN

i qu ir i

L

SÃO PAU L O

GOI ÁS Goiânia

Londrina Apucarana Represa Represa

Represa de Itaipú Cascavel Laranjeiras do Sul Guarapuava Foz do Iguaçu Represa de Saltos do Iguaçu Ri o I Foz do Areia gua çu

io P

Campo Mourão Goio-Erê

Ilha das Sete Quedas

Maringá

M ATO G RO S S O D O SUL Campo Grande

I

TO C A N T I N S

Afrânio

Salgueiro

P

Q

 Picinguaba Beach lies in Serra do Mar State Park in São Paulo state. São Paulo’s beaches stretch for 386 miles (622 km) along the Atlantic coast.

64

19

25

24

23

22

21

20

Maceió

18

Recife

Natal

Cabo de São Roque Ceará Mirim

João Pessoa Campina Grande Jaboatão Olinda

PA R A Í BA

Senador Pompeu RIO GR AN DE Açude Orós DO NO São João dos Patos Currais Novos RT E Valença do Piauí Caicó Floriano Gatu riano Campos São Raimundo das Juazeiro Sales Oeir as Mangabeiras do Norte Picos Balsas

Roncador

Barro Duro

Quixadá

CEARÁ

Crateús Açude Banabuiú

Campo Maior

Teresina

Caxias Timon

Presidente Dutra

MARANHÃO

Imperatriz

Craolândia

Araguaína

Marabá

São Félix

São Félix do Xingu

José Rodrigues

Planalto de Mato Grosso

G RO S S O

Pa nt a n a l

raí

ar ã

A

car manufacture chemicals electronics finance food processing iron & steel

Humaitá

Tapauá

Porto Velho

u

is

Açude Poço Pl da Cruz Arcoverde Caruaru P E R NA M B U C O Cachimbo Panelas Represa de el Colniza Petr Ga olin ran a hu Itaparica ns Jaciparaná Sobradinho Paranaíta Paulo Afonso Rio Campo Vila Rica Ariquemes zeiro Abunã SãoALAGOAS Alegre de SentJua Ma Can o Sé udos nga Peixoto de Azevedo Juruena Fra Ar Palmas do Lourdes Jaru apiraca Represa de n Corrente Tocantins Monte Santo Propriá cisco Sobradinho a rim rá-Mi Guaja Porto Naciona l Xiqu Juará e-Xique Mansidão SERGIPE Santa Rita de Cássia Campo de Diauarum Queimadas Barra Novo Horizonte Marcelândia São Félix do Araguaia Ilha Aracaju Porto dos a Tucano Gurupi do Gaúchos São Cristóvão Sinop Pimenta Bueno Pôsto Jacaré Estâ io ncia Bananal do Serrinha Taguatinga Ibotirama Utinga Cha Rio Gu Barreiras ap o p a Vilhena Alagoinhas Itaberaba ré da Feira de Santana Lençóis d Dois de Julho Bom Jesus Porangatu Campos Belos da Lapa Ba í Santa Maria a Valença de T da Vitória odo Jequié Alto Paraíso de Goiás Ilha de Boipebas os S antos Caetité Brum Arenápolis ado Cocalinho Uruaçu Ponta do Mutá a Nobres Maraú rr Tupiraçaba Itacaiu Rosário Oeste Vitória da Mato Grosso Se Itabuna Espinosa Conquista Ceres Barro Alto Pontes e Lacerda Ilhéus Rialma Cuiabá Goianésia an Planaltina Monte Azul Várzea Grande Comandatuba Fr Januária Pirenópolis Itap etin 56 o DISTR ga ITO Cáceres Canavieiras Pedra Sã Jaciara Aragarças Goiás FEDER AL Janaúba a h n Azul o h Ri Belmonte Piranhas Rondonópolis o Jequitin Unaí Anápolis Santa Cruz Cabrália Montes Claros Eunápolis Cristalina Porto Seguro Itaobim Rio P Indiara Alto Araguaia iqu Araçuai Santa Rita de Araguaia Itamaraju Pirapora ir i Paraca tu Mineiros t R i o o r re n C Caiapó Jataí Rio Verde Prado Cu Luislândia do Oeste do Teófilo Otoni Ri o u ar i q a T rra o Diamantina i Caravelas Anhangüera SU R R Itumbiar a i Coxim o Ve Nanuque rde Ri io Ilha Caçumba Patos Ap Serro a Araguari Pico de é or é de Minas Represa Curvelo Itamb Corumbá 2040m Governador São Uberlândia Mat eus Guanhães Três Marias Abaeté Valadares AT L A Porto Ipat Ibiá Sete NT Ri o Lagoas Itabira inga G Esperança IC Linhares D o ce Rio rande Uberaba Araxá Se Colatina O Betim rr C ES PÍ RI TO SA NT Belém E O Santa Teresa Fortaleza Divin São José ópol Man is huaçu Ouro Preto Barretos Água Clara Pico da Conselheiro Lafaiete Aquidauana Ri do Rio Preto Pont Vit e Bandeira ória Franca Três Lagoas R o Ti Nova 2890m Passos Represa de Furnas Guarapari Ri io A etê Araçatuba o g ua São João del Rei Recife Cachoeiro de Ribeirão Preto ar Nova Alvorada Porto peí do Três Pontas Itapemirim Barbacena Victor Murtinho BRAZIL Araraquara Poços Presidente a Juiz de Fora Itaperun de Caldas Campos dos Salvador Bela Vista Prudente Dourados o i u l S São Carlos Pouso Alegre R b a do e Go yta í Jaú caz a No Marília iqu Rio Claro Par va Friburgo es Ivinheima Rio Paranapane a n t Barra Man ma Bauru BRASÍLIA ná Limeira sa Macaé ara Represa Capivara a M Gal eão d Sã Amer o Gonçalo Volta Ourinhos icana Jundiaí r a M Red Rio Ivaí Paranavaí Naviraí onda r Belo Horizonte

Lábrea

Ri o P

Major industry and infrastructure

 Brazil’s urban population has grown by over 6% per year since the mid-1970s – at current population levels a rate of nearly 6 million people annually. In Rio de Janeiro prosperous neighborhoods exist alongside over 450 shantytowns or favelas, some of which house as many as 250,000 people.

An extensive new road network is being built to link Brazil’s main centers. Investment is needed to update the antiquated railroad system. In São Paulo, the subway system is being extended to accommodate the expanding population.

31,065 miles (50,000 km)

18,889 miles (30,403 km)

3293 miles (5300 km)

101,893 miles (164,000 km)

Transportation network

Brazilian industry is diverse and well developed, in part as a result of past government A EL U incentives, including the prohibition of A BI imports. Industries which have benefited include car manufacture, petrochemicals, and Manaus microelectronics. Textiles, clothing, and footwear are among Brazil’s most successful U exports. The country’s services BO LI and tourism sectors are V I also expanding rapidly.

Transportation & industry

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Miles

0

0 25 50

400

R U

Brasiléia

Curitiba

Canindé

Ri o P

Rio Branco

Scale 1:14,250,000

56

P

Dimpolis

Foz do Breu

AC R ESena Madureira

Feijó

a au ar Envira oT

Itamarati

Ri o

Tucunaré

ua

gu

26

25

Canamari

Tarauacá Mário Lobão Taumaturgo

Cruzeiro do Sul

Japiim

Ipixuna

Ja

Eirunepé

o Ri

Jutaí

R

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

á

Cu r

Ri o

Elvira Rodrigues

Itu í

Ri o

ba

ia tu

nd

s

ru

a eir Novo Aripuanã

Rio Jur uena

o Ri

re

io

ca x

Rio Aba

ajó s

Ta p bá

os

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ad oM

S

ai a

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14

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AS A M A Z OCoN ar i

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M

COLO

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Itu

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Ri o

Benjamin Constant

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Ser r a d os G ra

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Atalaia do Norte Caxias

T

EAN

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Ser

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Serr

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AG PAR

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M

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A NA UY

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Rio Toca

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Pa os

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SOUTH AMERICA: BR AZIL

o

UA

Y

s

59


R

MONTEVIDEO

Curitiba

Porto Alegre

Rio Grande

Z

Campinas

A

L

São Paulo

I

P

50

100 100

150 200 150

200

San Ignacio

A

G

R

K

58

below 10,000

10,000 to 50,000

50,000 to 100,000

100,000 to 500,000

Nhandeara

Pereira Barreto

sea level

100m / 328ft

250m / 820ft

500m / 1640ft

MIN

1000m / 3281ft

2000m / 6562ft

Elevation

Guaíra

São José

Nova Granada Barretos

São Joaquim da Barra Batatais

Franca

Rio G ra

n Igarapava de Ituverava

Mar del Plata

B R A

Porto Alegre

M

A

Santos

O

Q

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

car manufacture chemicals engineering finance food processing iron & steel meat processing printing & publishing shipbuilding textiles timber processing

Major industry and infrastructure

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

RIO DE JANEIR O

Throughout the region, road networks need to be expanded to cope with urban development. Plans are underway to build a bridge over the Plate River (Río de la Plata) to link Colonia and Buenos Aires.

Transportation network

Campos Rio de Janeiro

P

 The Itaipú dam on the Paraná river is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the world, jointly financed by Brazil and Paraguay.

T

L

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Florianópolis

Curitiba

São Paulo

Campinas

Caxias do Sul

Blumenau

Rio Grande

BUENOS AIRES MONTEVIDEO La Plata

U RU G UAY

N

Ribeirão Preto Marília Londrina

Santa Maria

R PA Posadas

M

Corrientes

Bahía Blanca

Rosario

Santa Fe

AS GERAIS

Rio Grande Represa de Santa Fé Água Vermelha Ri do Sul o Tu r Fernandópolis Jales Ilha Solteira Votuporanga

500,000 to 1 million

1 million to 5 million

above 5 million

Population

Map key

Southeast Brazil is home to much of the important motor and capital goods industry, largely based around São Paulo; iron and steel production is also concentrated in this region. Uruguay’s economy continues to be based mainly on the export of livestock products including meat and leather goods. Buenos Aires is Argentina’s chief port, and the region has a varied and sophisticated economic base including service-based industries such as finance and publishing, as well as primary processing.

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AG UA Y

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Serra

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PA R A N Á

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Tie tê

Iraí

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Pinhalzinho

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MISIONES

Puerto Rico

Campo Erê

Chapecó

ap e c ó

Videira Joaçaba

Caçador

Morro do Capão Doce 1340m

SANTA CATARINA

Xanxerê

R

Palmas S e r ra d a F Montecarlo R ar t ura San Pedro São Miguel d’Oeste io C h

Eldorado

Medianeira

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Rio do Sul

Blumenau

Monte Castelo

Jaraguá do Sul

Paranaguá

Brusque

Itajaí

Joinville

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Iguaçu

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GERAIS

r a r e

AS

 Rio de Janeiro’s annual carnival, Mardi Gras, which ushers in the start of Lent, is an extravagant five-day parade through the city, characterized by fantastically decorated floats, exuberant dancing, and samba music.

São Paulo

Ilha de São Francisco São Francisco do Sul

Antonina Ilha das Peças Ilha do Mel

I

Campinas

SÃO PAU L O

Pico Guaricana 1889m

das Araras Prudentópolis Curitiba Guarapuava do Sul Laranjeiras Foz do Iguaçu Três Pinheiros Irati Campo Largo Represa de Salto Rio Iguaçu Puerto São Mateus Pinhão Santiago Cataratas Iguazú Dois Vizinhos Lapa Represa de Foz do Sul del Iguazú do Areia Rio Negro Beltrão Francisco Mafra União da Vitória Puerto Esperanza Canoinhas Bituruna Pato Branco

Casca

M

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Andradina Rio

A

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Rio de Janeiro

r M a

13

12

do Rio Preto Mirassol Bebedouro Represa de Araçatub E S P Í R I TO Sertãozinho a Promissão Catanduva Jaboticabal Mirandópolis Panorama Rio Ribeirão Preto S A N TO Bom Jesus do Ita Ag Guararapes Penápolis Novo Taqua ritinga bapoana ua Dracena oP Horizonte peí a rd Promissão Moc oca o Lins Itaperu Itápolis Presidente Epitácio Adamantina São José do Rio Pardo Miracema na Osvaldo Cruz Ri o Araraquara Casa Branca do P Pirajuí Tupã São Fidélis São João e ix Presidente e Pirassununga da Barra Venceslau Sul Campos Bariri São Carlo Presidente Prudente Marília dos s a do Rancharia Pirapòzinho raíb Garça a Go a yt Jaú r ac P az i es o Paraguaçu ue Araras Teodoro Três Rios Ri Cordeiro Rio Claro Bauru t i q Pico das Agulhas Negr Paulista as Sampaio 2787m Vas an Itapira Ti Barra Bonita MojiAssis sou No ras va e M Fr ibu t Volta Redonda ê rgo Limeira Mirim Amparo Lençóis Paulista a Rio Paranapanema Piracicaba dCru Barra Teresópolis Macaé zeiro Porecatu Pôrto Barra Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo Americana Bragança a Cam Botucatu Pet pos do JordãoMansa róp Represa Capivara oli São José r s do Pir aí Galeão Paulista Ourinhos Rio Bonit Paranavaí Guaratinguetá Indaiatuba Avaré Cornélio Procópio Conchas São Gonçaloo Rio Ivaí Nova Esperança São Jose dos Tietê Taubaté Ang Santo Antônio Itatinga Ni ra dos terói Itu Jund Piraju Arraial do Cabo Campos da Platina Tropic of Capricorn Maringá Londrina Pôrto Camargo Tatuí Reis iaí Guaru Cabo Frio Represa lhos Represa de Parati Ilha Grande Jacareí Nova Olímpia Apucarana Armando Itapetininga Sorocaba Osasco Cianorte Xavantes Ubatuba São Caetano do Sul Laydner Tropic of Caprico Ilha das Cruzeiro do Oeste Itaporanga rn Caraguatatuba Ibaiti Sete Quedas Umuarama Capão Bonito São Ber nar do do Cam po São Vice nte Sant do Sul os Campo Mourão a Ilha b Goio-Erê Itapeva Ilha de Santo Amaro de São Sebastião Ortigueira Guaíra i a c a Pedro Barros Guarujá Ivaiporã Itararé Jaguariaíva nap Palotina a Telêmaco Borba Tibagi r Peruíbe ira Pa 11 ib e Represa de Itaipú Registro Reserva d o Apiaí Rio R 64 Pitanga a Toledo io r Cerro Castro Azul Jacupir Pi r anga Ri q ui oI Santa Helena ri Se va Ilha Comprida í Ponta Grossa Tunas Guaraniaçu vel

 Soybeans are harvested, pressed, and processed into soycake, which is used as animal feed. The cake is fed mainly to chickens on large-scale factory farms, and the growth in soy production has been an important factor in the expansion of the Brazilian poultry trade.

R P A

62

25

50

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

 The rolling grasslands of Uruguay are ideally suited to the rearing of cattle. Beef is the country’s main export commodity, valued at over one billion US dollars in 2006.

pasture cropland forest wetlands barren land

capital cities major towns

cattle sheep cereals coffee fruit soybeans sugar cane

Land use and agricultural distribution

Rio de Janeiro

25

Miles

0

0

Km

Scale 1:7,000,000

J

Transportation & industry

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r

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13

U RU G UAY

BUENOS AIRES

Bahía Blanca

Santa Fe

Corrientes

R PA

B

Most of Uruguay and the Pampas of northern Argentina are devoted to the rearing of livestock, especially cattle and sheep, which are central to both countries’ economies. Soybeans, first produced in Brazil’s Rio Grande do Sul, are now more widely grown for large-scale export, as are cereals, sugar cane, and grapes. Subsistence crops, including potatoes, corn and sugar beets, are grown on the remaining arable land.

Using the land

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The vast conurbations of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Buenos Aires form the core of South America’s highly-urbanized eastern region. São Paulo state, with over 40 million inhabitants, is among the world’s 20 most powerful economies, and São Paulo is the fastest growing city on the continent. Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires, transformed in the last hundred years from port cities to great metropolitan areas each with more than 10 million inhabitants, typify the unstructured growth and wealth disparities of South America’s great cities. In Uruguay, over two fifths of the population lives in the capital, Montevideo, which faces Buenos Aires across the Plate River (Río de la Plata). Immigration from the countryside has created severe pressure on the urban infrastructure, particularly on available housing, leading to a profusion of crowded shanty settlements (favelas or barrios).

U R U G U AY, N O R T H E A S T A R G E N T I N A , S O U T H E A S T B R A Z I L

A R G E N T I N A

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Eastern South America

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Bahía Unión

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Bahía Anegada

Carmen de Patagones

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 Montevideo became the capital of Uruguay following independence in 1828. The focus for Uruguayan industry and trade, it is also a popular destination for tourists from other South American countries.

MONTEVIDEO

r

26

A PA M P

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Bahía Blanca

m

ES BUENOS AIR

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Porto Alegre

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The River Plate (Río de la Plata) is a great estuary formed at the confluence of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers near Nueva Palmira.

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Mayor Buratovich

Médanos

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BUENOS AIRES

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Río San Jav i er

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SAN TI

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Paraná

Curitibanos Concórdia Santa Ana El Soberbio Piratuba Campos Novos Ilha de Frederico Oberá São José Três Passos Marcelino Westphalen Erechim Santa Catarina R i o o N.Alem Ramos Can Lages Leandro Ri Alfredo gó Ituzain Florian tes de ópolis Barragem rien o Cor Bom Retiro Wagner San Javier Pe Santa Rosa San José Nuestra Señora Sarandi Passo Fundo l ot Rosario de Caa Catí Apóstoles as Palmeira das Missões Azara Braço Gobernador Ingeniero Virasoro Empedrado Lagoa Vermelha Cêrro Largo do Norte Santo Ângelo Carazinho San Miguel Ri o Mburucuyá São Luiz Fundo Passo Imbituba Ijuí Barragem Gonzaga Santo São Joaquim Saladas Santa Rosa Ijuí Laguna Ernestina Casca Tomé Las Toscas n epció Vacaria Conc Tubarão Criciúma Los Tábanos Alta Nova Prata Bella Vista Bossoroca Cruz Rio das Antas Soledade Villa Ocampo São Borja San Roque CORRIENTES Barragem Guaporé Araranguá Intiyaco Chavarría Tupanciretã de Passo Real Bento Gonçalves Encruzilhada Alvear Santa Lucia edes Merc Barros Cassal Santiago Júlio de Castilhos Caxias do Sul a R Itaqui io I Reconquist Torres bic São Francisco Perugorría Guaviravi Lajeado Goya uí Três Cachoeiras Yapeyú de Assis Tostado S A N TA F E Sapiranga Mariano I.Loza Viana Manoel Taquara Ur Montenegro Alegrete Paso de los Libres Vera Romang Santa Maria Santa Cruz do Sul Novo Hamburgo lareta Río La Gal Gravataí Osório Rio Pardo Canoas Uruguaiana Curuzú Cuatiá Sul do Cachoeira S al o a do oC Tramandaí Rí Alejandra Libertad Rio Jacuí Butiá Esquina Sauce Ceres São Gabriel Capivari Calchaquí Pântano Grande Rosário Barra do Quaraí Quaraí Pueblo Monte Caseros s do Sul Encruzilhada da Libertador Bella Unión do Sul Artigas Caçapava do Sul Co 64 nta Arrufó San José San Cristóbal Tapes Enc a s Gomensoro x s Tomá a d a i r de Feliciano Ser lh S A G I RT A a Santana do Livramento Cu Santana da Boa Vista Suardi tavo Belén Baltasar Brum Soledad de are Camaquã San Javier San Gus Dom Pedrito Rio Cam im Palacios Elisa La Paz Embalse de Sa a qu Justo ral Federación San Fede de pey Grande ã a Gran n River Salto a Umberto Elen ardi Mostardas ta San ta ra Conscripto Bern Río A na Tranqueras Constitución Sunchales Canguçu Helvecia Bagé a ini Lun R Biass de Sauce Minas São Lourenço do Sul Nelson Rafaela Salto S A LTO Concordia de Corrales Pinheiro Machado Laguna Paiva Bovril Ta A Río R E Pelotas Santa Clara V eranza I OS R RÍ Esp E TR EN D Tacuarembó de Saguier Vichadero Santa Fe Vill San Salvador ay m án a Clara Angélica Tambores ó Ansina Ú San Carlos Centro María Grande D N A S PAY Isidoro Noblia yo Arro Quinta Rio Grande San Jorge Quebracho Paraná Villaguay 62 Barú Gálvez e CERRO Río Queg uay Coronda Crespo José a n r d San G e Villa Arroio Grande ín squ Ro Melo nte ma ada Ó Dia Cañ ão TAC UA R E M B Colon Paysandú Guichón oyen Rosario Jaguarão Fraile Muerto Bernardo de Irig R í o Ne Achar Basavilbaso del Tala Porvenir Algorta LARGO Río Branco goon El Trébol Hernández San Gregorio de Paso Díaz as Luc Nogoyá r RÍO ión o La no Javie cepc Polanc de San odi Con Ser Toros sas los Ro z Las Lagoa Mangueira Gonzále Santa La Paloma Victoria eral Galarza del Uruguay Young N E Go RO Vergara Totoras de Gen Clara TA Grec o TREIN Blanquillo San Lorenz The state of Rio Grande do Sul ro Carlos Reyles Olimar Berlín vo Nue g Armstrong e Y TRES contains some of Brazil’s most Gualeguaychú O Cerro z o NR N Enrique Martínez Z A General R U í D ay legu Cañada de Góme o í í Tres P y tos Gua R R Treinta ara o Y Sarandí del Yí Chato Fray Ben fertile soils. The weathered í Cebollatí Casilda Pedro José cedes Mer ez rocks produce terra rossa, a José Batlle y Ordóñ í Acebal Varela Santa Vitória do Palmar los Arroyos Soriano Palmitas Durazno Arequito Pérez de s Nico olá Nic n Zapicá San reddish-purple soil renowned Trinidad F L O R I DA Chabas O Chuí Médanos S O R I A NJosé allo Rodó Sarandí Grande Pirarajá Río Ce que Lascano Enri for the rich coffee it produces. Firmat Alcorta Santa Teresa Ram Chuy Dolores Conesa FLORES Cerro Colorado va LLEJA uy Nue LAVA CHA Ibic RO ona ro Card Ismael San Ped Coronilla La Elortondo Cruz La ira Palm Cortinas Baradero Paraná Velázquez Mariscala da Carmelo S A N FrayFlori A Venado Pergamino Marcos Casupá Castillos C O L O N Iecia Zárate JOSÉ n Ramó va Helv Tuerto Colón San Nue Aiguá Mayo José de Arrecifes Tala Mesopotamia is a narrow Campana Belén de Escobar Rosario San Minas Rocha Cabo Polonio Salto Santa Lucía Rojas Juan L.Lacaze ONADO depression, no more than San Isidro Pilar nto Canelones MALD ame San Gregorio Rufino Sacr del es Paloma La nia de nal Pan Colo Are General s CANELONES Azúcar San Carlos 180 miles (290 km) wide, which lies Libertad San Andrés de Gile Luján Pando Las Piedras Maldonado between the Paraná and Uruguay Merlo des Piriápolis Diego de Alvear Ezeiza La Paz Junín Chacabuco Merce Punta del Este Carrasco rivers, stretching more than Lincoln La Plata General Pinto l era Gen 1000 miles (1603 km) south from Chivilcoy Lomas de Magdalena Río O’Brien Alberti dsen Arenaza Bran ra d Navarro Ameghino mo Za the Brazilian Shield to the Pampas. e la Río S Loma Verde alado Lobos as General Viamonte o Verónica Pl a General Villeg Bragad Monte ta Punta Piedras San Miguel del 64 ús inco Pasteur scom ntic Cha Vei Timote Quiroga de Mayo Roque Pérez Ranchos Pipinas Río Paraná river Bahía Nueve de Julio ca Saladillo Carlos Tejedor Manuel S al n es sar a a Ca s do J.Cobo Samborombón General Belgrano Rivadavia Carlo l l im a ó uaj V Peh o Castelli Bellocq General Alvear o Del Valle Francisco Mader Las Flores Punta Norte uen uq La Dolores ue s nq rlo Tre San Clemente del Tuyú San Ca r ral Lavalle Gene líva Bo de Santa Teresita Salazar ué alq Tap o Cabo San Cacharí General Guid Henderson Pellegrini Antonio Daireaux Rauch Maipú Punta Sur Azul Juan eral Gen The Argentinian Pampas lie Salliqueló a ría ariag var Mad Ola to the south of the River Plate n Pirá o eral Gen Ayacuch Guaminí (Río de la Plata), meeting southern Tandil Huanguelén General La Madrid Coronel Vidal Mesopotamia in the north and the Carhué Chillar acia Ign ría Ma Rivera Atlantic Ocean to the east. They rez ito Suá Ben Coronel are covered by deposits of silt, Laprida San Manuel rez Juá üé Pig án Pu alluvium and volcanic ash. Mar del Plata Balcarce De La Claraz otes Punta Mog Garma Adolfo Lobería Mechongué Darragueira zález Gon Sierra de la Coronel Pringles tana Chaves San Miramar Tornquist Ven Tres os Cayetano Cerro Tres Pic3m Arroyos Necochea Saldungaray 124 Coronel Bellocq Cabildo Dorrego San Francisco de ca an Bl Bahía Oriente ecó Clarom

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Low plateaux and hills, like the Cuchilla Grande, dominate the landscape of Uruguay, which lies in a transitional zone between the humid Pampas of Argentina and the hilly uplands of Brazil.

N

Sand barrier formed from sandy silts eroded in the Pampas region

Coastal lagoons

Saltwater

Sand bar builds in parallel to the shoreline

O

P

Q

 The Atlantic coast of Uruguay and southern Brazil has many large lagoons. Long-term lagoons are formed when sea levels change; 6000 years ago, the sea level near Buenos Aires was 6.5 ft (2 m) higher than it is today. More temporary lagoons are enclosed by spits and sandbars, created by the drifting of sand and sediment in parallel with the shoreline.

River delta

Freshwater river

The Serra do Mar runs along the Atlantic coast toward Porto Alegre. South of this, the land slopes away to become lower and more level in Uruguay.

In winter, polar air masses and the cyclonic storms associated with them, can bring heavy rain, frosts, and even snow, as far north as São Paulo.

Tracing the edge of São Paulo state, the Paraná river drains the Brazilian Highlands, finally reaching the sea at the Plate River (Río de la Plata). Along with the Paraguay river, it is at the center of a controversial scheme to turn the largely unnavigable route into a great shipping canal.

 A number of large inland tidal lakes fringe the Atlantic coastlines of Uruguay and southeastern Brazil.

 Tall lines of palm trees edge the savannah landscape of Mesopotamia in northeastern Argentina.

 In 1900, Buenos Aires was a modest port city with a population of less than 1 million. Today, more than 12 million people live in the city and its environs.

The southern reaches of the Brazilian Highlands follow the Atlantic coast to form low, rolling hills in the northeast of Uruguay. Much of South America’s mid-eastern region and all of Uruguay has a gentle relief with land rarely rising above 300 ft (100 m). Argentina’s northeast comprises two main regions: a long, narrow lowland known as Mesopotamia; and part of the Pampas grasslands.

The landscape

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SOUTH AMERICA: EASTERN SOUTH AMERICA

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Cordillera Sillajguay

Resistencia

AG

Rosario

R

BUENOS AIRES

9180 miles (14,775 km)

Argentina’s state transportation system is under-going privatization, though the outmoded rail network requires updating. Paraguay requires foreign investment to upgrade its roads and railroads. Essential internal air routes, especially across the Andes, are well developed in all three countries.

26,811 miles (43,153 km)

55,062 miles (93,453 km)

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

3038 miles (4889 km)

chemicals engineering food processing meat processing mining oil textiles timber processing

Major industry and infrastructure

Transportation network

Ciudad del Este

Posadas

Y

B

UA

Bahía Blanca

Córdoba

Comodoro Rivadavia

SANTIAGO

Punta Arenas

Puerto Montt

Valdivia

Concepción

Talca

Valparaíso

R

ASUNCIÓN

PA

LIVIA

A R G E N T I NA

BO

Mendoza

CHILE

Antofagasta

Iquique

Arica

PER

 Chuquicamata copper mine, lies on a desert plateau near Calama in the Andes of northern Chile. It is the world’s largest open-pit copper mine.

Bahía Nuestra Señora Taltal

Huasco

p

Tierra Amarilla

Copiapó

Cerro del Potro 5830m

Cerro del Toro

lenar HuVal a sc o Domeyko

Santa María

I

L

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O

Río C

 Floodwaters cover the land in the Gran Chaco, partly submerging its vegetation of fan palms and hyacinths.

N

Cerro Ojos del Salado 6880m Monte Pissis 6774m

Chilecito

Salamanca

N TI AGO

Petorca

C ho ap a

San Juan

La Rioja

Cerro General Manuel Belgrano 6250m

La Fragua

Salinas de Ambargasta

Talca R

Malargüe

Alta Gracia

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San Cristóbal

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Santa Isabel

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Paso de los Libres

Alvear

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Concordia

Federación

Embalse de Salto Grande

Monte Caseros

Curuzú Cuatiá

Chajarí

Santa Fe ENTRE RÍOS Paraná

Laguna Paiva

Rosario

General Villegas

Pergamino

San Pedro Baradero

General Pico Pehuajó Eduardo Castex Trenque Lauquen Quemú Quemú San Carlos de Bolívar Luan Toro Catriló

Lobos

Zamora

La Plata o de l

Ezeiza

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General Viamonte

BUENOS AIRES

San Andrés de Giles

Ibicuy

Zárate Campana

Gualeguaychú Larroque Médanos

Mercedes Chivilcoy Lomas de

Junín

Rojas

Colón

Lincoln Chacabuco

Laboulaye Rufino

Venado Tuerto

Paraná San Nicolás de los Arroyos Ramallo

Cañada de Gómez

A R G E N T I N A Arizona

Sauce

C Rí o

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CAAGUAZÚ

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GUAIRÁ

Q

Abaí

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sea level

100m / 328ft

250m / 820ft

500m / 1640ft

1000m / 3281ft

2000m / 6562ft

3000m / 9843ft

4000m / 13,124ft

6000m / 19,686ft

Elevation

below 10,000

10,000 to 50,000

50,000 to 100,000

100,000 to 500,000

500,000 to 1 million

1 million to 5 million

Population

Map key

Santo Tomé

Apóstoles

Eldorado

ú

13

12

11

10

9

Este

Cataratas del Iguazú Río Igua z

Represa de Itaipú

MISIONES Ignacio

4

3

2

1

Salto del G uairá

PARANÁ Ciud ad del

Caacupé Coronel Oviedo Paraguarí Villarrica

Ypacaraí

CORDILLERA

Villaguay DiamanteCrespo Nogoyá Basavilbaso Bell Ville Concepción del Uru San Lorenzo Victoria guay

Las Varillas Gálvez

Esperanza

Sunchales

or

Goya

San José de Feliciano La Paz Federal

Vera

Reconquista

SANTA FE

Río

Tostado

- Gua z

SAN CANINDEYÚ PEDRO Villa Hayes

Rosario

Caazapá G PARA San Juan Z AP Á A A C Bautista Yuty o Te Pilar b i c u a r y ITAPÚA SIO Humaitá NES Encarnación San

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Pirané

Comandante Fontana

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Las ejo Lomitas vie jo FORMOSA

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PARAGUAY

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co

Laguna San Javier Mar Chiquita

Selva

Villa María

CÓRDOBA

Villa Valeria Mattaldi Buena Esperanza Huinca Renancó Realicó

Unión

oP

Oliva

Río Tercero

Justo Daract Río Q uin

San Luis

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Córdoba o eg Río S

Villa Mercedes

Quines

Milagro

SAN LUIS

a n te Rí o D i am

General Alvear

Chepes

Salinas de Mascasín

Monte Comén Cerro Sosneado 5189m Volcán Tinguiririca El Nihuil Embalse 4300m del Nihuil

San Rafael

ío M zado aule Volcán Descabe Grande Chanco MAULE s 3830m are Lin Cauquenes Quirihue Parral

Constitución

Sewell

Rengo

n

MENDOZA

uyá

La Paz Tunuyán Río Tun Volcán Maipo 5323m

San Bernar

LIBERTADOR

Peumo

6800m

GO SANTIA do Chilecito

Santa Cruztaquito a Licantén Río M Curicó Molina

Pichilemu

Rancagua

Melipilla R ío Ma i p o

Santiago Valparaíso Ma ipú San Antonio

Cerro Aconcagua

Caucete

SAN JUAN

6959m SO VALPARAÍSan Felipe Las Heras Mendoza La Calera Godoy Cruz Maipú Quillota San Martín Cerro Juncal SA 6180m Volcán Tupungato Viña del Mar

La Ligua

Los Vilos

Río

Illapel

ío

alá Combarb R

Punitaqui

6252 m

TUCUMÁN Campo Gallo Burruyacú San Miguel de Tucumán

Trancas

Joaquín V. González

SALTA

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Taco Pozo Metán Rosario de la Frontera Monte Quemado

Salta

El Carmen

L

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Tintina Bella Vista Monteros Las Palmas SANTIAGO Concepción General Pinedo Hualfin Termas de Río Hondo Resistencia General Capdevila La Madrid Clodomira Belén La Banda Barranqueras Co Quimilí rrientes Pa Fiambalá Santiago del Estero La Posta raná El Puesto Santa Sylvina Empedrado Cerro Bonete San Fernando DEL ESTERO 6872m Mburucuyá del Valle de Catamarca Añatuya San Blas Saladas CerroAzul Pituil de los Sauces Frías Colonia Dora Bella Vista 5070m S Intiyaco Villa Mazán Bandera TE Famatina

CATAMARCA

Salar de Antofalla

Puna de Cerro Galán 6600m Atacama Cafayate

Volcán Azufre 5680m

Salar Pocitos

de los Cobres

B O

6380m Guandacol LA RIOJA Salina La Higuera La Antigua Desagües de Cerro Las Tórtolas Salina Río m los Colorados 6323 Grande La Serena Elqui Patquía eo Rod Vicuña bo im al l qu Chamica Jách Co San José de Funes Deán BO Las Flores Niquivil Tongoy COQUIM Serrezuela Cerro de Ovalle Monte Patria Olivares Jesús María

Río

ATACAMA

Río Co

Punta de Díaz

Bahía Copiapó

Caldera

Chañaral

Salar de Pedernales Diego de Almagro Potrerillos Inca de Oro

Catalina

Punta Negra

Salar de Arizaro

Volcán Socompa 6031m

ue

13

12

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O C E A N

PAC I F I C

7

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U

Food processing and agricultural exports remain a fundamental part of Argentina’s economy. The growth of manufacturing is regularly hampered by hyper-inflation and massive foreign debts. The world’s most important copper producer and one of the top twenty gold producers, Chile also has a thriving wine and grape industry. Most Paraguayan exports involve primary processing, although domestic goods are produced for home markets.

Transportation & industry

IC

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 Boiling water and steam emerge from a volcanic vent, one of the Tatio geysers which lie at the foot of Cerro de Tocorpuri near Chile’s border with Bolivia.

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Arica ARICA Y PARINACOTA

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TARA Capitán Pablo Lagerenza 5995m South America’s cone-shaped southern region is shared by Argentina Huara al Cerro León e e Iquiqu and Chile, two overwhelmingly urbanized nations whose Pozo Almonte 1000m r General Eugenio B o ALTO A.Garay populations live mainly in or around the capital cities, o c PA RAGUAY C h a Lagunas Buenos Aires and Santiago. The people are largely mestizo or Fuerte Olimpo of European origin; in the early 20th century Argentina absorbed Volcán Ollagüe 56 5869m Río BOQUERÓN Quillagua waves of new European immigrants, many from Italy and Germany. Volcán San Pedro 58 6159m Mariscal Estigarribia uri Paraguay is far less urbanized than its neighbors, with a homogeneous Chíuchíu Cerro de Tocorp Tocopilla 6755m La Quiaca Doctor Pedro P.Peña o Chuquicamata María Elena Tartagal population of mixed Spanish and Guaraní origin, who retain their Indian Calama Rutana Bella c ko Volcán AMA Vista Coronel Cornejo Mina Pirquitas Abra Pampa de 5890m ro Ped roots through the Guaraní language. Though most Paraguayans live in the M Valdivia Cer ro Zapaleri a Pedro Juan Ca San Ramón de la Nueva Orán 5648m San Pedro PR Humahuaca JUJUY ES Mejillones southeast, near Asunción, the indigenous Indians live in the sparsely populated ballero ID CO EN NC TE EPCIÓN de Atacama Volcán Lascar Pichanal Embarcación n Juan Solá R á 5154m í b o a HA Concepción Aquid YE S uedano Gran Chaco. The Gran Chaco is also home to some of Argentina’s minority Baq Pozo Colorado Los Blancos rn Salar de Horqueta é Ciudad de Libertador Tropic of Caprico Yuto n Ingeniero Guillermo Belén Atacama General San Martín Antofagasta Río Ypa indigenous peoples, who otherwise live mainly in Andean regions. Chile’s Tropic of Ca Nueva Juárez pricorn C Nevado de Chañi Rí o Jujuy Cerro Rincón de Salvador San 6200m 5594m h B estimated 800,000 Mapauche Indians live almost exclusively in the south. erm San Pedro Rí San Ped San Antonio a

A R G E N T I N A , C H I L E , PA R A G U AY

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Southern South America

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SOUTH AMERICA


A

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Cape Horn is the most southerly point of South America. The severity of the “Roaring Forties” winds makes the Horn one of the world’s most treacherous shipping regions.

D

Ice-capped Andes are source of loess

A

E

F

on Puerto Natales

G

ll e go

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Península Brunswick Strait

W

Daireaux

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Drake Passag

(Cape Horn)

Cabo de Hornos

Guaminí

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Cape Meredith

Weddell Island

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Isla de los Estados

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(to UK)

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nt Pleasant

Goose Green Choise u

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Km

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projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Miles

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64

STANLEY

d East Falkland un Mou

Scale 1:9,750,000 0

C

Using the land & sea

Olavarría

Mount Adam West Falkland 700m

I

FALKLAND ISLANDS

Tierra TIERRA del Fuego

Río Grande

Punta de Arenas

Dungeness Bahía Punta Lomas

Isla esid Monte e Clarence Sarmiento DEL FUEGO 2300m ock ckn Isla Lago Fagnano Ushuaia Península Bre B e a gle Cha Gordon nne l Isla Nueva art Isla Stew Isla Isla Londonderr y Navarino Isla Isla Hoste Lennox Isla Wollaston

hit

Punta Bustamante

Bahía Grande

Río Gallegos

Porvenir Bahía Inútil

Punta Arenas

Río Ga

ring o Sky Sen Isla Riesco Ot o Sen

Cerro La Silueta 1285m

és Isla Santa In

ión Isla Desolac

ch i Ad piéla e l a go R i d a e in a

Thick layer of loess sediments

Windblown particles

Rainfall

els

Cerro Pináculo R 2160m Cerro Paine 2670m a Cerro Balmaced 2035m

NES MAGALLA

Almagro ho N Isla Diego de rec Est

Salvación

 A thick, fertile layer of loess lies in the basin underlying the Argentinian Pampas. It has been laid down following successive periods of glaciation. The minute loess particles are transported as dust and deposited by a downward air motion, or following rainfall.

Argentinian Pampas Jet stream

Canal Moraleda

Isla Chatham York Isla de e qu Isla Du Hanover Bahía

de Dios

l

26

The Patagonian ice sheet is the world’s third largest ice field, covering 6560 sq miles (17,000 sq km). Patagonia also contains many typical features from past glaciations. These include glacial lakes, U-shaped valleys, fjords, and deep-cut channels.

with the Andes in the west, and the lower main plateau, extending east toward the Atlantic. It is a desolate area with climatic extremes; dark lava fields scattered with light bunchgrass give a “leopard skin” effect to the landscape.

m

Cana

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Limay Mahuida General Acha Salitral de LA PAMPA La Perra Veinticinco de Mayo Catriel

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BÍO BÍO

Tomé

C H I

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17

The landscape

s Ch onos

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Sierra de Tecka

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a

Concepción

URU GU AY

O

P

Q

 Charred tree stumps surround a cattle enclosure on the island of Tierra del Fuego in southern Argentina. Forest clearance to provide grazing land for cattle is of major environmental concern.

Punta Arenas

IL

Est

16

Santa Rosa Salliqueló

N

U

ay

Sierra Cañadón Grande

a

Pa R mp ío C a d hic e Sa o lam an ca

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O C E A N

PAC I F I C

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Río Sauce

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Volcán Domuyo 4709m

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San Azul Rauch General San Clemente del Tuyú ta Teresita Guido General Juan General La Madrid Madariaga Coronel Tandil Ayacucho Yumbel Volcán Antuco Chos Malal e Ar auc o Coronel Suárez Puán 3585m o d Arauco Lota Darragueira f l Laprida Pigüé Go NEUQUÉN Los Ángeles Bernasconi Coronel Pringles Lebu Balcarce Volcán Copahué Angol The Andes run from north to south, forming a precipitous natural 2980m Tornquist Mar del Plata Puelches San én Gr Cañete i ull llip Tres ue Co Arroy os Cayetano an Loncop border between Chile and Argentina. East of the Andes are the Punta Mogotes e u q é n Embalse s u rado s Colo os Laja Cerr Mir Las amar Bahía Blanca Río Col orado Coronel Dorrego scrublands of the Gran Chaco and the plains of the Pampas, ARAUCANÍA Isla Mocha Médanos Cerro Las Lajas Plaza Necochea Cipolletti Lautaro La Adela Grande Oriente 2650m Zapala Huincul Punta Alta Roca ral o Gene which extend northward toward Paraguay. In the far southwest, Ba Temuc hía B Rio Colorado Darwin Volcán LlaimaArroCutral-Có Neuquén lan ca yo P Pitrufquén iáun Cunco 3124m Chile’s indented Pacific coastline has many features typical of Choele Choel Hilario Ascasubi T ol t é n Leu é cón o Pu min í Alu fú Toltén R Pedro Luro oN areas which have been affected by glaciation. Loncoche Volcán Villarrica  Great blocks of ice break egr 2840m o Villalonga LOS RÍOS gos away from the jagged blue O NEGR RÍO Junín de los Andeso Li General Conesa Bajo La Gran s B í Lo a vi a Stroeder R peaks of these ice mountains Valdi The Gran Chaco combines San jo de del Gualicho t rral go Salina a La Co des An R Bahía Anegada poor drainage, extremely hot to form icebergs off the coast osa San Martín de los Río Bue no del Gualicho 192 Ranco temperatures and of Patagonia, Argentina’s Lago Ranco Río Bueno Sierra Colorada Valcheta no or thorn-infested scrub to make Os San Antonio Oeste most southerly region. Lago Los Menucos apí Viedma Hu l it one of South America’s Nahue Comallo Corte Alto most inhospitable regions. or Cerro Tronad San Carlos de Bariloche Maquinchao 3554m oyo Salado Lago Golfo Ar r Ingeniero Varas Sierra Grande i Llanquihue Puerto bacc Jaco tt to Mon er Arroyo de la Ventana San Matías Pu ín ull Ma  The Atacama Desert LOS El Bolsón Landlocked Paraguay relies on its Puerto Lobos Golfo (Desierto de Atacama) in Chile is Ancud LAGOS Península Valdés river system for access to the sea San Gastre lfo Go Telsen The rich plains of the Pampas support massive herds of cattle, one of the driest places on Earth s Picos Si e Tre ro Cer José n and to produce hydroelectric a Salinas de 2492m ad ua Golfo where some areas have never r o d Grandes o H str cu la power. The most important river Madryn Ca An l Puerto Is producing meat, milk, and hides essential to the domestic and a o UT olil Ch UB Nuevo CH a vid C má Punta Delgada recorded any rain. It contains a Volcán Minchin system is the Paraguay–Paraná de ra Esquel 2470m export markets of both Argentina and Paraguay. Wheat and fruit ier Isla number of salt lakes. which provides links into T é Trelew Chilo a Gaimán Tranqui Trevelín el neighboring countries including are Argentina’s other major agricultural products. A wide range of Futaleufú Dolavón od Rawson j ico a Cón Most of the highest Cerro B Quellón Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. 2271m Volcán Corcovado s soft fruits, citrus fruits, and more specialized crops such as walnuts, Pluma o Las mountains in Chile’s e Embals 2300m El Corcovad a en Golfo Florentino Ameghino northern Andes are Palena de Indios o Paso afo and grapes for wine and the table, are grown in Chile’s fertile ad Gu ov a rc Isl Co Río volcanoes like Volcán Meseta Bahía José de Isla Guaiteca Monte Melimoyu rtín de Gran Ma Central Valley, while the landscape to the south is dominated by Lascar and Volcán Rutana. fen San Stef Vera ro Cer 2400m Montemayor Laguna Salada 2108m s Río Cisnes forestry, mainly growing commercial radiata pine. Paraguay is e n Bahía s Río Ci Cerro Dedo Camarones Camarones Isla 2020m o Río self-sufficient in wheat and other staples. Cotton, coffee, tobacco, a Alt Isl Benjamín Senguer Magdalena Lago Lago Colhué Bahía Bustamante es n and oil sources such as soybeans, are the major export crops. Lago Cerro Macá Huapí a Isla Guambli Isla Jamr tan nca Fon Pico de Salama 2860m Musters Isla Melcho Puerto Aisén o Golf Sarmiento i ria PER cto t Vi a Isl s Coihaique The urban/rural population divide BO Comodoro Rivadavia Ca gu Isla Rivero LIVIA el en a d Tilly The Pampas derive their S ced Rada ma Bal Río San Jorge pa urban 84% rural 16% Isla m name from an Indian Cerro Aconcagua in a Lago B P a ul yec PA ns Olivia a lca ní Calet Na Pe R word meaning flat the central Andes is Buenos Aires reno R Skyring Perito Mo AG e s eado D Península surface. The dry western the tallest mountain in o ico í Ch ile R cado Ch o Pico Trun ita Ta de Antofagasta U Los region is largely desert, the whole chain, rising 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AY lentin Salta Antiguos Cerro San Va4058m Cerro Hyades Jaramillo whereas the east is wellASUNCIÓN to 22,834 ft (6959 m). Cabo Blanco Península 3078m Zeballos te Mon Population density Total land area watered, supporting Tres Montes Cochrane 2743m temperate grasses. SA NT A CR UZ Golfo Isla Posadas A IS ÉN Lago 40 people per sq mile 1,498,757 sq miles Alluvial deposits ier Puerto Deseado Jav red de Pueyr ón (15 people per sq km) (3,882,790 sq km) Gran CHILE from the many rivers Punta Pozos o enz Lor s Bajo San na nte pa Pe Mo Pam Bahía de los No 3706m in central Chile have Córdoba dale ra del s Rí o P Isla Byronuven Land use and Rosario created rich soils, Mendoza a Asador o Strobel C n Al SANTIAGO a Juan St Isl Lag t ideal for a wide range agricultural distribution e n ip l a ni c i e Isla t r a l of agriculture. na Prat Lago BUENOS AIRES Isla Campa es capital cities cattle Cerro Mellizo Sur San Martín Lago Gobernador Gregor Gr 3050m h nc Concepción Ly major towns sheep io a ic Andes n Ba A R G E N T I NA San Julián Cardiel o Puert Isla Patr ide jo Cerro Pirám 0m cereals Rí de San Julián Cerro Cangrejo 338 pasture alda oC Bahía Blanca 2028m fruit Isla Esmer h ic cropland del Carbon Laguna roy o Valdivia Fitz nte Mo grapes Lago n e -105m u h forest 3375m Isla e h S Río Viedma timber Comandante Luis Piedra Buena barren land Cerro Colorado Wellington ruz Cerro Murallón fishing 1235m Puerto Santa Cruz n ta C mountain region a n 1m S to 283 ng o í ni R Entrada Punta Isla Mor Patagonia divides d desert idad Cerro Bertran Argentino 3200m Golfo Trinadre go into two zones, La Isla M El Calafate

San Carlos

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SOUTH AMERICA: SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

63


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Reykjavík

Resources

The Atlantic is the youngest of the world’s oceans, formed about 180 million years ago when the landmasses of the eastern and western hemispheres separated. Its underwater topography is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a huge mountain system running north to south along the center of the ocean. Although most of the ridge’s peaks lie below the sea, some emerge as volcanic islands, like Iceland and the Azores. The Atlantic contains a wealth of resources, including substantial oil and gas reserves and rich fishing grounds. Until the 1950s, the north Atlantic was the world’s busiest shipping route; cheaper air transportation and alternative routes have shifted patterns of world trade.

The Atlantic Ocean

D

Wed

dell Sea

ea Sea

2.5

5 Km

5 Miles

(to UK)

BERMUDA

2.5

Kindley Field

IC AT L A N T

O

a

Hispaniola ge Basin ss a

Turks & Caicos Islands (to UK)

Eng land

A

se Ri

New

Puerto Rico

Nar es P la in

Bluefields Cartagena

Orinoc

La Guaira

VENEZUELA

Maracaibo

Venezuelan S e a Basin

Muertos Trough

o

T

dS

ou

Great Hellefiske Bank

ti c

Hamilton Bank

J

K

d la n

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Oce

N

French SURINAME Guiana Cayenne (to France)

Demerara Plateau Georgetown Paramaribo GUYANA

Am Fa az n

em Pl er ai ara n

D

n

r

T

da Fr actur

Ce

ar

Re

yk

á R idge

j

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Iceland Basin

i

I

s Fracture Zo

Zone ne

Krylov Seamount

C

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roe-

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Câmara de Lobos

Santa Cruz

40 Miles

Bugio

Deserta Grande

Porto Santo

Santa Maria

São Miguel

Camacha Porto Santo

Funchal

30

N

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Ribeira Grande

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Vila do Porto

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EU R OPE

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P

(to Portugal) Porto Santo AT L AIlhéu de Baixo Madeira Porto do Moniz N T Ponta do Pargo IC São Vicente Faial Pico Ruivo de Santana Machico O 1862m Calheta C Funchal Ribeira Brava

800

Madalena

Shetland Islands

ou

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projection: Mollweide

200

I

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Graciosa

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Ponta do Pico 2351m Pico

Faial Horta

(to Portugal)

Faeroe Islands (to Denmark)

Fae

Km 0

Rockall n ry nk tto Ba l Ha l c ka rou Ro Edoras ll T ka Bank

n ha ac Se

Surtsey

ICELAND

L

AZORES

A T

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Scale 1:48,000,000

M

Cape Verde

Nouâdhibou

Gambia Plain

Basin

M A URI T A N I A Nouakchott

GAMBIA

SENEGAL

Monrovia

Sierra Leone Basin

LI

GUINEA

Conakry SIERRA Freetown LEONE

BISSAU

Bissau GUINEA-

Banjul

Dakar

o Le ra e Sier Ris

VERDE

V e r d e CAPE T e r r a c e

Cape

Canary Islands (to Spain) Western Saha ran Seam nts Sahara ou (occupied by Morocco) Cape Verde Tropic Seamount Tropic of Cancer Plain

Great Meteor Tablemount

ALGERIA

25

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Santa Cruz de la Palma

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100 Km 100 Miles

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

BE R

IA

Abidjan

BENIN TOGO

r

CAMEROON Douala Malabo

N I G ERI A Lagos Lomé Porto-Novo Port Harcourt SekondiNig er Fan Takoradi

GHANA

Nige

A T L A N T I C

E A O C

Las Palmas Las Palm de Gran Canaria N Gran Canaria

Reina Sofía Nieves 1949m Las Palmas Cruz

Santa de Tenerife

Garajonay 1487m

IVORY COAST

Valverde Hierro

Puerto del Rosario

Arrecife

Alegranza Graciosa Teguise

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Antigua Fuerteventura Punta de Tuineje Jandia

La Oliva

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ISLAS CANARIAS

Los Rodeos Los Llanos de Aridane Puerto de la Cruz La Orotava Pico del Teide Villahermoso Tenerife Gáldar 3718m Gomera Pico de las

La Palma

0

25

SCALE 1:7,250,000 0

ocean, devastating the local marine ecosystem.

AF R I CA

a Seamount deir Casablanca Cruiser Ma idge ga R Madeira Tablemount O Safi dir C Madeira (to Portugal) C C any Dacia O o n Plain Seamount R

Ampère

Irish UNITED IRELAND Sea KINGDOM Zone Porcupine Cork Rotterdam Milford Haven Bank East Thulean S ea Rise Celtic Southampton l e Goban h Chann Celtic nglis Spur ne Shelf E Pl a in Loire Nantes Bis cay P FRA N CE lain Bay of Bordeaux Charcot Biscay Kin gs T Seamounts ro u Galicia s Gijón gh i Bilbao Bank -B es nP or Az lai Leixões n PORTUGAL Tagus SPAIN Lisbon Azores  On January 5 1993, the oil tanker Guadiana (to Portugal) Tagus e Braer ran aground in the Shetland hounts Plain s e e Islands, spilling 83,660 tons (85,000 e Zon orsamo East Az Strait of Gibraltar H ores Fractur tonnes) of light crude oil into the Gibraltar

e an

Four North Fracture Zone

Doldrum

R

ic tFracture Zone

e Zone Vema F racture

racu

a

ture Zone

Kane Fra cture Zone

Frac

la

rap h e

t

an o g

d Ridge

Milne Newfoundland Seamounts Seamounts

Atlan

Bar

Se

n

Ri

e dg

Corvo Flores

West Thulean Rise

ak

a ch

l ne

Reykjanes Basin

Reykjavík

it Stra ark m n e D

L

Charlie-Gibbs Fracture

Im

su ars

Newfoundland wf Basin ou n

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Corner Seamounts

Ne

Greenland (to Denmark)

ge R id

Flemish Cap

Orphan Knoll

Grand Banks of Newfoundland

Eirik

Mi d-O ce

Labrador Basin

Labrador Nuuk Sea

nd

L

Plain

Sohm Nashville Seamount

BARBADOS TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

SOUTH COLOMBIA AMERICA

Gulf of COSTA Limón Darien RICA Cristóbal A PANAM

Colombian Basin Barranquilla

Caribbean

JAMAICA

REPUBLIC (to USA)

Sea

an

Baffin Basin

Baffin Bay

Newfoundland

Barr acuda R ge id

Sa rg ass o S ea

da

Bermuda (to UK)

Gulf of St. Lawrence

cotia va S No Halifax

ds slan dI ar

Gibbs Hill 73m

C

NICARAGUA

HONDURAS

CU BA

k ham

ke R -

BAHAMAS

Blake Plateau

n

New York

Georges Bank

Montréal

Tr Puerto Pa h n Trenc Windward HAITI DOMINICAN Rico Leew ench ayma

Yucatan Basin

of S t r a i t sd a Flori

araguan Nic ise Puerto Cortés R

BELIZE

Belize City

ank che B m pe Ca

St Catherine St George’s Island Point St George

Veracruz

Bay of Campeche

Jacksonville

G ul f of M ex i co

pi sip ssis Mi Fan

New Orleans

re

Boston

aw

Baltimore

St. L

nce

NORTH AMERICA

S E T A A ST IC D R TE ME I N A U F OMobile Savannah Bla

major towns major ports

fish whales aggregates oil & gas

Castle St David’s Harbour Island Ireland Island Commissioner’s Harrington Tucker’s North Point Sound Town Ireland Island South Spanish Flatts Village Somerset Point Somerset Island Great Sound HAMILTON A Little E Sound C

0

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SCALE 1:550,000

MEXICO

Tampico

Tropic of Cancer

AN TA RC TI CA

tia S

 Fishing in the seas around northwestern Europe dates back over 1500 years. The high nutrient content of the seas makes them ideal breeding grounds for many species of fish.

Sco

Resources (including wildlife)

Cape Town

I

 Surtsey near Iceland, lies on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The island was formed in 1963 following a volcanic eruption caused by sea-floor spreading.

H

l

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Buenos Aires

Be ata

Rotterdam

Development of the oil and gas reserves in the Atlantic began in the 1940s around Baffin NORTH EUROPE Arctic Circle the Gulf of Mexico. Since then other Foxe Island AMERICA New York Basin Gibraltar areas have been exploited, including F o xe Chan New Orleans the North Sea, the west coast of Africa nel Sargasso Hu Sea and the area east of Newfoundland and dso A F R I C A Caribbean n St Sea La Guaira rait Nova Scotia. There is also extensive mining Cristóbal Ungava Lagos of sand, gravel, and shell deposits by the US Bay A T L A N T I C and UK. For centuries, the north Atlantic’s 6 O C E A N SOUTH fishing grounds have been utilized more AMERICA heavily than other oceans, leading to a C A N A D A serious decline in many fish stocks. Rio de Janeiro

4

3

1

C

ga

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e

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Be

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ia Iber

Se

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64 Dav

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WOR LD OCE ANS

on


I C

ds

Sedge Island

ou

E A N O C

Pebble Island

Molten rock seeps through faults

Transform faults running east–west displace central ridge

O

FALKLAND ISLANDS

65

5

10

20

20

30

40

30

40

60 Km

50

ds

0

0 5 10

By

Keppel Island

60 Miles

ro

Sea Lion Islands

C T I N A T L A

ge

ass le P

50

NCarcass Island

Eag

SCALE 1:3,300,000

L

A

C

Sisters Peak 446m

North Point

A

0

0 5

10 Km

Tropic of Capricorn

5

(to UK)

Sugar Loaf Point

JAMESTOWN

5 5

10 Km

SCALE 1:830,000 0

Longwood

The Haystack 616m

10 Miles

AN

Gill Point Long Range Point Castle Rock Point

Diana's Peak 820m

c st S

Stocks Seamount

Plain

Santos Plateau

entin

e Plain

a Ri dg

id aR oti

ge

th Scotia Ri

S c o ti a S e a

Falkland Plateau

e

Maurice Ewing Bank

Zapiol

Ba si n

I

Islands (to UK)

na Saint Hele

Fra Rio Grande

Amer

ture Gough Frac

rctic

e l l W e d d

S e a

L

 Rocky breakwaters have been built along the coast of Ghana to protect local fishing boats from being destroyed by powerful Atlantic waves.

K

(to Saint Helena)

Big Point Rookery Point

0

0

5

M

5

10 Miles

IC OCEAN

10 Km

SCALE 1:830,000

LANT

N

Anchorstock Point Queen Mary's Peak Sandy Point 2060m Lyon Point Longbluff Stonybeach Bay Cave Point Stonyhill Point AT

EDINBURGH

Cape

Vema Seamount

Bouvet Island (to Norway)

ntic-India

ts oun eam

e n Ridg

Cap

Schmidt-Ott Seamount

Plain

Maud Rise

O

6000m / 19,686ft

5000m / 16,400ft

4000m / 13,124ft

3000m / 9843ft

2000m / 6562ft

1000m / 3281ft

200m / 656ft

Sea level

Sea depth

Antarctic Circle

Fa

n

se

Erica Seamount

Protea Seamount

P

sea level

100m / 328ft

Q

250m / 820ft

500m / 1640ft

1000m / 3281ft

Elevation

below 10,000

10,000 to 50,000

50,000 to 100,000

100,000 to 500,000

Population

25

24

23

22

20

Mosselbaai

s ha ul sin g A a B

Agulhas Bank

SOUTH AFRICA

Ora nge R i ve r

Lüderitz

Tropic of Capricorn

NAMIBIA

Inset map key

Riiser-Larsen Sea

Ocean map key

e dg Ri

Lobito

Cape Town

i eR

DEM. REP. CONGO

Equator

ANGOLA

Luanda

Namibe

Walvis Bay Ewing Seamount Valdivia Seamount

Namibia

Basin

W

a

l

Zubov Seamount

Bas i n

A ngol a

tic -In dia n B asin lan At

dge

CA CTI R TA N TRISTAN DA CUNHA A

i n P l a

tla

Spiess Seamount

A

is S Dav

Discovery Tablemount

Lazarev Sea

a Ri

Gough Island

Crawford Seamount

Nightingale Island

Tristan da Cunha (to Saint Helena)

Zone

nta ica-A

e

(to UK)

Wüst Seamount

Zon cture

Zone racture

Island

Saint Helena

A N

e e Zo n

an

CONGO

Pointe-Noire Matadi

ANGOLA (Cabinda)

G u l f o f EQUATORIAL GUINEA GABON Guinea G u i n e a SAO TOME & Basin Port-Gentil PRINCIPE

Zone ture

one ure Z Fract

C E

tur e Frac Bode Verd

(to Saint Helena)

Frac

SOUTHERN OCEAN

W e d d e l l

J

la

South San d

Is

Zapiola Seamount

Ascension Island

Ascension

Cunha F Tristan da Inaccessible

Ilhas Martin Vaz (to Brazil)

East Scotia South Basin Sandwich

South Georgia (to UK)

Rio Grande Rise

ap

Ilha da Trindade (to Brazil)

Columbia Seamount

O

Pernambuco

B r a z i l

Recife Pernambuco Seamounts

Vitória Seamount

Abrolhos Bank

Rio de Janeiro

Vitória

lkl and Escarpment

Arg

in

Saint Peter and Zone ne Saint Paul Rocks acture re Zo r u F t c e h a c r (to Brazil) t.Paul F Roman e S Zon idge Parnaíba R ture c a r Atol das Rocas F Chain (to Brazil) Fernando de Noronha (to Brazil)

Pla

dge Sou ey Trough South Orkney kn land South Shetland t e Or Deep h Islands S Powell h Islands ut Basin

We

Flagstaff Bay

AT L A N TIC OCE

Speery Island

South West Point

Egg Island

Horse Pasture Point

0

ssa

ge

Fa

Bu rd w o od Ba n k

Yaghan Basin

SAINT HELENA

Antarctic Circle

tías

Falkland Islands (to UK)

Pa

Gulf of San Jorge

Gul f of S an Ma

A r ge nt i ne

Santos

BRAZIL

Río Montevideo de la Pl at a

URUGUAY

Bahía Blanca

Buenos Aires

ke Dra

A

Paraná

10 Miles

E OC

Cea e Ridg lém Be

 Most of the whales in the Gröll Seamount Atlantic Ocean are found in the B a s i n cooler waters of the south Atlantic, although many species migrate north to tropical Hotspur Seamount waters to breed.

Paranaguá

The Peak South East Point 859m

Porpoise Point North East Bay

ASCENSION Saint ISLAND (to Helena)

GEORGETOWN

SCALE 1:850,000

The South Sandwich Trench is the deepest part of the Atlantic; its base lies 30,000 ft (9144 m) below sea level. The trench is frequently subjected to earthquakes. Volcanic peaks may be exposed as islands

L

IC NT

South East South West Bay Wideawake Bay Airfield Portland Point Pillar Bay Mars Bay South Point N

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is marked along its length by numerous east–west valleys and ridges; these are caused by localized transform faulting. Some of these faults extend for 1250 miles (2000 km).

 Running the length of the ocean, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a complex system of sea-floor spreading, transform faults, and volcanic islands. At its center is a large rift valley 15–30 miles (24–48 km) wide, formed by the upwelling of the ocean floor toward both Africa and South America.

(to UK)

A Clarence Bay

T

R ío N eg ro

The overall salinity of the north Atlantic is increased by highly saline water flowing out from the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar.

 Volcanism in the Azores occurs because they lie over a hot spot in the oceanic crust. There are ten volcanoes clustered around the Azores. Many are still classified as active, although there has not been an eruption for over a century.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Ba Ha

North Cape Dolphin nd Falkland Foul Macbride Head Sound Saunders Island Bay Salvador nS oun d Settlement Port Salvador Roy Cove Settlement Port Howard Port San Carlos Passage Settlement San Carlos Settlement Berkeley Sound Isla King George Mount n d Mount Bay Adam land u n Usborne STANLEY New Island 700m nn 705m alk So F ha Bluff Cove C y Darwin a e r G Queen Swan Mount Pleasant F Weddell Goose Green Beaver Settlement Island Charlotte t Choiseu Fox Point Beaver Island Island Bay st l Sound as W e Fox Bay E East Adv Cape Orford Low ent Bay i v e Lively Island North Arm ur ly S Port Stephens Settlement Mount Alice eS oun oun d d Port Stephens 361m Speedwell Bleaker Island Island rb y Cape Meredith ou of rs George Island

T

n Is lan

Grand Jason

Ja s o

Icebergs in the Antarctic are larger than those in the Arctic and can be up to 50 miles (80 km) long. they can drift to latitudes of around 40°S before melting.

Floating ice shelves extend over 100 miles (160 km) into the Weddell Sea, off the coast of Antarctica.

Silt, mud, and clay deposited at the delta of the Amazon have been carried over the continental shelf by underwater currents, forming a deep-water fan on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean.

Ice breaking away from the Greenland ice sheet presents a constant threat to shipping in the north Atlantic. Icebergs are carried out of the Davis Strait by sea currents.

L

26

25

24

23

22

21

19

18

T

A

17

The Caribbean Sea only adopted its present shape 3 million years ago, when the Isthmus of Panama closed by continental drift.

The Gulf Stream is driven by westerly winds and ocean circulation. It flows like a river of warm water along the coast of America and then across the north Atlantic where it becomes known as the North Atlantic Drift.

la

lk

lk

16

S

Fa

15

Equator

The floor of the Atlantic is spreading by about one inch (2.5 cm) a year. The South American and African plates are moving apart drawing molten rock up from the Earth’s core. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge lies along the boundary of the two plates, forming the world’s longest mountain range and dividing the Atlantic floor into two parallel troughs. These troughs are subdivided into numerous smaller basins by transform faults. Most of the oceanic islands in the Atlantic are volcanic in origin; either part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge or the Caribbean arc.

The landscape

el

el

MH ou o r n b n d nta y in s

G

AR

A

IN EN T

eG

Rio Grand

14

p Kep

d

rench ch T wi

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i

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a

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i

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Astri d

Salad

A

v

F

is

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Congo

Orang

W O R L D O C E A N S : T H E AT L A N T I C O C E A N

a


A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

Ea

tA

s

1

Azor Iberia es Basin n Hor s e zo sho res eS eam Fra c tu ou re Zo nt ne s

2

Mad eira

Ca n Ba ar y sin

3

Africa

Ca

pe V Pla erde in

îd

i

g

Ig

u

4

Can a Islan r y ds

Ve sin rde

Ca Ve pe Isla rde nds Poi n Alm te des adi es

6

Most northerly point: Jalta, Tunisia 37° 31’ N

7

Lowest recorded temperature: Ifrane, Morocco -11°F (-24°C)

Highest recorded temperature: Al ‘Aziziyah, Libya 136°F (58°C)

Cap Blanc, Tunisia (37° 20’ N)

Lowest point: Lac ‘Assal, Djibouti -512 ft (-156 m) below sea level

8 Most westerly point: Santo Antão, Cape Verde 25° 11’ W

Tropic of Ca ncer

Most easterly point: Raas Xaafuun, Somalia 51° 24’ E

Se

Gu ine aF rac tur eZ on e Sie rra Le on eF rac tur Sa eZ in one tP au lF ra ctu re Zo n

Ao ukâ r

B ao

ul

é

Ni g

Si e r

ra Le on e Basin

e

Romanche Fracture

Pointe des Almadies, Senegal (17° 33’ W)

9

gal ne

Mauritius, and the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean – the highest number of any continent.

er

(30,355,000 sq km). It has 57 separate countries, including Madagascar, Comoros,

Cap Ver e Terrade ce

Er

pe C a Ba

The world’s second largest continent, Africa covers an area of 11,712,434 sq miles

5

Sa An nto tão

Zone

Raas Xaafuun, Somalia (51° 24’ E)

Monrovia

Equator

Equator

10

Lamu Largest lake: Lake Victoria, Uganda/Kenya/Tanzania 26,560 sq miles (68,880 sq km)

Ascension

Highest point: Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 19,341 ft (5895 m)

Asce ns Islan ion d

11

Greatest extent, North–South: 4737 miles / 7623 km

Tropic of Capricorn

Greatest extent, East–West: 4511 miles / 7260 km

12

Most southerly point: Cape Agulhas, South Africa 34° 52’ S

Cape Agulhas, South Africa (34° 52’ S)

13

Monrovia

Niger Delta

Tibesti Adamawa Highlands

Congo Basin

Lake Victoria (source of the Nile)

Great Rift Valley Lamu

14

Cross-section from Monrovia, Liberia to Lamu, Kenya 15

0 0

line of cross-section

500

1000

1500 Km 1000

500

1500 Miles

16

17

A

66

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

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AFRICAN PLATE ANTARC TICA PLATE

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or apric c of C Tropi

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Kalahari Desert ts

N

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ata ko

R i d g e

E E AT AT PL N

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Lundi

Ntwetwe Pan

Okavango Delta Eiseb

da

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Lake Kariba

Sam

Ma

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ob Ch Kafue Flats

11

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ch

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it

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a tl

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AN

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Comoro Basin

rio Lú

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9

nt

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na Tanjo mby o Boba

Comoro I sla nd s

a um Ruv

ora Lake Cab Bassa Za mbe zi

an

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I

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e ne Cun

Lake Nyasa

l

b ao

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Ca

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Saint Hel ena

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tor Equa

Seychelles

AN E C O

a

Bié Plateau

Catumbela

toll ence A Provid

nh

T

B a s i n

li

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Cuanza

ll

o b er

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A n g o l a

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Lu a fir

N

la Luca

Lake Rukwa ka e a t R ift Lake Va Mweru

yi

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ua

Lubilandji

Luv

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Pemba ibar an Zanz z ib ar C h an ne

G

Congo

ua

Kas

ai

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n

lu Kwi

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A

Congo Canyon

in

IAN D IN

jaro

Kiliman 5895m

7

li Soma Plain

ga Kirinya 5200m

Gombe

an g a eT

la

Eli

L

Lukuga

Chain Fracture Zone

Grumeti

L ak

e e Zon

Gr ea t R ift Va

u Ka

on

me

Gong ola

es B

Lake Kivu

di Ulin

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Lake Victoria

Kagera

as li B

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6

Am

i am om

a sir Bu

T

C

Ma

L

Soma Juba

São Tomé

Lake Edward

d e n O g a

ana Lake Turkdolf ) (Lake Ru Huri Hills

any Cherang Hills

Lake Albert

ab é

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s

é

A

Congo Basin

Kibali

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A

Lotagipi p Di din Swam ga Hi ll

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W

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Raas un Xaafu

Horn of Africa

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ian Arab Sea

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TE ah LA E ám N P AT Tih IA PL AB AN IC

a

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Va l’Az llée de aou agh

hlíth at Wádí T r

S Barka

Wadi el Mil k

C

Gu

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Cameroon Mountain 4070m

I

R

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a aw s am n d Ad i g h l a H

Príncipe

Basin

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Lac ‘Assal

a Lake Tan

Baro

S u d d

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B ang oran

Ogoou é

Fra c t u

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Niger

Niger Delta Niger Fan Isla de Bioco

ne

hi Shebs ins nta Mou

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Ka ts

B a hr

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Ouémé

Jos Plateau

Gulf of Guinea Guinea

ari Ch

Black Volta

Lake Volta

Lake Chad

l

n u Ga dug ma Ko

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Lac de Kossou

Tekezé

B

IR A N ARA IAN P BI A N P TE AT E

A AF R R

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Western Desert

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s Suez Canal

h

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W

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Fa Nile n

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LA L

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Zagro

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c

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Gulf of prus Antalya Cy

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Gulf of Sirte

g Er nd l Gra rienta O

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e Gr

e

h

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Malta

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Chott el Jerid

Plateau du Tademaït

Oued Saoura

S

Ionian Basin

n

X

Caspian Sea

ç

s

a s Atl ainSaharan t las t n l ou hA identa s M Grand Erg Occ Hig a l t A

a

a

Me je

rd

EURASIAN PLATE AFRICAN PLATE

r

W

Wádí al Kh i

d

e

M

Ionian Sea FR

Mount Etna Cap Blanc 3340m

V

hábúr lK

S

Strait of Gibraltar

e r Jalta

t

i

U

an Lake V

Aegean Sea Peloponnese

O AT AN A

a

evad ierra N

Gulf of Taranto

Sicily

T

E

P

O

R

Tyrrhenian Sea

Balearic Islands

S

Wádí Bísha h

Sardinia

U

R

Adriatic Sea

í

Corsica

E

Iberian Peninsu la

Q

ád

P

Jordan

O

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N

15

t Croze s Island

16

u Platea Crozet

Ridge

17

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

67


AFRICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

Physical Africa

1

L

M

East Africa The Great Rift Valley is the most striking feature of this region, running for 4475 miles (7200 km) from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea. North of Lake Nyasa it splits into two arms and encloses an interior plateau which contains Lake Victoria. A number of elongated lakes and volcanoes lie along the fault lines. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression, which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

The structure of Africa was dramatically influenced by the break up of the supercontinent Gondwanaland about 160 million years ago and, more recently, rifting and hot spot activity. Today, much of Africa is remote from active plate boundaries and comprises a series of extensive plateaus and deep basins, which influence the drainage patterns of major rivers. The relief rises to the east, where volcanic uplands and vast lakes mark the Great Rift Valley. In the far north and south sedimentary rocks have been folded to form the Atlas Mountains and the Great Karoo.

3

K

Rift valley lakes, like Lake Tanganyika, lie along fault lines

Extensive faulting occurs as rift valley pulls apart

Lake Victoria

Northern Africa Northern Africa comprises a system of basins and plateaus. The Tibesti and Ahaggar are volcanic uplands, whose uplift has been matched by subsidence within large surrounding basins. Many of the basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the north were formed by convergence of the African and Eurasian plates.

Km 0

400

200

0

600

A

of Sirte Nile Delta

rg dE l a n e nt a r G ri O

NT

LA

AT

Niger

ue

Niger Delta

N

B

Mi t

y i

bez

ez

Z am

Zamb

Comoro Islands

Mo

i

Okavango Delta

mib

Kalahari Basin pop

I er

0

Cross-section through southern Africa showing the boundary of the Great Escarpment.

A

68

B

C

0

D

100

200 Km 100

Drak e

200 Miles

E

C F

Réunion

D

Orange River

C

17

Mauritius

o

rt

Kalahar i D es e r t

M

m Li

Dese

C

Seychelles

B Pemba Island Zanzibar

Lake Nyasa

Na

Drakensberg

16

Kilimanjaro 5895m

Lake Tanganyika

Bié Plateau

A N O C E

Uplift of the basement rock created a raised plateau

I C

Boundary of the Great Escarpment

Kalahari Basin, covered with the sandy plains of the Kalahari Desert

o

T

The Great Escarpment marks the southern boundary of Africa’s basement rock and includes the Drakensberg range. It was uplifted when Gondwanaland fragmented about 160 million years ago and it has gradually been eroded back from the coast. To the north, the relief drops steadily, forming the Kalahari Basin. In the far south are the fold mountains of the Great Karoo.

15

C

g on

Lake Victoria

Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf)

Gre

A

Southern Africa

14

White Nile

Congo B a sin

São Tomé

13

Lake Albert

eb

Juba

L

C ongo

le G r e a t R i f t Va l

A T

Sh

Cameroon Mountain 4070m

Gulf of Guinea

12

bangi

Ethiopian Highlands

Sudd

g

Gold Coa

wa ma ds da hlan A ig H

U

s

t

y Coast Ivor

Slave Coast Bight of Benin

s if a s go M B on s de

en of Ad Gulf Horn of Africa

Lake Tana

e li

st

Ben

umb a R ang e

W hit e V o lt a

A

Lake Volta Gr ain Co a

A

11

I

A

Lake Chad

a h e l

le Ni

S

Blue

r

S

l

10 ge Ni

E AT PL TE A N PL IA AB AN C AR RI AF

Nubian Desert

a

a

r

Nile

Massif de l'Aïr

Niger

Tibesti

A

Lake Nasser

Se

a

sea level

d

h

100m / 328ft

Re

t

ar

t er es

Taoude nni B a sin

ag g

D

a

S e ne ga

a

Ah

n

Cape Verde Islands

h

ya

S

ec

ib

E

Ch rg

line of cross-section

250m / 820ft

below sea level

se r De

Qattara Depression W Gr ea D este tS es r n an ert dS e

Er

g

uîdi

500m / 1640ft

AN P L AT E

rg dE G r a n e nt a l d i c Oc

L

9

M

as

Chott el Jerid

rn ste Ea l e Ni

Ig

IC

8

l At

ains

zam b Ch an ique ne l

O

CE

AN

t oun

a t R i f t Va l l e y

500 Miles

1000m / 3281ft

ARABI

500 Km 250

uncertain

i t AN PLA OLI TE AT e r AN P N L r a A A TE RIC n e a AF n S e a Gulf

250

0

E U R A S I A N P L AT E A F R I C A N P L AT E

conservative 2000m / 6562ft

0

7

destructive

3000m / 9843ft

M e d

Section across northern Africa showing infilled basins and uplifted plateaus.

100 Miles

constructive

4000m / 13,124ft

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

A

50

(for explanation see page xiv) 5000m / 16,405ft

800

600

Miles

6

50 100 Km

Plate margins

Elevation

800

400

200

0

Map key

Scale 1:40,000,000

Lake Chad lies in a sandfilled basin

0

O C E A N

Volcanic Ahaggar mountains, formed by rising magma from a hot spot

Cross-section through eastern Africa showing the two arms of the Great Rift Valley and its interior plateau.

N

The Earth’s crust has been warped to form the Taoudenni Basin

B

A

5

B

ad ag as ca r

4

ns

b

I

Ka Great roo Cape of Good Hope

C

J

K

N L

M


PHYSICAL AFR ICA

Algiers Q

R

S

Casablanca Marrakech

in Khams

The climates of Africa range from mediterranean to arid, dry savannah, and humid equatorial. In East Africa, where snow settles at the summit of volcanoes such as Kilimanjaro, climate is also modified by altitude. The winds of the Sahara export millions of tonnes of dust a year both northward and eastward.

Z

Cairo

i Ghibl

Climate Tropic of Cance r

1 Tropic of Cancer

Tamanrasset

Niamey

Djibouti b Ha Wau

Lagos

July Wi nd s

Temperature

ds

oo

Conakry

b

r Ha

Abidjan

b

Ouagadougou

2

Khartoum

Abéché

m

Bamako

a

oo

m Har

n t ta

tan

Dakar

Port Sudan

Bilma

Nouakchott

Jul yW in

 Savannah grasslands run in a belt across Africa; limited rainfall inhibits tree growth.

Y

at

P

Sirocco

O

Sirocco

N

b Ha

3

Bangui

Douala

Mogadishu

Bata Kisangani

Libreville

Equator

Equator

Nairobi July Wi nd s

Tropic of Cancer 20° N Equator

Mombassa

Kinshasa

4

Dar es Salaam Luanda

Temperature 20° S Tropic of Capricorn

Pemba

32 to 50°F (0 to 10°C) 50 to 68°F (10 to 20°C) 68 to 86°F (20 to 30°C) above 86°F (30°C)

Average January temperature

Lusaka 5

Harare

Antananarivo

Average July temperature Windhoek

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Capricorn

Rainfall

Tshwane/Pretoria

Maputo 6

Tropic of Cancer 20° N

Durban

Climate Cape Town

arid humid equatorial mediterranean semi-arid tropical warm humid

Equator

Rainfall

 The hot, equatorial basin of the Congo river receives over 48 inches (1200 mm) of rainfall per year.

20° S Tropic of Capricorn

0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) 4–8 in (100–200 mm)

Average January rainfall

8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) 16–20 in (400–500 mm) more than 20 in (500 mm)

7

daily hours of sunshine, January daily hours of sunshine, July

Average July rainfall

cold wind

Shaping the continent

8

hot wind

African landscapes are shaped by the intensity of climatic extremes and by tectonic action. High aridity, wind action, and infrequent but heavy rainstorms, lead to the migration of sand dunes and dramatic flash flooding across much of the north and west. In the wetter areas, high precipitation increases the rate of weathering. To the east, the rift system has created a volcanic and lake environment and allowed rivers to erode weaknesses left in the crustal structure by faults.

Groundwater 1 Oases are found in desert areas such as the Sahara (left). Groundwater migrates through permeable rock strata, confined between two impermeable layers. Oases form either when the permeable rocks come near to the surface, or at a fault line, when water is able to seep up to the surface through the crushed rocks at the fault.

External stresses act on the surface of the inselberg

Exfoliated layers

9

10

Joints or cracks caused by expansion and contraction

The evolving landscape

Rainwater feeds the aquifer

Water migrates up through fault

Aquifer exposed near the surface

Groundwater trapped between impermeable strata

Weathering: Formation of an inselberg

Groundwater: Replenishment of an oasis

River systems 2 The Zambezi river (above) drops 360 ft (110 m) over the Victoria Falls into a zigzag gorge. The river has eroded the gorge along lines of weakness in the bedrock, created by fault lines running in two directions.

11

1

Weathering

Old site of Victoria Falls

6 Inselbergs (above), found extensively across West Africa, are exposed remnants of an extensive upland area. Erosion of the surrounding uplands leaves a resistant rock outcrop. Its spheroidal shape is the result of “onion-skin” weathering – the exfoliating of layers – due to repeated expansion and contraction.

River plunges over falls

5

12

Fault and joint lines running in two directions Zigzag gorge of the Zambezi

6

River systems: Retreating of the Victoria Falls

13

Landscape Sand is gradually blown up the back slope

Ephemeral channels 5 Wadis (above) drain much of northern Africa. These drybed courses are flooded only after infrequent, but intense, storms in the uplands cause water to surge along their channels.

Wind erosion: Migration of a dune

2

4 Dunes like this in the Namib Desert (left) are windblown accumulations of sand, which slowly migrate. Wind action moves sand up the shallow back slope; when the sand reaches the crest of the dune it is deposited on the slip face.

Ephemeral channels: Flash flooding of a wadi

P

Build up of sand produces strata inside the dune

15

Wind erosion

Water collects and floods the dry channel

O

14

escarpment ocean current rift active volcano inselberg oasis river wadi waterfall

4

Heavy rainfall runs off mountains

N

sinking land stable land uplifting land

Deposition on the slip face

Q

R

S

T

Force of waves concentrates on the headland

3

Coastal processes

Wave energy Waves dispersed in the bay refracting

3 Houtbaai (above), in southern Africa, is constantly being modified by wave action. As waves approach the indented coastline, they reach the shallow water of the headland, slowing down and reducing in length. This causes them to bend or refract, concentrating their erosive force at the headlands.

The sea bed is deeper opposite the bay than at the headland

Coastal processes: Erosion of a bay

U

V

W

X

Y

16

17

Z

69


AFRICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

Political Africa

1

Madeira

(to Portugal)

Casablanca Safi Marrakech

MOROCCO

The political map of modern Africa only emerged following the end of the Second World War. Over the next half-century, all of the countries formerly controlled by European powers gained independence from their colonial rulers – only Liberia and Ethiopia were never colonized. The postcolonial era has not been an easy period for many countries, but there have been moves toward multiparty democracy across much of the continent. In South Africa, democratic elections replaced the internationally-condemned apartheid system only in 1994. Other countries have still to find political stability; corruption in government, and ethnic tensions are serious problems. National infrastructures, based on the colonial transportation systems built to exploit Africa’s resources, are often inappropriate for independent economic development.

3

ER

I

LAÂYOUNE

Western Sahara

G

E

R A

S

A

RI

U

D

O

E

IB

O

IN

AMHARA

GALLA

KA

I

YORU BA

EV

A

G

AKAN

TIGRAI

KA

AZANDE

MAURITANIA

CAPE VERDE

NOUAKCHOTT S e n e gal

SENEGAL

PRAIA

DAKAR

S

Kaolack BANJUL

GAMBIA

BISSAU

GUINEA

CONAKRY Koidu

FREETOWN

I

N

T

U

I

French English Arabic Portuguese Swahili Amharic Spanish French/English French/Arabic French/Malagasy English/Swahili Arabic/Somali

KHO

LA

I

AF

9

N

MA

SA

IK

R

Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) Niger-Congo Nilo-Saharan Khoisan Indo-European Austronesian

GA

SY

8

Language groups

AA

 Islamic influences are evident throughout North Africa. The Great Mosque at Kairouan, Tunisia, is Africa’s holiest Islamic place.

NS

Transportation

10

Ceuta (to Spain) Algiers Tanger Rabat Oran Casablanca

African railroads were built to aid the exploitation of natural resources, and most offer passage only from the interior to the coastal cities, leaving large parts of the continent untouched – five landlocked countries have no railroads at all. The Congo, Nile, and Niger river networks offer limited access to land within the continental interior, but have a number of waterfalls and cataracts which prevent navigation from the sea. Many roads were developed in the 1960s and 1970s, but economic difficulties are making the maintenance and expansion of the networks difficult.

11

12

Tunis

Skikda

Transportation Tripoli

Agadir

Alexandria Cairo

major roads and highways major railroads major canal international borders transport intersections international airports major ports

Port Said Suez Canal Suez

Aswân

Tamanrasset

Nouâdhibou

 In northeastern Nigeria, people speak Kanuri – a dialect of the Nilo-Saharan language group.

Wadi Halfa

Port Sudan

Nouakchott Agadez

Massawa

Dakar

 South Africa has the largest concentration of railroads in Africa. Over 20,000 miles (32,000 km) of routes have been built since 1870.

13

COA

LIBERIA

Of ficial African languages

S WA H I L

SA

A

YAMOUSSOUKRO

MONROVIA

A

B

I VO

SIERRA LEONE

O

M

7

er Nig

BAMAKO

GUINEABISSAU

M

IN

M

D

O

N

H A U S A

N

A

SI

T E DA

L

U

J A

T

F U L A N I

B E

M

(Occupied by Morocco)

Tropic of Canc er

Three major world languages act as lingua francas across the African continent: Arabic in North Africa; English in southern and eastern Africa and Nigeria; and French in Central and West Africa, and in Madagascar. A huge number of African languages are spoken as well – over 2000 have been recorded, with more than 400 in Nigeria alone – reflecting the continuing importance of traditional cultures and values. In the north of the continent, the extensive use of Arabic reflects Middle Eastern influences while Bantu languages are widely-spoken across much of southern Africa.

C R A B I C

B

A

R

A

Agadir

Canary Islands (to Spain)

Languages

4 B BER

PORTUGAL

L

Banjul

Bamako Bissau

Ouagadougou

Niamey Kano Maiduguri

Khartoum Assab

Nyala

Addis Ababa

Freetown Monrovia

Djibouti

Ndjamena

Conakry Cotonou Accra Lomé

Abidjan

Lagos Warri Douala Malabo

Bangui Yaoundé

Libreville

14

Mogadishu

Kampala

Kisangani

Nairobi

Port-Gentil Bukavu Brazzaville Kinshasa Pointe-Noire Kananga

Matadi 15

Mombasa Kalemie Dodoma

Lubumbashi

Lobito Namibe 16

Tsumeb

Walvis Bay

Harare Antananarivo

Bulawayo

Toamasina

Beira

Windhoek Pretoria/Tshwane

 The Congo river, though not suitable for river transportation along its entire length, forms a vital link for people and goods in its navigable inland reaches.

17

Nampula

Lusaka Livingstone

 Traditional means of transportation, such as the camel, are still widely used across the less accessible parts of Africa.

Dar es Salaam

Mbeya

Luanda

Keetmanshoop

Maputo

Johannesburg

Durban A

70

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Cape Town

L

Port Elizabeth

M


POLITICAL AFRICA

I TA LY V

ALGIERS Tizi Ouzou Annaba Bizerte r Tanger Chlef Blida Béjaïa TUNIS Melilla Oran r M ALTA Constantine Tetouan (to Spain) Sétif a Sidi Bel Abbès RABAT Oujda Batna Sfax Kairouan n Tlemcen Fès s n i a Meknès t Gabès u n TRIPOLI Khouribga

Crete

en ri

Gulf of Sir te

Benghazi

O

Giza Faiyum

I A

I

B

Y

I

Tropic of Cancer

R

A

B

Port Sudan

S U

I G E R

Lake Tanganyika

TA N Z A N I A

Lake Nyasa

LILONGWE Zambe

LUSAKA

z

Blantyre

i

zi

HARARE

A M I B I A

Na

M

ZIMBABWE Bulawayo

mib

BOTSWANA

Lim p

Kalahari Mahalapye

o

Dese

WINDHOEK

op

Desert

B

MORONI Mayotte (to France)

Nacala l Mahajanga Nampula

Beira

GABORONE

e

SOUTH LESOTHOb AF RIC A e n s Cape Town

Bellville

D r a k

Réunion

Fianarantsoa

(to France)

PORT LOUIS

Tropic of Capricorn

13

I

g

ang e Rive r

12

MAURITIUS

N

rt Or

PRETORIA/TSHWANE Johannesburg MAPUTO Soweto MBABANE SWAZILAND Welkom Kimberley MASERU Bloemfontein Pietermaritzburg

Toamasina ANTANANARIVO

11

A

Africa has a rapidly-growing population of over 900 million N people, yet over 75% of the continent remains sparsely populated. Most Africans still pursue a traditional rural lifestyle, though urbanization is Tropic of Capricorn increasing as people move to the cities in search of employment. The greatest population densities occur where water is more readily available, such as in the Nile Valley, the coasts of North and West Africa, along the Niger, the eastern African highlands, and in South Africa.

COMOROS

r

Namibe

SEYCHELLES 10

MALAWI

Z A M B Kabwe I A

Lubango

9

VICTORIA

Zanzibar Dar es Salaam

A

Huambo

Mombasa Tanga

DODOMA

Likasi Lubumbashi Chingola Mufulira Ndola Kitwe Luanshya

Z a mb e

N E A O C

Population

BURUNDI

Kolwezi

A N G O L A

8

Mwanza

BUJUMBURA

G

LUANDA

NAIROBI

AG

ley

Kalemie Mbuji-Mayi

Equator

MAD

I C

Kananga

7

Kismaayo

e

Lu a a lab

T

Ilebo

6

MOGADISHU

n

N

C

A ANGOLA (Cabinda)

KINSHASA Kikwit Matadi

Bukavu

5

Kisumu

Lake Victoria

RWANDA KIGALI

en

O

Marka

K E N YA

Va l l e y

DE M . RE P. C ONG O

BRAZZAVILLE

UGANDA KAMPALA

Va l

GABON

Kisangani

Rift

LIBREVILLE

Congo Mbandaka Basin

e li

S

Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf)

Lake Albert

C ongo

t rea

Port-Gentil

NG O

L

O

T

Horn of Africa eb

Elemi Triangle

H

Equator

Hargeysa

JUBA

Rift

W

A

CAMEROON

SOMALILAND

E T H I O P ISh A

SOUTH SUDAN

ST

GUINEA SAO TOME & PRINCIPE SÃO TOMÉ

(not internationally recognised)

4

N

d of A f l Gu

Ethiopian Highlands Sudd

3

at

TO GO

RY

E

DJIBOUTI

ADDIS ABABA Diré Dawa

Sarh Parakou Niger ABUJA Garoua Shaki ue Ogbomosho n e Moundou B Oyo Oshogbo GHANA Abeokuta a w a Ibadan a ml a n d s Enugu PORTO-NOVO CENTRAL AFRICAN d h Cotonou Kumasi A i g Onitsha Lagos REPUBLIC LOMÉ Bafoussam Aba ACCRA Calabar Abidjan Port Harcourt BANGUI Douala U b ang i YAOUNDÉ EQUATORIAL MALABO Lake Volta

Lake Tana

Maroua

N I G E R I A

Tamale

Country capital

DJIBOUTI

an

Kaduna

10,000 to 50,000

500,000 to 1 million

Gre

hite Volta

Natitingou

NDJAMENA

ile eN

BENIN

Katsina Kano Zaria Maiduguri Jos

El Obeid

50,000 to 100,000

Y E M

B lu

Gusau

Lake Chad

2

1 million to 5 million

ERITREA

Wad Medani

ile it e N

OUAGADOUGOU Bobo-Dioulasso

KHARTOUM

1000

above 5 million

I A

Khartoum North Kassala ASMARA

Wh

R

C H A D

Zinder

900

full international border disputed de facto border ceasefire line

Ch

r

BU

NIAMEY Maradi K I NA Sokoto

D A N Omdurman

UE

ge Ni

N

Mozam biq ue

I

IQ

L

MO Z A

A

800

Borders

Nile

M

700

600

100,000 to 500,000

A

a (Hala’ib Triangle)

Nubian Desert

500

Population

D

a

400

Map key

Se

Lake Nasser

r

300

200

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

d

a Tib e s t i

100

Miles

Re

Nile

r

h

E G Y P T Aswan

rt se De

a

gga

El Minya Asyut Qena Sohag Luxor

A

0

U

L

h hec

Aha

ISRAEL Port Said Ismailia JORDAN CAIRO Beni Suef

Tanta

g

R

a

e

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

A

E

Er nd

0

Alexandria

1

Km

C E A N

tal

S

an by Li

L G

Erg C

Scale 1:30,500,000 LEBANON

n

S

Gra

A

a

O

A

a s t l

Misrátah

Z

L I A

e

TUNISIA

o

Y

GREECE

(to Spain)

M

X

A

Ceuta

W

R

e

M

t

A

i

d

e

M

SC

S PA I N

I

East London

N

14

D

Port Elizabeth

Cape of Good Hope

15

Population density

16

(people per sq mile)

below 130 130–259 260–379 380–519 520–780 above 780

N

O

R

 A thin layer of smog blankets the dusty streets of Cairo, Africa’s most populous city and home to over 15 million people. In the 1990s Cairo grew at a rate of about 1500 people per day.

S

T

 Thriving street markets in Gambia’s capital, Banjul, trade a variety of locally grown produce. Africa’s population is still predominantly rural.

U

V

W

X

Y

17

Z

71


AFRICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

African resources

1

J

K

L

M

Standard of living Since the 1960s most countries in Africa have seen significant improvements in life expectancy, healthcare, and education. However, 28 of the 30 most deprived countries in the world are African, and the continent as a whole lies well behind the rest of the world in terms of meeting many basic human needs.

The economies of most African countries are dominated by subsistence and cash crop agriculture, with limited industrialization. Manufacturing is largely confined to South Africa. Many countries depend on a single resource, such as copper or gold, or a cash crop, such as coffee, for export income, which can leave them vulnerable to fluctuations in world commodity prices. In order to diversify their economies and develop a wider industrial base, investment from overseas is being actively sought by many African governments.

3

I

Standard of living (UN human development index)

high

Industry 4

Many African industries concentrate on the extraction and processing of raw materials. These include the oil industry, food processing, mining, and textile production. South Africa accounts for over half of the continent’s industrial output with much of the remainder coming from the countries along the northern coast. Over 60% of Africa’s workforce is employed in agriculture.

5

6

GNI per capita (US $)

 The unspoiled natural splendor of wildlife reserves, like the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania, attract tourists to Africa from around the globe. The tourist industry in Kenya and Tanzania is particularly well developed, where it accounts for almost 10% of GNI.

SPAI N

PORTUGAL

ITALY M e d i t e r r Annaba a Tunis n

Algiers

below 499 500–999 1000–1999 2000–2999 3000–3999 above 4000

7

low

Oran Rabat

Casablanca Safi

M

R

O

O

C

CYPRUS LEBANON

S e a

Tripoli

Benghazi

brewing car/vehicle manufacture cement chemicals coffee processing electronics engineering finance fish processing food processing iron & steel

ISRAEL

Alexandria

Port Said

Cairo

S

A

I

B

Y A

E G Y P T

D

L

cc

U

mining palm oil processing peanut processing pharmaceuticals rice milling shipbuilding sugar processing tea processing textiles timber processing tobacco processing coal oil gas

I

industrial cities major industrial areas

B

IA

Port Sudan

a Se

MAURITANIA

A

ed

R

W

A

Aswan

R

(o e s cc t up e ied r n by S M a or h o

C

SYRIA

A L G E R I A

a a r o)

8

TUNISIA

O

Industry

e a n

CAPE VERDE

I

N

I G

E

R

ERITREA Khartoum

SENEGAL

C

Banjul

I NA

Katsina

BENIN

Conakry

IVORY GHANA

Accra

L

A

N

Gulf of Guinea

T

Bangui

Douala

Libreville

Port-Gentil

IC

GABON Brazzaville

Pointe-Noire

UGANDA

Kisangani

Nairobi

Kinshasa

RWANDA

Bukavu

Mombasa

BURUNDI

Kananga

Dodoma

C

E A

MALAWI

Lubumbashi

N

Lobito

ANGOLA

Mayotte (to France)

16

D

E

SWAZILAND LESOTHO Durban

East London Cape Town

Port Elizabeth

I

A

C

E

SC

MAURITIUS

O

Réunion (to France)

N

Kimberley

SOUTH AFR IC A

A

R

ne

que

Pretoria / Tshwane Maputo Johannesburg

 The Rössing uranium mines in Namibia are one of the largest in the world. Canada and Australia produce over half the world’s uranium ore, used to fuel nuclear power plants. Elsewhere, South Africa and Niger also mine uranium on a large scale.

Antananarivo

DA

B OTSWANA

mbi

Walvis Bay

E

Beira

MOZ

NA M I B I A Windhoek

B

U

MA

Kwekwe

IQ

GA

Harare

an

Blantyre

Ch

Lusaka

l

ZAMBIA

Bulawayo

72

COMOROS

Ndola

ZI MBA BWE

C

S E YC H E L L E S

TA N Z A N I A

Luanda

15

B

Zanzibar Dar es Salaam

 Exotic rugs and brightly colored textiles are sold in a street market along the banks of the river Nile in Luxor, Egypt.

A

Mogadishu

K E N YA

Kampala

DEM. REP. CONGO

O

14

17

O

S

EQUATORIAL GUINEA SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

 The discovery of oil in the swampy Niger Delta during the 1960s made Nigeria one of Africa’s richer nations. As world oil prices fell in the 1980s, the Nigerian economy faltered.

13

CAMEROON

Port Harcourt

ETHIOPIA

Moza

T

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

O

A 12

SOUTH S U DA N

Ibadan

Sekondi-Takoradi

(not internationally recognised)

Addis Ababa

Lagos

Abidjan

n Ade

SOMALILAND

Kaduna

M

A

f of Gul

DJIBOUTI

NIGERIA

COAST Kumasi RI

S U D A N

Kano

O

SIERRA LEONE L Monrovia I B E

11

TO G O

Freetown

YEM EN

N

GUINEA

RK

Asmara

D

A

BU

C

GUINEABISSAU

A

M

Bamako

NG

GAMBIA

H

I A

L

A

Dakar

A

L

M

N

D J

I

A

K

L

M


AFRICAN RESOURCES N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

Environmental issues

W

Y

Z

ne

1

Africa’s ancient plateaus contain some of the world’s most substantial reserves of precious stones and metals. About 15% of the world’s gold is mined in South Africa; Zambia has great copper deposits; and diamonds are mined in Botswana, Dem. Rep. Congo, and South Africa. Oil has brought great economic benefits to Algeria, Libya, and Nigeria.

Environmental issues national parks tropical forest forest destroyed desert

Mineral resources oil field gas field coal field bauxite copper diamonds gold iron phosphates tin uranium

desertification polluted rivers radioactive contamination marine pollution

ra

X

Mineral resources

One of Africa’s most serious environmental problems occurs in marginal areas such as the Sahel where scrub and forest clearance, often for cooking fuel, combined with overgrazing, are causing desertification. Game reserves in southern and eastern Africa have helped to preserve many endangered animals, although the needs of growing populations have led to conflict over land use, and poaching is a serious problem. Medit er

V

Med

it

er

ra

nean Sea

heavy marine pollution an Sea

2

3

poor urban air quality Cairo d

a

4

S

r

e

a

e

h

R

a

R

le Ni

S

e

d

a

S

e a

Gu

a ag San

N

T

ngo Co

N

T

I

C O

C

aba Lual

I

A

N

A

Congo

Gulf of Guinea

Gulf of Guinea

A N C E

C

l

7

D

A

I D

I

N

 North and West Africa have large deposits of white phosphate minerals, which are used in making fertilizers. Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia are among the continent’s leading producers.

N

I

6

I

N

Mo zam biq u

eC ha nn e

Zambez i

O

A N C E

E

O

A

L

L

Juba

T

5

T

Sh e

li be

A

fA lf o

A

W h i t e Nile

Nig er

Lagos

Accra

Gu

O C E A N

l

N

e

fA lf o

A

h

Mo zam biq ue Ch an ne l

a

Nile ue Bl

S

er Nig

den

den

M e d i t e r r a

8

9

Algiers

 The Sahel’s delicate natural equilibrium is easily destroyed by the clearing of vegetation, drought, and overgrazing. This causes the Sahara to advance south, engulfing the savannah grasslands.

n

Casablanca

e a n

S e a Alexandria

10

Cairo

Lib le Ni

yan

r

a

11

Nile

a Se

a

ed

h

sert

a

R

De

S

 Workers on a tea plantation gather one of Africa’s most important cash crops, providing a valuable source of income. Coffee, rubber, bananas, cotton, and cocoa are also widely grown as cash crops.

Niger

Dakar

S

a

h

e

l

f of Gul

n Ade

12

Addis Ababa Lake Volta

Congo

Congo B a sin

T

Johannesburg

el

nn amb

Pretoria / Tshwane Maputo

Moz

Kalahari Desert

I N S

Cape Town

cattle goats cereals sheep bananas corn citrus fruits cocoa cotton coffee dates fishing fruit oil palms olives peanuts rice rubber shellfish sugar cane tea tobacco vineyards wheat

iqu

e C ha

i

esert b D

R

mi

Q

Zambez

Na

P

ezi Zamb

E A N O C

O

Luanda

Lake Nyasa

D

14

major conurbations

Mombasa

Some of Africa’s most productive agricultural land is found in the eastern volcanic uplands, where fertile soils support a wide range of valuable export crops including vegetables, tea, and coffee. The most widelygrown grain is corn and peanuts are particularly important in West Africa. Without intensive irrigation, cultivation is not possible in desert regions and unreliable rainfall in other areas limits crop production. Pastoral herding is most commonly found in these marginal lands. Substantial local fishing industries are found along coasts and in vast lakes such as Lake Nyasa and Lake Victoria. N

Nairobi Lake Victoria

Kinshasa

C

Using the land and sea

cropland desert forest pasture wetland

Mogadishu

I

 Surrounded by desert, the fertile floodplains of the Nile Valley and Delta have been extensively irrigated, farmed, and settled since 3000 BC.

N

13

Using the land and sea

Gulf of Guinea

O C E A N

AT L A

Lagos

N

Accra

Abidjan

I

A

X

Y

15

16

17

Z

73


AFRICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

North Africa

The landscape The Atlas Mountains, which extend across much of Morocco, northern Algeria, and Tunisia, are part of the fold mountain system which also runs through much of southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert which covers more than 90% of the region. The sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of which is more than four billion years old.

A L G E R I A , E G Y P T , L I B YA , M O R O C C O , T U N I S I A , W E S T E R N S A H A R A Fringed by the Mediterranean along the northern coast and by the arid Sahara in the south, North Africa reflects the influence of many invaders, both European and, most importantly, Arab, giving the region an almost universal Islamic flavor and a common Arabic language. The countries lying to the west of Egypt are often referred to as the Maghreb, an Arabic term for “west.” Today, Morocco and Tunisia exploit their culture and landscape for tourism, while rich oil and gas deposits aid development in Libya and Algeria, despite political turmoil. Egypt, with its fertile, Nile-watered agricultural land and varied industrial base, is the most populous nation.

3

 These rock piles in Algeria’s Ahaggar mountains are the result of weathering caused by extremes of temperature. Great cracks or joints appear in the rocks, which are then worn and smoothed by the wind.

Map key Elevation

Population

104

Scale 1:12,250,000

above 5 million 4000m / 13,124ft

1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million

Km 0 25 50

3000m / 9843ft

100,000 to 500,000

25

0

2000m / 6562ft

50,000 to 100,000

150

100 50

250

200

200

150

100

St

300

ra i

t of

Gib r

ALGER

Ceuta

Boukhalef

(to Spain)

Asila Larache h K Moulay- sar-el-Kebir Bousselha Souk-el-A m rba-Rharb

(to UK)

lou

a

ya

s

ca

E

A

i

L

G

E

h

g

C

S

h

O

MEDITE TRIPOLI

IC T N

ALGERIA

RA

LA

A

H

A

AT

A

74

B

.S W

A

U

R

IA

Sabhá

M

A

L

I

N

C

D

SA

E

F

IG

ER

G

L I B YA

EGYPT Aswân

CH

U

l

ta

D

A

17

CAIRO

BI

M

I

G

JORDAN

A

2,215,020 sq miles (5,738,394 sq km)

Alexandria

LAÂYOUNE

N

E

IS

RRANEAN SEA Benghazi

A IT

r

N

pasture cropland forest desert

A

Total land area

65 people per sq mile (25 people per sq km)

100

et

capital cities major towns

SE

Population density

90

hagga

R

80

-A

A

70

Ta

-n

I-n-Guezzam

ED

60

I

olives vineyards

i ss

ta li

I

50

Tamanrasset

TUNIS

TUNISIA

MORO CCO

Djanet

gar

r

L goats sheep cereals citrus fruits cork cotton dates fishing

ag

Hr

Ajje

Ta m a n ra s s e t

R

40

Ah

-n-

ar

ss a s s

Silet

A

76

r Ad

At a k o

EL

30

en on ts

T

I

Tahat 2918m

f t

ili

a Taf

 The Grand Erg Occidental is one of Algeria’s great Saharan sand seas. Wind force and direction determines the nature of landforms such as the linear or seif dunes in the foreground.

u

ss

O u ed

R

M

Illizi

RA

20

Bordj Omar Driss

Ta

de

Arak

o

10

A

Sebkha Azzel Matti

r

0

Djanet

Hassi Bel Guebbour

Sebkha Meker rhane

ec

M

rural 50%

A

dir

C

O

A

Er

The urban/rural population divide

G

I

nd

Reggane

Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of good farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice, and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops such as olives, figs, dates, and citrus fruits also thrive in these areas. The Nile Valley S PA I N is particularly fertile, and most of Egypt’s population lives ALGIERS Constantine close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to Oran RABAT N A Casablanca improve crop yields on the desert margins. E

urban 50%

R

ra

I-n-Salah

I A

C

Bourdj Messaouda Ghadámis

Er

Tiguentourine

Using the land & sea

16

Pl Ta atea de u d ma u ït

El Eglab

Land use and agricultural distribution

15

ri

Timimoun

Adrar

Techla

76

S

st

Aghou init

i

El Goléa

O

ed

ou

l

g

Ra

ci

ta

Te f e d e

ou tto uf

g

î d

er

d E

Oc rg

n de

e z Ta n

Ad ra rS

r

u

n Gra

ura

I g

N

Aousa rd

M A U

14

Béja

Les Salines

r i e n

ao

El Mahba s

rg

Ou

Se Tindouf bkha de Tindou f

‘ E

Sebkhet Aghzou m al

f f a l A z a

13

Tabelbala ine nass a Tou Hamad

Smara

Galtat-Z emmou r

ira

Ham

ra du D ada

E

WEST ER SAHA N RA

r

Bou Cra a

Beni Abbès

karn

Drâa

Tarfaya

l Ha mr

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Bou-Iza

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Boujd our

upied Ad Tropic by Mo of Can Dakhla rocco) cer

i A n t Tata

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LAÂYO UNE S ag uia a a

Gui

Cap Jub

CO

du

Tan-Tan

da

A

L

T

ma

T

N

I C

a s l A t

u t H a

MOROC

M

a s At l Ha

8

Lagou

Annaba

Constantine Guelma Sétif Ain El Bey

Blida Bou e l if ira ued Ch Médéa

nh sa i ta as S a n l o uA t

A

N

Casablan

m

7

Bir-G ando uz

Skikda

Jijel

Houari Boumediène

Chlef

Mostaganem

RABAT

Cap B arbas

Tizi Ouzou Béjaïa

Tipasa Ténès Aïn Defla

Ca 1000m / 3281ft Tétouan Melilla Fo p des Trois Oran El Kef O Souk Ahras Te l l i e n Al-Hoceïm (to Spain) urches Es Senia a s Relizane a Aïn Témouc A t lTissems Ksar el Boukhari Bordj-Bou-Arreridj hent 500m / 1640ft Chefchaoue Na Ma ilt Be sca ni Saf ra Tiaret dor n Aïn Beida Chott el Hodna Ouazzane Batna Tébessa Kénitra Ghazaouet Sidi Bel Abbès 250m / 820ft Oujda Bou Saâda Khenchela Jebel Chambi Kasserine Sidi-KacemTaounate Salé Frenda Salé Saï da 64 1554m Mohamm El Ayoun Tlemcen i x Meknès Fès S e b o u Djelfa Biskra 100m / 328ft edia erg u Sidi Bouzid Mohamm h Ch a u Jerada Taza Khemisse Chott Melghir Sais ed V tt ec El-Jadid o t e h t Sefrou C a sea level a Ifrane Gafsa Pl Settat Berrechid Azrou Aflou Chott Sidi-Ben Tozeur Chott el Khouribga Laghouat tl nour uts a Merouane Khénifra A Mo u Fedjaj H Nefta Oued-Zem Safi Ou Tendrara Chott n Kebili  The town of Tiznit, Morocco, lies e Jbel Ayac er Rbia y el Jerid hi El Kelâa Touggourt El Oued Mo 3737m Sr in an oasis in the desert. Crops Aïn Sefra Tensif t arhna Essaouir B en iM ellal a Bouarfa and trees grow on the fertile Menara Azilal Ghardaïa Marrakec land surrounding the town. Er-Rachidi h a Jbel Toub Figuig kal Cap Rhi r 4165m Ouarzazat Inezgane Erfoud Béchar e Ouargla Agadir Hassi Messaoud Taroudan Ab ad la nt as T Sidi-Ifn iznit tl i - A

below 10,000

A

Cap Bizerte Bougaroun Cap de Fer Menzel Bourguiba

(ALGIERS)

GIBRALT AR

alt ar

Tanger

300

250

120

SPAIN

Miles

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

10,000 to 50,000

9

M

Mo uy

1

L

S U DA N

AD

H

I

J

 Many North African nomads, such as the Bedouin, maintain a traditional pastoral lifestyle on the desert fringes, moving their herds of sheep, goats, and camels from place to place – crossing country borders in order to find sufficient grazing land.

K

L

M


AFRICA: NORTH AFRICA N

O

P

Q

R

S

 The Atlas Mountains run from Morocco to Tunisia, covering more than 1200 miles (1931 km). The northern Tell Atlas (Atlas Tellien) are well watered, with forested slopes; the drier southern High Atlas (Haut Atlas) (left) have the highest peaks, such as Jbel Toubkal, 13,665 ft (4165 m) high.

T

U

V

W

The spectacular sand seas of the Grand Ergs Occidental and Oriental in Algeria are only one of the varied landscapes of the Sahara. Hammadas, boulder-strewn rock plateaus, and reg, or desert pavements, plains strewn with gravel and small pebbles, are other important landforms.

X

Despite its outward aridity, the Sahara has several underground aquifers. Libya has built an underground pipeline, the Great Man-made River Project, to enable fuller exploitation of this valuable resource.

The Chott el Jerid is an enormous salt lake which lies to the south of Tunisia’s low steppe landscape, marking the northern boundary of the desert.

The Tell Atlas (Atlas Tellien) are a range of recent, folded mountains. They are still being formed, and the region’s frequent earth tremors reflect this.

Y

Split from the rest of Egypt by the Suez Canal, the Sinai Peninsula is partially desert, dissected by countless wadis.

Nile Delta

1

2

Lake Nasser is a huge artificial lake, created by the damming of the Nile. It is now silting up because of evaporation, severely affecting the flow of water and sediment to the sea.

Western Sahara has huge reserves of commerciallyvaluable phosphates in its otherwise inhospitable desert landscape.

3

4

Nile Delta

Go

lf e

Carthage

Fertile deposits of alluvium

Cap Bon

TUNIS

Skanès

Mahdia

TUNISIA

Sfax Sfax Îles de Kerkenah

M

Golfe de Gabès Mellita

◊ARÁBULUS

Zuwárah

(Benghazi)

Qamínis

Kha líj Sur t

y

í

un Gh

in lB Ja b a

n

A D

Buzaymah

Wáw al Kabír

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Ramlat Rab

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al

e

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s

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r

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Í a d ab at b ír Ji lf a l Ka

Jab al N uq

Al ‘Uwaynát

Picco Bette 2286m

C

76

R

H

A

Transportation & industry

RA A

N

T

I

JORDAN

Suez

SA

CAIRO

H A .S

EGYPT

L I B YA

Aswân

M

A

L

I

R

S

IG

CH

ER

T

Transportation network U

D

A

W

Sabhá

IA

AD

V

133,650 miles (215,113 km)

785 miles (1263 km)

7790 miles (12,538 km)

2175 miles (3500 km)

16

Tourism and the oil industry have made improvements to the Maghreb’s infrastructure both necessary and possible. The Suez Canal is a vital artery for shipping between Europe and Asia.

S U DA N

U

15

BI

LA

Alexandria

A

AT

TRIPOLI

14

A

U

N

12

R

A

A

N

IS

Benghazi

N

Q

RRANEAN SEA

SE

M

IT

11

A

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Gabès

TUNISIA

ALGERIA

R

(Hala

13

I

O

Batna

O

MEDITE

LAÂYOUNE

C

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

TUNIS

ED

N

textiles tourism

M

OR

ALGIERS Constantine

R

engineering food processing gas iron & steel iron ore oil phosphates

Marrakech

C OC

Oran

ngle)

ia ’ib Tr

asser Lake N t Ná∞ir) ra (Buíay

 Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya and Algeria. Libyan oil is especially prized because of its low sulfur content, which means it produces much less pollution than other fuel oils. RA

Major industry and infrastructure

80

78

RABAT Casablanca

cer of Can Tropic

 Built as great tombs for the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, the magnificent pyramids at El Giza near Cairo have fascinated scholars, archaeologists, and tourists for centuries.

D

S PA I N Tanger

ís Baran

A

D

U

EL

The economies of Algeria and Libya were transformed by the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the deserts. Morocco’s major exports are phosphates and agricultural produce, and as in Egypt and Tunisia, the tourist industry is essential to the economy. Egypt has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality N EA C cotton textiles. O

Aswán

l Abu Simbe ul) (Abú Sunb

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Gu A√ ◊úr ash lf o Sharm h fS Shayk ue s z) Ra’ mmad yá Muía qah Al Min rda Al Ghu da) ha í u aw (H rg Mall b ú n b A Dayrú√ fájah Búr Sa le Asyú√ ím §ayr m h k l A A Qu ◊ah√á á n Al Fash

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L

al Jab Al

Banghází

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(TRIPOLI) ◊arábulus

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Île de Jerba Médenine

Idh

The Sahara is the largest hot desert on Earth, covering nearly a third of Africa. The sandy parts of the desert contain a wide variety of sand dunes, created by differing wind directions and strengths.

 In its northernmost reaches, the river Nile has deposited huge quantities of silt and alluvium to form the fan-shaped Nile Delta. The Nile splits into two main channels at the base of the delta which are interlinked by a dense network of canals and drainage channels.

Kairouan Sousse

 Almost all of Egypt’s people – more than 99% – live close to the river Nile, or on its massive delta. The river waters the only strip of fertile land in Egypt.

Ahaggar

River Nile

Nabeul

Zaghouan Golfe de Hammamet

Gabès

Nile Valley, Aswan

Network of drainage channels

Gulf of Aqaba

Mediterranean Sea uni de T s

W

X

Y

17

Z

75


AFRICA A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

M

 The dry scrub of the Sahel is only suitable for grazing herd animals like these cattle in Mali.

West Africa

1

L

B E N I N , B U R K I N A , C A P E V E R D E , G A M B I A , G H A N A , G U I N E A , G U I N E A - B I S S AU , I VO RY C OA S T, L I B E R I A , M A L I , M A U R I TA N I A , N I G E R , N I G E R I A , S E N E G A L , S I E R R A L E O N E , T O G O 2

West Africa is an immensely diverse region, encompassing the desert landscapes and mainly Muslim populations of the southern Saharan countries, and the tropical rain forests of the more humid south, with a great variety of local languages and cultures. The rich natural resources and accessibility of the area were quickly exploited by Europeans; most of the Africans taken by slave traders came from this region, causing serious depopulation. The very different influences of West Africa’s leading colonial powers, Britain and France, remain today, reflected in the languages and institutions of the countries they once governed.

Scale 1:10,000,000 Km 0 25 50 0

150

100

25

50

O-

SS

NO

OU

Port Harcourt

KR

N

VO

OU

Above 5 million 2000m / 6562ft

500,000 to 1 million

1000m / 3281ft

Maio

São SantiagoPRAIA Filipe Ilhas de Sotav ento

250m / 820ft 100m / 328ft

11

12

o)

RA

cc

oro

Saint Louis

Dagana

Bogué Bababé

Lac de Guier

Louga Kébémèr

lé e

Tîchît

Aoukâr

ECH CHARGUI Tâmchekkeœ

Guérou

Mônguel

Kaédi

Mbout

d

GORGOL

Matam

rlo

Linguère Vélingara

Ranérou

Maghama

SENEGAL

HODH

Boûmdeïd

Aleg

Podor

S

TAGANT

Moudjéria

BRAKNA Senegal

Va

œ

i

âm Tidjikja

Boutilimit Magœa‘ Laìjar

Mederdra Rkîz

Richard Toll

Y

SAHA

d by M

cupie

RN

TE ES

Rachid

TRARZA

Idîni

Rosso

El M rey yé

D

IM

Oualâta

HO DH EL

Kiffa

‘Ayoûn el ‘Atroûs

Tîntâne

ASSABA

GH AR BI

Kankossa

Néma

Timbedgha Amourj

Kobenni

A AKOuld Yenjé

Bassikounou

’Adel Bagrou

Rufisque

Diourbel

Sélibabi

Ballé

Nioro

Yélimané

GAMBIA

Bafi

 The southern regions of West Africa still contain great swathes of tropical rainforest, including some of the world’s most prized hardwood trees, such as mahogany and iroko.

Oujeft

Nara Bakel Sandaré Ambidédi Fatick Mbour Kidi ra Joal-Fadiout Saloum Maréna Kaolack Sokolo Diéma Mourdiah Sokone Kayes Koungheul Kaffrine Goudiri Se Niono Nioro du Rip KA YE S é Diamou neg KOULIKORO BANJUL al Maka ul Tam baco Ga mbi a o und a Georgetown Bafoulabé Didiéni Sadiola SÉGOU Banjul Ba Mansa Konko Basse Santa Su Markala Kolokani Banamba Dialakoto Brikama Toukoto Diouloulou Kolda Vélingara Médina Gounas Niger Bignona Gambia Ségou Lac de Kita Sédhiou Ziguinchor Saraya Manantali Sébékoro Koulikoro Farim Bla Kéniéba ba Fana Kou Kati Kokof ndâr ê ata a Bissorã G Cacheu Satadougou Bamako Kédougou Gabú Mansôa Ba Niagassola Tamgue Mali 1538m Bissa Bafatá oru Dioïla nifin Quinhámel u C g Ba Fulacunda BISSAU Gaoual Ouéléssébougou Kangaba Dok Maléa o Bol ama Buba Arquipélago Kangaré Catió Labé dos Bijagós Tougué Dinguiraye Lac de Bougouni Niéna Sélingué Pita Tikinsso Siguiri Boké

(same scale as main map)

sea level

Sebkhet Te-n-Dghâmcha Beïla

Tiguent

El Mrâyer

MAURITANIA

Boû Rjeimât

Nouakchott

e

ADRAR

Chingueœœi

Akjoujt

Mékhé Tivaouane Dara Touba Dakar Thi ès Bambey Mbaké

DAKAR

Ouadâne

Bennichchâb

Nouâmghâr

n

â a r u O

Aωr

Fe

50,000 to 100,000

below 10,000

Maio

Tarrafal Fogo

500m / 1640ft

10,000 to 50,000

João Barrosa

âr

u

100,000 to 500,000

ATLANTIC OCEAN

r

Choûm

l

1 million to 5 million

ANT

Elevation

Population

ATL

Map key

Et Tîdra

IC

O

CAPE VERDE

ch

œeï

Maq

Rio

GUINEA-BISSAU

BAMAKO

S

NOUAKCHOTT

A

H

A

R

A

MALI NIGER

DAKAR

N

O

O

Ba g

Falaba Kabala

D

Boundiali

Korhogo

oulé

li

FREETOWN

Land use and agricultural distribution goats sheep cocoa coffee cotton oil palms peanuts rubber shellfish

SIERRA LEONE

Bonthe Sherbro Island

The urban/rural population divide urban 36%

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Population density

Total land area

104 people per sq mile (40 people per sq km)

2,337,137 sq miles (6,054,760 sq km)

90

100

E

F

G

H

I

Voinjama

IVORY

Boola

Kani Mankono Séguéla Zorzor Nzérékoré Lola Kounahiri M on ts Nimb Matru Puje Lof Yomou Yekepa a Biankouma hun Béoumi Zuénoula Sanniquellie Man Vavoua Lac de Sulima Danan é Gbanga Ganta Kossou Tubmanburg Robertsport Daloa Bouaflé Duékoué Kakata Toulépleu Zoukougbeu hn Harbel Saint Jo Guiglo Tapeta Issia Monrovia Lac de Buyo Zwedru Buyo Gagnoa Marshall Taï Lakota va Buchanan lla sto Soubré Ce Guéyo River Cess Bo

Kolahun

Kenema

n Ma

MONROVIA

rural 64%

capital cities major towns pasture cropland forest desert

oa

Moyamba Shenge

M

 The Gambia, mainland Africa’s smallest country, produces great quantities of peanuts. Winnowing is used to separate the nuts from their stalks.

T

LA

NT

VO

C

Tokounou

Niellé

Kouto Madinani

Odienné Binimani Kambia Pendemb Kérouané u 1945m Bako Kissidougou Port Loko Makeni Se Pic de Tibé Pepel Koidu Lungi 1504m Borotou Lunsar Magburaka Guékédou Macenta Beyla

O

76

B

Samatiguila

Touba Sifié

o

LIBERIA

J

IC

Greenville

OC

Grand Cess

EA

Harper

N

Fresco Sassandra San-Pédro Grand-Bérébi Tabou Cape Palmas

Grabo

Plibo

a

NO

KR

A

Faranah

Kadiolo Tengréla

Manankoro

ndr

ER

ngo

Mandiana

ssa

Lagos O-

OU

N

ABUJA

RT

SS

EA

ACCRA

OU

L I B ER I A

M

OC

NIGERIA

Mo

Kankan

Sa

MONROVIA YA

IC

A

T

IVORY COAST

AN

L

17

SIERRA LEONE

FREETOWN

GH

AT

CONAKRY

N

OUAGADOUGOU PO MÉ IN BEN GO LO TO

GUINEA

CONAKRY

Coyah Forécariah

G U IN E A

Ca

BISSAU

Conakry

A

GAMBIA

M

BAMAKO

GUINEA-BISSAU

A

S a h e l NIAMEY BURKINA

SENEGAL

A

BANJUL

C

16

Dubréka

Kouroussa

Niger

S ass an d ra

G E R I A

W

MAURITANIA

LIBYA

Mamou

Kindia

Sikasso

Garalo Kolondiéba

s

L

Fria Konk ouré Boffa

Cap Verga

SIKA SSO

Yanfolila

Dabola

Dalaba

a

A

C H A D

H

RA

.S

A

15

A

Djallon

Kavendou 1421m

S ew a

MOROCCO

Télimélé

Kamsar

Ba

The humid southern regions are most suitable for cultivation; in these areas, cash crops such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and rubber are grown in large quantities. Peanuts are grown throughout West Africa. In the north, advancing desertification has made the Sahel increasingly uncultivable, and pastoral farming is more common. Great herds of sheep, cattle, and goats are grazed on the savannah grasses. Fishing is important in coastal and delta areas.

14

Rio

Fouta

Using the land & sea 13

g

r

E

Tourîne

Châr

INCHIRI

NOUAKCHOTT

Santo Antão Pombas Ilha s de B ar lavento Mindelo Pedra Ribeira Lume Amilcar São Brava Sal Cabral Vicente São Nicolau Boa Vista

Ak

NOUÂDHIBOU

m

ng

M

RT

YA

Lagos

ibou â dh DAKH LET

Râs Timirist

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

M

ACCRA

I C MONROVIA O C L I B ER I A EA N

ABUJA

Ibadan

A

N

PO MÉ BENIN O TOGO L A

LA

T

IVORY COAST

AN

AT

8

SIERRA LEONE

FREETOWN

NIGERIA

GH

CONAKRY

Kano

OUAGADOUGOU

GUINEA

O

BURKINA

BISSAU

GUINEA-BISSAU

O

BAMAKO

GAMBIA

NIAMEY

ER

SENEGAL

C

BANJUL

t Nou

m

ni

DAKAR

Dakhle

A

Nouâdhibou

Ì

l g K â El Mreiti E

k

ulé

NIGER

Râs Nouâdhibo u

a El Ì

an

Bao

MALI

Fdérik

âl

f

f ze

Boû Lanouâr

Nouâdhibou

he

Touâjîl

GU I

NOUAKCHOTT

C H A D

MAURITANIA

chemicals cotton spinning food processing mining oil palm oil processing peanut processing textiles vehicle manufacture

‘Ayoûn ‘Abd el Mâlek

Zouérat

W

i

t et

TIRIS ZEMMOUR

l

W

L G A E R I

Bîr Mogreïn

(oc

Tropic of Cancer

Major industry and infrastructure

LIBYA

A

10,192 miles (16,405 km)

‘Aïn Ben Tili

ba

A

.S

A

H

RA

6752 miles (10,867 km)

The road and rail systems are most developed near the coasts. Some of the landlocked countries remain disadvantaged by the difficulty of access to ports, and their poor road networks.

MOROCCO

6

1037 miles (1669 km)

OCEAN

5

62,154 miles (100,038 km)

250

projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Transportation network

Abundant natural resources including oil and metallic minerals are found in much of West Africa, although investment is required for their further exploitation. Nigeria experienced an oil boom during the 1970s but subsequent growth has been sporadic. Most industry in other countries has a primary basis, including mining, logging, and food processing.

200

150

100

Miles

4

Transportation & industry

250

200


AFRICA: WEST AFRICA O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

 The Niger river flows for 2600 miles (4181 km) from Fouta Djallon, on the plateau of Guinea, via southern Mali, where it supports rich fish stocks, on through the desert, and finally through Nigeria to the Gulf of Guinea.

The dry grasslands of the Sahel border the southern reaches of the Sahara. Overgrazing, drought, and the cutting down of trees for firewood, means that much of the Sahel is turning irrevocably to desert.

As it nears the Gulf of Guinea, the Niger forks into many strands. When the river floods, alluvium is deposited over a wide area. This creates fertile soils, able to support both crops and livestock.

 Along much of the West African coast, barrier beaches have built up and dammed river mouths, forming fluvial and estuarine plains.

a

a

ak

Bankilaré

Gorom-Gorom Djibo Aribinda

TAHOUA

Ni

h TILLABÉRI e

Tahoua Bagaroua Illéla

Filingué

Ouallam

rg

du

Keïta

l

dit Tigui

Aderbissinat Ac

na hét i

mo

DIFFA Termit-Kaoboul

u

Ngourti

Tasker

Di

Tanout

n

Boultoum

Belbédji

Sabon Kafi

Bouza Dakoro

Madaoua MARADI

Damagaram Takaya

8

9

N I G E R

Tchin-Tabaradene

Abala

E

Agadez

Abalak

Bani Bangou

Fachi

Akrérèb

Massif de Taghouaji 1106m

Ingal

Tassara

nd Gra

D

soï

ed llé

Monts Bagzane 2022m

Falaise de

Andéramboukane

Ayorou

a

S

Teguidda-n-Tessoumt Tchighozérine

Ménaka

Ansongo

Tîmia

a ilm B e d Erg

Dirkou Bilma

10

li

a

MOPTI

Bandiagara

ou

el

r

Mopti Sévaré

Ténenkou

Douentza

Massif de l’ Aïr

Arlit

Tillia

Ouatagouna

Hombori Konna

za

h ag

ge

Youvarou Nampala

GAO

Ni

Doro Lac Garou Lac Niangay Gossi Lac Aougoundou

Adrar Tamgak 1988m

Elméki

Gao

Diré

Niafounké

Di

Bourem

Gourma-Rharous

r

A

Aney

A G A D E Z

k

a

Nige

Goundam

Ti-n-Essako

’A

Bamba

Iferouâne

I-n-Tebezas

Oudeïka

Tombouctou

Lac Faguibine

Tade

A

M A L I

TOMBOUCTOU

Kidal

Anéfis

Séguédine

7

ou

d

R

Plateau du Tchigaï

Dao Timmi

Ténéré du Tafassâsset

Ad

o Aza

A

Abeïbara

Madama

Djado Chirfa

Assamakka -m -M eg h

H

Boû Djébéha

Vallé

A

Aguelhok

Plateau du Djado

Ti-n-Zaouâtene

Ti

Timétrine

Araouane

Dioura

Adrar des Ifôghas

KIDAL

Va

‘E r î g â t

Tessalit Boughessa

G

L

A

74

R

E

A

I

Pla te M a au ngu éni

é

ne âkâ SI-n-Échaï n I g r ‘E e d e Tî lemsi

‘E r g A

du

Estuarine deposits

El Gueœœâra

il tou

Barrier beach

H

A

River dammed by barrier beach

Tropic of Cancer

r

Taoudenni

74

é

I

n

R

Lagoon

Fluvial deposits

4

74

LIBYA

Barrier beaches

Lake Volta is an artificial lake, created by the damming of the Volta river. It links the drier northern areas with the coast and is intended to provide fresh water for drinking, fisheries, and irrigation.

é

E

T

Virgin rain forest which once covered much of the West African coast, has been drastically reduced by logging and agricultural land clearance.

C

G

ar ìm el A

2

3

Ko

h c

e h

‘Erg

L

1

There are two major topographical areas in West Africa: the northern deserts are part of the Saharan region which stretches across the whole continent; the grasslands of the Sahel and the southern Guinea coast are part of Africa’s central plateau. The landscape is generally low, rarely rising above 1500 ft (457 m) and consists mainly of plains, broken by an occasional high plateau or mountain range.

Two types of coastline characterize West Africa. Swampy, muddy coasts, colonized by mangroves occur on river deltas and where ocean currents are weak, like the coast of Senegal. Sandy beaches, with barrier ridges and lagoons, form where currents are stronger.

A

Y

The landscape

 Inselbergs, found across the Sahel, are isolated hills, or outcrops, formed where the surrounding plain has eroded away, leaving only the more resistant remnants of the original plateau.

Chegga

X

C

N

ZINDER

Nguigmi

Kellé

78

Gouré

Bosso Malbaza Goudoumaria er Zind Tessaoua Miria Birnin Konni Guidan-Roumji Lake ta Takié a i Diff Matankari Guidimoun Gazaoua Chad Dogondoutchi a Niamey Rim Maïné-Soroa Matamey Aguié di Mara Loga Ouahigouya SOKOTO i n Tominian Damasak Dengas Ba Bossey Goursi Madarounfa NIAMEY San Sokoto Wurno Sok Nguru Gashua Geidam Kongoussi Daura Tougouri Bangou Tougan Magaria DOSSO Yako Tikaré Pissila Bogandé Mongonu Torodi Bénéna ina a Say Kats Kaura Namoda ji Birnin Kaya Dosso Mané n ba de Gumel Toma Nouna Ngala Ga Argungu Sir Gaouré Boulsa A KATSIN Ha ugu Mafara d Talata jia Bilanga Hade a Ziniaré Yashi Birnin Kebbi Kantchari Falmey m Koutiala Magumeri Dikwa l ta ) N el Tambaw u WA Yorosso n Dédougou Réo Kano JIGA ékro Za mf a r a YOBE Gusau oa Zorgo Jega Maiduguri Tap Ouagadougou Koudougou Damaturu Kouri Gummi Koupéla Fada-Ngourma Malumfashi Wudil Dutse Ja Azare Potiskum Gaya Kamba Diapaga Kombissiri O Bama RA Tui RN ZAMFA BO Malanville Garango Boundoukui lta Manga KANO Birnin Kudu Tansarga Boromo Wh KEBBI Funtua (N Faggo Koundougou i Gwoza Zuru Ni Tenkodogo Wasagu Sapoui azin mb Houndé ge Kari é) on r Banikoara Bitou r Zaria Koko o ) Nebbou Bobo-Diou Pama lasso k Nafada Koloko Kandi Darazo Pô ta Ouessa Léo Zabré Bawku Porga Soba Dutsan Wai Ségbana Orodara Diébougou Sabon Birnin Dapaong Yelwa Navrongo I Biu Sindou MBE CH GO BAU Gwari Sidéradougou Bolgatanga KADUNA Tanguiéta Gogounou Tumu Mubi Lawra Go Gombe Ibeto Kontagora ti Banfora Sandema Gambaga Gbéroubouè a Kujam Ko SansannéNatitingou Nadawli Kainji hi Niangoloko Bauc Gaoua bi o Gom Kum Mango Péhonko Tegina Reservoir wn Auna NIGER Walewale Boukoumbé Kachia Kampti Bembèrèkè Kouandé Wa lpa Ouangolodougou Kaltungo Jos Jos Ku Zungeru Nikki Wawa Kainji Dam Kara Kandé Ndali Gushiegu Djougou Mangodara Minna Kafanchan Plateau Panyam New Bussa Batié Yashikera an Jimeta Niamtougou eNum Ferkessédougou Kaiama nu Yola Kara Be Téhini Yendi Pankshin Suleja Tamale Mokwa KWARA Parakou Ko Bouna Sawla Bida FEDERAL N ig Kong Bafilo Bétérou i ka PLA TEA U Jalingo Okuta Bassar Yapei e Tafiré nt ains Kishi Bole Bassila Jebba r Wamba CAPITAL Sokodé Fa Shendam tla nt Tchaourou Damongo Bimbila n Shebshi Keffi DISTRICT Lafiagi Gassol Volta Shaki Dimlang Lafia Pategi Baro Abaji Nassarawa Salaga 2042m Ilorin WA RA Blitta Mountains OYO NA SSA Dabakala Ibi Bantè a Loko osho Nkwanta Ogbom Wukari Katiola Bondoukou Kintampo Savalou Benue Kabba Savè Iseyin é Makurdi Kete-Krachi TARABA OshogboEKITI Lokoja Anié ou ti Ado-Eki Ede Wenchi Oyo Bouaké Sandégué a Dassa Tanda Atebubu Kwadwokurom KOG I Ayangb UE BEN Gotel Ilesha Techiman Iwo Badou Atakpamé Ikare Mbahiakro Berekum Kétou Ife Okene Gboko Takum Mountains Jasikan Ejura Sunyani Owo Tiébissou OSUN Idah Oturkpo Abomey Agnibilékrou Hohoe Akure Ouéllé Abeokuta Ondo Pobè Mampong Auchi Kpandu Notsé Bohicon ONDO OGUN Goaso Murtala ENUGU Ubiaja Ijebu-Ode Dimbokro O Kpalimé Kumasi Ilaro Muhammed Ogoja San Pedro Lokossa Abengourou Okitipupa Enugu Mpraeso Epe EDO EBONYI Ikeja Konongo Bongouanou Tsévié Cotonou Toumodi ER Ho LAGOS ANAMBRA Asaba Bibiani Akosombo Abakaliki Grand-Popo Ouidah Obuasi Oumé Benin City IV Akoupé C Awaaso Lomé Awka Dam V o i-Uku l Adzopé t Ogwash a Afikpo Koforidua Aného Onitsha Dunkwa Oda Tiassalé Ikom Enchi Bight o Agboville Sapele Kwale Nsawam Ada fB Asamankese IMO ABIA Keta Divo Kotoka e A hia n DELT Umua Agona Swedru Paul Saint Cape in Aboisso Prestea Owerri Warri Guitri Grand-Bassam Dabou Aba Forcados Burutu Uyo Winneba Tarkwa oa Yenag Port Bouet GrandRIVERS Cape Coast Calabar 78 AKWA Half Assini Lahou ourt Harc Port Axim Sekondi-Takoradi IBOM Degema Cape Three Points Opobo BAYELSA Bonny ou ths Brass t of Biafra of the Bigh Niger X Y Z

Tillabéri

Baléyara

o ot

ga

AW A

N

O

R

ss

ro

R

SS

Ni ge

Pra

r

o

o f

ACCRA

G u i n e a

CRO

Ankobra

Tan

sse

Ko

dama

Ban

CotonouLagos

CA

M

E

16

17

M

G u l f

Ou é m é

moé

Z

Abidjan

Ibadan

PORTONOVO

LOMÉ

15

O

k

i

Lake Volta

YAMOUSSOUKRO

14

MA ou

b

An

Ok pa ra

ra

émé

Ta

TOGO

Ou

Blac

Ko

a

Kadun

c

a re

ngo

bor

Ali

rou

Go ngol a

ABUJA

moé

B an da ma B l a n

Kaduna

BENIN

GHANA

A

AD AM

O

Mé k

Ch aî n ed el ’A

a

i

olt

Vo lt a

White V olta

Black

moé

COAST

I

R

E

la

a

te V

(Naka

Vo

G

I

N

ma

M

Kano

Red

Bl (M ack V ou ho o u

OUAGADOUGOU

dda

So

NIAMEY

a

BURKINA

to

g

Gothèye

ko

Téra

Dori

Thiou

Dallol Bosso

Koro

Bankass

er

Diafarabé Massina Djenné

77


13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

G

E

R

A

NDJAMENA

KINSHASA

14,110 miles (22,710 km)

3985 miles (6414 km)

The Trans-Gabon railroad, which began operating in 1987, has opened up new sources of timber and manganese. Elsewhere, much investment is needed to update and improve road, rail, and water transportation.

37 miles (60 km)

102,747 miles (165,774 km)

SU

N

N

76

A Z A M B I

IA

BURUNDI

RWANDA

DA

Lubumbashi

Bukavu

Kananga

Kolwezi

H

Kisangani

D E M . RE P . CONGO

BANGUI

A NGOLA

Transportation network

N

(CABINDA)

ANGOLA

BRAZZAVILLE

GABON

A

YAOUNDÉ

LIBREVILLE

Port-Gentil

EQ. GUINEA SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

MALABO

C E NT R A L N C A M E R O O N A F R IC A N R E PU BL I C Douala

I

I

CHAD

L I B Y A

Large reserves of valuable minerals are found in Central Africa: copper, cobalt, zinc, and diamonds are mined in Dem. Rep. Congo and manganese in Gabon. Congo, Cameroon, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea have oil deposits and oil has also been recently discovered in Chad. Goods such as palm oil and rubber are processed for export.

Transportation & industry

N I G E R

4

E

capital cities major towns international airports major roads major industrial areas

brewing chemicals cobalt copper diamonds food processing manganese oil palm oil processing textiles tin

Major industry and infrastructure

 The ancient rocks of Dem. Rep. Congo hold immense and varied mineral reserves. This open pit copper mine is at Kolwezi in the far south.

The great rain forest basin of the Congo river embraces most of remote Central Africa. The interior was largely unknown to Europeans until late in the 19th century, when its tribal kingdoms were split – principally between France and Belgium – with Sao Tome and Principe the lone Portuguese territory, and Equatorial Guinea controlled by Spain. Open democracy and regional economic integration are important goals for these nations – several of which have only recently emerged from restrictive regimes – and investment is needed to improve transportation infrastructures. Many of the small, but fast-growing and increasingly urban population, speak French, the regional lingua franca, along with several hundred Pygmy, Bantu, and Sudanic dialects.

F

A

2

E

CAMEROON , CENTR AL AFR ICAN R EPUBLIC , CHAD, C O N G O , D E M . R E P. C O N G O , E Q U AT O R I A L G U I N E A , GABO N , SAO TO M E & PR I N CI PE

Central Africa

D

G

Ngouri

Kaélé

az

al

C a Bokoro

Ba

Ba Illi

Fianga Gounou-Gaya

Bongor

Yagoua

h

Massalassef Massenya

CHARI-BAGUIRMI

Bousso

g E r

d u

I

Gouro

B Y A

A

Zakouma

Abou-Déïa

B

in

g

Gondey Bahr Aouk am

e

iH

aouach

l

Abéché Adré

Guéréda

BAMINGUIBANGORAN

Garba

Ndélé

Monou

ouk

i

Ouadi Howa

Mass

if

des

Ouanda Djallé

Gordil

B

g on

VAKAGA

Birao

Bahr A

Mongororo m hr Az o u Ba

SALAMAT

Am Timan

Goz-Beïda

Am Dam

OUADDAÏ Mangalmé

at B Singako lam r Sa Kyabé h a B

Melfi

GUÉRA

Mongo

B a t ha

Oum-Hadjer

h

Bitkine

Ati

Djédaa

Biltine

Arada

ad

M a s s i f Iriba du Kapka

Ou

d

Erdi Ma urdi du Mo

R

r

E n n e d i Fada

Dépressio

n

E

D BILTINE

A

M

 A plug of resistant lava, at the southwestern end of the Cameroon Ridge (Dorsale Camerounaise), is all that remains of an eroded volcano.

L

A

Lake Chad is the remnant of an inland sea, which once occupied much of the surrounding basin. A series of droughts since the 1970s has reduced the area of this shallow freshwater lake to about 1000 sq miles (2599 sq km).

Massif du Chaillu

Gulf of Guinea

The volcanic massif of Cameroon Mountain occupies an area which remains volcanically active.

K

Ounianga Kébir

Oum-Chalouba

Haraz-Djombo

D

Faya r u j o

H

BATHA

H

Koro Toro

Salal

Tersef Ngoura

Guélengdeng Char i

Emi Koussi 3415m

MAYO-Kélo TANDJILÉ Garoua Pala Laï Sarh Goundi Benue Lagdo KÉBBI Koumra LOGONEMOYEN Poli OCCIDENTAL c i Doba Lac de Rey Bouba -CHARI Moundou ogone O c Fa Lagdo Maro L Tcholliré N O R D Moïssala LOGONE-

Léré

A é é l B o d

NDJAMENA

Ndjamena

Maroua EXTRÊMENORD

Guider

J

BORKOU-ENNEDI-TIBESTI

Sherda

Moussoro

Moyto Massaguet

Massakory

S

Mao

Yebbi-Bou

L

74

T i b e s t

Zouar

Bardaï

Aozou

Tropic of Cancer

Massif d’ Abo

KANEM

S

Nokou

Kousséri

Chad

I

Lake Chad lies in a desert basin bounded by the volcanic Tibesti mountains in the north, plateaus in the east and, in the south, the broad watershed of the Congo basin. The vast circular depression of the Congo is