Yixing Qin BA(Hons) Animation 2017/18 Title: To What Extent Does the Representation of WWII in Japanese Animation Differ from American Animation?
Fred Bates Danielle Qin Leeds Arts University
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Context & Themes
Chapter 3 – Case Studies of Practice
Chapter 4 – Reflective Practice
Chapter 5 – Conclusion
Chapter 1 â€“ Introduction
This dissertation will focus on the depiction of conflicts based on the Second World War in war-time and post-war Japanese animation, and its comparison to American representations in animated films. The question set as the title will be answered as the research and analysis develop gradually. The question gives an overview of differences in depiction of war from different cultural backgrounds, which leads to a further study of character behaviour. The essay aims to help understand the utility of character performance and interpret a narrative in war animations, and moreover, in animation in general. Another point that will be dealt with in this essay is whether the historical event itself was informed by animation or biases could be created due to different aspects especially the culture differences. The first main part of the dissertation will demonstrate the research and critical analysis of the essential context, namely, Japan during two periods of time which includes the time during and after the Second World War. Additionally, analysis examples of representations of Japanese war animation and its development, which in the third part, will be compared to animations from other cultures, especially American culture. Specific characters will be analysed and compared, supported with animation stills demonstrating specific features. The reflective part will record the route of the practical study reflecting on the topic, a continuous development of character performance and script writing to achieve certain purposes, in this case, to build characters that can be adapted to certain themes. The dissertation essentially aims to analyse representations in Japanese animations, which links to further exploration into other cultures. Secondly, it endeavours to compare the similarities and disparities between the Japanese war animation and that of other cultures, especially on the appearances and behaviours of the characters, to facilitate the understanding and further development of character designs and performance within not only war films but a variety of animations on other topics as well. The essay also aims to summarize and criticize the stereotype representation of cultures and give a clarified understanding of adapting appropriate character designs into a variety of animations. The responsive practice will be influenced by the argument and the outcome will eventually reflect the theoretical study of the dissertation. Yixing Qin
Chapter 2 – Context & Themes
Around the time of the Second World War, the animation industry made a great contribution to the propaganda during the war time, which in return led to the post-war revolution of animation culture in Japan. Similarly, Disney in the US produced a large quantity of propaganda animations for the American troop during the 1940s. The essential cultural background and society diversify the outcome of animations of both propaganda films and contemporary films based on the Second World War. It is worth discussing as Japan and America were opponents in the Second World War. Therefore, the phenomenon that characters were presented differently is a subject that requires exploration.
Post-war Japan George Packard identified the tension between the re-emerging sense of national pride and experiences of the defeat of the war, pointing out that the war and defeat were still the ‘central facts’ in the lives of most Japanese adults, expressing the feelings of ‘guilt, inferiority and insecurity’, describing them as ‘proud and sensitive’, suggesting that the psychological wounds would not heal until the next generation taking over, and the scars being apparent through the 1960s. (Packard, 1966, p338) Yoshikuni gives a similar opinion, while he commented on George’s statement, suggesting that the memories of the war and Japan’s defeat ‘collided with a rising sense of nationalism’ in post-war Japan, in the minds of the participants. (Igarashi, 2000, p138) George and Yoshikuni’s conclusion of the post-war situation in Japan leads to the mental development and emotional states of Japan into a sense of ‘victim consciousness’ during the war responsibility debate, Rikki Kersten suggested that the ‘continuing controversy over versions of history’ has served to a balanced result. (Rikki, 2013, p29) In addition, Mitsuhiro also noted that ‘victim consciousness’ has become a ‘dominant narrative motif’ in the post-war Japanese films. In conclusion, the society in Japan was facing the great change being a defeat country, which leads to the growth of culture
industry that soothes the emotional states of most citizens, rethinks and resists against violence from the point of view of a victim, and meanwhile fulfils the entertainment purpose as well. The essential background of impact of war and the mental development of ‘victim consciousness’ settles the key tone of animations produced in this period. The findings in research of context links to the further analysis of films in the subsequent dissertation.
Wartime Japanese propaganda films Propaganda films have been considered to reveal perspectives of the way a country sees itself during the war time, meanwhile, reflect the demanding national situation at the time. Therefore, propaganda films provide a different scope of understanding of the historical events nowadays, as an informative way, compared to the audience at the time, depending on the purpose of the film. As Nichola Dobson noted, it was regarded as a means of ‘boosting patriotism’ and against a specific enemy as seen in the animation of Japan during the war. (Dobson, 2009, p154) Despite Japanese animation, it turns out that many countries tend to showcase a national militarism in propaganda, to sooth the citizens under the dramatically changed unstable background and society. As is proposed by Paul Haridakis referring to what Bendazzi mentioned, that the theme of militarism was ‘embedded in the country’s educational, documentary and propaganda films’ in Japanese culture, which persisted from the start throughout the Second World War. (Haridakis et al. 2009, p77). Otto gives a similar statement when he noted that Japan went through a well-known period of ‘extreme militarism’ in the first half of the twentieth century, which impacted on the film industry. (Feigenblatt, 2008, p46) Talking about the Japanese propaganda films, the one which must be mentioned would be the Momotaro no umiwashi (1943), which would often be considered an identical film representing the beginning of Japanese animation industry, an example of militarism and nationalism as well. Hence constructing a mythology character into a national hero would be encouraging as it is seen as a symbol of morality and the country.
As the opposite in the war with the U.S., the Japanese represented it in the propaganda film, Evil Mickey Attack Japan (1936), which essentially demonstrates the Mickey Mouse, exemplifying the American troops, bombing and attacking the island alluding to Japan. (Fig. 1) This is unarguably an outstanding piece demonstrating the make of parody based on an existing character which occupies an important place among the American animated characters. The audience range of the film would be broad as the film was built to vilify the American troops, which apparently is similar in cultural products of all the countries.
Post-war film industry Tsuyoshi Ishihara suggested that Japanese animation started under ‘the strong influence of Disney’ by demonstrating examples such as Japanese adaptations of Mark Twain’s work, in both cinemas and other popular cultures. (Ishihara, 2005, p8) Meanwhile, Shirley Steinberg noted that the earliest animation in Japan was made by individual film hobbyists who were inspired by American pioneer animators, and the Japanese animation began emerging after World War II. (Parmar et al. 2006, p198) The recreation of character Evil Mickey, mentioned previously could be an example worth referring to demonstrating the impact of American animation in the post-war film industry. The major historical change leads to the vast revolution of the film industry, facing an economic depression, meanwhile the conflict between the old system and the revolution evolves. It was time for animation as an industry to grow dramatically, both under certain emotional states of people, and the influence of American animation culture as well. Around the period of the time is when Osamu Tezuka, who is entitled as ‘the godfather of manga’ and considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney, started to establish his work to the public, and since then had produced a huge quantity of works including the Astro Boy, Phoenix and Kimba the White Lion. (Power, 2009, p3) Shirley described him as the animator who presented ‘a new visual style of animation’ to American audiences, with Japan’s ‘internal contradiction’ and the ‘external resistance’. (Parmar et al. 2006, p198) His contribution to the
animation industry is remarkable, which indeed accelerated the growth of the Japanese film industry. Yochai Ataria summarized that the post-war films constitute a form of ‘cultural therapy’ leading the audience to be ‘confronted over and over again with loss and defeat’, but would offer a soothing and comforting end to it, which is what is needed at the time of post-war Japan under the change. (Ataria et al. 2016, p108) As is suggested by Tze-Yue, animation occupies a role in the ‘nation rebuilding efforts’ of Japan after the World War II, with the concept of ‘performativity’. (Hu, 2015, p11) Moreover, Mitsuhito Yoshimoto revealed that within the films referring to national events such as World War II, Japan was caught in the ‘never-ending cycle of victimhood and traumatic recovery’, (Yoshimoto et al. 2010, p244) once again supporting Yochai’s point of the common narrative in the Japanese post-war animations that the concept of victimhood is planted within films and can be seen as a common similarity between the main characters of them. As Donald Richie commented after the loss in World War II, there was ‘little need for this sort of animation, or indeed any animation at all’, when referring to the animation series of Momotaro, (Fig. 2) an example of militarism and nationalism. Additionally, the ‘propagandization of animation worked against post-war acceptance’, again suggesting the need of a more soothing purposed contents instead of the militarism representations, which leads the theme of most films produced afterwards to a new direction. (Richie, 2012, p253) Susan Napier noted that the Japanese version of World War II is generally described as a ‘victim’s history’, like what Yoshimoto described as the theme within Japanese films of ‘victimhood’. She also points out that the ‘cultural versions’ of the war emphasizes the strong ‘anti-war sentiment’, focusing on the consequences of a devastating war in Japan instead of aggression and colonization of the government. (Napier, 2016, p218) In this Corner of the World (2016) is an animation based on the Second World War from the perspective of an ordinary girl turning into a housewife. (Fig. 3) The key tone of the animation is demonstrating the life of people during the war, who are away from the battle itself, but have always been under the influence of the war. It showcases the way and the struggle of people living the life in the hard
times. The perspective of the film is unique and relatable, as it is set in an ordinary family, to create the theme of ‘victimhood’ by ignoring the battlefields but focusing the vision on the consequences of the war. As Patrick Drazen suggested in his book, the history of a mixture of both warfare and peace has contributed to the current popular cultural view of war in Japan, which is complex, and Japan’s view of pacifism ‘carries considerable weight’. He also quotes a line from Final Fantasy (1994), a Japanese animation, which goes as ‘Violence never solved anything’, from a military man’s point of view. (Drazen, 2014, p192) The history itself led the general view of people to a strong idea of pacifism and anti-war sentiments, which can also be discovered in the film In this Corner of the World, expressing the thought by demonstrating a severe impact of the war on ordinary citizens. Another representation of conflicts worth mentioning is a Studio Ghibli film, The Wind Rises (2013), a lifetime story of Jiro Horikoshi (Fig. 4), who was a chief engineer of fighter designs in the World War II in real life. Arguably, the conflict of militarism and anti-war theme was the reason why Miyazaki Hayao, the head of the studio, refused to make the film at first, as the narrative is based on an existing person, who had an important occupation in the military forces, which could defy the pacifism that he brought out in most of his films on the writing of the story. Hence at last, the film focuses on Jiro’s interests in making aircraft, and turns him into a character with a pure passion for planes, ignoring the impact of the war. The film expresses the anti-war thoughts through the constant conflict between the pure interests and the un-thought consequences, building the version of Jiro in the film into a much simpler character. (Fig. 5) The film constantly emphasises Jiro’s responsibility and sympathy to the society, especially towards the weak and disadvantaged representations, reminding the audience of his self-awareness towards the world, in contrast to his passion regardless of the consequences. The little girl Setsuko in the film Grave of the Fireflies (1988), is the younger sister of the main character Seita. They lost their parents because of the war. The narrative in the film aims to deliver a similar message to that in the film In this Corner of the World, a depiction of ordinary people seeking hope of life under the influence of the Second World War. However, the difference is that
it contains the relationship between brother and sister as well, where Seita, the older brother, tends to be constructed into a figure of protecting the weak and vulnerable group, which in this film, is represented by his sister Setsuko. (Fig. 6) Correspondingly, the character traits of Jiro in The Wind Rises is similar to Seita, where they both symbolize nationalism, building a character that shows empathy towards the weakness. In conclusion, the key tone of Japanese animation based on the Second World War is the sense of â€˜victimhoodâ€™ both in propaganda films and contemporary films based on the war, caught in the conflict of unavoidable war and the anti-war ideology. Moreover, within propaganda films, militarism was also embedded in some of the animations. Conversely, America as a victor in the World War II, defeating Japan, has different cultural representations in the animation industry both during and after the war. The different perspectives and outcomes will be discussed and compared in the following chapter.
Chapter 3 – Case Studies of Practice
Characteristics including the performance and the tone of the voice are considered to be one of the most important elements in affecting the message within a war animation, which is highly affected by the cultural background of the director. This would also be the main subject discussed in the following paragraphs, with examples selected from the representations of conflicts analysed in the previous chapter to compare. Victory Through Air Power (1943), an animated documentary purely propagating the military power of the USA at the time of the war, informing the fast-growing technology that had made great contribution to the war. The film as a documentary differs from other films as it is not considered as a character-driven animation, but more like an informative film targeted at the citizens to showcase the national air force power. (Fig. 7) The film focuses on demonstrating the air power itself, while the Wind Rises, as a Japanese representation, exhibits a different approach, unravelling the story through characters instead. Both films have the same theme of expressing the importance of a vital kind of military power, but convey two entirely different messages. Paul, who commented on the general wartime Japanese animated films, also pointed out the fact about American propaganda, that several authors of children’s books were recruited to work in the U.S. animation branch to make films for troops, noted by Philip Nel as well, (Nel, 2004, p124) as the soldiers would only pay attention and learn ‘if they could also be entertained’. (Haridakis, Hugenberg and Wearden, 2009, p77) His statement suggested the importance of the design of characters within the propaganda films targeting the general citizens as audience and identified the reason that Disney was chosen for a mass production of propaganda as they serve the entertainment aspects as well as the narrative, (Fig. 8) which could be linked back to the film Momotaro with a refined character design that looks like from a children’s book.
Speaking of the characters, in comparison of those in contemporary Japanese animations discussed in the previous chapter, female characters are often used as they are represented as a vulnerable group of less aggression, and more likely to gain sympathy from the audience. Secondly, characters with similar appearances depict ordinary, innocent and harmless individuals, intended to represent the ‘victimhood’, the phrase mentioned by Mitsuhito. More specifically, Suzu, the main character of the film In this Corner of the World (2016), who lost one of her hand from one of the attack in the war, demonstrates a strong figure of an ordinary girl. Similarly, Nahoko from The Wind Rises also gives an overview of the characteristic of the females during the time of the war. (Fig. 9) She suffers the illness of tuberculosis with her tremendous dignity, but keeps encouraging the main character to chase his dream. Both characters faced hardships and struggles that threatened their lives, intending to emphasize their victimhood to symbolize the way that Japan sees the unfair treatment on citizens. Among the character-driven propaganda films of the USA, the stereotypical Japanese characters always have a pair of round glasses, and are rabbittoothed with a fake smile. These can be seen in numbers of representations, such as the Commando Duck and You’re a Sap Mr.Jap, (Fig. 10) within the war-time propaganda films, and even in contemporary films with Hop and Chop (1970) as a typical example, with the build of a Japanese beetle but with all the stereotypical elements mentioned, (Fig. 11) wearing glasses and having ‘sports bucked teeth’, as Christopher Lehman described, a ‘throwback to the unflattering Japanese images’ of the Second World war. (Lehman, 2007, p165) In contrast, Japanese animation would use characters that symbolize the USA such as the Micky Mouse as it has a cultural value itself, defaming the character by creating a version that is consisted of completely different values, which will be analysed in the following text. Both American and Japanese animation constructed a national hero, which in Japanese animation, is the Momotaro, adapted from the traditional mythology, whereas in American films, a large quantity of existing Disney characters are used, especially Donald duck. One obvious reason is that Disney was the
largest branch producing propaganda at the time. As can be expected, it occupied the most important part of the animation industry before the war as well. The appearances of Momotaro and Donald duck are similar in several ways, such as their outfits are soldiers’ uniforms, and their expressions symbolized liberty, justice and the strong implication of nationalism. Speaking of the narrative, the Japanese propaganda focuses on presenting the cruelness of the evil characters representing the opposites in the war, protesting for empathy needed as a victim in the war, whilst the American propaganda tends to focus on showing a strong figure of the Americans, defeating the opponent in several ways within a film. It is a more direct ironical representation, emphasizing the defeat of the characters. In the film You’re a Sap Mr.Jap, before the ending, the Japanese flag sinks into the ocean. (Fig. 12) As Christopher suggests, in the American films of the Second World War featuring battlefields, American characters were always ‘not only defeating Japanese caricatures’, but also ‘killing them completely’, (Lehman, 2007, p165) whereas the Japanese armed figures would rarely survive to the end of the film. Similar to Momotaro, the militarism was strongly embedded into the media and spread to the society with impact. Additionally, being one of the vital elements within films, soundtracks were used to enlarge the characteristic, such as in Leiji Matsumoto’s film, Space Battleship Yamato (1978) mentioned by Yochai, where the American fighter jets sank the Yamato. The scene was accompanied by the soundtrack of Gamilon aliens, suggesting that the American enemy ‘becomes an alien of no cultural affiliation’. Therefore the characters can be portrayed without ‘directly generating anti-American sentiments’. (Ataria, Gurevitz, Pedaya and Neria, 2016, p108) It suggested that not only the graphic but the soundtrack could also imply the kind of characteristic or atmosphere a producer wants to be embedded into the animation, which was exaggerated on the performance especially in propaganda films, calling for resonances. Contemporary films tend to beautify the victims, while propaganda films focus on vilifying the invaders. Hence there is usually a huge difference between the behaviour of characters produced by different countries as they served as
different roles in the war. Commando Duck (1944) as a good example, would be worth comparing to the Evil Mickey Attack Japan, as it contrasts between an authentic Disney character compared to a parody with propaganda purpose especially from a different culture. The character Evil Mickey was obviously used to represent the American armed force, and it was built into a reproduced version but with cruelness and coldness towards the corruption of the island representing Japan. Additionally, the two different versions of the same character are presented in Evil Mickey Attack Japan and apparently from Disney. Compared to the original version of the character, the recreation has longer arms and legs. Lines of the drawing are in sharper shapes especially on the face. (Fig. 13) Moreover, the shape of the eyebrow is altered into a triangle shape, to emphasize the evil expressions of the character, and the eyeball is completely black on a face full of fury and ferociousness, in order to construct a character of ‘no cultural affiliation’ in a superficial way in this case, noted by Yochai. (Ataria, Gurevitz, Pedaya and Neria, 2016, p108) The behaviour of the evil Mickey of attacking Japan is brutal with no mercy, which is a contrast to the original version, who is a positive and friendly character. Considerably, it even ‘exposes’ his ‘true self’ in another aspect, to achieve the propaganda purpose of the film. Alternatively, Donald duck in the film Commando Duck, narration is the journey that he went through with attacks from his opponents, where one of them obviously implies Japanese military force. He is apparently a representation of an ordinary soldier among the American troop who fought in the WWII, a metaphor of the journey that the USA went through in the war, which faced frustrations but ended with success. As a conclusion to summarize the findings in the chapter, the female character in Japanese animations developed into a stereotypical figure that are harmless, vulnerable, full of hope during the hard time, and passes positive emotions to surroundings, which is shown through both their appearances and behaviours in certain ways where similarities can be identified. This implies that it expressed the effectiveness of a recreation of a character to achieve a purpose of symbolization and irony, and manifested the
fact that American animations emphasize the narrative while Japanese animations focus more on the performance of characters.
Chapter 4 â€“ Reflective Practice
From the start of the project, when planning the workload of the practical response, the timescale naturally spans out through the whole journey of developing the dissertation. Initially, I would like the media that convey the final response to demonstrate the knowledge that is gained through the development, therefore, both pre-production such as character designs and concept art and animation were considered. After a certain quantity of information was gathered during the course of researching, as the analysis has focused on the aesthetical influence, and more specifically, the character appearance and performance, the outcome of the pre-production stage of making an animation seems to express the understanding more thoroughly. Hence, to respond to the analysis of the characters from chosen Japanese animations in previous chapters, I would like to showcase the understanding along the development of the dissertation by producing work of pre-production stage of making an animation. Through exploring typical characters from the films analysed in the dissertation, and other representations mentioned briefly, I intend to conclude them into a set of character designs, which showcase my understanding and response to the characteristic that is required in certain plots and have the capability of delivering the message. I started with producing a quantity of sketches of both initial character ideas and concepts, which would be developed further into an outcome with more consideration. According to the two female Japanese representations that were analysed in the previous chapters and a variety of others, especially Suzu and Nahoko, I identified a number of features that is presented in the character designs in response. Therefore, before producing the characters, I did research and studied each part of the body of the representations that I chose, regarding every single element that shapes the character itself. Eventually, I chose a few designs from the sketches which shows stronger characteristics and explored to an appropriate extent their underlying story, which integrates into narratives fluently. The girl I created has round shaped facial features and wears a harmless smile. As for the outfit, I researched into a large amount of
looks of ordinary people from the time, and decided that she should be a girl from the countryside or a small village, to respond to the kind of characters that are often used in some contemporary films to express the theme of victimhood. As the research developed into the different cultures that were investigated in the dissertation, which is the comparison of Japanese and American animations, I decided to research into the contrast between original versions and another version of the same character created for an ironical purpose. To respond to the interesting comparison between the two versions of Mickey mouse analysed in chapter 3, I found that Donald duck would be a more appropriate character to be recreated into an evil version compared to Mickey mouse, as Disney used him in a number of propaganda films during the war, and in his story, Donald duck fought in the WWII as well, representing the American military force. I would like to imply the way Japanese propaganda vilifies the opponents into the recreation of Donald duck. Additionally, as another part of the creative response, for each of the character I constructed, I wrote a short piece of script for them that I feel best emphasized their personality, which is exactly the reason of creating the character into a certain shape, to adapt into the theme. Three of the scripts are of my version of Disney characters and Astro boy, all of a contrasting kind of behaviour to their original character traits, to respond to the evil and brutal behaviours of the Evil Mickey mentioned in chapter 2. One is of a girl representing ordinary people, I chose to write about a scene that demonstrates a specific moment of the everyday life, to respond to the way that a character is constructed in Japanese representations. To summarize, my practical response demonstrates my understanding of the field relating to animation, pre-production in specific, and the knowledge I have gained as a practitioner specialised in character creation. It broadens my experience on writing scripts as well, which is the aspect that I lack in. I want the response to showcase my understanding and inspiration from the research on the topic of my choice.
Chapter 5 – Conclusion
As a consequence, from the synthetic process of researching, writing the dissertation and creatively responding to the topic, the dissertation leads to an answer to the title question, which draws to a complex conclusion that the behaviour of the characters varies due to the cultural differences and personal views of film makers, especially at the time of WWII as a sensitive period of time in both Japanese and American cultures. At the same time, it inspires individuals as a practitioner of the required character designs for certain animations. In Chapter 2, the research and introduction to the topic made the most contribution to unravel the discussion, where the phrases ‘victim consciousness’ and ‘victimhood’ that constructed a tremendous part of the post-war emotional states of Japanese society, were introduced. Consequently, it gives an overview of the context that leads to the conclusion of the key tone of most Japanese propaganda films. Furthermore, according to the context, implies that the corresponding theme of contemporary in the post-war period. As for Chapter 3, the findings in Chapter 2 consists of the essential references, where specific examples were introduced in order to answer the title question that was set for the dissertation. The importance of characteristics was noted, and particularly chosen representations were compared to strengthen the statement, backed up with examples in the past as well, such as the American film mentioned by Ataria to support Lehman’s point of treatments on Japanese characters within American war films. The two main chapters eventually conclude the essay into an answer of the research question. The findings of the emotional and social states of Japan and the USA, give an overview of the reason why stereotypical characters were constructed in similar ways, at the same time, comparisons between them. For a practitioner’s subject discipline, it informs the impact on the animation industry of culture differences, and provides an overview of the sort of characters that are likely to be favoured by the audience who finds responsive chords.
The references used within the dissertation are mainly academic sources, which provided a large quantity of reliable information and evidence to support the statements. It rather helped develop awareness of the context especially for a considerably huge topic to discuss. However, there are still a large amount of information and perspectives to refer to apart from the sources included in this dissertation, as it is a fascinating topic worth discussing.
Fig. 1. Nagahisa, Y (1934) Evil Mickey Attack Japan (image) Available at: http://forum.stripovi.com/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=42787&whichpage=6 (13 Dec 2017)
Fig. 2. Seo, M (1943) Momotaro, the Sea Eagle (image) Available at: https://mubi.com/films/momotaro-the-sea-eagle (13 Dec 2017)
Fig. 3. Katabuchi, S (2016) In This Corner of the World (image) Available at: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4769824/?ref_=ttmi_tt (13 Dec 2017)
Fig. 4. Horikoshi, J (1938) Jiro Horikoshi (image) Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiro_Horikoshi (6 Jan 2018)
Fig. 5. Miyazaki, H (2013) The Wind Rises (image) Available at: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2013293/?ref_=nv_sr_1 (7 Jan 2018)
Fig. 6. Takahata, I (1988) Grave of Fireflies (image) Available at: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0095327/?ref_=nv_sr_1 (7 Jan 2018)
Fig. 7. Algar, J (1943) Victory Through Air Power (image) Available at: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036497/?ref_=rvi_tt (7 Jan 2018)
Fig. 8. King, J (1944) Commando Duck (image) Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onKMasJTfT8 (8 Jan 2018)
Fig. 9. Miyazaki, H (2013) The Wind Rises (image) Available at: http://variety.com/2013/film/reviews/the-wind-rises-review-venice-toronto1200592219/ (8 Jan 2018)
Fig. 10. Gordon, D (1942) Youâ€™re a Sap, Mr. Jap (image) Available at: https://alchetron.com/Youre-a-Sap,-Mr-Jap (8 Jan 2018)
Fig. 11. Simmons, G (1970) Hop and Chop (image) Available at: http://www.tvsinopse.kinghost.net/t/toro%20e%20pancho7.htm (8 Jan 2018)
Fig. 12. Gordon, D (1942) Youâ€™re a Sap, Mr. Jap (image) Available at: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0153998/ (8 Jan 2018)
Fig. 13. Nagahisa, Y (1934) Evil Mickey Attack Japan (image) Available at: http://www.openculture.com/2016/09/evil-mickey-mouse-invades-japan-in-a1934-japanese-anime-propaganda-film.html (8 Jan 2018)
Bibliography Ataria, Y., Gurevitz, D., Pedaya, H. and Neria, Y. (2016). Interdisciplinary handbook of trauma and culture. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Drazen, P. (2014). Anime explosion! Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. Dobson, N. (2009). Historical dictionary of animation and cartoons. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. Feigenblatt, O. (2008). Understanding Japanese animation. Delray Beach, Fla.: Guild of Independent Scholars. Haridakis, P., Hugenberg, B. and Wearden, S. (2009). War and the media. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Hu, T. (2015). Frames of anime. Aberdeen, Hong Kong: Hong Kong U.P. Igarashi, Y. (2000). Bodies of Memory: Narratives of War in Postwar Japanese Culture, 1945-1970. Princeton University Press. Ishihara, T. (2005). Mark Twain in Japan. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Kersten, R. (2013). Democracy in post-war japan, Routledge. Lehman, C. (2007). American animated cartoons of the Vietnam era. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland. Nel, P. (2004). Dr. Seuss. New York: Continuum. Napier, S. (2016). Anime from akira to howl's moving castle. New York: St. Martin's Press. Packard, G. (1966). Protest in Tokyo. The security treaty crisis of 1960. Parmar, P., Richard, B. and Steinberg, S. (2006). Contemporary youth culture. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Power, N. (2009). God of Comics: Osamu Tezuka and the Creation of PostWorld War II Manga. University of Mississippi. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Richie, D. (2012). A hundred years of Japanese film. New York: Kodansha.
Yoshimoto, M., Tsai, E. and Choi, J. (2010). Television, Japan, and globalization. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Japanese Studies, the University of Michigan.