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SPACEWIRES I Filamentrics Graduate Architecture Design

2013-2014 I Cluster.4

Bartlett School of Architecture UCL


Graduate Architecture Desigh | Cluster4 Bartlett School of Architecture | University College London

SPACEWIRES

| FILAMENTRICS

Nan Jiang, Yiwei Wang,Yichao Chen, Zeeshan Yunus Ahmed Tutors : Manuel Jiménez García ,Gilles Restin 2013-2014 August 2014,London


TABLE CONTENTS

01 INTRODUCTION

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01.1 INTRODUCTION

05.2 STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION

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02.3 CATELOGUE

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06.5 CONCLUSION

03.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 03.5 GOTHIC RECURSIVE

04.4 ROBOT FABRICATION 04.5 INDUSTRY ROBOT FABRICATION 04.6 PROTOTYPING 04.7 NOZZLE

06.1 INTRODUCTION

06.4 GOTHIC RECURSIVE

03.3 GOTHIC PROSTHESES

04.3 ABS PLASTIC

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06.3 STIGMERGY BEHAVIOUR

03.2 GOTHIC FIGURE

04.2 MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT

06 SYSTEMTIC CONTROL 06.2 INDEX ORGANIZATION

03.1 REFERENCE

04.1 INTRODUCTION

05.4 STRUCTURAL ITERTATION 05.6 PROTOTYPING

02.2 PATTERN STUDY

04 FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY

05.3 STIGMERGY BEHAVIOUR 05.5 INDUSTRY ROBOT FABRICATION

02.1 INTRODUCTION

03 GOTHIC ONTOLOGY

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05.1 INTRODUCTION

01.2 RESEARCH CONTEXT

02 FABRICATION RESEARCH

05 DIGITAL PROTOTYPE

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07 PROTOTYPICAL MATERILIZATION

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07.1 3METERS PAVILLION FOR FABRICATION 07.2 INDEX ORGANIZATION 07.3 INDEX ORGANIZATION

08 APPENDIX

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INTRODUCTION


FILAMENTRICS

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01 INTRODUCTION 01.1 INTRODUCTION

In the 90’s, Digital architecture was often criticized for not contributing enough to the fill the gap between materialization and construction with computer-aided design strategies. However, in the 2000’s with the introduction of CNC machines in the market, this gap between what is physically feasible to build and digitally possible to design narrowed, eventually enabling designers and architects to bring their designs into the physical world from the virtual medium. Fabrication of geometrically complex parts and intricate surfaces were offered unprecedented freedom. The scope of digitally controlled fabrication process widened dramatically with the introduction of industrial robots to the architectural research. Unlike with most specialized machines, such as CNC gantry mills, the scope of the industrial robot is not defined and limited by its kinematics and offers an opportunity not only to customize the machined parts, but beyond that the entire fabrication process. This generic, anthropomorphic and versatile nature of robots has inspired architectural researchers and students to equip these machines with tools for gluing, melting, drilling, winding, cutting, pouring or panting, etc. Even though in the field of architecture, robotic fabrication has been introduced recently, a remarkable amount of small yet sophisticated architectural structures have already been built displaying a high degree of special and structural differentiation, and have impressively demonstrated the flexibility of such robots. However, until now large scale applications in construction has barely been investigated.

Contour Crafting Behrokh Khoshnevis

The objective behind any research is to take the existing knowledge or technology to the next level. The knowledge gained overs years of research and practice cannot be overlooked. However the existing methods of 3D printing may have been successful to a certain extent to come up with new technologies of construction but yet lacks the expertise which our predecessors have achieved in terms of design and structure, whether it is the intricately designed striking gothic cathedrals or the spectacular mosques and temples during that era. Contour Crafting Behrokh Khoshnevis

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01.2 RESEARCH CONTEXT

3D printing technology has developed in the last few years and is being applied in different fields. However in the field of construction it is still considered a budding technology and much more research and development is needed for this technology the over throw the convention construction process.3-D printing is an Additive manufacturing process which focus on optimum material usage minimizing waste and maintains a high quality of product mainly by the process of layering material at specific position where material deposition is required. The existing efforts of 3D printing methods and techniques which are being researched today are counter crafted by BEHROKH KHOSHNEVIS, endless chair by DIRK VANDER KOOIJ, plastic extrusion by IAAC and D-shape by ENRICO DINI etc. The chief advantages of these processes over conventional technologies are the superior surface finish, greatly enhanced speed of fabrication, less wastage and cheap manufacturing. Contour crafting is a method of digital fabrication in which a whole structure or a component of the structure can be constructed using layering fabrication. With this system even a colony of houses may be constructed in a single run, with all the services including plumbing, electrical, etc. embedded in it - The chief advantage of this CC being enhanced speed in construction and superior surface finish. It cuts down the cost of construction drastically as the cost of labor can be omitted. This system has its future applications in space technology, commercial construction, low cost housing etc. Looking into D-shape by Enrico Dini, it is another revolutionary robotic fabrication process in which 3-D printing process is done by stereolithography that requires only sand and an inorganic binder. With this technology, entire construction can be done without any human intervention. Today’s construction technology, which although uses softwares for designing, does not allow the full potential of these softwares to be achieved when it comes to construction by the existing building methods . The present building industry requires skilled labor, which becomes very expensive.

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All these expenses can be omitted with this system. The main advantage of this system is being able to fabricate concave structures with the use of any kinds of mold or scaffoldings.

D-shape Enrico Dini

With the idea of fabrication using the filament extrusion system using an industrial robot, and considering the setbacks of the system, as a structural model, the potential and limitations of space frame structures was researched into. Space frame structures are light weight mainly because of the fact that the load transfer mechanism is primarily axial – tension and compression as the material is distributed spatially, hence at any element the utilization of material is to its fullest extent, having high degree of topological optimization and thus can be expanded into large spans. Furthermore, the load bearing capacity of the space frame surpasses its self-weight. With the structural concept of space frame the agent based system while generating the form for the structure, followed certain behaviors and mimics the geometrical patterns forming a lattice structure. While forming the structure the resolution and behavior of patterns can be controlled without compromising the design intent by setting parameters for the agents based on the structural data.

Space Frame | Konrad Wachsmann Large span of spaceframe

D-shape Enrico Dini

Geodesic Dome | Buckminister Fuller

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According to John Ruskin -“pointed arches do not constitute Gothic, nor vaulted roofs, nor flying buttresses nor grotesque sculptures; but all or some of these things, and many other things with them, when they come together so as to have life” .

With conventional 3D printing the issues related to material deposition along the forces cannot be addressed , as with layering method the deposition of material cannot be controlled to be deposited along the forces. Hence is lot of wastage of material as materials which does not have any structural importance will be deposited add to the bulk of the structure. However with Space wires the topological optimization removes unwanted material and generates a vector field along the direction of the forces. This structural data is used to generate tool path for material deposition along the direction of the forces which results in better structural stability and material optimization. Force Analysis

Material Distribution according to Force

To have, the Gothic character analysis is the same as the analysis of a rough mineral submitted to a chemist. The chemist defines his minerals by its external character; its crystalline form, hardness lustre, etc. and by its internal character; the proportions and nature of its constituent atoms. Similarly Gothic Architecture has external forms and internal elements. The mental tendencies of the builders, fancifulness, love of variety, love of richness, etc. forms its internal elements and its external forms are pointed arches, vaulted roofs, etc. Unless both the elements and the forms are there, we cannot call it Gothic. It is not enough that it has the form and not the elements. Inspired by Gothic design philosophy of hierarchy, intricate detailing and High resolution, Space Wires as a research project tried to incorporate these ideas in the generative design system so that the outputs are heterogeneous, have a high resolution, structurally stable with material optimization without compromising the design intent.

Gatti Wool Factory | pier luigi nervi

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Looking back in defining a mineral by its constituent parts, it is not one nor another of them that can make up the mineral but the union of all. Similarly in the case of Gothic it is not one or another that produces it; but their union in certain measures. Each one of them is found in many other architecture besides Gothic. However the absence of one of its element again doesn’t mean that it is not Gothic, it is only less Gothic than it was and the union of two or three of its elements is enough to bestow a certain Gothicness of character.

La Sagrada Família | Antoni Gaudí High Resolution Details of the Gothic Church

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FABRICATION RESEARCH


02 FABRICATION RESEARCH 02.1 INTRODUCTION

Space Wires is a research project which investigates generative methods of topological optimization and computational methodology for structures that optimizes material layout within a given design space, for a given set of loads and boundary conditions such that the resulting layout meets a prescribed set of performance targets. While minimizing the distribution of material the negotiating space and structure, material distribution is minimized by developing a generative method of topological optimization. The conventional idea of distinct space and structural element is challenged by creating architectural spaces without any distinctive boundaries between structural elements and architectural elements. While in conventional building process considerable amount of material gets wasted from manufacturing to construction, Space Wires intents to overcome this challenge maximize the material usage, with minimum or no wastage.

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FILAMENTRICS

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Pattern Test

Building a Lattice structure using a 3D doodler pen

02.2 PATTERN STUDY

Our team Filamentrics with the project Spacewires investigates 3-D printed lattice structures using industrial robots and develop computational methodology capable of organizing matter in space in response to structure recovering hierarchy, high resolution and differentiation.

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02.3 CATALOGUE

A catalogue of extrusions were done using a 3-D doodler pen in order to experiment different patterns for extrusion and understanding the basic requirements in terms of nozzle angle, speed of extrusion, temperature and other parameters.

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PROTOTYPE1

PROTOTYPE1 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 4cm x 8cm TIME: 3.5 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 3m

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SPACEWIRES 02.3 CATELOGE

PROTOTYPE2

PROTOTYPE2 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 4cm x 8cm TIME: 3.5 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 3m

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PROTOTYPE3

PROTOTYPE3 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 6cm x 8cm TIME: 6.5 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 4m

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PROTOTYPE4

PROTOTYPE4 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 6cm x 8cm TIME: 11 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 10m

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PROTOTYPE5

PROTOTYPE 5 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 5cm x 8cm TIME: 11 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 14m

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02.3 CONCLUSION

•The pattern for design has to be linear and continuous. •For fabricating the desired output, the process has to be carried out from bottom to top. •While extruding, the nozzle cannot intersect with the extruded material as it would damage the already extruded parts. •For better continuous extrusion, the temperature needs to be maintained between 230oC to 250oC as it is the optimum temperature for extruding ABS plastic. However the temperature range depends on the type of plastic, for example for extruding PLA( Polylactic Acid), the optimum temperature is in the range of 180oC to 200oC.

PROTOTYPE 6 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 6cm x 6cm TIME: 6 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 6m

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•Thicker nozzle have to use to extrude thicker output, as it would be more stable and also it would give more tolerance for extrusion as it would have more surface area to stick to one another. •For faster extrusion of thicker output, a cooling system needs to be installed to cool the extruded parts to prevent it from changing the desired shape due to its material weight.

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GORHIC ONTOLOGY


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KATSUYO AOKI | JAPAN 03.1 REFERENCE

Currently, he uses ceramics as a material in his

method of expression, incorporating various decorative styles, patterns, and symbolic forms as my principal axis in creating his works.

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The decorative styles and forms he allude to and incorporate in his works each contain a story based on historical backgrounds and ideas, myths, and allegories. Their existence in the present age makes us feel many things, adoration, some sort of romantic emotions, a sense of unfruitfulness and languor from their excessiveness and vulgarity.And on the other hand, they make us feel tranquility and awe that can almost be described as religious, as well as an image as an object of worship.

03.2 GOTHIC FIGURE In order to understand Gothic Design character and philosophies of high resolution, hierarchy, savageness, changefulness, naturalism, structure etc. We assemble features of multiple objects and using agent based behavior to generate a computational based sculpture which is highly intricate with high degree of resolution and has various Gothic features in its design.

By citing such images, he feel he is able to express an – atmosphere- that is a part of the complex world in this age.In fact, the several decorative styles and forms he cite simultaneously hold divine and vulgar meaning in the present age, having an irrational quality that contradict each other, which he feel express an important aspect in the contemporary age in which we live. Also, the technique of ceramics has a tradition that has been a part of the history of decoration over a long time, and he feel the delicateness and fragile tension of the substantial material well express his concept.

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INTRODUCTION

Multi-object

high resolution details of the Gothic Church

3D Printed Model | SOLID Multi-object Generated by Code Dragon & Rocks

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Multi-object Generated by Code Seahours & Branches

SIZE : 8cm x 8cm x 16cm MATERIAL: polyamides powder


Multi-object Generated by Code Jellewfishes & Octopus

3D Printed Model | SOLID SIZE : 8cm x 8cm x 16cm MATERIAL: polyamides powder

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Multi-object Generated by Code Ants & Rocks

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Structural Analysis

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Multi-object Generated by Code

Ants & Rocks & Jellewfish & Octopus

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3D Printed Model | SOLID SIZE : 8cm x 8cm x 16cm

detail

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section

MATERIAL: polyamides powder

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Gothic Vaults

03.3 Gothic Prosthesis

In order to create algorithm script, a set of logic and principle is a primary part of the system. The project has choosen the gothic as the design intent not only because of aesthetic needs but also the form of structure has digital features.

Wells Cathedral

As a remarkable architecture style from the neo-classicism John Ruskin described “the Beautiful as a gift of God”. (Modern Painters ,April 1846).He believes that design and artistic composition follow natural laws and art comes from nature, it is an expression and interpretation of nature instead of mechanical imitation of nature limited by fabrication method or imagination of the designer. The gothic architecture represents not only an architecture style but also a systematic philosophy of beauty, creation, manufacture and etc. John Ruskin, the author of “The nature of the Gothic” believes that: “Gothic ontology is defined as a special relationship between figures and configurations, in which the figures are active parts that have a certain freedom to act, though only in relation to others and in order to form collaborative entities”.

For this reason we have developed a project in first two weeks’ workshop by combining two different figures to a new entity. This project also took Gaudi’s work Sagrada Familia church and Kris Kuksi’s sculptural work as reference in order to have a better understanding of permutation and combination. Instead of doing design and arrange every detail one after another, algorithm design has been used in this project with Multi Agent Base System- Processing. It is a new platform to think and develop the project, which could generate the outcomes with incredible high resolution details beyond our imagination. At the same time, it presents a different perspective to understand the beauty of nature. John Ruskin has summarized the characters of the Gothic architecture, which include “Changefulness” and “Naturalism”. He points out the Gothic logic is transferring the beauty of the nature to architecture. Those variable structures and ornaments blend together and follow certain rules of hierarchy, like:

Therefore, Gothic prosthesis project followed this concept. It has its own computational logic to generate a column as a building’s “Prosthesis” to replace the original one in octahedral Lady Chapel in the Wells cathedral. Basically, the computational logic was dealing with the structure data that has been analyzed. This project mainly uses vector field and stress value. It start with a simple volume as the base model and the structure of the volume will be optimized by loading test. This part could be repeated several times until we have the outstanding optimized model. Agents were always launched from the bottom of the volume and follow the vector field. Once it reaches to the high stress point, it will split into two and continue to look for the next stress point. This behavior will keep repeating until it reaches the original chapel ceiling. At the end, those agents will make ornamentations on the ceiling till the whole process ends. The output shows massive details and certain Gothic characters such as hierarchy, continues linear structure with ornamentations and so on.

“ice crystal branching out to propagate itself over a cold windowpane, reorganizing water vapor by giving it form”.

After the Prosthesis project ends we continued developing the script and tried to use the Pheromone behavior to develop different column options. The reason why Ruskin criticizes the industrial manufacture because of the mass production will replace the handcrafts and make things lose their unique values. However, with the development of 3D printing technology, sooner or later almost anyone will able to efficiently making far more complex things than the handcrafts but with less money and labor cost. Therefore, instead of making everything digitally, during the project, we were also looking for a fabrication method and trying to use existing technologies to build it.

Site

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03.4 Structural Analysis

Splitting Behaviour Structure Study of Gothic Cathedral

using multi - agent systerm to generate different hierarchy

Structure Study of Gothic Vault

Evolution of the Structure Design

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01 Script Generating whole chunk

02 Script Generating part 1

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Gothic Prosthesis Model

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INTRODUCTION

03 Script Generating part 2

04 Script Generating part 3

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The main focus of the research is the “self-organised system�.At the mean time,as an inspiration of generating a complex autopoietic system, Gothic is chosen to be the paradigm model which is of ecological beauty,hierarchy,intricacy,continuity of elements,and high resolution.We chose Gothic because we believe the nature of Gothic is fundamentally digital and Gothic is more radical than any other architectural style up to the present day in its variability. The research attempts to go deeply through the nature of Gothic and real understand the deep-seated organising methods in the Gothic system.Then a question arises—Can we emulate the Gothic system,or more accurately generate a new autopoietic system of the same feature: ecological beauty, hierarchy, intricacy, continuity of elements,and high resolution as Gothic by computational algorithm in architectural design?As a feasible algorithmic method rule-based MultiAgents System(M.A.S.) is investigated,and finally generate the computational prototypical system successfully .

High Resolution Details

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this question involves establishment of a whole process :Firstly, insure that the system is producible .Secondly,link all the data to real fabrication,which means to convert the high resolution structure into a continuous tool-path for robot.Thirdly,design the tool for materialisation and solve all the problems in real fabrication. In brief the research analyses the superiority and radical nature of Gothic architecture in a digital view and attempts to create an autopoietic system inspired by Gothic using Multi-Agent System(MAS) as well as connect the generating logic to fabrication logic and then materialise the digital outputs through robotic fabrication.

Additionally,digital materialisation is another main focus of this research since application of industrial robots in architectural construction has brought infinite possibilities to materialise the digital complexity . As we all know,modernised industrial manufactory methods shaped the anonymous and repetitive modern buildings and urban landscape and the modern aesthetic in a long time. It is indubitable that the robot would bring fundamental changes in the design discipline since it build up a bridge between computational algorithmic environment and physical reality of architecture. Thus there is another question:Can we bring the digital outputs into physical reality of architecture ? And

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03.5 Gothic Recursive Algorithmic

Recursive Beziers

Recursive Beziers Applied on Geometry

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FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY


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04.1 INTRODUCTION

As we study the gothic design philosophy, high degree of resolution and hierarchy in design were achieved with maximum expression, but were not efficient in terms of production. Present construction method using conventional building materials like concrete and steel production is very efficient; however we cannot customize design process with the level resolution and Gothic expressionism. With the system of filament extrusion, same resolution, hierarchy in design and structural optimization of the Gothic were achieved with the same production efficiency of the present construction technique. With the Space Wires system the limitations of existing 3D printing techniques can be challenged to achieve a lattice structure which has similar level of structural stability of the space frame structure however the limitations of the system can be overcome.

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04.2 MATERIAL RESEARCH

With the flaws of the conventional manufacturing and its neg-

ative effect on the ecology, we Filamentrics as a team tried to address some of its issues with the Space wires project and carried convincing research to overcome the problem and find logical solutions to the problem of construction related pollution and its effects on the environment. Besides the idea of maximizing material usage, with minimum or no wastage, we as a team looked for a material which could be suitable for extrusion, easily available and recyclable.

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Without getting into the specifics, while looking up for data in the internet related to pollution problems caused from plastic, thousands of research and data can be obtained, starting from plastics waste effecting marine life to landfill pollution etc. however very few convincing solutions of plastic recycling and reuse can be obtained. The question which I would like to ask is how a material which is one of most important innovations in the beginning of the 20th century became one its biggest problem? I guess one possible answer to this would be the irresponsible use of plastic. One convincing effort is the Mesh Mould project carried out by Norman Hack of ETH Zurich and Willi Viktor Lauer of the Future Cities Laboratory (FCL) at the Singapore- ETH Centre for Global Environmental Sustainability (SEC). In their research they have developed ‘mesh-mould’ of plastic lattice structure, robotically extruded as an alternative to conventional formwork. Recycled thermoplastic can be converted to pallets and this would act as an easily available material for extrusion.

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01 3D Printer - MakerBot 02 3D Printed ABS Plastic Model

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03 ABS Pellets

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ABS Filament

EXTRUDER â… 1.75mm filament

EXTRUDER 2 1.75mm filament

04.3 ABS PLASTIC

Following

similar footsteps with the Mesh-Mould project Spacewires project after studying different materials choose plastic as a material for fabrication as it would be suitable for extrusion. We studied different plastics and their properties and finally choose ABS plastic and HDPE for running different tests for extrusion. As initial tests to understand the behavior of materials, pallets of HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) flakes were fed into a funnel with an extrusion head, a blow torch was used to melt the plastic. However HDPE being a phase changing material, on reaction to heat behaves differently at different temperature and as a result there was no extrusion. For the second test a 3D doodler pen was used and studied, and instead of plastic flakes, filaments of ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) plastic is used as a material. To understand the material behavior a catalog of extrusions using 1.75mm ABS plastic filament was carried out to get desired outputs of 0.4mm thickness. After different material tests were carried out, the following conclusion were drawn for proper extrusion:

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EXTRUDER 3

1.75mm filament

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04.5 INDUSTRY ROBOT FABRICATION

The industrial robot processes the distinctive feature that its

mechanical arm,which can carry out rapid and highly movements,can reach a nearly infinite number of points freely in three-dimensional space.At the end of this “kinematic chain”of rotation joints a so called”end effector”can be attached.This is the tool by which the respective material process is actually defined.And in the project “SpaceWires”,it is an ABS plastic extruding nozzle.The fabrication process is composed go the digital data for controlling the robot and from the specific characteristics of the end effector that is applied.This decoupling of the “generic”kinematics and “specific”end effector fundamentally distinguishes the industrial robot from all other conventional computer-controlled production machines. Generally KUKA,ABB and Universal Robots is used in these robot-supported materialisation processes.And in the past few years,a serious of researches and practices of robotic fabrication in architecture have succeed ,all of those show the big future of the robotic fabrication.

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04.6 PROTOTYPING

The limitations of a 3-D printer for printing in layers is most

3-D printers available in the market today are limited to only three axes- X, Y, and Z axis. In order to challenge the layering method of current 3-D printing technique to print lattice structure which more often requires more than 3-axes to be printed, we used an industrial robot with 6-axes. The robot with its multiple axis has the intelligence to use the best axis to print a particular part of the lattice structure. This gives an edge to the printing process which normal 3-D printers lacks. The robot prints each specific part with a particular axis, and if for some reason while printing any particular part, more than one axis of the robot gets aligned in exact same directional angle, it causes an error in the system called singularity. This is probably one of the few setbacks while using a robot, as the robot doesn’t have enough intelligence to decide which would be the most suitable axis to print the particular part. Hopefully with recent developments in artificial intelligence and robotics, this complication can be overcome. PROTOTYPE1 | SOLID SIZE : 7cm x 7cm TIME: 1.5 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 4m

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04.6 PROTOTYPING

For initial prototyping different logics were tested, initially a continuous tool path was tested to check the uniformity in the extrusion. For the second test logic a lattice structure was tested in order to understand the different parameters like speed of extrusion, temperature, speed of robot movement and pressure for the cooling system.

PROTOTYPE2 | SPACEFRAME(SINGLE LAYER) SIZE : 4cm x 9cm TIME: 1.5 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 0.7m

Robot Fabrication

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As the third prototype it was tested if both the logics of continuous and lattice pattern can be combined into the same system.

PROTOTYPE3 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 4cm x 12cm TIME: 4 HOURS MATERIAL: 1.7mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 2m

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Robot Fabrication

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In order to fabricate with the robot, it was important to develop the extruder for the project needs. According to different fabrication requirements, a series of extruder prototypes have been developed along with the project progress. It was not only about technical and making but also exploring the matters of digital fabrication. The first prototype was directly setting up the doodler on the robot arm for initial Toolpath testing. Because the extrusion didn’t have any external switch for controlling hence the test was failed to print out any lattice structure. Therefore, for second prototype we dissembled the doodler and recognized components to have a better compact extruder because the extruder needs to be smaller otherwise it could limit the robot. The doodler switch has been modified and extended for controlling. After several tests we realized it was impossible to control the switch manually and it should be synchronized with robot movement.

For all those matters, Arduino has been used since the third prototype has made, which was controlling the temperature and the motor speed. For getting a better synchronizing between Arduino and robot. The project has been using “Firefly� as the interactive software for the connection between tools and Robot. In order to achieve bigger prototype also solving the problems such as size, strength and precision after the first time project has achieve the lattice fabrication. Increase the tolerance by changing the filament and modify the nozzle tips was the solutions. The new extruder was use gears structure for more power to extrude 3mm filament with new a series of nozzles with different thickness . It provide different options and deeply effect the fabrication outputs.

For getting better extrusion we also did research on the ideal temperature for the plastic extrusion, which was in the range of 230- 250 for ABS filament. Such as in terms Of material properties, when the temperature was around 230 degrees Celsius the material texture will maintain matting. Once the temperature over the 250 degree Celsius, the material texture will become glossy. Keeping the temperature in a stable level will benefit the fabrication quality. Because once the temperature beyond 260 degree Celsius, it will melt the plastic too much. In addition, motor speed needs to be controlled to achieve more precision.

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0.4mm

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04.7 NOZZLE

Lattice Fabrication by Robot with Thicker Nozzle

With further experiments with the extruder prototype, a cata-

log of nozzles were developed and tested for different design conditions. With the experiment it was realized that the angle of the nozzle tip limits the design as while extruding the lattice if the angle of the lattice is bigger than the angle of the nozzle then the nozzle intersects with the extruded part and damages it. To overcome the problem new nozzles with varied extrusion thickness were developed with much stepper angles of less than 15째. The length of the nozzles were also made longer for providing more flexibility to print.

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PROTOTYPING USIDOFashdviujhviuasdfuaweiofiwehfoiehwofiahregaeroigjaoirjgoairegjoierjgoirejgoijrgoierjgoerigjoriejgerigjoriejgoierjgoirjegojergwheuifhweiuhfiuewhfiuhewifuhwieufiuwhruihguirhgiuhreiughierghuieurhgiurehguihrgiuyewuiryuieyruiyeioweiuraoiergiuerhgiuerhgiuhguiehrguaeirughirueg. aeiruhgiuerhgiuaehrgiuheriugheirughierhguerhgierughieruhgieruhgiuerhgoiuawerfaegkrvjrhlgiheroptiu4peotiujortihjs;klxj;szhdfgvlxkdjfbndfkgijvau’soigj;sporeit’peoirgt’soiejrgos;dfgjnlgkjnfg/ az’fgjs;dklnsfgbdklsnfgklsdfngkldfngkndkf. USIDOFashdviujhviuasdfuaweiofiwehfoiehwofiahregaeroigjaoirjgoairegjoierjgoirejgoijrgoierjgoerigjoriejgerigjoriejgoierjgoirjegojergwheuifhweiuhfiuewhfiuhewifuhwieufiuwhruihguirhgiuhreiughierghuieurhgiurehguihrgiuyewuiryuieyruiyeioweiuraoiergiuerhgiuerhgiuhguiehrguaeirughirueg. PROTOTYPE4 | SPACEFRAME USIDOFashdviujhviuasdfuaweiofiwehfoiehwofiahregaeroigjaoirSIZE : 10cm x 22cm x 8cm jgoairegjoierjgoirejgoijrgoierjgoerigjoriejgerigjoriejgoierjgoirjegoTIME: 0.5 HOURS jergwheuifhweiuhfiue RADIUS: 4mm

MATERIAL: 3mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 4.5m

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PROTOTYPE5 | SPACEFRAME(Deformation) SIZE : 10cm x 22cm x 8cm TIME: 0.8 HOURS RADIUS: 4mm MATERIAL: 3mm ABS filament(black) MATERIAL COST: 3.5m

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SPACEWIRES PLASTIC EXTRUDER SIZE : 5cm x 5cm x 7cm SERIOUS OF NOZZLE COOLING SYSTERM

CONTROL BOX(3D PRINTED) SIZE : 10cm x 7cm x 4cm IMPORT/OUTPUT: 12V MOTOR CONTROL TEMPERATURE CONTROL

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Fabrication Process

Fabrication Process

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PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE1 | SPACEFRAME SIZE : 70cm x 35cm x 30cm TIME: 40 HOURS RADIUS: 4mm MATERIAL: 3mm ABS filament(white) MATERIAL COST: 2kg

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INTRODUCTION

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PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE1 | SPACEFRAME

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PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE2 | GOTHIC SPACEFRAME

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PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE2 | GOTHIC SPACEFRAME SIZE : 60cm x 30cm x 20cm TIME: 25 HOURS RADIUS: 4mm MATERIAL: 3mm ABS filament(white) MATERIAL COST: 1.2kg

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DIGITAL PROTOTYPE


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05.1 INTRODUCTION

For the process of generating the design instead of using 3D

modeling software to generate the design, a computational algorithm was developed which would generate the design according to the algorithm. The final outcome of the design would be governed by the algorithm. However, the logic on which the design would behave will be determined by the logic in which the algorithm itself will be designed. In a way, every time the algorithm will be applied to the design it will produce different results with the same behavior. This gives the design the advantage of not being completely controlled and rather be more generative but at the same time establishing its behavioral pattern within the design concept.

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PROTOTYPE 1 | COLUMN Structural Topological Optimization

05.2 STRUCTURAL OPTIMASITION

In the initial design,we use topology optimisation to form-finding. Topology optimisation is a mathematical approach that optimises material layout within a given design space, for a given set of loads and boundary conditions such that the resulting layout meets a prescribed set of performance targets. Using topology optimisation, designers can find the best concept design that meets the design requirements. Specifically, we design a basic simple geometry which used to be set load and support conditions on it. Because we studied the space frame which is basically a tension system cantilever structure is chosen to be the fund

amental shape. After applying topology optimisation, iterations of simple geometry with different load conditions were repeated to get different results. All the digital structure data can be visualisation. For example, stress vector field can be visualised as a collection of arrows with a given magnitude and direction to show magnitude and direction of the forces

PROTOTYPE 1 | COLUMN Structural Topological Optimization

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05.3 STIGMERGY BEHAVIOUR

Stigmergy is a mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions.The principle is that the trace left in the environment by an action stimulates the performance of a next action, by the same or a different agent. In that way, subsequent actions tend to reinforce and build on each other, leading to the spontaneous emergence of coherent, apparently systematic activity.

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Structural Optimization based on Stigmergy Behaviour

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PROTOTYPE 1 | COLUMN

Spaceframe Column based on M.A.S index controlur

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Stigmergy Behaviour

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Agents_in_Order

Printable Distance

PROTOTYPE 2-1 Spaceframe Generated by script using a continous line

Organize_TracePoint

Toolpath Generated by Multi-Agent System control point and index were used in this system

Transfroming based on stress data

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PROTOTYPE 2-2 Reorganised Spaceframe based on the stress information

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PROTOTYPE 3 | Vector Field of a Simple Set-up

05.4 STRUCTURAL ITERATIONS

In order to apply our logic in the architectural scale topological optimization was applied to design an architectural chunk.To get the desired basic shape to apply the algorithm iterations of simple geometry with different load, conditions were repeated to get different results for stress flow and the desired structure information was used for the setup of the agent behavior for the generation of the chunk.

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PROTOTYPE 4 | INTENT 10METER CHUNK Compression and Tension Vector Field

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PROTOTYPE 4 | INTENT 10METER CHUNK

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PROTOTYPE 4 | INTENT 10METER CHUNK Intend Fabrication Method

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PROTOTYPE 4 | INTENT 10METER CHUNK

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PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test Vector Field

PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test

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PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test

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PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test

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PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test

PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test

PROTOTYPE 5 | Dom Test PROTOTYPE 6 | INTENT 3METRE CHUNK

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PROTOTYPE 6 | INTEND 3METRE CHUNK

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PROTOTYPE 6 | INTEND 3METRE CHUNK

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PROTOTYPE 7

PROTOTYPE 7

PROTOTYPE 8 | 15METRE CHUNK

PROTOTYPE 7

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STRUCTURAL ITERATION

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SYSTEMTRIC CONTROL


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06.1 INTRODUCTION

It

is necessary to emphasis that the concept “learn from Gothic”in this research is not simply extract elements,or so called”figures” from the Gothic form to do “form-finding” nor design gothic architecture in parametric methods. When setting the “parameters”, new artificial definitions, abstract geometric shapes or pure imagination can all be used . What the project really learn from Gothic is the way every elements in Gothic grows ,reproduces, interacts with each other and adapts itself to the external environment ——the process of evolution and development of systems.Then,there comes the vital part in a designed system——“systematicness”.Relationship can be interpreted as the “relationship” between various objects in a system or “relationship” between various systems.

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Index Organization

using control point and index to organize the path for fabrication

Reference

06.2 INDEX CONTROL

For

the initial computational logic, index of points were used to generate a continuous pattern. The agents follow tension and compression vector field and does the weaving behavior, and once it reaches the boundary of the vector field it turns back and builds the next layer. To get random shape the agent will not stop at the end of the last point but will continue to the end of the boundary of the vector field and then return and look for the existing path to make connections. If there are no existing points it will generate a new point to connect the existing path. With this behavior the basic space frame is achieved in the design.

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Index Organization

using control point and index to organize the path for fabrication

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Spring&Particle Control System

Spring&Particle Control System

06.2 PARTICLE&SPRING SYSTEM

However, space frame being very monotonous and hav-

ing low resolution, particle spring was used to link the density of the space frame to the stress value to make it more topologically optimized.

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06.3 VECTORFIELD

To develop the computational logic further. The agents still

have certain pattern but instead of building the structure in layers it builds micro patterns while following the vector field. This enabled it to overcome the monotonous nature of the space frame in the design and more hierarchy and resolution could be established without compromising the mechanical strength of the structure as well as maintaining material optimization. As mentioned before, similar steps were followed of continuous iterations of structural optimization to get the desired structural data for the generation of the chunk.

Simulation of Particle & Spring System

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06.4 GOTHIC RECURSIVE

The design system of the

“Space Wires” is a combination of multi-systems and each of them is produced based on the form of another and interact with each other under certain conditions. To establish more control over the design the idea of recursive is infused in the design. Initially ,the first hierarchy of the design system is generated by agents that follow the vector field while effect one another with behaviours of cohesion ,separation and alignment. Secondly ,each agent will read the structure data and branches to generate a bezier curve between the former structure layer based on the structure information.The branching behaviour will continuous recursively and finally generate a whole form of fine recursive beziers of continuity and hierarchy.The behaviours are not isolated,they exchange in different situations and are continuous. Additionally to deal with different situations and act different functions ,we add multi-behaviours into the system so that “wire”keeps changing behaviour when it runs through the space,forming solid for columns and floors ,surface for walls and space frame for the structure part by moving in different patterns.It can also do decoration at certain parts by using different behaviour. In this case,the designer is not controlling anything, but somehow everything is under control.And the final system is a mixture of various behaviours and multi-subsystems that has the similar spirits in hierarchy and structure of a Gothic system and shows a high resolution of digitalisation.

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Generation Logic of First Order Hierarchy

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First Order Hierarchy

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Second Order Hierarchy

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Third Order Hierarchy

Follow recursive beziers field to generate minimal structure

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Fourth Order Hierarchy | Spaceframe

Generate Spaceframe Based on the formal structure

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06.5 CONCLUSION To conclude the research until now and evolving the design processes,the aim is to propose a prototypical Gothic system that is autopoietic, hierarchical , structural optimised and of high resolution in digital way with the deep-seated understanding of the nature of Gothic ,and bring the complex computational prototypes into physical reality of architecture through robotic fabrication.Through the research,theoretical readings and examples of architectural projects was investigated to build up the theoretical base,and this argument has been applied to the design project and it proves that it could constitute an design method as a process from computational generating to physical materialising.The emulating digital Gothic system is modelled via programmed agents that respond to the structural information(force-field,stress data ,etc.) and keep self-organising to form the optimal structure. Additionally,physical and computational prototypes were explored as design tool to help develop and finally materialise the system.For further development,based on the whole design process, the computational prototypical system can be continuously perfected by advancing the algorithmic methodology to create diverse expressions of�Digital Gothic System�;And with improvement of tools and the maturity of fabrication processes ,higher precision and resolution can be achieved.

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INTRODUCTION PROTOTYPE 9 | 15METRE CHUNK


INTRODUCTION PROTOTYPE 9 | 15METRE CHUNK


PROTOTYPE 9 | 15METRE CHUNK


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PROTOTYPICAL MATERILIZATION


07.1 3METERS PAVILLION FOR FABRICATION

In order to improve and realize this idea for fabricate buildings, we start to apply the system on architecture scale object. The goal is to build a 3M Chunk which we design with computational methods and fabricate using a bigger industrial robot. We like to use thicker plastic nozzle to extruder more material providing strength for the structure.

PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication Structure Generated by code | cutting pieces

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PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication


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PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication

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07.2 CUTTING PIECES

PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication

PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication Structure Generated by code | cutting pieces

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PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication cutting pieces

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07.3 FABRICATION WITH ABB 160-145

PROTOTYPE 10 | 3METRE CHUNK for Robot Fabrication

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APPENDIX


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AKNOWLEDGE We would like to express our gratitude to tutors Manuel Jimenez Garcia and Gilles Restin for their generous advice and support in both the research and design projects throughout the year as well as our report tutor Tom Trevatt for his kind help on completing this article.Particular gratitude is also due to our software assistant Vicente ,who have spent a lot of time with us testing the robot and fix the technical matters.We would also like extend our sincere appreciation to Vincent Hygh from AAC and William Bondin who supported us all along the project.

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Nan Jiang | Shanghai,China Tongji University The Bartlett School of Architecture | UCL Email:Nanjiang.uk@gmail.com

Yiwei Wang | Beijing,China Beijing University of Technology The Bartlett School of Architecture | UCL Email:vvxmaseve@gmail.com

Yichao Chen | Shanghai,China Chelsea College of Arts | UAL The Bartlett School of Architecture | UCL Email:chyc8896@gmail.com

Zeeshan Yunus Ahmed | Guwahati, India S R M University The Bartlett School of Architecture | UCL Email:zeeshan.y.ahmed@gmail.com

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