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University of Westminster Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design Department of Architecture

Environmental Performance of Strata SE1 London

MSc_Architecture and Environmental Design 2018-19 Sem 2&3 Thesis Project Module Yiran Feng September 2019 London, United Kingdom


Abstract

In the development of modern urbanisation, with the continuous growth of population, the utilisation rate of land area is becoming more tensely. High-rise buildings have become the development trend of future buildings. Thermal comfort play an important role in the design process and performance assessment of buildings, and can considerably improve the wellbeing of residents while minimising energy costs. This research questions how thermal comfort can be balanced to solve overheating problems in high-rise residential building in base case Strata, SE1 London. This investigation developed guidelines applicable to compact high-rise buildings in London. The methodology assumes different scenarios of possible growth with no obstruction. Simulations and manual calculations were employed for analysing different orientations for a typical tower block. The objective of the study was to find a balance thermal performance for different orientations in order to address challenging achieve sufficient requirements original scenario in this projects. The results of thermal requirements show the difference in size of the windows between high-rise and low-rise contexts. Moreover, in thermal performance the apartments in the high-rise context showed lower temperatures due to air movement. Overall, the research presents, through design guidelines, multiple scenarios to find a balance for typical climate in London, which is to keep thermal comfort in winter and excess heat gains in summer, in order to minimise energy consumption and maximise comfort.


CONTENTS Abstract

Chapter 3 Context

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3.1 Context

Chapter 1

3.2 Building Background_Strata SE1

Introduction

13-15

Chapter 2 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

019

2.2 Principle of Natural Ventilation

019

2.3 The forms of natural ventilation in contemporary buildings adopted

020

2.4 Natural ventilation affected by wind pressure

022

2.5 Natural Ventilation affected by wind pressure and thermal pressure

023

2.6 Application of Natural Ventilation and Mechanical Ventilation in Architecture

024

2.7 Precedent

033 033

3.3 London Climate Analysis

034

3.4 Strata Design Strategies affected by climate

036

3.5 Microclimate Analysis

037

Chapter 4 FieldWork of Indoor Environment 4.1 Interview and Observation

043

4.2 Spot Measurement

044

4.3 Conclusion

046

Chapter 5 Indoor Environmental Analysis 5.1 UDI Analysis

049

5.2 Daylight Factor

049

5.3 Sunlight Hour

050

5.4 Illuminance

051

025

5.5 Conclusion

052

2.7.1 St.George’s Wharf Tower

025

Chapter 6 Analytical Work

2.7.1.1 General Background

025

2.7.1.2 Design Features

026

2.7.1.3 Wind Environment Analysis

026

2.7.1.4 Ventilations in St. George’s Wharf

028

2.7.1.5 Perforated aluminium blinds features

028

055 055 056 056 058 058 065 066 071 075 077 085

2.7.1.6 Sliding Windows

029

2.7.1.7 Fresh Air Supply Featuring Heat Recovery

029

6.1 Indoor Overheating Assessment 6.2 Daily Routine 6.3 TAS modelling 6.4 Studio Fabric Parameters and Internal Gains 6.5 Original Scenario_Studio 6.6 Original Scenario Results 6.7 Studio Scenario With Heating On 6.8 Studio Scenario with different aperture type 6.9 Scenario with different aperture type and shutter 6.10 2 Bedroom Flat Fabric Parameters and Internal Gains 6.11 Original Scenario for 2 Bedroom flat_Bedroom 6.12 Original Scenario for 2 Bedroom flat_Living Room 6.13 Winter Scenario with heating on for Bedroom and Living room 6.14 2_Bedroom Scenario with different aperture type

2.7.1.8 The features of Heating Recovery Ventilation

030

7. Conclusion

099

2.7.1.9 Conclusion

Reference List

030

100

List of Figures

102

090 094


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my gratitude to all those who helped me during the writing of this thesis. A special acknowledgement should be shown to Dr Rosa Schiano Phan, from whose lectures I benefited greatly. I am particularly indebted to Reader Joana Carla and Dr Rosa Schiano Phan, who gave me kind encouragement and useful instructions all through my writing. In addition, I am particularly grateful to my neighbours for their help in the required work of my thesis research.


Chapter

01

Introduction


Yiran Feng


Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction As a global city, the population of London has grown 7.5% in five years. Inner London’s population has increased by 300,000 since 2011 to 3.5 million while Outer London’s has increased by 350,000 to 5.3 million. Outer London’s population is 60% of the total. These numbers are projected to grow to 3.7 and 5.6 million by 2021, respectively. (TrustLondon, 2019) As the population of London grows, thus the situation is that housing demanding is also growing at the same time. As a consequence, high-rise buildings have become the development trend for current and future buildings. At the same time, the energy consumption in high-rise buildings is becoming more prominent making energy-saving designs for buildings more importance. In order to achieve the 80% reduction in CO2 emissions target by 2050 by the UK Government (Innovate UK, 2014), energy efficient design of building is an essential requirement. According to the recent data by Lawrence and Keime (2016), emissions from buildings accounts 47% of the total CO2 emission indirectly or directly, while non-domestic buildings contribute around 18%. Based on the UK government's strategy for sustainable building development, the contribution of building environment design to climate change is the most concerned topic in the current construction industry. Natural ventilation as the main factor in people’s living, is to achieve healthy and comfortable environments. The emphasis of this thesis is on natural ventilation and thermal comfort of contemporary high-rise residential buildings in London. The emergence of air conditioning enables people to actively control the living environment instead of passively adapting to nature as before, thus gradually weakening the natural ventilation. Today, the global energy shortage is chasing energy conservation. In order to maintain good indoor air quality, the traditional building ecological technology of natural ventilation is brought back into modern architecture.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT For consideration of safety or aesthetic, natural ventilation is a problem to be considered in high rise buildings exposed in London. In contemporary buildings in London, total glazing curtain wall are used in most facades of architecture. At the same time, total glazing must ensure occupants safety and comfort. Although it is important that occupants can enjoy a wider view and sufficient natural light, indoor thermal comfort also needs to be guaranteed at the same time. Therefore, the window opening rate of natural ventilation needs to be explored. If the natural ventilation is insufficient, the residents thermal comfort experience will be reduced at the same time. Meanwhile, using mechanical ventilation system increases energy consumption.

1.3 Aim of the study This thesis presents a research to compile author's living experience as a resident living in Strata SE1, one of high-rise buildings in London. Due to the author's dissatisfaction with living experience in Strata, through interviewed several other neighbours, the results about the living conditions were unsatisfactory there. During living experience, natural ventilation is insufficient in Strata. It triggers the study of thermal comfort of high-rise residential buildings.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

1.3.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5 SUMMARISED RESULTS

How is thermal comfort and occupants satisfaction achieved in Strata interior through improving natural ventilation?

The collected data demonstrated the indoor thermal comfort is better in overcast London. By the contrary, the indoor thermal comfort in sunny days exceeds the indoor thermal comfort criteria. For the results of the fieldwork, there is an efficient comparison between the indoor climate and the urban climate of London. Base case studies show that the indoor temperature of Strata is higher than the urban temperature. The research finding of this thesis is that it is an efficient way to adjust the window opening rate and methods of high-rise buildings in different layers by natural ventilation to maintain the thermal balance of the indoor environment.

1.3.2 HYPOTHESIS The different windows opening ratio in different story for natural ventilation are key points to provide thermal comfort and occupant satisfaction. 1.4 METHODOLOGY The methodology adopted to answer the research question and prove the hypothesis is divided into three steps. The first step involves the detailed study and literature review on ventilation methods on high-rise buildings in London. Through literature research, the benefit and drawbacks of ventilation methods for highrise residential buildings in London can be understood. The natural ventilation is taken as the main consideration in Strata. Therefore, the literature review focuses on the ventilation performance of high-rise buildings in the London climate.

1.6 STRUCTURE The thesis is divided into three sections 1. Literature Review 2. Fieldwork and digital analysis 3. Improving Strategies

The second step includes the base case studies, fieldworks, micro-climate analysis and indoor environments study. Grasshopper and TAS are used to simulate and verify strata's indoor overheating. The final step covers Strata indoor environment analysis and summary, proposes strategies to improve indoor thermal comfort. The ultimate goal is to provide occupants better living environments.

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Yiran Feng


Chapter 1 Introduction

The Literature Review is linked to the description of the research work. This section is divided into two parts. Firstly it gives the general background of the high-rise residential buildings in London, their benefits and liabilities associated with the built fabric. Secondly it introduces the use of ventilation in high rise residential buildings, its historical background in high rise residential building design. The fieldwork section is the main research done on the case study of Strata SE1 and discussing the field study and numerical investigation carried in the indoor environment performance. It presents the research work done during the visit in Strata in May 2019.. Simulation software grasshopper and TAS are used to simulate Strata indoor environment for digital analysis. The purpose is to compare and verify with fieldwork. The last section, Suggestions for improvement were made through some literature review and software simulations.

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Chapter

02

Literature Review


Yiran Feng


Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW This literature review throws the light on to explain the problem statement and the reasons for choosing this topic with further clarification of research issues and scope of work. This study is build up on the contemporary residential buildings design of ventilation in London and current trend being adopted. This brings about the technical challenges designers face in devising a strategy appropriate enough to satisfy the residents or occupants. Moreover, it provides a discussion about indoor proportions and design strategies of contemporary high rise residential buildings. This study chooses natural ventilation to study based on natural ventilation in addition to effectively reducing the indoor temperature, saving conventional energy and reducing environmental pollution. Furthermore, fresh air can be introduced into the room and pollutants can be discharged in time to greatly improve the indoor environmental quality. The study is done in a systematic manner to advocate the problem statement. The basic objective of this study is to evaluate the indoor environment in Strata and use the information to concern about strategies. RESEARCH QUESTIONS How is thermal comfort and occupants satisfaction achieved in Strata interior through improving natural ventilation?

2.2 Principle of Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation refers to the use of air temperature difference caused by thermal pressure or wind pressure to promote air flow and ventilation, which is a traditional building thermal protection technology. In terms of natural ventilation, there are two main reasons for air flow in buildings: wind pressure and temperature difference between indoor and outdoor. These two factors can be affected individually or indirectly. Wind is caused by the pressure difference in the atmosphere. Because of the pressure difference that occurs through the building, the air flows into the room from the windward window gap and other voids, while the indoor air is discharged from the leeward face orifice, thus forming the natural ventilation. According to the formula of hydrodynamics, if there is pressure difference △ p on both sides of the orifice on the outer wall of a building, air will flow through the vent, and the resistance to be overcome when air flows through the vent is equal to △ p (see formula 1), which is the principle of natural ventilation.(T.S Larsen, P. Heiselberg, 2006) △ p= ξPV²/2 △ p= Pressure difference on both sides of vent(Pa) V= Speed of air passing through vent(m/s) P= Density of air (kg/m³) ξ = Partial resistance coefficient of vents According to air volume formula Q(m³/s) Q=vF =Fμ√2 △ p/p μ=Flow coefficient of vent F=Area of vents ㎡

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Chapter 2 Literature Review From the formula, as long as the pressure difference △ p on both side of the vent and the area F of the vent are known, the natural ventilation volume Q through the vent can be obtained. The size of natural ventilation Q varies with the increase of pressure difference △ p. Pressure difference △ p can be divided into hot pressure and wind pressure, so natural ventilation has different forms accordingly. (T.S Larsen, P. Heiselberg, 2006)

2.3 The forms of natural ventilation in contemporary buildings adopted Natural ventilation affected by thermal pressure When the indoor and outdoor temperatures are different, the air densities P are not equal, and different pressure difference △ p is formed at different indoor and outdoor heights. Therefore, the air flow through the wall opening, forming natural convection, because the pressure difference △ pr=gh(pw-pn) is formed due to different temperatures. Thus this natural convection is defined as natural ventilation under thermal pressure.( M.Fordam, 2000)

Figure 2.3.1 Natural Ventilation affected by thermal pressure

According to the difference of height between vents, it can be divided into one-sided ventilation and two-sided ventilation under thermal pressure. As shown in (Fig. 2.3.2,Fig.2.3.3), according to the causes of different indoor and outdoor temperatures, it can be divided into: 1.Heat dissipation by internal heat sources, as shown in Fig. 2.3.2 (a) 2.Heat gain by solar radiation, as shown in Fig. 2.3.3 (b)

Fig.2.3.2(a) One-sided ventilation (heat dissipation by internal heat source)

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Fig.2.3.3(b) Double-sided ventilation (heat source from solar radiation)

Yiran Feng


Chapter 2 Literature Review Natural ventilation affected by wind pressure When outdoor air flows through buildings, a stagnation zone is formed on the windward side. The dynamic pressure decreases, the static pressure increases, and the aerodynamic shadow zone is formed on the leeward side. If tn=tw, there is no thermal pressure on both sides of the ventilation vent on the building surface, only the difference of air pressure â–ł pf exists, which forms the flow of air. (M.Fordam, 2000) This is the natural ventilation affected by wind pressure, as shown in Figure 2.3.4.

Figure 2.3.4 Natural ventilation affected by wind pressure

According to the different air direction and the location of the vent, it can be divided into onesided ventilation and two-sided ventilation. See figs. 2.3.5 and 2.3.6 (a), (b) (a) The figure of signal-side ventilation (b) The figure of double-sides ventilation

Figure (a) 2.3.5 Single side Ventilation

Figure (b) 2.3.6 Two-Sided Ventilation

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Chapter 2 Literature Review Natural Ventilation affected by wind pressure and thermal pressure The simultaneous action of wind pressure and heat pressure on a building. There is still a pressure difference â–ł p in the vent of the building exterior wall, and the pressure difference â–ł p is equal to the difference between the residual pressure of the vent and the indoor and outdoor wind pressures. Natural ventilation, which is affected by both wind pressure and hot pressure, is the air convection formed by this differential pressure. Because the wind pressure is affected by weather, outdoor wind direction, building shape, surrounding environment and other factors. When wind pressure and heat pressure act together, it is not a simple linear superposition. (M.Fordam, 2000)

Figure 2.3.7 Natural ventilation affected by wind pressure and thermal pressure

2.4 Relationship between Natural Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Based on Humphery's summary of the results of field investigation on thermal comfort in 36 regions, a linear relationship between indoor thermal neutral temperature and outdoor average temperature in buildings with free-running natural ventilation is proposed. For buildings heated or refrigerated, the relationship is complex. As shown in Figure 6, this study is the first to discover the relationship between neutral temperature and outdoor climate, so it is widely used in the field of thermal comfort research.( M.A Humphery, 2002)

Figure 2.4.1 Linear relationship between indoor temperature and outdoor temperature

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Yiran Feng


Chapter 2 Literature Review Humphrey and Nicol analysed the relationship between indoor neutral temperature and outdoor climate in ASHREA RP-884 database and Humphrey field survey database. The relationship between indoor neutral temperature and outdoor monthly mean temperature of buildings with free running natural ventilation is determined. (J.F Nicol, M.A Humphery, 2002) Tc=13.5+0.54To Tc=Neutral temperature(℃) To= monthly mean of the outdoor temperature (℃) For the above model, only the effect of temperature on human thermal comfort is considered, but the effect of wind and relative humidity on human thermal comfort is not considered. Therefore, it cannot fully reflect the thermal comfort of people under natural ventilation or mechanical ventilation. The following will further analyse the impact of wind speed on human comfort.

2.5 Effect of Air Flow Velocity on Human Thermal Comfort Richard and Foutain have conducted a lot of experiments on the compensation effect of wind speed on temperature, trying to find an acceptable upper limit of wind speed under thermal comfort conditions. Expected wind speeds at different temperatures and humidities are obtained through thermal comfort experiments at different combinations of temperature and air velocity. (Richard A. 1999) (Foutain M. 1994)

Figure 2.5.1 Expected wind speed at different temperatures and humidities

There are two conclusions via these experiments 1. When the relative humidity exceeds 70%, it will cause discomfort. When the air temperature rises, the experiencer feels more humid. When the temperature reaches 28 C, the experiencer feels more humid, but the increase of wind speed can effectively reduce people's humidity. The tolerable air temperature decreases by 0.4 C for every 10% increase in relative humidity. 2. The higher the temperature, the less sensitive the human body is to wind speed. However, people have a maximum tolerance limit for air velocity. According to the experimental results, it is suggested that the wind speed should not exceed 0.8 m/s. But under natural ventilation conditions, when the indoor temperature is higher, the experimenter hopes to achieve higher wind speed. Usually the wind speed of 2-3m/s is acceptable. (Foutain M. 1994) Thus, raising the wind speed cannot only reduce the temperature, but also reduce the sense of humidity.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.6 Application of Natural Ventilation and Mechanical Ventilation in Architecture

For buildings in many areas, full natural ventilation is not suitable for every season. The natural ventilation of buildings must be assisted by mechanical devices, or completely natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation should be exchanged according to different periods and seasons. Therefore, the natural ventilation of buildings can be divided into two modes: complete natural ventilation and mechanically assisted natural ventilation. Complete natural ventilation depends on the action of wind pressure and heat pressure. Mechanical assisted natural ventilation is an indoor and outdoor air convection formed by the combination of thermal pressure and mechanical power caused by temperature difference. Compared with full natural ventilation, although the mechanical devices used as auxiliary power in buildings consume a certain amount of energy, the natural ventilation can achieve better results by reorganising the air flow through such devices and even forcing the air flow to change direction within the ventilation range. As a good example, Jubilee, the main building of the University of Nottingham, UK has two ventilation measures: when the outdoor climate is mild, the air flow is guided by the concave entrance of the atrium, through the upper opening louvers of the entrance to the atrium, and then discharged by the glass louvers on the roof of the other end of the atrium, which is a completely natural ventilation mode. In the extreme weather season, the doors and windows of the building are closed, and fresh air is introduced into the air duct through the mechanical ventilation and heat recovery device of the roof wind tower. It enters the sandwich space of each floor and enters the room with the assistance of the low-pressure divergent device of the floor. As a result, exhaust gas is discharged through the air pumping effectively between corridor and staircase, and eventually returns to the upper part of the wind tower. After heat recovery and evaporative cooling device, the exhaust gas is discharged by the air bucket. This building adopts mechanically assisted natural ventilation mode.ďźˆWorld Architecture,2004) The above-mentioned natural ventilation method makes the combination of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation effective, and is used comprehensively in the building, which will undoubtedly greatly improve the effectiveness of natural ventilation and save energy more effectively.

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Yiran Feng


Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.7 Precedent Natural Ventilations in high-rise residential buildings in London To study the natural ventilation in high-rise residential buildings in London, a brief introduction to natural ventilation is made. This incorporates the building types and ventilation strategies being used in high rise residential buildings specifically. According to Ethridge’s research on natural ventilation, the UK has a tradition of naturally ventilated single-family dwellings, which goes back much more than fifty years. It is only about less than 150 years ago when mechanical means for cooling were introduced (Etheridge, 2012). Re-introducing natural ventilation, a traditional building ecological technology into modern architecture is more important than ever. Natural ventilation cannot only effectively cool the indoor environment, but also it can save conventional energy and reduce environmental pollution, while also greatly improving the quality of indoor environment. In some large-scale buildings, because of the long ventilation path, the flow resistance is larger. It is often not enough to rely solely on natural wind pressure and thermal pressure to achieve natural ventilation. For cities with serious air and noise pollution, direct natural ventilation will also bring outdoor polluted air and noise into the room, which is not conducive to human health. According to the Guardian report, the new data is an update of the London Atmospheric Emission Inventory, which now includes data from 2016, the latest year available. It shows 2 million people living in areas with toxic air, including 400,000 children. (Guardian, 2019) In this case, the mechanical assisted natural ventilation system is often used. Compared with the natural ventilation of multi-storey buildings, the natural ventilation of high-rise buildings has its particularity. The vertical distribution of wind pressure is beneficial to the natural ventilation of high-rise buildings, but high wind pressure makes the doors and windows of buildings difficult to open, and also brings inconvenience to the indoor use of buildings. In winter, it will take away a lot of heat, which is not conducive to the requirements of thermal insulation.

2.7.1 St.George’s Wharf Tower

2.7.1.1 General Background The tower, One St.George’s Wharf locates in Vauxhall comprising 233 flats of one to four bedrooms. The total height is 181 meters, it is the tallest residential building in London. Designed by Boarday Malyan. Located on a prominent bend of the River Thames. Each apartment is designed to maximise the unrivalled panoramic views across London, with full height glazing throughout. (Boarday Malyan,2019) The building construction was completed in January 2014. Figure 2.7.1 St. George’s Wharf Tower( Sources by https://www.multiplex.global/ projects/the-tower-one-st-george-wharflondon-uk/)

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Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.7.1.2 Design Features The tower’s floor plan design (Figure 2.7.1.2) is based on the shape of a Catherine wheel and is typically divided into five apartments for each floor with separating walls radiating out from the central core. There are sky gardens providing residents with a semi-external space stepped forward from the pure circular plan. The building is divided into three parts, the communal facilities of the building including the lobby, business lounge, gym, spa and swimming pool. The middle part contains most of the apartments. For the upper section where the façade reduces in diameter to provide 360-degree terraces and a wind turbines that tops the structure. The wind turbine, manufactured by British green-technology company Matilda's Planet, powers the tower's common lighting, whilst creating virtually no noise or vibration. In comparison to buildings of similar size, the tower requires one-third of the energy, and produces between one half and two-thirds of typical carbon dioxide emissions. It is triple-glazed to minimise heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer, with low-e glazing and ventilated blinds between the glazing to further reduce heat gain from direct sunlight.(Yudu, 2012)

Figure 2.7.1.2 Floor Plan of St. George’s Wharf (Sources by https://www.berkeleygroup.co.uk/media/pdf/n/b/st-georgetower-one-st-george-wharf-platinum-collection-2.pdf)

2.7.1.3 Wind Environment Analysis For the above examples, CFD simulation is used to analyse the different layer heights of Vauxhall tower and wind velocity of different storeys. Figure (2.7.1.3.1) shows the annual wind rose of London. South-west winds are prevailing at an average wind speed of 3.6 m/s. The analysis was conducted in Ladybug. Figure (2.7.1.3.2) shows the wind velocity across St George’s Wharf Tower, and the speed ranges from 0 to 5 m/s with a prevailing wind direction from south-east. The wind velocity increases after the Southwest wind passes through the corridor between the two buildings, the St George’s Wharf Tower and lower buildings and reaches up to 5 m/s. The simulations were done with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

N

Figure 2.7.1.3.2 St. George’s Wharf Wind Velocity

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Figure 2.7.1.3.1 Wind rose of London

Figure 2.7.1.3.3 Wind Velocity for different levels

According to the results of CFD simulation, the ground floor wind velocity around St George’s Wharf tower in the south is about 2.8 m/s and the North is 0.4-2 m/s. In the lower floor display, the velocity of the north facade around tower is still 2.8 m/s, while that of the north facade rises to 1.2-2.4 m/s. The wind speed of mid-floor increases 3.2 m/s in the south and 1.6-2.8 m/s in the north, respectively. At the top level, the wind speed on the South facade is 3.6 m/s and that on the north facade is 2-3.6 m/s. The wind speed on the west and east side is always 5 m/ s. According to the previous analysis, the wind speed changes from floor height. In the higher floor, the wind speed is faster. The positive pressure zone is generated on the front of the highrise building (i.e. the windward side), and the wind speed is faster. Because the side of the building is squeezed by the windward side, the wind harness is dense and the wind velocity is fast. The back of the building is winded by the air flow to form a negative pressure zone, and the wind speed is slow. For high-rise buildings, St George's Wharf tower is isolated in London. With the increase of building height, the outdoor wind speed increases. The difference of wind pressure on both sides of doors and windows is proportional to the square of wind speed. Therefore, it is difficult for high-rise buildings to open windows for natural ventilation, and only mechanical ventilation can be used. Traditional natural ventilation is limited for highrise residents, so the combination of mechanical ventilation and natural ventilation is more reasonable for the use of high-rise buildings.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.7.1.4 Ventilations in St. George’s Wharf The indoor design features of the building, total glazing with aluminium powder coated frame, is being used. Facade is using triple glazing with remote controlled integral perforated aluminium blinds. Building uses a ventilated facade to regulate the temperature of the suites to reduce reliance on the heating and cooling systems. Glazed sky gardens with sliding windows and motorised sliding screens. The principal rooms are using pantograph parallel windows. The whole house is supplied with fresh air through ventilation system featuring heat recovery.

2.7.1.5 Perforated aluminium blinds features

Figure 2.7.1.5.1 Perforated aluminium blinds(Sources by https://www.google.com)

Figure 2.7.1.5.2 Perforated aluminium blinds (Sources by https://www.google.com)

1.Daylight When tilted, horizontal blinds can reflected that light deeper into the space, spreading the benefits among more people and reducing dependence on artificial lighting. (Hunter Douglas, 2009) 2. Glare Control A range of slat spacings allows you to control how much light falls into the space, to eliminate glare and reflections. Perforation options help optimise use of natural light, ensuring visual comfort by reducing glare without blocking the view. (Hunter Douglas, 2009) 3. Thermal comfort Window coverings manage heat generated by the sun: when it is hot, they can be closed to minimise solar heat gain; when cold, they can be raised to allow solar heating. (Hunter Douglas, 2009) Perorated aluminium blinds has benefits for keeping visual comfort and thermal comfort. Therefore, this is a great option for facade use of high rise buildings.

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Yiran Feng


Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.7.1.6 Sliding Windows

2.7.1.6 Sliding Windows in St. George’s Wharf(Sources by https://www.google.com)

Sliding windows is using for sky gardens of the building. From Figure 2.7.1.6, the sliding windows of this building is moved to both sides. It is different from the traditional sliding windows. Traditional sliding windows just have 50% openable value, and achieve less air flow. But for the specific opening method of sky gardens, ensuring more air flow inside is achieved by sliding windows opening completely.

2.7.1.7 Fresh Air Supply Featuring Heat Recovery

2.7.1.7 Fresh Air Supply Featuring Hear Recovery(Sources by https://www.google.com

Working Principle Heating Recovery Ventilation (HRV), also known as mechanical ventilation heat recovery (MVHR), is an energy recovery ventilation, which works between two sources at different temperatures. Heat recovery is a method which is increasingly used to reduce the heating and cooling demands of buildings. A heat recovery system is designed to supply conditioned air to the occupied space to continue the desired level of comfort. Heat recovery system keeps the house fully ventilated by recovering the heat coming from inside environment. Heat recovery system basically works by transferring the thermal energy (enthalpy) from one fluid to another fluid, from one fluid to one solid or from a solid surface to a fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact. (S.C Sugarman, 2005)

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Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.7.1.8 The features of Heating Recovery Ventilation In the past, this problem was contained by natural ventilation through draughty door and window frames. Controlled mechanical ventilation ensures a healthy indoor environment and protect the fabric of the building. The system consists of three elements to deliver its design features, the external-facing cowl, a heat exchanger and an air flow diffuser. The cowl may sit on the roof or wall of a building and is designed to catch the wind, pushing it into the system. The combination of wind and buoyancy provides ample force for the supply air flow. The second element is a heat recovery assembly of two coaxial heat exchangers. Incoming and outgoing air flows are directed through a series of intertwining metallic tubes. Aluminium fins in each tube transfer the heat from the higher temperature air flow to the lower, without any mixing of air supplies. This is to say that when the temperature of indoor air is higher than incoming fresh air, the incoming fresh air will be heated up. In summer where external temperatures can be higher, the incoming air is cooled down. The diffuser separates incoming and outgoing air flows. Incoming air is pushed down into the room, while outgoing air is collected from the top. This enhancement in flow architecture increases the buoyancy, effectively accelerating the rate of air supply. The constant outward flow of air creates a pressure imbalance that maintains a steady circulation of fresh air for occupants, no cold draughts, heat recovery, and a secure way of ventilating rooms overnight. (Viessmann, 2019)

2.7.1.9 Conclusion In summary, the combination of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation is the reasonable choice for the ventilation of single-skin facade high-rise buildings. First of all, for the safety consideration, the use of total gazing and the area of window opening are limited, which is result to insufficient air flow in the interior. Secondly, because St. George wharf tower is an isolated high-rise building beside the Thames River, for the higher story, the wind flow faster. If only natural ventilation is used, the indoor heat loss will increase. Although HRV has many benefits, as much as 70% of the energy lost through mechanical balanced or extract ventilation can be recovered by the use of ventilation heat recovery systems. However potential savings must be equated against capital cost, ongoing maintenance needs and electrical (fan and/or heat pump) load. (Martin W. 2009) Therefore, mechanical ventilation still consumes energy and high consumption maintenance funds, so it should keep enough air flow rate in the room without relying on mechanical ventilation.

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Chapter

03

Context


Yiran Feng


Chapter 3 Context 3.1 Context This research is to study natural ventilation for the post occupancy evaluation of Strata SE1 in London. The feasibility and methods of ventilation in high-rise building has been established in literature review. This chapter focuses on the context of the site under discussion. It is necessary to understand building performance through the climate of London. This section covers the introduction of strata, the surrounding environment of the site, and microclimate analysis.

3.2 Building Background_Strata SE1 N

Figure 3.2.1 Shoot by 25/03/2019

Figure 3.2.2 Site Plan

Strata SE1 is a 148 meters high rise building located in the Elephant and Castle, Borough of Southwark in London. It is one of high-rise building for residents in London including 408 flats designed by BFLS. Strata SE1 is a six-story office building(you mentioned it is a 148 meter high-rise) constructed in the 1960s. It was also the first commercial high-rise building to be renovated in Elephant and Castle. The whole strata is for residential use, which includes studio, one-bedroom, two-bedroom and three-bedroom apartments, totalling 310 apartments. The design strategies are single-skin façade with perforated panel. At the top of the building are three wind turbines, each with a diameter of 9 meters. The role of this wind turbine is to generate electricity using renewable wind energy to ensure that sufficient electricity is provided to the owners and to achieve low energy consumption of the building. The rated power of the three turbines is 19 kW, which is expected to generate at least 50 megawatt-hours of electricity per year, 8% of the total Strata SE1 power consumption. ( Archdaily, 2010) But in 2014 the Guardian reported that the three wind turbines on the Strata Roof had "remained stationary ever since”(Wainwright, O 2019)

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Chapter 3 Context 3.3 London Climate Analysis As of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification (figure 3.3.1 ) the UK is classified as oceanic climate and typically features moderate climate with warm summers and cold winters. The city of London is located on 51.518875o N, 0.149895o W. During winters from December to March, the average DBT is around 6-8°C, and during summer from June to September, the average DBT is around 16-19°C. The monthly average relative humidity is considerably even through the year, featuring values between 65% from April to August and 77% from November to January. The weather is often overcast with high precipitation. The annual rainfall is 620 mm total with 186 rainy days and more than 33 mm rainfall per month. Continued precipitation can be detrimental to the occupancy of the courtyard. The prevailing wind direction is South-West, and the average wind speed is 3.61 m/s. (figure 3.3.2) For the future scenario A2 of 2050 (IPCC, 2000), the DBT will increase around 1°C and the peak days will be around 30°C in summer and -1.8°C in winter with generally warmer summers and colder winters. The decrease of average wind speed will be from 3.6 m/s to 3.3 m/s. The increase of precipitation is from 620 mm to 680 mm. Each month is likely to see more than 43 mm of rainfall and annual precipitation will be 671 mm with 178 rainy days. In the future we have to expect higher precipitation on less days, which means more extreme weather conditions (figure 3.3.3 )

Figure 3.3.1 Köppen-Geiger climate classification: Cfd - Oceanic climate

Figure 3.3.2 London monthly average climate data - Today

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Figure 3.3.3 London monthly average climate data Future Scenario A2 Yiran Feng


Chapter 3 Context Global radiation is up to 424 Wh m2 in July on the north-east facing vertical surface towards the courtyard with the white painted facade (albedo = 0.8, Figure 3.3.4). In the chosen future scenario (IPCC scenario A2), radiation intensity is slightly decreasing, which presents a small benefit regarding glare probability in the courtyard. The maximum average values are approximately 5% less with values of 402 Wh/m2 in July (Figure 3.3.5) Figure 3.3.6 illustrates the daily average global radiation on the west facade. Highest values are returned for the afternoons in the April to August period with values under 500 Wh/m2. The constant ground temperature at -10m all year refers to potential for geothermal heat pumps and heating and cooling systems (Figure 3.3.7).

Figure 3.3.4Radiation on N-E facade - Presently

Figure 3.3.6 Radiation on West facade - Presently

Figure 3.3.5 Radiation on N-E facade - Future

Figure 3.3.7 Monthly average ground temperature

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Chapter 3 Context 3.4 Strata Design Strategies affected by climate The orientation of Strata SE1 is north. According to the diagram, it can be seen that sun path is from east to west. Therefore, the residents live in east, south and west facade can be receiving sufficient sunlight. From the sketch introduction, the three wind turbines on the roof collect wind from the south and concentrate it to the north. On the south facade has deep fins to protect heat gain and provide external shading. The material construction using from the diagram description shows that the choice incorporates high performance gazing. The aim is to control heat loss, heat gain and acoustics. For the description of natural ventilation the trickle air flow from lift lobby to lower floor, thus forming a cross natural ventilation. According to the charts and some introductions and descriptions of strata, we can learn that this is a green building built and designed with environment. The highlight of the design is the use of wind turbines to generate new power sources, and the use of high-performance glass to achieve thermal comfort.

Figure 3.4.1 Strata Design Strategies affected by climate( Source by Archdaily)

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Figure 3.4.2 Strata Sections ( Source by Archdaily)

Yiran Feng


Chapter 3 Context 3.5 Microclimate Analysis 3.5.1 Sun-path Diagram N

Figure 3.5.1.1 _Summer

Figure 3.5.1.2_Winter

The annual sun path diagram cross the Strata SE1 shown in Figure (3.5.1.1) and (3.5.1.2) shows that the sun path is filtered by DBT<24° in summer and DBT>12° in winter. According to the diagram, the west and south of Strata facade can achieve sufficient sunlight, which means it needs sun protection of these facade.

3.5.2 Sunlight Hour and Shadow Range N Strata

Strata

Figure 3.5.2.1 Summer

Figure 3.5.2.2 Equinox

Strata

Figure 3.5.2.3 Winter

Sunlight hour simulations show that, sunlight hours are dependent on the seasons. Throughout the summer season the average sunlight of the area is 6.5 hours. During the equinox time of the year, the area receives around 4 hours of sunlight in a day. During both seasons, the south facade area suffers from high glare problems without any exception. Therefore, solar protection is highly recommended in the south area during summer and equinox period. On the other hand , there is a strong contrast between winter and summer. From the diagrams, the sunlight hour in the winter time only reaches 2.5 hours, as the shadow range in the Figure(3.5.2.3) Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 3 Context 3.5.3 Wind Flow Pattern N Strata

Figure 3.5.3.1 CFD analysis of Strata

Figure 3.5.3.2 CFD analysis of Strata Section

According to the previous chapter, the wind direction in London is known as southwest and the average wind speed is 3.6 m/s. Figure (3.5.3.1) shows the wind speed across Strata SE1. Wind speed ranges from 0 to 5 m/s with a prevailing wind direction from south-west. The wind velocity increases after the southwest wind passes through the east side of buildings reaches up to 5 m/s. The corridor at west side of Strata and Garden and Co Estate Agents reaches 3.6-5 m/s. After passing through both sides of the Strata SE1, the wind gathers in the North area forming a wind vortex. Therefore, the wind speeds of both sides of the Strata are relatively high, and the maximum wind speed reaches 5 m/s. The height of the Strata from ground to top is 181 meters. From the East section of CFD simulation results, it can be learn the wind blows from the top of the building to the ground in the north area, and forms airflow at the bottom of the building reaching up to 2.8 m/s. The north facade of the building forms a wind cycle and then blows to the north direction.

3.5.4 Facade Solar Irradiation

Figure 3.5.4.1 Facade Solar Irradiation of Strata

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As Strata and Estate Agents building are narrow, the west facade is receiving the lowest level of irradiation annually. During all seasons, the areas of west facade achieving the worst, below 75 metres it even gets 0 Wh/ ㎡ in the summer. The results show that better sunlight is obtained in the Strata above 75 meters. For residential, the area below 75 meters is suitable for housing, conversely for the flats over 75 meters the indoor might be achieved high solar gain. The solar irradiation on the south facade always obtains high level especially during the summer period reaching 350 Wh/ ㎡ . The southeast facing facade receiving high level of solar irradiation up to 350 Wh/ ㎡ during summer time. Yiran Feng


Chapter 3 Context 3.5.5 Universal Thermal Climate Index - Heat stress

N

Figure 3.5.5.1

Figure 3.5.5.2

Figure 3.5.5.3

UTCI results show high wind speed on the 21st of March at 15pm (6.2 m/s), when people using the space around Strata do not suffer from heat stress according to the UTCI simulations during equinox (undertaken with Honeybee). Figure (3.5.5.3) presents the highest wind speed on the 21st of December at 12pm (12 m/s). The area around Strata suffers from slight heat stress in some parts during 12pm to 15pm with 25.5°C- 27.2°C average DBT, but in the shadows of the northern zone, people are not exposed to achieve high level solar radiation. Figure (3.5.5.3) shows slight cold stress on the 21st of December with the average temperature of 12°C at 21st of December.

3.5.6 Conclusion

Based on the above microclimate analysis, it can be learned that there is excessive wind environment around Strata. The wind blows through east and west of Strata at higher speeds, which may cause pedestrians to feel discomfortable. Wind whirlpools form on the north facade of the building, and people feel higher wind speed when they stand on the grounds. For each facade of the building, Strata is 181 meters high. Therefore the solar radiation on the facade achieve high level solar radiation, especially on the southern facade, leading to a higher solar gain in the residential flats. In addition, during all seasons of heat stress, Strata’s conditions of surroundings are moderate. However, due to the building height, the shadow part will not be subjected to strong heat pressure, so the outdoor space is needed.

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Chapter

04

FieldWork of Indoor Environment


Yiran Feng


Chapter 4 FieldWork of Indoor Environment 4.1 Interview and Observation As a resident living in Strata, my living experience is that the indoor heat gain is very high. Especially from April to September, the indoor temperature is at least 10℃ higher than the outdoor temperature. When people stay at home, even if the windows are opening, the indoor temperature cannot be decreased. Resident Nathan Wheelhouse said: “When I left my house the other morning it was 28℃ at 7.30am, it’s tropical in there. I feel like I’m in an eco experiment that has gone wrong at the design stage. I only moved in two weeks ago and I am not enjoying it.” (Urban75, 2011) A neighbour who lives on the 26th floor, Amy says she often wakes up at 7 to 8 a.m. because of the noise, and when it's sunny in the morning, the sunlight through the blinds into the room, and it's very dazzling. When she stays at home during the daytime, she could only pull the blinds down during the day, because the sun would come directly into the room. Ventilated doors can only open narrow gaps of about 11 cm at 20-30 degrees. (Figure 4.1.1) Amy said that staying at home was as hot as being in the sauna. From the introduction of Strata SE1 building environment and the feeling of residents living there, it can be known that high-performance glass does not control heat gain well, and as a resident live on the 32nd floor, I often can clearly hear a lot of noise from vehicles, trains, and construction sites. During the living time, the wind turbines on the roof never worked. It looks like a green building built by the environment, but as a personal experience, the feeling is that the interior is like a greenhouse, especially when the sunlight directly gets into the room on sunny days, which is high glare. When the indoor temperature is high, it is difficult to feel natural ventilation after opening the window to achieve temperature balance. Indoor ventilation method is to open holes on the perforated panels. However, the window door openable can only open about 20 30 degrees, for safety considerations. There is all floor to celling total glazing. (Figure 4.1.3 and Figure 4.1.4 )

Figure 4.1.1 Floor plan for aperture ratio

Figure 4.1.3 Operable aperture door

Figure 4.1.2 Hand Drawing for Total Glazing and door aperture

Figure 4.1.4 Total aperture opening

Figure 4.1.5 Degree of aperture total opening

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Chapter 4 FieldWork of Indoor Environment 4.2 Spot Measurement Fieldwork is vital for understanding how temperature in the base case is in reality. The base case is on 32nd floor in Strata, and the orientation is facing south east(Figure 4.2.1). Temperatures for base case were measured in detail under different sky conditions. In addition, daylight analysis was performed during the fieldwork to create visual of base case using software for analytical study. Fieldwork in Strata was undertaken in spring, between May 18, 2019 and May 25, 2019. Spot measurements were taken at whole days under a mixed sky condition for one week. Three different points put in data loggers were considered for spot measurements, including points for two bedrooms and one living room. N

Spot Measurement 1: East Bedroom Spot Measurement 2: Southeast Bedroom Spot Measurement 3: South Living Room

Figure 4.2.1 Base case for Spots Measurement

Figure 4.2.2 Spots Measurement

Temperature

Figure 4.2.3 Data Logger Results

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Figure 4.2.4 Data Logger_SouthEast Facade Bedroom

Yiran Feng


Chapter 4 FieldWork of Indoor Environment

Figure 4.2.5 Data Logger_East Facade Bedroom

Figure 4.2.6 Data Logger_ Living Room

The external temperature was taken by weather underground. For the results of indoor spots measurement during one week it can be seen the indoor Dry Bulb Temperature are higher in South Living Room and East Bedroom. The weather conditions for one week shows that cloudy days from 18th May to 20th May, Sunny days from 21st to 23rd May. Slightly cloudy day for the rest between 24th and 25th May. Therefore, the average temperature of base case from 18th May to 20th May is about 24.5 ℃. In (Figure 4.2.5), the indoor temperature presents high level from 21st May to 25th May. The temperature increases up to 27.5℃ on 21st May which is a sunny day. The highest temperature goes up to 30.9℃ in the East Bedroom. In addition, the temperature of the living room and south west bedroom raised up to 30℃ at the daytime. However, during these days, the external temperature presented around 21.5℃ during the daytime. In summary, the temperatures have big difference between indoor and outdoor of around 8-10℃. Measurements under different sky conditions show that the effect of indoor conditions on the average temperature is more heat gain. Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 4 FieldWork of Indoor Environment 4.3 Conclusion

The analysis of weather data obtained from the data loggers propose that during the equinox day, the indoor temperature has the high dry bulb temperature. Indoor temperature studies have shown that temperature trends change with weather conditions. This is because the 32nd floor has no occlusion of adjacent buildings and is protected by total glazing without shading. In order to further examine the overheating of indoor, digital performance analysis was conducted, as explained in the next chapter.

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Chapter

05

Indoor Environmental Analysis


Yiran Feng


Chapter 5 Indoor Environmental Analysis Daylight Studies 5.1 UDI Analysis Useful Daylight Illuminances are defined as those illuminances that fall within the range 100 lux to 2000 lux (C. F. Reinhart , 2002). According to CIBSE Guide, when the benchmark is more than 50%, illumination is sufficient (CIBSE, 2017). For the 32nd base case UDI analysis, the useful daylight illumination range was set to 100-2000 lux annually, resulting UDI values of 50%. For the UDI visual results of the area near the window, it shows high glare, which means that the indoor heat comes from direct sunlight. Hence indoor heat gain from solar energy will be high. N

N

3.5 %

50%

Figure 5.1.1 Useful Daylight Illuminance

Figure 5.2.1 Daylight Factor

5.2 Daylight Factor Daylight factor (DF) is the ratio of the illuminance level inside a space to the light level outdoors. It is defined as: DF = (Ei / Eo) x 100%, where, Ei = illuminance due to daylight at a point on the indoors working plane, Eo = simultaneous outdoor illuminance on a horizontal plane from an unobstructed hemisphere of overcast sky (Wiki, 2017). According to CIBSE Lighting Guide 10 (CIBSE, 2017), which broadly bands average daylight factors into the following categories: <2 Not adequately lit-artificial lighting is required 2 - 5 Adequately lit but artificial lighting may be needed >5 Well lit, artificial lighting generally not required, except at dawn and dusk but glare and solar gain may cause problems The daylight factor analysis returned values over 10 adjacent to the window, 5-6 in the rest of the wider floor area near the window, and 0-3 in the rest of the space. Since 60% of the space achieves more than 2 daylight factor, we can conclude that the space has achieved sufficient lit and additionally the distribution of daylight is even.

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Chapter 5 Indoor Environmental Analysis 5.3 Sunlight Hour

Figure 5.3.1 Sun Angles

N

Figure 5.3.2 Equinox

Figure 5.3.2 Winter

Figure 5.3.2 Summer

1.6h

1.7h

1h

The sunlight hour study (undertaken with Ladybug) reveals that during equinox days (transitional seasons spring and autumn), only 1.6 hours of sunlight reach parts of the floor, although about 3.5-4.5 average hours of sunshine are available in London. In summer up to 7 hours of sunshines get into the room near windows area, but the rays do not penetrate as deep as during equinox, due to higher sun angles. Average hours available in London are 6.3, compared to only 1.7 in winter (Thomas, 2006). According to the simulation, sunlight hour in the winter time is the longest and sunlight comes deep into the room due to the sun angle, in contrast, no direct sunlight reaches the floor in summer. The sun angle study in figure (5.3.1) attests that the highly angled summer sun reaches only the window area of the room but not the floor.

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Chapter 5 Indoor Environmental Analysis 5.4 Illuminance

N

Figure 5.4.1 Equinox Illuminance

Figure 5.4.2 Summer Illuminance

Figure 5.4.3 Winter Illuminance

Illuminance is the measure of the amount of light received on the surface. It is typically expressed in Lux. According to UDI, it can be learned thresholds range from 100 to 2000 lux. A daytime room illuminance profile depends greatly upon the orientation of the windows in room. The living room and southeast bedroom windows all face south. The windows of the East room face the east facade. According to CIBSE Guide, maintained illuminance of the bedroom and living room are 100lux and 50-300lux,respectively.(CIBSE, 2017) During all seasons illuminance, room illuminance spikes in the midday. The area of distribution is the largest on the 21st of May, with 80% of the distribution in the equinox indoors reaching 2000 lux. Room illuminance is relatively low in the morning 9am, followed by an increase in brightness peaking in the midday and then decreasing until sunset. This pattern can be explained by the presence of East or South East facing windows that allow the room to fill with natural light in the afternoon when the sun passes the window. Room illuminance levels at winter period on the 21st of December are lower than equinox and summer room illuminance levels. Typical illuminance levels at winter are 100 to 311 Lux. Illuminance at midday in winter is the best. The area near the window is 2000 lux, and then the worst at the morning time is about 100lux. As a result of the summer on July 21, the situation and distribution of indoor lighting is the best. From 9am to 3pm, indoor lighting has been stable in 60-80% of indoor areas going up to 2000lux. This means that the indoor solar radiation is at high level, and the indoor solar gain is also high. Maybe the room will be overheated.

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Chapter 5 Indoor Environmental Analysis

5.5 Conclusion To conclude, a satisfactory daylight availability in qualitative and quantitative terms is beneficial for health and wellbeing, energy consumption and appearance of the space, thus should not be neglected but considered and designed carefully. The apartment in Strata unobstructs views and are equipped with a blind to react to temporary moments of glare discomfort. However, the occupants suffer from intolerable glare on the South facade.

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Chapter

06

Analytical Work


Yiran Feng


Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.1 Indoor Overheating Assessment This chapter is to assess the building performance with original aperture of the window, which was carried on different orientations and different storeys of simulations to assess overheating the building in original scenarios. This step of the study mainly uses TAS, and CBE thermal comfort calculation tools. Therefore, this study will focus on the typical days during winter and summer. According to average annual rainfall and temperature in London, the average temperature in winter is between 6℃ and 10℃, for the summer period is between 15℃ and 25℃. (London Perfect,2019) Therefore, the typical day chosen is the 4th of January and the 30th of July.

6.2 Daily Routine

Figure 6.2.1 Daily Routine

First of all, the above pictures are the daily routines of residents living in Strata. According to the author's life experience, most of the residents living in Strata are students and office workers. So daily routine time is based on the lifestyle of most people going to school, working and staying at home.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.3 TAS modelling N

Figure 6.3.1 Studio Floor Plan

Figure 6.3.2 Two Bedrooms Floor Plan

Figure 6.3.3 TAS 3D Model

According to the TAS model, the model is simplified into a cube that will simulate two types of rooms. One is Studio and the other is a two bedroom apartment. For studio, it is divided into four directions, east, south, west, and north. The two bedroom apartment is oriented to the southeast and southwest. Second, it is divided into three floors, 5th, 20th and 38th. The purpose of this modelling is to study the different scenarios of housing simulations on different floors and in different directions.

6.4 Studio Fabric Parameters and Internal Gains

Figure 6.4.1 Schedule of Studio

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

Figure 6.4.2 Construction Materials

Regarding lighting, for purposes of assessment, lighting energy is assumed to be proportional to the floor area, and lighting loads are measured in W/m2 from 7pm to 1am, 3W/m2 should be assumed as the default an efficient new-build home according to daily routine. All active animal bodies including humans lose heat to their surroundings due to their metabolic activity, which is related to the activity the subject is performing. The heat can be released as sensible or latent heat. The sensible heat release is due to the higher temperature the surface of the skin can have with respect to the surrounding environment, while the latent heat is released by means of respiration and sweating. According to CIBSE Guide A, the sensible heat gain of 5 w/ person assumed in living spaces. (CIBSE, 2017) Studios are set with 6 pm to 9 am occupancy profile from the daily routine, which means that one person is occupants during this period in studio. Rooms are unoccupied after 10 am to 5 pm, due to people are out of home. For aperture schedules, the summer aperture runs from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., without occupants. Because of the higher temperature in summer, ventilation takes a long time. On the contrary, the aperture time in winter is from 7 am to 9 am and from 6 pm to 7 pm.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.5 Original Scenario_Studio

Figure 6.5.1 Original Studio Scenario

Figure 6.5.2 Original Scenario Aperture Ratio

The Studio rooms in Strata are equipped with a fridge, a microwave ,TV, and 8 LED lights. Studio room is additionally equipped with a kettle and a laptop. For studio equipment, the total heat gain is 533 W, and the floor area of studio is 41 ㎡ and volume is 119 m³. The equipment sensible gain per square metre is 533W/41 ㎡ or 13 w/ ㎡ . Therefore, this maximum percentage of 20 as the first parameter to start to open the windows, setback as 0. The window opening ratio is 20% based on fieldwork.

6.6 Original Scenario Results

North Studio_Winter

Figure 6.6.1 Original Studio for Temperature Results

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

North Studio_Summer

South Studio_Winter

South Studio_Summer

Figure 6.6.1 Original Studio for Temperature Results Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

East Studio_Winter

East Studio_Summer

Figure 6.6.1 Original Studio for Temperature Results

The simulation time is selected as the typical climate of London divided by summer and winter, the external temperature is from 6℃ to 10℃ in winter and 15℃ to 25℃ in summer. The dates are the 4th of January and 30th of July. There are no cooling and heating in the original scenario. From the results of the original scenario. In winter, the results are similar in the north, west and east. During occupancy time, from 6 pm to 9 am, the average indoor resultant temperature is 13.5℃-15℃, while during non-occupancy time, the average indoor resultant temperature is 14℃. The temperature decreases at 7am to 9 am and 6pam to 7pm according to the schedule of the winter aperture. In addition, the results of the studio in the south of winter are higher than those in the east, west and north. During the occupation period, the average temperature was maintained at 20.8℃, which was 5℃ to 7℃ higher than the rest. In the non-occupied time, the peak value rose to 20.8℃ at midday. According to the indoor lighting analysis of Chapter 5, the southern interior obtained the best daylighting. • 60

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work So the studio in the south is reasonable warmer than the studio in other directions. According to the line graph, the temperature of the 38th floor is lower than the 5th floor and the 20th floor, and the temperature difference is about 2℃. The result is that for the higher floor, more air flow is available. This can also be obtained from the results of the CFD. When the wind blows up to the building facade, it is shunted up and down. The wind diverts to the upper part of the building faster, so higher-rise apartments get more wind flow, which causes the temperature to be lower than the lower floors.

Figure 6.6.2 Original Studio for CBE Thermal Comfort

The CBE thermal comfort calculation was done using CBE tool adaptive method that complies with EN-1525 (indoor environment) by simulating the inside average temperature, outside average temperature. The study was conducted in the interior thermal environment in order to predict and avoid discomfort of the occupant. In contrast to the outdoor results, this corresponds with how occupants felt during the visit. The outdoor temperature is set to 10℃, and the indoor comfort band is from 20.8℃ to 25.1℃. Therefore, in winter the east, south, west, and north studios are lower than the comfort band during occupant visit, which is too cold.

The summer results show the studio in the north, south, east and west are quite similar. During the occupied time of 6pm to 9am, the indoor temperature is stable from 33℃ to 35℃. At the non-occupied period, the summer aperture schedule shows that between 8 am and 6 pm, the indoor temperature is between 23℃ and 28℃. However, in the east studio during summer, the temperature on the 38th floor is lower than on the 5th and 38th floors, which means more air flow on the east side of the summer. For the CBE thermal comfort calculation, the summer average outdoor temperature is set at 20.08℃, and the indoor comfort band is from 22.4℃ to 28.4℃. However, all studios results in summer exceed the comfort zone during occupant visit, which means too warm. As a result heating is needed in winter and overheating occurs in summer. Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 6 Analytical ly Design Stage of Buildings.

Work

Natural ventilation strategy: Single sided ventilation

39.96 19.88 8.1 15 6.9

Studio Volume:119m³ Suggested air per person supply Rate : 0.4-1 ach Window Aperture: 20%

Based on CIBSE Guide A, the suggested flow rate for the bedroom is a minimum of 0.4 ACH (air change hour) to 1ACH, converted to Litre per second , which is 13l/ s to 33l/s. (CIBSE 2017) The calculation formula is ACHxVolume/3.6(Trainenergy, 2019) Indoor ventilation scenario is single side ventilation. When the window opening rate is 0.2, the minimum ventilation criterion is reached.

Apertures Data: 1 1.9 13 3 17.9 0

Effective

Height

(m²)

(m)

0.6 0.6

0.3 2

Airflow Rate (m³/s) B B+W 0.1 0.11 0.1 0.11

Area Zn North Studio_Summer Inlet 1: Outlet 1:

South Studio_Summer

0.72

West Studio_Summer

East Studio_Summer

Figure 6.6.3 Original Studio for Aperture Results

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work North Studio_Winter

South Studio_Winter

West Studio_Winter

East Studio_Winter

Figure 6.6.3 Original Studio for Aperture Results

For the simulation results of ACH air flow rate, we can learn that in summer time, during the summer aperture schedule 8am to 6pm, the ACH of 38th floor is higher than that of 5th floor and 20th floor. This matches the simulation results of temperature. The studio on the 38th floor in the East has the lowest temperature in summer and the value of air flow rate is 6 ACH to 10 ACH. Studios air flow rate on the west and south sides of the 38th floor reaches its peak at 5pm-6pm in the afternoon, that is to say, according to the wind in London(Chapter 2), the wind direction is southwest, so the wind speeds in these two directions are higher than in other directions, and more indoor air flow can be obtained. The northern studio ACH is the lowest available. In winter, according to aperture's schedule, from 7 am to 9 am and from 6 pm to 7 pm. During the morning period, studio on the west side obtained the highest air flow rate on the 38th floor, reaching a peak value of 10ACH. In the afternoon, studio on the 38th floor in the South obtained the most air flow rate, with a peak value of 8ACH. The results of studio on the north and east sides are similar. The values are maintained between 5 ACH and 6 ACH in the morning and 4.8 ACH in the afternoon. In addition, for the air flow rate of the 5th floor and the 20th floor, the 5th floor achieves more air flow than the 20th floor, which results in a simulation based on the CFD wind flow rate. On the lower floor, more air flow is available due to the wind. The low height forms a wind vortex that blows directly to the lower level floor. Then, the wind is unevenly distributed in the middle floor, thus 5th can get more air flow.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

Figure 6.6.4 Original Studio Scenario Annual Result

To conclude, from the original studio scenario annual hourly results. The temperature set up from 20.8℃ to 28℃, based on CBE Thermal Comfort Band calculator . It can be learn from the bar chart, the hour of 5th floor, 20th floor and 38th floor on the East facade are more than the studio in the other directions when the temperature exceeds 28℃. In studio on the east facade of the 20th floor, 1220 hours exceeded 28℃, followed by 1200 hours on the 5th floor and 1180 hours on the 38th floor. According to the results of the temperature simulation, the temperature of the studio on the east facade is higher in the morning than in the rest of the time. Because of the solar path diagram, suggestions for designing blinds for the studio on the east facade can be proposed from the results. In the winter, it is necessary to require heating, and in the summer, overheating of the indoor environment, the value of the aperture is improved at different levels.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.7 Studio Scenario With Heating On

Figure 6.7.1Studio Scenario with Heating on

North Studio_Winter

South Studio_Winter

Figure 6.7.2 Studio with heating on for Temperature Results

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work East Studio_Winter

West Studio_Winter

Figure 6.7.2 Studio with heating on for Temperature Results

Figure 6.7.3 Heating Loads

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work This scenario is mainly for studio in winter, because the original studio scenario when occupied from 6 pm to 9 am and the indoor temperature is lower than the comfort zone. Therefore, heating is required in this scenario. In winter, the aperture window opening value remains at 20% and schedules are 7am to 9 am and 6pm to 7pm. According to the calculation of thermal comfort in CBE, the thermal comfort zone in winter is between 20.8℃ and 25.1℃. For indoor temperature, it is recommended to keep at 22 degrees Celsius. In TAS simulation, the thermostat is set to 22 °C in occupancy. The heating schedule is 8 pm to 6 am. According to the chart results, studio in the South has 16 hours in the thermal comfort band in a day, with an occupied time from 8 pm to 6 pm and non-occupied time from 11 am to 5 pm. Studio on the north, east and west facade has 11 hours a day in the thermal comfort zone, only in occupied time. As the all conditions are the same except heating, this scenario examines the difference between heating on and off conditions. When heating is on, the heat load is 17.3 kW.H/m2 which is in the benchmark range. According to Thesis Module, The Passive House, the heat loads criterion is between 15 to 40 kW.H/m2 (Rosa Schiano,2019).

Studio Winter Input With Heating On Air Temperature:22.5℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:22℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:10℃

Based on CBE thermal comfort calculation, outdoor temperature is 10 °C, indoor air temperature is 22.5, and mean resultant temperature is 22 °C. In terms of the EN-15251 adaptive thermal comfort model, the indoor environment was in a comfortable state at the time of the occupation. Figure 6.7.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.8 Studio Scenario with different aperture type

Figure 6.8.1 Studio Scenario with different aperture types

North Studio_Summer

South Studio_Summer

Figure 6.8.2 Temperature Results for Scenario with different aperture types

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

East Studio_Summer

West Studio_Summer

Figure 6.8.2 Temperature Results for Scenario with different aperture types

This scenario is an improvement strategy for indoor overheating in summer. All conditions are the same except the aperture window opening ratio. For aperture parameters, due to previous simulations, the assumption values of window operability of 38th floor, 20th floor and 5th floor are 60%, 70% and 80%, respectively. According to the the previous simulation results of original studio scenario, the temperature of 38th floor is the lowest, and the air flow rate of aperture is the highest. So it is assumed that the minimum aperture value of the highest floor is 0.6, which can reduce the indoor temperature. The air distribution of 20th floor is not uneven, assuming that the window opening rate is 0.7 to reduce indoor overheating. The 5th floor assumes that 0.8 can reduce room temperature. In addition, all setback values are 0.1. The results of the line graph show that the effective thermal comfort is obtained for assumed value of different floor facades, the studio results on the south, west and north facade reach the thermal comfort zone. During the day, there are 22 hours between the thermal comfort zone. However, in studios on the east side, studio on the 20th floor excessed the thermal comfort zone and reaches peak temperature of 30â&#x201E;&#x192;. Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work East Studio Input Summer Air Temperature:28.7℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:27.2℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:10℃

Figure 6.8.3 CBE Thermal Comfort Band

According to the occupancy time on the east side of the morning, the results calculated by CBE Thermal Comfort tool show that during the morning time period, the results do not conform to Class I acceptability limit. Hence, the indoor shading needs to be considered.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.9 Scenario with different aperture type and shutter

Figure 6.9.1Scenario with different aperture type and shutter

East Studio_Summer

Figure 6.9.2 East Studio

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work North Studio Summer Input Air Temperature:24.6℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:25.2℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

South Studio Summer Input Air Temperature:24.7℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:25.8℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

West Studio Summer Input Air Temperature:25℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:25.9℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

East Studio Summer Input Air Temperature:25.2℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:26.6℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

Figure 6.9.3 CBE Thermal Comfort Band

Mainly this strategy was planned to control solar gain in summer when the sun is going through the east facade during the morning period, and the penetration in the room could be almost impossible to tackle with a best strategy of natural ventilation. Shading devices will help to reduce heat gain. From the literature review, internal shading can reduce internal heat gain. Therefore, to reduce the overheating problem presented in the rooms internal shading was used as will be explained below. In this step, an internal shutter is suggested between 11pm to 8am. This option in east studio is planned to be manually controlled because it is important to reduce solar access during the morning time. Therefore adjustable shading will be a good option easy to control. • 72

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

As a result of this scenario, the design of shutter improves indoor shading. In the occupancy time from 6pm to 9am, the indoor overheating has been effectively controlled. In terms of the EN-15251 adaptive thermal comfort model, the indoor environment was in a comfortable state at the time of the occupation. In contrast to the outdoor results, this corresponds with how occupants feel during the time when the space is in use.

North Studio_Summer

South Studio_Summer

West Studio_Summer

East Studio_Summer

Figure 6.9.4 Aperture for different orientation

In addition, for the results of indoor air flow analysis, the studio on the 5th floor of the north facade achieves the most ACH in the non-occupied timeďź&#x152;and the maximum achieves the peak value of 17 ACH. The air flow in goes down between midday at 12pm to 13pm decreases to 13 ACH. The result is the same on the 20th floor, dramatically dropping to 6 ACH at 12pm. For the results on the south and west facing, between 9am and 4pm, the 20th floor and 38th floor are lower than the 5th. From 4pm to 7pm, it rises rapidly to a peak value of about 22 ACH. In studio facing east, the 38th floor obtains the most air flow than in other directions. The maximum of 28 ACH is between 10 am and 12 pm, which means that similar as the northern direction, the maximum begins to decline at about 11 am to about 17 ACH. In the occupied time, since the setback value of the aperture remains at 0.1, according to the previous literature review, the CIBSE Guide recommends that the minimum air flow rate be kept at 0.4 ACH to 1 ACH in the space where people using. (CIBSE,2017) Based on the results, an effective air flow rate is obtained in the space occupied by the studio of each floor and each direction.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

Figure 6.9.5 Studio Annual Results

This study shows studios for each orientation in the Strata could perform within different contexts in the climate of London. For the annual results of the final scenario it can be learned that the minimum time required for the temperature exceeding 27.8℃ appears on the 38th floor, which is roughly 35 hours. The 5th floor and the 20th floor exceeded the average time to reach 27.8℃ by 115 hours. In this result, the average time was over 90 hours. In the original scenario, 975 hours are found with temperature exceeding 27.8℃. Therefore, comparing these two results, the strategy of improving window opening and shutters effectively reduces indoor overheating.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.10 2 Bedroom Flat Fabric Parameters and Internal Gains

Figure 6.10.1 Schedule of 2 bedrooms

Figure 6.10.2 Schedule of 2 bedroom_Living Room

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Figure 6.10.3 Construction Material

This section is about two bedrooms apartment in TAS simulation. It will be divided into two parts to explain living room and bedroom. The orientation of two bedroom apartment are southwest and southwest. The construction material of 2 bedroom flats are the same as studio parameters. Compared to the studio, the 2 bedroom apartment has a layout of spaces. In the living room's schedule, the occupation time is from 6pm to 10pm, and the occupants in this space carry out dinner and study or entertain after arriving home. Starting from 10pm to 9am, the bedroom is occupied. Regarding lighting, for purposes of assessment, lighting energy is assumed to be proportional to the floor area, and lighting loads are measured in W/m2 from 10pm to 1am in the bedroom, 5W/m2 should be assumed after calculation. 2 Bedroom flat are set with 6pm to 1pm occupancy profile in the living room, which means that two people are occupants during this period in studio. Rooms are unoccupied after 10pm, due to people are using the bedroom for sleeping until 9am. For aperture schedules, the summer aperture in bedroom takes from 8 am to 10 pm without occupants. Because of the higher temperature in summer, ventilation takes a longer time. On the contrary, the aperture time in winter is from 8am to 9am and 10pm to 11pm in the evening. Regarding aperture in the living room, in summer, aperture schedules range from 6pm to 10pm when occupants use the space. In winter, schedule runs only from 6pm to 8pm, because of the low temperature in winter, the long aperture time will affect the indoor heat loss.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.11 Original Scenario for 2 Bedroom flat_Bedroom

Figure 6.11.1 Original Scenario for 2 bedroom flats_Bedroom

East Bedroom_Summer

SE Bedroom_Summer

Figure 6.11.2 Temperature result for different orientation

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SW Bedroom_Summer

West Bedroom_Summer

Figure 6.11.2 Temperature result for different orientation

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SE Bedroom_Winter

East Bedroom_Winter

SW Bedroom_Winter

Figure 6.11.2 Temperature result for different orientation Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work West Bedroom_Winter

Figure 6.11.2 Temperature result for different orientation

The bedrooms in Strata are equipped with a 4 LED lights for each bedroom. Bedroom has additionally been equipped with a laptop for each bedroom. For bedroom equipment, the total heat gain is 286W, and the floor area of studio is 11 ㎡ and volume is 26 m³. The equipment sensible gain per square metre is 286W/11 ㎡ or 26 w/ ㎡ . According to CIBSE Guide A, the sensible heat gain of 5 w/person assumed in living spaces. (CIBSE 2017) Thus, the number of occupants in bedroom is one, with 5 w/m³ assumed as occupancy sensible gain. Therefore, this maximum percentage of 20 is taken as the first parameter to start to open the windows, with a setback of 0. The window opening ratio is 20% according to fieldwork. The simulation time is selected as the typical climate of London divided by summer and winter, the external temperature is 6℃ to 10℃ in winter and 15℃ to 25℃ in summer. The date which is 4th January and 30th July as same as studio scenarios. There are no cooling and heating in the original scenario. Firstly, the indoor and outdoor temperatures are compared according to the results of the line graph. Because thermal comfort has been printed on the chart, during the day of the 30th of July, bedrooms in each direction exceed the thermal comfort band during occupancy, the average temperature maintenance as 31℃. When the out door temperature as 20.08℃,the thermal comfort band should be remain at 22.4℃ to 28.4℃. But in the nonoccupancy time they all achieve the thermal comfort band. Secondly, on the day of the 4th of January, the outdoor temperature is between 6℃ and 10℃, and the indoor temperature is between 10℃ and 15℃. However, when the outdoor temperature is 10℃ in winter, the indoor thermal comfort zone is between 20.8℃ and 25.1℃ with the CBE Thermal Comfort Calculation tool. As a result, bedrooms in each direction and height are below the thermal comfort zone. As the result, in the summer the results of the 5th floor, 20th floor and 38th floor of SE Bedroom, SW bedroom and west bedroom are similar. However, the temperature of the 38th floor of the bedroom on the east facing is the lowest compared to the 5th floor and the 20th floor. This means that on the 38th floor, the east bedroom achieve more air flow in the summer.

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Chapter 6 Analytical arly Design Stage of Buildings.

Work

Natural ventilation strategy: Single sided ventilation

39.96 119.88 8.1 15 6.9

Bedroom Volume: 42.8m³ Suggested air Supply Rate : 0.4ach-1ach

1 1.9 13 3 17.9 0 0.72

AperturesAperture: Data: Window 20%

Inlet 1: Outlet 1:

Effective Area (m²)

Height Zn (m)

0.6 0.6

0.3 2

East bedroom_Winter

SW bedroom_Winter

Airflow Rate (m³/s) B B+W 0.1 0.11 0.1 0.11

Figure 6.11.3 Aperture Ratio SE bedroom_Winter

West bedroom_Winter

Figure 6.11.4 Aperture for 2 bedroom_Summer and Winter

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work East bedroom_Summer

SE bedroom_Summer

SW bedroom_Summer

West bedroom_Summer

Figure 6.11.4 Aperture for 2 bedroom_Summer and Winter

For the winter air flow rate, the results are similar between SW Bedroom and SE bedroom, 7am to 10am and 10pm to 11pm. In the morning at 8am, the 38th floor received the most, reaching a peak of 5.8 ACH. Secondly, at 10pm, the 38th floor reached the highest ACH value of 5, compared to the 5th and 20th floors. Compare these two results between the west bedroom and the east bedroom. During the morning period, the air flow rate on the 5th floor is at most in the east bedroom about 5 ACH. In the other direction, the west bedroom 38th floor has the most air flow, reaching the peak value of 12 ACH at 8am. In the aperture time of 10pm and 11pm, the results in the each directions were the same, and the three-floor all reached 4.5 ACH. On the 30th July in the summer, At the same time, the results of SW bedroom and SE bedroom are similar. At 5pm, the 38th floor gets a peak to 8 ACH. Before 4pm, during 8am to 4pm, the 5th floor received the most air flow, but it drops to 3 ACH at 5pm. However, there is a big difference between the results of the east bedroom and the west bedroom. Between 9am and 5pm, the 38th floor has the most air flow, with a maximum of 15.8 ACH at 10am, but drops sharply to 10 ACH at 1pm, followed by a significant fluctuation until 4pm. However, in the West bedroom, the indoor air flow rises sharply from 5pm to 10 ACH, reaching its peak value in a day. After that, the obvious downward trend was from 5pm to 8pm. After 8pm, there was an upward and downward trend end at 10pm.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

Figure 6.11.5 CBE Thermal Comfort Band

The original scenario simulation of 2 bedroom is calculated by CBE thermal comfort tool. In summer, when the outdoor temperature is 20.08℃, the average indoor temperature is 31℃, and the mean resultant temperature is about 28℃. The results of thermal comfort in the East and West show overheating. It does not meet the EN-15251 standard. For the results of SE bedroom and SW bedroom, only the class 3 criterion is conformed, ranging from 21.4℃ to 29.4℃. But class 1 and class 2 show that the results are overheated. Based on the calculation of thermal comfort in winter, when the outdoor temperature is 10℃, the indoor temperature is 11.9 ℃ and the mean resultant temperature is 10.8℃. The calculation results show that it is too cold. As a result, it is too hot in summer and too cold in winter. Because of the studio simulation, heating is necessary in winter, and overheating in summer can be improved by different aperture values. So the same methods also run in the simulation of 2 bedroom.

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Figure 6.11.6 2 bedroom_Bedroom Annual Results

In summary, for the annual hourly results of the bedroom, the starting temperature is between 20 ℃ and 28 ℃, and the eastern bedroom on the 5th floor and the eastern bedroom on the 20th floor exceed 28℃, which are 220 hours. The rest exceeded 28 in an average of 33 hours.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.12 Original Scenario for 2 Bedroom flat_Living Room

Figure 6.12.1 Original Scenario for 2 Bedroom flat_Living Room

SE Living Room_Summer

SW Living Room_Summer

Figure 6.12.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SE Living Room_Winter

SW Living Room_Winter

Figure 6.12.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation

The living rooms in Strata are equipped with a fridge, a microwave ,TV, and 8 LED lights. Living room has additionally equipped with a kettle and a computer. For living room equipments, the total heat gain is 735 W, and the floor area of studio is 49 ㎡ and volume is 117 m³. The equipment sensible gain for per square metre is 735W/49 ㎡ , or 15 w/ ㎡ . According to CIBSE Guide A, the sensible heat gain of 5 w/person is assumed in a living space. (CIBSE 2017) Thus, the occupants in bedroom are assumed to be two persons, 10 w/m³ should be assumed in occupancy sensible gain. Therefore, this maximum percentage of 20 is the first parameter to start to open the windows, with a setback as 0. The window opening ratio is 20% according to fieldwork. The simulation time is selected as the typical climate day of London divided by summer and winter, the external temperature is 6℃ to 10℃ in winter and 15℃ to 25℃ in summer. The dates which are the 4th of January and 30th of July are the same as pervious scenarios. There are no cooling and heating in the original scenario. • 86

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SE Livingroom_Summer Aperture flow in

SW Livingroom_Summer Aperture flow in

SE Livingroom_Winter Aperture flow in

SW Livingroom_Winter Aperture flow in

Figure 6.12.3 Aperture for different Orientations

According to the results of the living room simulation, the thermal comfort band printing has been printed on the line graph. The thermal comfort zone is available 24 hours a day in the summer. The SW and SE Living room are all in thermal comfort under the original conditions and 20% of the aperture. Hence there is no requirement to make improvements. However, in winter, all results are lower than the thermal comfort zone, and indoor heating is needed. However, the temperature of the 38th floor is the lowest, and the result is the same as the previous result. The floor on the top floor has more air flow, which results in lower temperature. During the summer aperture period, between 6pm and 10pm, the air flow results are similar. The 38th floor received the most, about 1.8 ACH. For the winter, the results of the indoor temperature are consistent with the maximum air flow obtained on the 38th floor. Therefore, the temperature of 38th is at a low level.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SW Living Room Winter Input Air Temperature:11.4℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:10.6℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:10℃

SE Living Room Winter Input Air Temperature:11.3℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:10.5℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:10℃

SW Living Room Summer Input Air Temperature:25.8℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:25.6℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

SE Living Room Summer Input Air Temperature:25.7℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:25.5℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

Figure 6.12.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band

As the results of CBE Thermal Comfort Calculate Tool, the results compiled with EN-15251 in summer, which means people are comfortable staying in living room when the space is in use. However, the winter results are lower than the comfort band, too cold not complying with EN-15251. Heating is required in winter.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work

Figure 6.12.5 2 bedroom_Living room Annual Results

In summary, for the annual hourly results of the living room, the temperature is between 20 ℃ and 28 ℃. From the bar chart, only 9 hours are over 28℃, and the previous line chart matched the results in the summer. Therefore, there is no overheating issue in this space, and the occupants feels comfortable in this space and has a good condition.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.13 Winter Scenario with heating on for Bedroom and Living room

Figure 6.13.1 Winter Scenario with heating on for Bedroom and Living room

East Bedroom_Winter

SE Bedroom_Winter

Figure 6.13.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SW Bedroom_Winter

West Bedroom_Winter

Figure 6.13.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation

SE Living Room_Winter

SW Living Room_Winter

Figure 6.13.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation

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Figure 6.13.3 Heating Loads

2 Bedroom Winter with Heating On Input Air Temperature:22℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:22.5℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:10℃

Figure 6.13.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work This scenario is mainly for 2 bedrooms flat in winter, winter is too cold as a problem in the previous scenarios. Therefore, heating is required in this scenario. As the all conditions are the same except the heating, this scenario examines the difference between heating on conditions. According to the calculation of thermal comfort in CBE, the thermal comfort zone in winter is between 20.8℃ and 25.1℃. For indoor temperature, it is recommended to remain 22℃. In TAS simulation, the thermostat is set to 22 °C in occupancy as assumed to be the value. The heating schedule is 6 pm to 10 pm during living room, 10pm to 8am as the bedroom. According to the chart results, the occupied time ensures that the temperature is maintained at 22℃. According to the schedule of 2 bedroom flat, the occupancy time of living room is from 6 pm to 10 pm, and that of bedroom is from 10 pm to 9 am. In all occupied time, due to the heating is turned on, the effective thermal comfort of the room is maintained. When heating on the heat load is 24.82 kW.H/m2 which is in the benchmark range. According to Thesis Module, The Passive House, the heat loads criteria are between 15 to 40 kW.H/m2(Rosa Schiano, 2019). Based on CBE thermal comfort calculation, outdoor temperature is 10 °C, indoor air temperature is 22.5, mean resultant temperature is 22 °C. In terms of the EN-15251 adaptive thermal comfort model, the indoor environment has a comfortable state at the time of the occupation.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work 6.14 2_Bedroom Scenario with different aperture type

East Bedroom_Summer

SW Bedroom_Summer

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work West Bedroom_Summer

SE Bedroom_Summer

East Bedroom

SE Bedroom

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SW Bedroom

East Bedroom Summer Input Air Temperature:23.8℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:24.8℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

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West Bedroom

SE Bedroom Summer Input Air Temperature:23.8℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:24.5℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work SW Bedroom Summer Input Air Temperature:23.7℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:24.3℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

West Bedroom Summer Input Air Temperature:23.9℃ Mean Radiant Temperature:24.9℃ Outdoor running mean temperature:20.08℃

According to the results of the previous original scenario of two bedrooms, the room is overheated. Therefore, according to the overheating situation of the studio, different apertures have been used to improve the problem. Therefore, this part will also use this method to solve indoor overheating. During this scenario, the aperture of the 5th floor is still assumed to be 80%, the 20th floor assumes the parameter of 70%, and the 38th floor parameter as 60%. The windows in the top floors were smaller in this section, due to no obstructions and shading of indoor environment. And at the pervious scenarios the top floor apartments had lower temperature than the 20th and 5th floors, so the aperture value is the smallest as 60%. The rest floors are 70% and 80%. In addition, the all setback value is 10%. According to the results of this improvement method, the chart shows that in each direction of the bedroom in summer, there are 16 hours a day in the thermal comfort zone. In the occupant's occupancy time, the bedroom reached a thermal comfort zone in the period of 6 pm to 9 am. In the occupancy time, the bedroom reached a thermal comfort zone in the period of 6 pm to 9 am. Compared with the results of indoor temperature and air flow rate, the results match. In the East bedroom, the temperature of 38th floor is the lowest from 1am to 8am in the morning, but the air flow rate is also the most obtained during this period, which is about 7 ACH. After that, the air flow rate is also the highest from 8 am to 4 pm. Compared with the results of indoor temperature, this temperature is the lowest. The results of SE and SW bedrooms are similar, including 5th floor, 20th floor and 38th floor. But aperture's results show that the 5th floor receives the most air flow from 9am to 4pm. However at 5pm, the maximum air flow in a day was 23 ACH. For the bedroom on the west facing, during the period from 9am to 4pm, the 38th floor receives the least air flow below 7.5 ACH. Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Chapter 6 Analytical Work At the same time, in the displayed temperature results, the temperature of 38th floor also increases during this period. However, in the period from 5 pm to 10 pm, the air flow rate of the 38th floor is the highest, so in the temperature chart, the temperature is the lowest in this period. Therefore the results match. Based on CBE thermal comfort calculation, outdoor temperature is 20.08 °C, indoor temperature is 23.8°C, and the mean resultant temperature is 24.5 °C. In terms of the EN-15251 adaptive thermal comfort model, the indoor environment of each bedrooms achieved comfortable state at the time of the occupation.

To sum up, in the original scenario, the maximum time of over 28 hours is 220 hours, but after improving the aperture method, the maximum time of over 28 hours is 0 hours. Therefore, this method effectively improves the issue of indoor overheating. The objectives of the study are, on the one hand, to find a balance between the indoor environment and outdoor environment in the high rise residential building construction, and on the other hand, to find this balance when the building is in a context without neighbouring obstructions. The different strategies analysed prove there is more than one way to find this balance in high-rise residential buildings to avoid overheating. Finally, this proposal discusses a series of recommendations made in different scenarios and evaluates whether or not the results pass UK overheating regulations.

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7. Conclusion In conclusion, this study follows the building regulations and standard recommendations in Britain. It reveals how to satisfy these recommendations in a way that provides better thermal performance and decreases heating energy demand in winter. At the same time, in the absence of mechanical cooling, only natural ventilation is used to solve indoor overheating. The limitations on parameters given in Building regulations turned out to be no barrier to having environmental strategies that avoid overheating, as this study found. However, building regulations are not the only reason to have better insulated buildings with less energy consumption. The future predicted climate in London, as it was mention before, will on average be colder and have less sunlight hours, but also be hotter during summer. Therefore, it should be part of the solution, in order to reduce energy consumptions. The highrise residential buildings as St. George’s Wharf has the potential to offer luxury views through total glazing with mechanical systems as part of the solution to maintain comfort. But it also spend a lot of funds on maintenance and energy consumption. For no obstruction, high-rise residential buildings in London, effective sunlight can be obtained based on the use of total glazing curtain walls. The problem is that indoor overheating is caused from solar gain. For Strata ventilation, the original aperture mode leads to the issue of indoor overheating. But it can be improved by improving the aperture size of windows. However, in non-obstructed contexts it will aim to balance the unwanted solar gain in summer, through a ventilation strategy or shading devise. The indoor thermal comfort enhances the user’s interaction with the life in home. The literature, precedent and the digital analysis prove that the indoor spaces if properly designed can proved good thermal comforts. This study presents only the preliminary ideas of many other possible solutions that could be considered using passive strategies. However, the original design of the size of the windows will be the starting point for this aim, because in the specific climate conditions of London. Improved cases and results demonstrate to designers how mechanical ventilation systems can be omitted in lieu of natural ventilation. This may present potential cost savings as well as reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions that have an impact on global warming. Results will allow designers to consider how best to implement a natural ventilation strategy and consider improve indoor overheating. To conclude, these improvement suggestions will be a ‘rule of thumb’, a starting point to give designers the tools to make improvements. The aim is to improve the internal environment to enhance productivity and well being of residents, with analytical work exploring how this could potentially be achieved. In addition to this, internal environments should be designed not for convenience, but for people.

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Reference List Trust for London. (2019). London's population over time. [online] Available at: https://www. trustforlondon.org.uk/data/londons-population-over-time/ [Accessed 11 Jul. 2019]. GOV.UK. (2014). Innovate UK. [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ innovate-uk [Accessed 11 Jul. 2019]. Lawrence, R. and Keime, C. (2016). Bridging the gap between energy and comfort: Post occupancy evaluation of two higher-education buildings in Sheffield. Energy and Buildings, [online] 130, pp.651-666. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0378778816308015. Larsen, T. and Heiselberg, P. (2008). Single-sided natural ventilation driven by wind pressure and temperature difference. Energy and Buildings, 40(6), pp.3-4. Fordham, M. (2000). Wind Towers by Battle McCarthy Engineers John Wiley, Chichester, 1998 pp., many mono and colour illus. ISBN 0471980870 Price 19.99(pb). Architectural Research Quarterly, 4(1), pp.28-29. Humphrey M.A. (2002) outdoor temperature and comfort indoor. Building Research and Practice 1978, 6(2) , pp. 92-105 Nicol J., F. Humphreys M.A.(2002) Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal standards for buildings. Energy and Buildings pp.563-572 Foutain M. Estimating summer wind driven natural ventilation potential for indoor thermal comfort. Locally controlled and air movement preferred in warm isothermal environment. ASHREA 94 V100(2) pp. 937-952 Ecological campus Jubilee Campus,University of Nottingham,UK[J].WorldArchitecture, 2004(8):pp. 64—69 Etheridge, D. (2015). A perspective on fifty years of natural ventilation research. Building and Environment, 91, pp.51-60. Carrington, D. (2019). Air pollution falling in London but millions still exposed. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/apr/01/air-pollution-falling-londonmillions-still-exposed [Accessed 13 Jul. 2019]. Berkeleygroup.co.uk. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.berkeleygroup.co.uk/media/pdf/n/b/ st-george-tower-one-st-george-wharf-platinum-collection-2.pdf [Accessed 13 Jul. 2019]. Content.yudu.com. (2019). Building Test News Magazine. [online] Available at: http://content.yudu. com/Library/A1yfim/BuildingTestNewsMaga/resources/7.htm [Accessed 13 Jul. 2019]. Neufert-cdn.archdaily.net. (2019). [online] Available at: https://neufert-cdn.archdaily.net/uploads/ product_file/file/530/Aluminum_Blinds_Brochure.pdf [Accessed 14 Jul. 2019]. S. C. Sugarman (2005). HVAC fundamentals. The Fairmont Press, Inc.

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Viessmann. (2019). Viessmann - Heating Systems, Industrial Systems, Refrigeration Systems. [online] Available at: https://www.viessmann-us.com/ [Accessed 15 Jul. 2019]. LIDDAMENT*, M. (2000). A Review of Ventilation and the Quality of Ventilation Air. Indoor Air, 10(3), pp.193-199. ArchDaily. (2019). Strata SE1 / BFLS. [online] Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/70142/stratase1-bfls [Accessed 17 Apr. 2019]. Wainwright, O. (2019). Horror storeys: the 10 worst London skyscrapers. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/apr/29/top-10-worst-londonskyscrapers-quill-odalisk-walkie-talkie [Accessed 19 Apr. 2019]. IPCC (2000). Emissions Scenarios. Nakicenovic N. and Swart R. (Eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. urban75 blog. (2019). The rarely spinning turbines of the Strata Tower, south London. [online] Available at: http://www.urban75.org/blog/the-rarely-spinning-turbines-of-the-strata-tower-southlondon/ [Accessed 19 Apr. 2019]. Reinhart, C. F. (2002): A model for manual and automated control of electric lighting and blinds. Solar Energy, 15–28. CIBSE (2017) Environmental Design - CIBSE Guide A. London: CIBSE Publications. doi: 10.1016/ B978-0-240-81224-3.00016-9. Thomas, R. (2006). Environmental design: an introduction for architects and engineers, 3rd ed. New York: Taylor & Francis Inc. London Perfect. (2019). Weather & Seasons. [online] Available at: https://www.londonperfect.com/ plan-your-trip/practical-information/weather-seasons.php [Accessed 20Jul. 2019]. Rosa Schiano (2019). Week 2 Thesis Module The Passive House Available from https://learning. westminster.ac.uk/. [Accessed 21 July 2019].

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List of Figures Figure 2.3.1 Natural Ventilation affected by thermal pressure Fig.2.3.2(a) One-sided ventilation (heat dissipation by internal heat source) Fig.2.3.3(b) Double-sided ventilation (heat source from solar radiation) Figure 2.3.4 Natural ventilation affected by wind pressure Figure (a) 2.3.5 Single side Ventilation Figure (b) 2.3.6 Two-Sided Ventilation Figure 2.3.7 Natural ventilation affected by wind pressure and thermal pressure Figure 2.4.1 Linear relationship between indoor temperature and outdoor temperature Figure 2.5.1 Expected wind speed at different temperatures and humidities Figure 2.7.1 St. George’s Wharf Tower( Sources by https://www.multiplex.global/projects/the-towerone-st-george-wharf-london-uk/) Figure 2.7.1.2 Floor Plan of St. George’s Wharf (Sources by https://www.berkeleygroup.co.uk/ media/pdf/n/b/st-george-tower-one-st-george-wharf-platinum-collection-2.pdf) Figure 2.7.1.3.1 Wind rose of London Figure 2.7.1.3.2 St. George’s Wharf Wind Velocity Figure 2.7.1.3.3 Wind Velocity for different levels Figure 2.7.1.5.1 Perforated aluminium blinds(Sources by https://www.google.com) Figure 2.7.1.5.2 Perforated aluminium blinds (Sources by https://www.google.com) Figure 2.7.1.6 Sliding Windows in St. George’s Wharf(Sources by https://www.google.com Figure 2.7.1.7 Fresh Air Supply Featuring Hear Recovery(Sources by https://www.google.com) Figure 3.2.1 Shoot by 25/03/2-19

Figure 3.2.2 Site Plan

Figure 3.3.1 Köppen-Geiger climate classification: Cfd - Oceanic climate Figure 3.3.2 London monthly average climate data - Today Figure 3.3.3 London monthly average climate data - Future Scenario A2 Figure 3.3.4 Radiation on N-E facade - Presently Figure 3.3.5 Radiation on N-E facade - Future Figure 3.3.6 Radiation on West facade - Presently Figure 3.3.7 Monthly average ground temperature Figure 3.4.1 Strata Design Strategies affected by climate (Source by Archdaily) Figure 3.4.2 Strata Section (Source by Archdaily) Figure 3.5.1.1 Sun path_Summer Figure 3.5.1.1 Sun path_Winter Figure 3.5.2.1 Summer Figure 3.5.2.2 Equinox Figure 3.5.2.3 Winter Figure 3.5.3.1 CFD analysis of Strata Figure 3.5.3.2 CFD analysis of Strata Section Figure 3.5.4.1 Facade Solar Irradiation of Strata Figure 3.5.5.1 UTCI_Equinox Figure 3.5.5.1 UTCI_Summer Figure 3.5.5.1 UTCI_Winter Figure 4.1.1 Floor plan for aperture ratio Figure 4.1.2 Hand Drawing for Total Glazing and door aperture Figure 4.1.3 Operable aperture door Figure 4.1.4 Total aperture opening Figure 4.1.5 Degree of aperture total opening Figure 4.2.1 Spots Measurement Figure 4.2.2 Spots Measurement Figure 4.2.3 Data Logger Results Figure 4.2.4 Data Logger_ Living Room Figure 4.2.5 Data Logger_East Facade Bedroom • 102

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Figure 4.2.6 Data Logger_SouthEast Facade Bedroom Figure 5.1.1 Useful Daylight Illuminance Figure 5.2.1 Daylight Factor Figure 5.3.1 Sun Angles Figure 5.3.2 Equinox Figure 5.3.2 Winter Figure 5.3.2 Summer Figure 5.4.1 Equinox Illuminance Figure 5.4.2 Summer Illuminance Figure 5.4.3 Winter Illuminance Figure 6.2.1 Daily Routine Figure 6.3.1 Studio Floor Plan Figure 6.3.2 Two Bedrooms Floor Plan Figure 6.3.3 TAS 3D Model Figure 6.4.1 Schedule of Studio Figure 6.4.2 Construction Materials Figure 6.5.1 Original Studio Scenario Figure 6.5.2 Original Scenario Aperture Ratio Figure 6.6.1 Original Studio for Temperature Results Figure 6.6.2 Original Studio for Aperture Results Figure 6.6.3 Original Studio for CBE Thermal Comfort Figure 6.6.4 Original Studio Scenario Annual Result Figure 6.7.1Studio Scenario with Heating on Figure 6.7.2 Studio with heating on for Temperature Results Figure 6.7.3 Heating Loads Figure 6.7.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.8.1 Studio Scenario with different aperture types Figure 6.8.2 Different apertures Figure 6.8.3 Temperature Results for Scenario with different aperture types Figure 6.8.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.9.1Scenario with different aperture type and shutter Figure 6.9.2 East Studio Figure 6.9.3 Aperture for different orientation Figure 6.9.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.9.5 Studio Annual Results Figure 6.10.1Schedule of 2 bedroom Living room Figure 6.10.2 Schedule of 2 bedroom Bedrooms Figure 6.10.3 Construction Material Figure 6.11.1 Original Scenario for 2 bedroom flats_Bedroom Figure 6.11.2 Temperature result for different orientation Figure 6.11.3 Aperture for 2 bedroom_Summer and Winter Figure 6.11.4 Aperture Ratio Figure 6.11.5 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.11.6 2 bedroom_Bedroom Annual Results Figure 6.12.1 Original Scenario for 2 Bedroom flat_Living Room Figure 6.12.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation Figure 6.12.3 Aperture for different Orientations Figure 6.12.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.12.5 2 bedroom_Living room Annual Results Figure 6.13.1 Winter Scenario with heating on for Bedroom and Living room Figure 6.13.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation Figure 6.13.3 Heating Loads Southwark, London, SE1, United Kingdom

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Figure 6.13.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.14.1 2 Bedroom Scenario with different aperture type Figure 6.14.2 Temperature Results for different Orientation Figure 6.14.3 Aperture for different Scenario Figure 6.13.4 CBE Thermal Comfort Band Figure 6.14.5 2 bedroom_Bedroom Annual Results

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COURSEWORK COVERSHEET FORM CA1

UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER MARYLEBONE CAMPUS

I confirm that I understand what plagiarism is and have read and understood the section on Assessment Offences in the Essential Information for Students. The work that I have submitted is entirely my own (unless authorised group work). Any work from other authors is duly referenced and acknowledged. STUDENTS MUST COMPLETE THIS SECTION ONLY IN FULL AND IN CAPITALS Surname Forename Feng Yiran Registration No:

W

1

6

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0

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Course

ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN 7AEVD002W.1

Module Title

Evaluation Thesis Projectof Built Environments

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7AEVD001W.2

Assignment No:

1/1

Date Submitted

0220

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Rosa SCHIANO-PHAN

Word Count

16131

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Joint Submission

Carine Berger Woiezechoski Hyab A. Amare

12 09

2017 2019

Noemi Futas Ting Yu Yu

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