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INTERTIDAL ENGINE

ASSIGNING DESIGN VALUES FOR ABU DHABI COASTLINE

JIATENG SUN/ XUYUAN YAO/ JUNYI CHEN/ YIRAN HU BARTLETT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE B-PRO URBAN MORPHOGENESIS LAB 2014-2015


INTERTIDAL ENGINE

ASSIGNING DESIGN VALUES FOR ABU DHABI COASTLINE

JIATENG SUN/ XUYUAN YAO/ JUNYI CHEN/ YIRAN HU BARTLETT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE B-PRO URBAN MORPHOGENESIS LAB 2014-2015


B-Pro UD2 | 2014-2015 Portfolio Bartlett School of Architecture University College London London, UK

Design Tutors Enriqueta Llabres-Valls Eduardo Rico Maj Plemenitas

Submitted by Jiateng Sun Xuyuan Yao Junyi Chen Yiran Hu 21 August 2015


ABSTRACT

During the past 30 years, with the rapid development of Abu Dhabi’s economy, great changes have occurred in physical environment, especially in coastal area due to development of its industries, such as oil gas, tourism and recreation industry. The artificial coastline change has also caused significant effects on its marine and coastal eco-systems. Many studies have shown that the decline of diversity of the marine ecosystem mainly results from its reclamation activities related with the construction of artificial islands. Moreover, the traditional construction techniques of those islands result into an unrecoverable situation for marine ecosystem. Focusing on this problem, our design comes tackles it from two sides: one regards policy development and the other the construction techniques. For the policy side, an interface will be developed to allow involving agents (or actors) to engage with information on reclamation, such as location, scale, effects to ecosystem and therefore, to coordinate different decisions with regulations - ‘cap and trade’. For the technicalities of the construction methods, we design new processes for constructing artificial islands. Those construction techniques are developed after studies on traditional construction methods while exploring the capacities of new materials. In contrast to the traditional ways of building against natural forces, such as waves, tides, we intend to make use of nature’s dynamism to generate islands’ morphologies learned from Netherlands’ ‘SAND ENGINE’. In order to dynamically fix some parts of the island under construction we develop methods of intervention in the process by applying new materials.

2 | Relational Urban Model


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Fig.1 Artificial islands are built off the coast of Abu Dhabi at depths ranging from 6 metres to 14 metres

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INDEX Tide

Nature

Ecosystem

RELATIONAL URBAN MODEL

Economic Activities

Human Activity

Institution

Technique

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Deposition Erosion

Coral Reefs Seagrass Alga Mats Mangroves Saltmarshes

[1] Relational Value: Island with 2 Eco’

Tourism Shipping Aquaculture Oil & Pearl

Command & Control Cap & Trade FBCs

Reclamation Dredging Materials

[2] Constructino of Relational Value: Policy Development [3] Construction of Relational Value: New Island Formation Relational Urban Model

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Design Report | Relational Urban Model

1.0 Introduction

1. EAD. 2011. Environmental Atlas of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Abu Dhabi: Motivate Publishing. 2. Harvey, D. 1997. Justice, Nature and the Geography. London: John Wiley & Sons. 3. Harvey, D. 2011. The Enigma of Capital: and the Crises of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition. 4. EAD and AGEDI. 2009. Marine and Coastal Environments of Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. [online]. Available from: https://agedi. org/?page_id=11637&download-info=marine-and-coastalenvironment-sector-paper [Accessed 15 February 2015].

In today’s Abu Dhabi, the human living and life is from land to sea. Local harsh climate and desert landforms account for 90% of the total land area making reclamation and the construction of artificial islands inevitable (as in Figure 1 and Figure 2) (EAD 2011) . During the past three decades, the established methods of island construction has touched off a series of negative effects on the local ecosystems, including both nature and human. In order to raise this issue, the government has developed an initiate which tries to emphasized and put value to the local environment: The Blue Carbon Project in Abu Dhabi. This toolkit can be used to broadly assess the impact of development on coastal marine ecosystems and the associated blue carbon stock, helping to make informed decisions relating to the future develop-

ment of the city (as in Figure 3 and Figure 4) (EAD and AGEDI, 2009).

Fig.1 Bird View of Abu Dhabi Coastline 1965

Fig.2 Bird View of Abu Dhabi Coastline 2009

Fig.3 Main Layer of Blue Carbon Toolkit

2.0 Theory and Methodology: Relational Urban Model

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Since the birth of parametric design, architects have constantly engaged in the game with codes. Over the past decade, we could see that architecture and urban design have been shifting dramatically owe to the development of system theory and digital technology, showing a great sweeping trend. However, more and more people are keenly aware that neither the conventional architectural design nor today’s parametric design can dominate everything in the future’s urban design. As Alexander said: the city is not a tree; it should not be simplistic, but a huge system with complex internal rules (Alexander 1965). It means that the territory and the city are widely

However, environmental value might not to be universal, as David Harvey argued that how an ecologist and an economist would evaluate the environment differently (as in Figure 5) (Harvey 1997). Instead, the construction of value is relational. So what is the real value of the environment? How new forms of documenting the construction of cities can emphasize a relational construction of space time and value? How can they bring together the larger picture of our decisions and the qualities of the materials involved in it? In which sense it becomes projective? These questions were the main driver of our project Relational Urban Model.

Fig.4 Instruction of Blue Carbon Interface

recognized as overlaps of complicated and dynamic systems. As a result, to design is to engage with relationships. In 2012, Relational Urbanism was formally proposed by Enriqueta Llares and Eduardo Rico (Llares and Rico 2012). It is essentially a kind of methodology born out of socioeconomics on large-scale urban and regional design, and aims to link the form design in design practice with the empirical knowledge and theory of economy and engineering, emphasizing that urban design is an integrated project with multidisciplinary participation.


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5. Alexander, C. 1965. ‘A City is not A Tree’, Architectural Forum, 122(1), pp. 58-62.2. 6. Llabres, E., Rico, E. 2012. ‘In Progress: Relational Urban Models’, Urban Design International, 17(4), pp. 319-335. 7. Rico, E., Llabres, E. 2015. ‘Relational Urban Models: Parameters, Values and Tacit Forms of Algorithms’, Architectural Design, Draft Copy. 8. Menges, A. 2010. ‘Material Systems, Computational Morphogenesis and Performative Capacity’, In: M. Hensel, A. Menges and M. Weinstock, eds. Emergent Technologies and Design. London: Routledge Inc., pp. 44-81. 9. Abu Dhabi Council for Economic Development, and Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. 2011. Abu Dhabi Vision 2030. [online]. Available from: http://www.upc.gov.ae/ template/upc/pdf/abu-dhabi-vision-2030-revised-en.pdf [Accessed 14 February 2015].

3.0 I. S. LAND: Design with Relational Urban Models and Interface 10. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. September 2007. Plan Abu Dhabi 2030: Urban Structure Framework Plan. [online]. Available from: http://www.carboun.com/ wp-content/uploads/2010/07/PlanAbuDhabi2030_UPC.pdf [Accessed 14 February 2015]. 11. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council and EAD. 2011. Interim Coastal Development Guidelines. [online]. Available from: http://www.upc.gov.ae/guidelines/coastal-development-guidelines.aspx?lang=en-US [Accessed 14 February 2015]. 12. Beasley, L. November 2011. Planning the Global City: Vancouver, Abu Dhabi and the World. University of Toronto - Urban Lecture Series. [online]. Available from: http://munkschool.utoronto.ca/imfg/uploads/171/ toronto_text_uoftmainaddress_11_11.pdf [Accessed 15 February 2015].

Relational Urban Model proposes a new methodology which offer highly hybrid condition for designers in a data-age. It deploys systemic-computational theory, data visualizing approaches and parametric design methods as well as admit conventional urban intentions. All the context resonate together via building up a relational model. Moreover, it has bottom-up genes lying in the systemic morphogenesis. It treats data and materials as agents whose collective form or behaviours might contribute to novelty patterns. In short, it is about material, agency, system and territory. It is a methodology to integrate parameters, values and tacit forms of algorithms together to support new design process (Rico and Llares 2015).

tool and the external manifestation form to put the relational urbanism theory itself throughout the entire urban design and planning process, and also presents “designed”, a large and complex topic, in front of participants with different professional background.

To achieve this multi-participation, people need to take Customized Interface, a clearer digital form, as a communication platform, and integrate other variables existing in the city, such as economic and institutional factors, etc. into the design concepts and solution scrutiny (Llares and Rico 2012). Relational Urbanism as a methodology to some extent makes up for the gap between the parametric design and the traditional morphological design, and introduces the interface as an essential element to architecture and urban design, and makes it as a supplementary

As described above, as a key element of the theory, “Interface” will be always a communication way throughout this project. The “interface” generation is to build a so-called relational model (Llares and Rico 2012). Through the interface, we show the research and analysis process and how parameter adjustment affects form design. We also use the interface to integrate non-design-oriented factors such as system, engineering and economic variables and indicators to realize the purpose of designers, non-designers and multidisciplinary participation.

During the past 30 years, with the rapid development of Abu Dhabi’s economy, great changes have occurred in physical environment, especially in coastal area due to development of its industries, such as oil gas, tourism and recreation industry. The artificial coastline change has also caused significant effects on its marine and coastal eco-systems.

this problem, our design comes tackles it from two sides: one regards policy development and the other the construction techniques.

In context of Relational Urbanism, we conducted a study for the development of Abu Dhabi coastline. Derived from parametric design, Relational Urbanism employs the systemic-computational morphogenesis, but significantly replenishes it with territorial, ecological, economic, institutional and other urban contexts, through the use of mathematical models.

Many studies have shown that the decline of diversity of the marine ecosystem mainly results from its reclamation activities related with the construction of artificial islands. Moreover, the traditional construction techniques of those islands result into an unrecoverable situation for marine ecosystem. Focusing on

For the policy side, an interface will be developed to allow involving agents (or actors) to engage with information on reclamation, such as location, scale, effects to ecosystem and therefore, to coordinate different decisions with regulations - ‘cap and trade’. For the technicalities of the construction methods, we design new processes for constructing artificial islands. Those construction techniques are developed after studies on traditional construction methods while exploring the capacities of new materials. In contrast to the

Fig.5 Relational Value Adapted from D. Harvey

Fig.6 Instruction of Coastal Interface

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Design Report | Relational Urban Model

13. EAD and AGEDI. 2009. Policies and Regulations of Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. [online]. Available from: https://agedi.org/?page_id=11637&download-info=policies-sector-paper [Accessed 14 February 2015]. 14. Elsheshtawy, Y. 2008. ‘Cities of Sand and Frog: Abu Dhabi’s Global Ambitions’, In: Y. Elsheshtawy, ed. The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development. London: Routledge, pp. 258-304. 15. Jackson, M., Dora, V. D. 2009. ‘Dreams So Big Only the Sea Can Hold Them: Man-made Islands as Anxious Spaces, Cultural Icons, and Travelling Visions’, Environment and Planning A, 41(2009), pp. 2086-2104.

traditional ways of building against natural forces, such as waves, tides, we intend to make use of nature’s dynamism to generate islands’ morphologies learned from Netherlands’ ‘SAND ENGINE’. In order to dynamically fix some parts of the island under construction we develop methods of intervention in the process by applying new materials. In I.S.LAND project, “interface” is called “Coastal Interface”. “Coastal Interface” is essentially the interface integrating both natural factors and human activities, including the five development elements of the

Abu Dhabi coastal areas: tidal, ecosystems, economic, institutional and reclamation techniques. Among them, the tide and coastal ecosystems are the most important natural variables (as in Figure 7). The economic, institutional and artificial island construction techniques are the main human activities in coastal areas. We try to through the “interface” explain the development process of Abu Dhabi coastline, and give the following three measures for these inevitable behaviors: relational environmental value, policy development and the way of island formation.

Fig.7 Simulation of Abu Dhabi’s coastline formation in natural way

3.1 Relational Value:

Island with 2 Eco’ 16. Loughland, R. A., Luker, P. S. G., Siddiqui, K., Saji, B., Belt, M., and Crawford, K. 2007. ‘Changes in the Coastal Zone of Abu Dhabi Determined Using Satellite Imagery (1972-2003)’, Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 10(3), pp. 301-308. 17. Mohammad, R., Sidaway, J. D. 2012. ‘Spectacular Urbanization amidst Variegated Geographies of Globalization: Learning from Abu Dhabi’s Trajectory through the Lives of South Asian Men’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36(3), pp. 606-627.

Similar to most other relational models, “Coastal Interface” design is beginning from existing geographic information reading the site. The existing geographic information is the basis of the analysis of the whole environmental values (Llares and Rico 2012). We will read satellite images from ArcGIS as input information into the model. These basic variables include dynamic tidal movements (including consequent soil erosion and deposited amount), the natural habitats distribution

(including five important local species), soil geological distribution, and reclamation and dredging earthwork of the past decade. These dynamic and static variables make us have a preliminary understanding of the environment distribution in coastal areas. The study of economic activity types and their distribution helps us to further improve the model. These activities mainly include tourism, shipping, aquaculture, oil exploitation industry and pearl collection industry. At this

Fig.8 Island with 2 ecosystems: human ecosystem and natural ecosystem

Fig.9 Diagram of cap and trade process

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Fig.10 Relational mathematical model of coastline


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3.2 Relational Construction of Space Time and Value 1 // Policy Development

18. Ouis, P. 2011. ‘And an Island Never Cries: Cultural and Societal Perspectives on the Mega Development of Islands in the United Arab Emirates’, In: V. Badescu and R. Cathcart, eds. Macro-engineering Seawater in Unique Environments: Arid Lowlands and Water Bodies Rehabilitation. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 59-75. 19. Rankey, E. C., Berkeley, A. 2012. ‘Holocene Carbonate Tidal Flats’, In: R. A. Davis Jr. and R. W. Dalrymple, eds. Principles of Tidal Sedimentology. London: Springer Science, pp. 507-536. 20. UNU-INWEH. 2011. Managing the Growing Impacts of Development on Fragile Coastal and Marine Ecosystems: Lessons from the Gulf. [online]. Available from: http://inweh.unu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/PolicyReport_LessonsFromTheGulf.pdf [Accessed 15 February 2015].

3.3 Relational Construction of Space Time and Value 2 // Way of Island Formation

4.0 Conclusion

point, we get to know the relational value which composed by 1 island and 2 ecosystems: both nature and human (as in Figure 8). Secondly, in terms of the policy development, under the premise of having studied Abu Dhabi’s urban planning system development time line and connecting with the previous geographic information, we proposed the countermeasures to command and control, cap and trade, aiming to through the “interface” make owners and land developers who engage in different economic activities able to participate in the establishment of the relational model and the planning of the coastal areas through the compensatory policy (as in Figure 10). A number of basic regulatory strategies are built on the use of the capacities or resources that governments possess and can be distinguished from each other as the sev-

en follows: command and control (C & C), incentive-based regimes, market-harnessing controls, disclosure regulation, direct action and design solutions, rights and liabilities, public compensation/social insurance schemes (Breyer 1982). Originally, a cap and trade system is a method for managing pollution, with the end goal of reducing the overall pollution in a nation, region, or industry. Many proponents of pollution control support the concept of such systems, arguing that they are extremely effective, and that they make sense economically as well. In our project, cap and trade system is based on the mangroves area in a fictitious and absolute way. The way is as different actors buying a certain amount of land for their own development, like housing and recreation, from the plots (as in Figure 9). At the same time, due to the obligation of this policy, they have to buy the same quantity in other plots for mangroves’ growing. The system is more like a marketing freedom regulation under government control.

Finally, combining the two factors, we put forward new material selection and forming mode for the construction of artificial islands. By adjusting a series of parameter values, people can see visually through the interface the formation of a new island in the tidal scouring process and the results a few years later. These parameters include density, the distribution of the structure points playing a fixed role, flow rate, ma-

terial characteristic values and so on.

Fig.11 Simulation of new island construction under different parameters of material system

Fig.12 Simulation tests of new island morphology under different patterns of material system

We hope to through this way intuitively understand the happening, development and future of the whole coastline, and to guide people with different professional background to involve in the development of this area. The presence of the interface broke the embarrassing situation of making the region simply parameterized. While the introduction of parametric design, the designers control the design concept and direction, which includes enough rational economic data, non-objective se-

lection of data, recommendations for policy development. The world is not either black or white. We believe that no matter how large the system is, it should have internal balance to some extent. The interface is not a panacea; more cannot be once and for all, but we can add more known variables under the guidance of this methodology to continuously improve it. Urban design is always a complex proposition, we need to face the fact and continue to move on.

At this point, “Coastal Interface” through the intuitive three-dimensional model combines the traditional form design mode and non-design-oriented constraints to achieve the establishment of relational coast model.

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Design Report | Relational Urban Model

BIBLIOGRAPHY Abu Dhabi Council for Economic Development, and Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. 2011. Abu Dhabi Vision 2030. [online]. Available from: http://www. upc.gov.ae/template/upc/pdf/abu-dhabi-vision-2030-revised-en.pdf [Accessed 14 February 2015]. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. September 2007. Plan Abu Dhabi 2030: Urban Structure Framework Plan. [online]. Available from: http://www.carboun. com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/PlanAbuDhabi2030_UPC.pdf [Accessed 14 February 2015]. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council and EAD. 2011. Interim Coastal Development Guidelines. [online]. Available from: http://www.upc.gov.ae/guidelines/coastal-development-guidelines.aspx?lang=en-US [Accessed 14 February 2015]. Alexander, C. 1965. ‘A City is not A Tree’, Architectural Forum, 122(1), pp. 58-62. Beasley, L. November 2011. Planning the Global City: Vancouver, Abu Dhabi and the World. University of Toronto - Urban Lecture Series. [online]. Available from: http://munkschool. utoronto.ca/imfg/uploads/171/toronto_text_uoftmainaddress_11_11.pdf [Accessed 15 February 2015]. Burt, J. A. 2014. ‘The Environmental Costs of Coastal Urbanization in the Arabian Gulf’, City, 18(6), pp. 760770. EAD. 2011. Environmental Atlas of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Abu Dhabi: Motivate Publishing. EAD and AGEDI. 2009. Marine and Coastal Environments of Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. [online]. Available from: https://agedi. org/?page_id=11637&download-info=marine-and-coastal-environment-sector-paper [Accessed 15 February 2015]. EAD and AGEDI. 2009. Policies and Regulations of Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. [online]. Available from: https:// agedi.org/?page_id=11637&download-info=policies-sector-paper [Accessed 14 February 2015]. Elsheshtawy, Y. 2008. ‘Cities of Sand and Frog: Abu Dhabi’s Global Ambitions’, In: Y. Elsheshtawy, ed. The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development. London: Routledge, pp. 258-304.

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Hashim, A. R. A. A. B. 2012. ‘Branding the Brand New City: Abu Dhabi, Travelers Welcome’, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(1), pp. 7282. Hvidt, M. 2011. ‘Economic and Institutional Reforms in the Arab Gulf Countries’, Middle East Journal, 65(1), pp. 85-102. Jackson, M., Dora, V. D. 2009. ‘Dreams So Big Only the Sea Can Hold Them: Man-made Islands as Anxious Spaces, Cultural Icons, and Travelling Visions’, Environment and Planning A, 41(2009), pp. 2086-2104. Karimi, K. 2012. ‘Special Issue: Evidence-informed and Analytical Methods in Urban Design’, Urban Design International, 17(4), pp. 253-256. Khirfan, L., Jaffer, Z. 2014. ‘Sustainable Urbanism in Abu Dhabi: Transferring the Vancouver Model’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 36(3), pp. 482-502. Llabres, E., Rico, E. 2012. ‘In Progress: Relational Urban Models’, Urban Design International, 17(4), pp. 319-335. Loughland, R. A., Luker, P. S. G., Siddiqui, K., Saji, B., Belt, M., and Crawford, K. 2007. ‘Changes in the Coastal Zone of Abu Dhabi Determined Using Satellite Imagery (1972-2003)’, Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 10(3), pp. 301-308. Mohammad, R., Sidaway, J. D. 2012. ‘Spectacular Urbanization amidst Variegated Geographies of Globalization: Learning from Abu Dhabi’s Trajectory through the Lives of South Asian Men’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36(3), pp. 606-627. Moussavi, Z., Aghaei, A. 2013. ‘The Environment, Geopolitics and Artificial Islands of Dubai in the Persian Gulf’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 81(2013), pp. 311313. Murray, M. 2013. ‘Connecting and Wealth Through Visionary ning: The Case of Abu Dhabi Planning Theory & Practice, pp. 278-282.

Growth Plan2030’, 14(2),

Nassar, A. K., Blackburn, G. A., Whyatt, J. D. 2014. ‘Developing the Desert: The Pace and Process of Urban Growth in Dubai’, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 45(2014), pp. 50-62.


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ILLUSTRATION CREDITS O’Brien, J., Keivani, R., Glasson, J. 2007. ‘Towards a New Paradigm in Environmental Policy Development in High-Income Developing Countries: The Case of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates’, Processing in Planning, 68(2007), pp. 201-256.

[Fig.1] Bird View of Abu Dhabi Coastline 1965

Ouis, P. 2011. ‘And an Island Never Cries: Cultural and Societal Perspectives on the Mega Development of Islands in the United Arab Emirates’, In: V. Badescu and R. Cathcart, eds. Macro-engineering Seawater in Unique Environments: Arid Lowlands and Water Bodies Rehabilitation. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 59-75.

[Fig.4] Instruction of Blue Carbon Interface

Rankey, E. C., Berkeley, A. 2012. ‘Holocene Carbonate Tidal Flats’, In: R. A. Davis Jr. and R. W. Dalrymple, eds. Principles of Tidal Sedimentology. London: Springer Science, pp. 507-536. UAE National Media Council. December 2013. United Arab Emirates Yearbook 2013. [online]. Available from: http://www.uaeyearbook.com/Yearbooks/2013/ENG/UAE-Yearbook-En.pdf [Accessed 15 February 2015]. UNU-INWEH. 2011. Managing the Growing Impacts of Development on Fragile Coastal and Marine Ecosystems: Lessons from the Gulf. [online]. Available from: http://inweh.unu. edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/PolicyReport_LessonsFromTheGulf.pdf [Accessed 15 February 2015].

[Fig.2] Bird View of Abu Dhabi Coastline 2009 [Fig.3] Toolkit

Main

Layer

of

Blue

Carbon

[Fig.5] Relational Value Adapted from D. Harvey [Fig.6] Instruction of Coastal Interface [Fig.7] Simulation of Abu Dhabi’s coastline formation in natural way [Fig.8] Island with 2 ecosystems: human ecosystem and natural ecosystem [Fig.9] Diagram of cap and trade process [Fig.10] Relational mathematical model of coastline [Fig.11] Simulation of new island construction under different parameters of material system [Fig.12] Simulation tests of new island morphology under different patterns of material system

Yagoub, M. M., Kolan, G. R. 2006. ‘Monitoring Coastal Zone Land Use and Land Cover Changes of Abu Dhabi Using Remote Sensing’, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 34(1), pp. 57-68.

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CONTENT

ABSTRACT

Page 01-11

INDEX DESIGN REPORT CONTENT

Page 14-25

Page 26-43

Page 44-67

Page 68-85

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

From Land to Sea Impact on Ecosystems [Nature and Human] Relational Environment Value Proposal: Coastal Interface

2.0

COASTAL TERRITORY

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Land Use Change: 1965-2009 Comparison between 1965 and 2009 Sediments Distribution Coastal Habitats Reclamation and Land Use Blue Carbon Interface Coastal Interface Import Territorial Data to Interface

3.0

TIDE-DOMINATED COASTLINE

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Mechanism of Tide-Dominated Coastline Coastal Climate in Abu Dhabi Evolution of Abu Dhabi Islands Coastal Formation in Natural Way Research on Deposition and Erosion Coastal Timeline via Interface

4.0

COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Coastal Ecosystems Distribution Climate Impact on Ecosystems Ecosystems Connectivity Relational Ecosystems Balance between Urban and Ecosystems Relational Ecosystems via Interface


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5.0

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ALONG COASTLINE

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Industrial Facilities Tourism [Residential and Recreation] Aquaculture Pollution

6.0

COASTAL INSTITUTIONS

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

FBCs Development in Abu Dhabi Command and Control Cap and Trade: One Agent Cap and Trade: Different Actors Policy Development Via Interface The Predator-Prey Model Add Policy into Mathematical Model Relational Mathematical Model via Interface

7.0

ISLAND CONSTRUCTION

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15

Traditional Way: Palm Island Natural Force: The Sand Motor Deposition and Erosion Tests Island Morphology: Logic and Process Simulation of New Island Construction Material Tests Via Interface

Page 86-99

Page 100-119

Page 120-145

NEW RELATIONAL COASTLINE Island in Relational Urban Context Logic of New Island Formation Island Evolution Based on Deposition Island Formation via Interface Island Morphology Based on Current Speed Fixing Structure in Intertidal Area Channel Routes and Coastal Plants Morphology Master Plan Material Transfer Material and Structure Morphology Tests Original Growing Process of Mangroves Add Structure to Mangroves Growing Process Structure Evolution Based on Current Speed Section of New Relational Coastline Perspective of New Relational Coastline

Page 146-185

APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

Page 186-228

ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

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In today’s Abu Dhabi, coastal and marine ecosystems are under threat from pollution due to the large number of offshore oil and gas installations, tanker loading terminals and the high volume and density of tanker traffic (AFED 2009).

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Fig.2 Bird View of Abu Dhabi’s Coastline

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[1.0] INTRODUCTION

1.1 From Land to Sea 1.2 Impact on Ecosystems [Nature and Human] 1.3 Relational Environmental Value 1.4 Proposal: Coastal Interface

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Fig.3 Urbanization Along Abu Dhabi’s Coastline

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Chapter 1 | Introduction

1.1 | From Land to Sea

In today’s Abu Dhabi, the human living and life is from land to sea. Local harsh climate and ​​ desert landforms account for 90% of the total land area making reclamation and the construction of artificial islands inevitable (EAD 2011).

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Fig.4 Residential Area for Tourism in Abu Dhabi Fig.5 Mangroves along Offshore Water Fig.6 Ports On Abu Dhabi’s Coastline

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Chapter 1 | Introduction

1.2 | Impact on Ecosystems [Nature and Human]

Isobath Coastline Roads

Urban footprint

During the past three decades, the established methods of island construction has touched off a series of negative effects on the local ecosystems, including both nature and human. In order to raise this issue, the government has developed an initiate which tries to emphasize and put value to the local environment: Blue Carbon interface.

20 | Relational Urban Model

Islands along Abu Dhabi’s Coastline


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Fig.7 Dredging Channel 2009 Fig.8 Artificial Island Construction Fig.9 Reclamation Activities On the Coastline

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Chapter 1 | Introduction

1.3 | Relational Environment Value

Isobath Coastline

5 ecosystems of Blue Carbon Sabkha Algal mat Seagrass Mangrove Salt marshes

Distribution of 5 Blue Carbon Habitats

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Fig.10-1 Startup Layout of Blue Carbon Website Fig.10-2 Main Interface of the Blue Carbon Tool


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[Fig.10-1]

[Fig.10-2]

Relational Environment Value

Adapted from D. Harvey (2010:23)

However we believe that environmental value is not universal. Instead, the construction of value is relational. So what is the real value of the environment? How new forms of documenting the construction of cities can emphasize a relational construction of space time and value? How can they bring together the larger picture of our decisions and the qualities of the materials involved in it? In which sense it becomes projective? These questions were the main driver of our project. Relational Urban Model

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Chapter 1 | Introduction

1.4 | Proposal: Coastal Interface

/for the technique of island construction, we would develop the structure and materiality of island formation, indcluding bioplastic, mangroves and sand/

//relational value from left to right menue are relational environmental value, environmental service trade and environmental service cap processing, which are the essential part of this interface.

//zoom in || out

//ecosystem types select /from top to bottom are intertidal cyanobacterial mats (blue), saltmarshes (green), coastal sabkha (orange), mangrove forests (pink) and subtidal seagrass meadows (yellow)/

//coastal development timeline /click and drag the t i m e l i n e t o s e e deposition and erosion densties from 1955 to 2015, move the upper and lower slider to compare densities in different years/

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//structure && materiality


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//cap && trade

/from left to right are reclamation parameters, material cap and material trade, by means of cap and trade, developers could select their own land under the incentive regulation/

//location index

//restart operation

//input documents

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[2.0] COASTAL TERRITORY

2.1 Land Use Change: 1965-2009 2.2 Comparison Between 1965 and 2015 2.3 Sediments Distribution 2.4 Coastal Habitats 2.5 Reclamation and Land Use 2.6 Natural Reserve Interface 2.7 Coastal Interface 2.8 Import Territorial Data to Interface

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Fig.11 Abu Dhabi Marina Channel 2009

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.1 | Land Use Change: 1965-2009

Fig.12 Abu Dhabi Coastline 22/05/1965

Fig.13 Bird View of Abu Dhabi Coastline 1971

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Fig.14 Abu Dhabi Coastline 13/06/2009

Land Use Change in Abu Dhabi Coastline, 1965-2009 These images display Abu Dhabi’s astounding growth from 1965 to 2009, driven largely by wealth derived from the oil and gas sectors. Rapid urban development and economic growth in Abu Dhabi has occurred mostly on the coastline, which has had significant effects on coastal and marine ecosystems. Fig.15 Bird View of Abu Dhabi Coastline 2011

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.2 | Comparison Between 1965 and 2009

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Land Use Change in Abu Dhabi Coastline, 1965-2009 These images display Abu Dhabi’s astounding growth from 1965 to 2009, driven largely by wealth derived from the oil and gas sectors. Rapid urban development and economic growth in Abu Dhabi has occurred mostly on the coastline, which has had significant effects on coastal and marine ecosystems.

Coastline of 2009 Coastline of 1965

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.3 | Sediments Distribution

Deeply incised tidal channels Cyanobecteria mat Pellets & lime muds Mangrove & cyanobecteria lined creeks Pellets & lime muds Organic reefs & coral algal sands Ooids Pellets, grapestones & skeletal sands Sabkha

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km

10

5

1 0

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.4 | Coastal Habitats

Hard bottoms Algal mat Fringing reef with macroalgea Gravel plains with dwarf shrub vegetation Fringing reef Pellets, grapestones & skeletal sands Seagrass

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km

10

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1 0

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.5 | Reclamation and Land Use 0

Channels Government reserved land Green land Coastaline Residential land

Typic haplosalids Forestry/ farms Gypsic aquisalids Gypsic haplosalids Typic torripsamments Miscellaneous unit Tidal flats Typic aquisalids

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1

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.6 | Blue Carbon Interface

Fig.16-Fig.21 Interface of Blue Carbon Tool

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Blue Carbon Mapping Toolkit The toolkit can be used to broadly assess the impact of development on coastal marine ecosystems and the associated blue carbon stock, helping to make informed decisions relating to the future development of Abu Dhabi. Baseline layers representing marine ecosystems (mangrove, salt marsh, seagrass and algal mats) around coastal Abu Dhabi were provided by the Abu Dhabi Environment Agency. The ecosystem layers are continually updated to reflect the ongoing dynamics of Abu Dhabi’s coastal ecosystems.

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.7 | Coastal Interface

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Chapter 2 | Coastal Territory

2.8 | Import Territorial Data to Interface

[UI Button] Import Files fromm Google/USGS

Startup Layout of Coastal Interface

[Output] Sediment Distribution Mapping

[Output]

Abu Dhabi Coastline Satellite Imagery USGS

Habitats Distribution Mapping

[Output] Dredging & Reclamation Mapping

[Input]

[Output]

Dredging & Reclamation Mapping

Data for Tidal Simulation

Base Map Imported to Coastal Interface 42 | Relational Urban Model


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Layout Displaying Territorial Data of Abu Dhabi Coastline

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

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[3.0] TIDE-DOMINATED COASTLINE

3.1 Mechanism of Tide-Dominated Coastline 3.2 Coastal Climate in Abu Dhabi 3.3 Evolution of Abu Dhabi Islands 3.4 Coastal Formation in Natural Way 3.5 Research on Deposition and Erosion 3.6 Coastal Timeline via Interface

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Fig.22 Shallow Water of Abu Dhabi’s Coastline

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.1 | Mechanism of Tide-Dominated Coastline

Mechanism of Flood Tide

Supratidal flat

Oolite shoal Sabkha Algal mat

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+++++ +++++ +++++ +++++

Coastline of 1965 Tidal direction

The typical topology in Abu Dhabi is consisted of barrier islands and lagoons. During flood tide, offshore sediments pass landward into oolite shoals, and then, oolite shoals formed in the shallow waters, when wave and tidal energy is concentrated to form tidal deltas. Lime muds and pellets accumulated on the supra tidal flat in the lee of the barrier islands.


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Mechanism of Ebb Tide

Oolite shoal Sabkha Algal mat

Intertidal flat +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++

Coastline of 1965 Tidal direction

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.2 | Coastal Climate

0

Urban Area Mean Tide Simulation Shallow Water [< 20m] Deep Sea [20-60m]

Ebb strength Flood strenghth Ebb vectors Flood vectors Tidal channels

Subtidal Seagrass Meadows Saltmarshess Intertidal Cyanobacterial Mats Mangrove Forests Coastal Sabkha

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1

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.3 | Evolution of Abu Dhabi Islands

Barrier

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Tidal flats

Beach

Tidal flats

Older shoreline

Simulation of Abu Dhabi Islandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Evolution Offshore Pleistocene islands, separated from the mainland by a trough, the Khor al Bazm lagoon. Formation of beaches of bioclastic sand on windward side of islands, tidal flats on leeward side. Sand beaches form on the mainland shoreline. Beaches expand laterally due to longshore currents, tidal flats fronted by microbial mats nucleate on mainland once wave energy is sufficiently restricted. Sufficient restriction occurs between islands leads to development of oolitic tidal deltas. Coral reefs grow oceanward of islands, protected from toxic lagoon waters. Tails of islands continue to accrete landward and lagoons gradually infill. [E.C. Rankey and A. Berkeley, 2012]

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.3 | Evolution of Abu Dhabi Islands

FRAME: 0

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FRAME: 20

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The p The pro


Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.4 | Coastal Formation in Natural Way

Simulation of Coastline Formation in Natural Way, 1965

Comparison of Natural Formation and the Reality From here, we simulate the situation of abu dhabi island changing the artificial influence and find the difference. After comparing of the simulation and satellite image, we find the human pose a significant effluence on the abu dhabi. Most of the landscape change is contributed to artificial islands.

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Simulation of Coastline Formation in Natural Way, 2015

Fig.23 Satellite Imagery of Abu Dhabi 2015

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.4 | Coastal Formation in Natural Way

FRAME: 1

FRAME: 20

FRAME: 80

FRAME: 100

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FRAME: 40

FRAME: 60

FRAME: 120

FRAME: 140

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.5 | Research on Deposition & Erosion

RECTANGLE SHAPE

The Existing Artificial Islands After analyzing the natural effluence on abu dhabi, we simulated the tidal and the wave influence on the artificial islands. So we picked some basic shape from the cases.

60 | Relational Urban Model

CIRCLE SHAPE

INNER BA


AY SHAPE

Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

TRIANGLE SHAPE

SQUARE SHAPE

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.5 | Research on Deposition & Erosion WAVE EFFECT A. Continual Shocking to Coastline B. Constant Directions of Wave C. Constant Speeds of Wave

TIDE EFFECT A. Periodicity Shocking of the Flood and Ebb B. Periodical Changing of Tide C. Periodical Changing of Speed D. Contain Wave Effect

CONCLUSION After comparing both influence factors, we find the difference between them. The tidal effluence mainly generates the sediment on both top and bottom sides, because of the double influence of flood tide and ebb tide process.

62 | Relational Urban Model


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WAVE EFFECT

TIDE EFFECT

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.5 | Research on Deposition & Erosion

TIDAL EFFECT

1. Top and bottom area get deposition 2. Both sides get eroded 3. Waveward gets erosion

RECTANGLE SHAPE

WAVE EFFECT

CIRCLE SHAPE

INNER BAY SHAPE

1. Top and bottom area get erosion 2. Both are gets deposion shade area

RECTANGLE SHAPE

CIRCLE SHAPE

INNER BAY SHAPE

1. Top and bottom area get longer 2. Both sides get eroded 3. Get more length and little proportion

1. Top and bottom area get longer 2. Both sides get eroded, top get more erosion 3. The shape turns to become triangle shape

1. Top and bottom area ge 2. Both sides get eroded 3. Bottom in the inner ba

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et longer because flood and ebb ay gets more deposition

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TRIANGLE SHAPE

SQUARE SHAPE

TRIANGLE SHAPE

SQUARE SHAPE

1. Top and bottom area get longer 2. Waveward sides get eroded 3. Backwave side gets little influence

1. Top and bottom area get longer 2. Both sides get eroded 3. Get more length and little proportion

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Chapter 3 | Tide-Dominated Coastline

3.6 | Coastal Timeline Via Interface Layout after importing satellite files

[UI Button] Playing the Tidal Simulation

[UI Slider] Selecting the Beginning and Ending Time Points for Playing

[Input] Tidal & Current Speed and Direction Mapping

[Output] Move the upper and lower slider to compare densities in different years.

[Input] Evolution of Abu Dhabiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Coastline

[Input] Coatline Change in Natural Way

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Dynamic Process of Coastline Formation


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Layout Displaying Development of Abu Dhabi Coastline

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[4.0] COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

4.1 Coastal Ecosystems Distribution 4.2 Climate Impact on Ecosystems 4.3 Ecosystems Connectivity 4.4 Relational Ecosystems 4.5 Balance between Urban and Ecosystem 4.6 Relational Ecosystems via Interface

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Fig.24 Mangroves & Saltmarshes Along Abu Dhabiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Coastline

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Fig.25 The National Mangroves Park in Abu Dhabi Main Island

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Chapter 4 | Coastal Ecosystems

4.1 | Coastal Ecosystems Distribution

LEGENDS Subtidal Seagrass Meadows Saltmarshes Intertidal Cyanobacterial Mats Mangrove Forests Coastal Sabkha Tidal Channel Flowing Simulations

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ss Meadows

obacterial Mats

sts

tions

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4.1 | Coastal Ecosystems Distribution

LEGENDS Subtidal Seagrass Meadows Saltmarshes Intertidal Cyanobacterial Mats Mangrove Forests Coastal Sabkha Tidal Channel Flowing Simulations Relational Urban Model

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Chapter 4 | Coastal Ecosystems

4.2 | Climate Impact on Ecosystems

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Chapter 4 | Coastal Ecosystems

4.4 | Relational Ecosystems

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URBAN

Chapter 4 | Coastal Ecosystems

COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

4.5 | Balance between Urban & Ecosystems

[A] THE 1960S

Socio-economic changes for coastal populations

Changes in nutrients, sediments and freshwater outputs

Land Habitat destruction

Mangroves Decreased storm buffering and increased coastal erosion

PORT AND LAND 82 | Relational Urban Model

MANGROVES

SALT MARSHES


S

URBAN

Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

URBAN

URBAN

COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

S AL ISLAND

ARTIFICI

L CIA

COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS

S

AND

ISL

IFI

ART

[B] THE 1980S

[C] NOWADAYS

[D] OUR PROSPECTIVE

Decreased fisheries, decreased revenues from tourism, and decreased storm buffering

Loss of mangrove and seagrass habitat

Increased sedimentation and nutrient input

Loss of coral reef habitat

Coral reef Decreased storm buffering

MUD FLATS

SEA GRASS AND ALGAE

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Chapter 4 | Coastal Ecosystems

4.6 | Relational Ecosystems Via Interface [UI Button] Selecting EcoType: Mangrove

Coral Reef

Saltmarshes

Seagrass

[UI Button] Selecting EcoType: Alga Mat

[Output]

Layout After Selecting Eco-Types

Click Eco-type Buttons to Select Mangroves and Seagrass

[Input] Tidal & Current Speed and Direction Mapping

[Input] Mapping of Marine Ecosystem

ats

[Input] Mapping of Coastal Ecosystem

LEGENDS Subtidal Seagrass Meadows Saltmarshes Intertidal Cyanobacterial Mats Mangrove Forests Coastal Sabkha Tidal Channel Flowing Simulations

84 | Relational Urban Model

Mangroves & Seagrass Display Via Interface


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Final Layout Displaying Marine & Coastal Ecosystems of Abu Dhabi Relational Urban Model

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[5.0] ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ALONG COASTLINE

5.1 Industrial Facilities 5.2 Tourism [Residential & Recreation] 5.3 Aquaculture 5.4 Pollution

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Fig.26 Abu Dhabi Ports and Shipping Channels

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Chapter 5 | Economic Activities Along Coastline

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Fig.27 Ports, Recreation and Industrial Land along Abu Dhabiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Coastline

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chool of Architecture | UD2 Coastal Interface

Chapter 5 | Economic Activities Along Coastline

5.1 | Industrial Facilities

0

1

5

10km

Projected growth in energy demand in coming decades il

15

Projected growth in energy demand in coming oal decades il as oal iomass as Nuclear iomass ydr o o er Nuclear ther r ene ables ydr o o er

12 15 9 12 6 9 3 6

0 3 1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

ther r ene ables

Note: 0 All statistics to energy in its original form (such as coal) before being transformed into 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 more convenient nergy (such as electrical energy). Note: All statistics to energy in its original form (such as coal) before being transformed into more convenient nergy (such as electrical energy).

P growth

19 5 P growth 1992 2008 19 5

+

Islands UPC Projects Area Dredging Channels

Population density Industrial Area

Industrial Facilities Industrial Facilities 2LOĂ&#x20AC;HOGV

&RDVWOLQHDQG$UWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDO,VODQGV_

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1992 0 2008

25

50

5

100

0

25

50

5

100

Non

il

il Non

il

il


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School of Architecture | UD2 Coastal Interface

Chapter 5 | Economic Activities Along Coastline

5.2 | Tourism

Age 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-29 10-14 5-9 0-4

+

Islands UPC Projects Area Dredging Channels Hard bottoms

Mangroves

Industrial Area

Seagrass Population density Coral reefs Development Projects

Algal mats Coastline and Artificial Islands | 83

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Female

Male

UAE Nationals Expatriates

(Population in Thousands)


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

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School of Architecture | UD2 Coastal Interface

Chapter 5 | Economic Activities Along Coastline

5.3 | Aquaculture

1,153 272 110 5,547

2,414

586

322

7RWDOFRPPHUFLDOĂ&#x20AC;VKHULHVFDWFKE\ years (Tonnes 2001-2008) 2001 2002 2003

+

Islands UPC Projects Area Dredging Channels

Population density Housing Density Pearl Diving

Aquaculture Farms %LUG+DELWDW Fisheries Landing Site

&RDVWOLQHDQG$UWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDO,VODQGV_

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2004 2005 2006

2007 2008


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chool of Architecture | UD2 Coastal Interface

Chapter 5 | Economic Activities Along Coastline

6

189.6

6

212.6

11.9

31.3 109.7

2.0

0.4 12.6 9.8

103.1

5.4 | Pollution

�ean Ann�al �ater ��alit� �al�es �itrite�� ������ ��os��ate�� ������ �itrate�� ������ �ilicate ���� A��onia ������

+

Islands UPC Projects Area Dredging Channels

Population density Industrial Area

�arine disc�ar�e ��tlets �il fields

Coastline and Artificial Islands | 8�

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�ar���l al�ea a��ndance� ���8

�otal di��erent t��es o� �ar���l al�e


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

ea a��ndance

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[6.0] COASTAL INSTITUTIONS

6.1 Form-Based Codes Development in Abu Dhabi 6.2 Command and Control 6.3 Cap and Trade: One Agent 6.4 Cap and Trade: Different Actors 6.5 Policy Development Via Interface 6.6 The Predator-Prey Model 6.7 Add Policy into Mathematical Model 6.8 Relational Mathematical Model via Interface

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Fig.28 Abu Dhabi City Centre & Main Island

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.1 | Form-Based Codes Development in Abu Dhabi

Higher Land Price Revising 1962 Halcrow Plan

The 1973 Egyptian-led War resulted in an increase in oil price, which led to the price of land rocketed in Abu Dhabi

Under the supervision of Egyptian planner Abd al-Rahman Makhlouf

1ST PLANNING First Urban Masterplan commissioned from Halcrow & Co., UK

Natural Island: Mussafah Mussafah Island as an industrial district in plan

Khalifa Committee Turning Point ADMA obtained offshore oil concessions

Height Limitation the height of building should be between 8-10 storeys

First exports of oil in Abu Dhabi

1953

1962

the plan had a series of features, including raising the ground level through dredging and reclamation

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1968

featured extensive greening Al Raha Beach development the international airport the wave breaker dredging a canal around the island

Being established in 1976 the purpose of administ and granting land to nat

1969

19

City also saw an expansion of luxury hotels along the coastline which included a Hilton and Ramada


e

6 with tering tionals

970s

Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

2ND PLANNING the Master Directive Plan for Abu Dhabi and its Environs: 1990-2010, prepared by Abu Dhabi Town Planning Department, UNDP and Atkins

Natural Island: Saadiyat Extensive Coastal Development Artificial Island: LuLu

Extensive work of land reclamation and waterfront development continued unabated increasing the original size of the island to 6,000 hectares (in 1994 the total area became 9,400 hectares)

Saadiyat Island is a natural extension of urbanization in Abu Dhabi island

Lulu Island started to be built in 1988, with 4,200 hectares area

Continuous Coastal Dvelopment

Natural Island: Hadriyat

The 1980s witnessed continuous extensive development, land reclamation and development of townships as well as major public works projects

1980s

Hadriyat represents the natrural expansion of urbanization from the western side

After 1990

The development of the 215 islands surrounding the city, paticularly Saadiyat and Hadriyat.

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.2 | Command and Control: Recovering of Mangroves

104 | Interfacing Relational Urban Systems Model of Land


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Interfacing Relational Systems Urban ofModel Land

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.3 | Cap and Trade: One Agent

106 | Interfacing Relational Urban Systems Model of Land


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Interfacing Relational Systems Urban ofModel Land

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.4 | Cap and Trade: Different Actors

108 | Interfacing Relational Urban Systems Model of Land


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Interfacing Relational Systems Urban ofModel Land

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.5 | Policy Development Via Interface

[UI Slider] Material Cap

[UI Button] Material Trade

Startup Layout for Cap & Trade

[Output] Move the Trade Slider to Select Types of Habitat

[Input] Coastal & Tidal Timeline

[Input] Marine & Coastal Ecosystems

[Output] Move the Cap Slider to Modify Amount of Habitats

Island Formation & Ecosystems Cap Via Interface

[Input] Land Value Analysis

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Layout Displaying Cap & Trade of Abu Dhabi

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.6 | The Predator-Prey Model

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.7 | Add Policy into Mathematical Model

To further explain the effectiveness of cap and trade in protecting environment, we import the mathematic model to explain that. The basic model we used here is the prey-predator model, which explain balance of nature ecosystem. We can see that without human activities, the species are in dynamic equilibrium. Then we add the influence of the demand of tourism land. For example, if we add the cap-and trade policy into the system which means certain percentage of new built artificial island will be used for recovering of mangroves. We could see the system covering to the original state. Here is the spatial hive plot show the covering process.

Move from urban to island

00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72

Move from urban to island

Move from urban to island

Move from island to urban

Move from island to urban 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72

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Cap & Trade 0.3

Cap & Trade 0.3

Cap & Trade 0.3

Cap & Trade 0.3 Cap & Trade 0.3 Cap & Trade 0.2 Cap & Trade 0.2 Cap & Trade 0.2 Cap & Trade 0.2 Cap & Trade 0.2 Cap & Trade 0.2

Cap & Trade 0.2 Cap & Trade 0.1 Cap & Trade 0.1 Cap & Trade 0.1 Cap & Trade 0.1 Cap & Trade 0.1 Natural Process Natural Process Natural Process Natural Process Natural Process Natural Process

Without Cap & Trade Without Cap & Trade Without Cap & Trade Without Cap & Trade

00

00 02

02 04

04 06

06 08

08 10

10 12

12 14

14 16

16 18

18 20

20 22

22 24

24 26

26 28

28 30

30 32

32 34

34 36

36 38

38 40

40 42

42 44

44 46

46 48

48 50

50 52

52 54

54 56

56 58

58 60

60 62

62 64

64 66

66 68

68 70

70 72

72

Crab

Birds

Mangroves

Reclamation

Tourism

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.8 | Relational Mathematical Model via Interface

Section 1 Cap and Trade [existing mangroves amount]

Section 2 Cap and Trade [new increase of mangroves]

Section 3 Island Formation [under natural force]

Section 4 Island Formation [grid of new island]

Section 5 Island Formation [depth of offshore water]

Section 6 The Whole Process

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POINT

Drawing Polygon

[UI Button]

AREA

Modifying Reclamation Area

[UI Button]

DEPTH

Modifying Dredging Depth

[UI Button]

WIDTH

Modifying Dredging Width

Layout After Selecting Eco-Types

[Input] Aquaculture Activities

[Input] Tourism Activities

Land Use of Dredging and Reclamation

[Input] Industry Activities

[Input] Pollution Activities

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Chapter 6 | Coastal Institutions

6.8 | Relational Mathematical Model via Interface

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[7.0] ISLAND CONSTRUCTION

7.1 Traditional Way: Palm Island 7.2 Natural Force: The Sand Motor 7.3 Deposition and Erosion Tests 7.4 Island Morphology: Logic and Process 7.5 Simulation of New Island Construction 7.6 Material Tests Via Interface

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Fig.29 Hydraulic Reclamation of Artificial Island Construction

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.1 | Traditional Way: Palm Island

Fig.30-33 PALM Island Construction in Dubai

Traditional Way of Island Construction Negatives: 1.Traditional island reclaimation technology have huge cost as it have to resist the nature forces. 2. Cause decrease in coastal and marine eco-sysems 3. The stone shoreline makes it hard for coastal and marine eco-systems to recover.

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7.2 | Natural Force: The Sand Motor

Fig.34-41 Sand Motor, Formation Process

Pilot Project for Natural Coastal Protection The Sand Motor is an enormous pioneering project that demonstrates that sustainable building with nature really is possible. It also shows that working together in the Golden Triangle of government, research institutes and the private sector does indeed represent added value and meet the challenging innovation targets set by the government in its efforts to foster innovation in top sectors. What is very important to us is that the new knowledge and experience will allow us to apply the Sand Motor concept in time in improved high-end solutions, both at home and abroad (Stefan Aarninkhof 2013). Relational Urban Model

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.3 | Material Deposition and Erosion Test: Sand and Concrete

Test 01

Test 02

Test 03

Test 04

Test 05

Test 06

Test 07

Test 08

Test 09

1. Line connection can be generated in both sides of sand 2. Connection areas show low velocity 3. Bend connection can be generated in some area near tidal tunnel

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Test 10

Test 11

Test 12

Test 13

Test 14

Test 15

Test 16

Test 17

Test 18

4. Tidal tunnel areas show high velocity 5. Most of the sand are lost through tidal tunnel 6. Concrete piles enlarge deposition area

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.3 | Material Deposition and Erosion Test: Sand and Concrete

Test 01

Test 02

Test 03

Test 04

Test 05

Test 06

Test 07

Test 08

Test 09

7. Less bend connection between concrete piles 8. Some enrosion is solided by concrete piles 9. More line connection between sand and concrete piles 10. Second level piles should be placed in tidal tunnels 128 | Relational Urban Model


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Test 10

Test 11

Test 12

Test 13

Test 14

Test 15

Test 16

Test 17

Test 18

11. Dposition morphology is related to the layout of concrete piles 12. When piles round sand, sand gets little enrosion 13. Second level piles make more bend connection Relational Urban Model

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.4 | Morphology of Island Formation: Logic and Process

Test 19

Test 20

Test 21

Test 22

Tidal Direction: SE 60 Tidal Speed: 0-30 M/S Sand Density Level: 1.7 Sand Deposition Level: 2.0 Time Scale: 1 Year

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Stage 01 Logic

Stage 02 Logic

Stage 01 Simulation

Stage 02 Simulation

1. The first lay points come out randemly and find the lower water speed value near the sand. 2. As there are TIDAL TUNNELS between every two points, the second layer points come out and move in this area.

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.4 | Morphology of Island Formation: Logic and Process

Stage 03 Logic

Stage 04 Logic

Stage 03 Simulation

Stage 04 Simulation

3. The second layer points come out into tidal tunnels and find relatively higher water speed in order to decrease erosion. 4. The third layer points come out from the trend of second layer ones. As the trends are located in the tidal tunnel, they will find higher water velocity.

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Stage 05 Logic

Stage 06 Logic

Stage 05 Simulation

Stage 06 Simulation

5. All three layers of points will be dunped different volume of concrete. 6. After some time of deposition and erosion, the morphology of the sand will be changed and the shape is relative to the layout of the points.

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.4 | Morphology of Island Formation: Different Parameters

Morphology 01

Morphology 02

Time gap 1st Level & 2nd Level: 0.5 month

Time gap 1st Level & 2nd Level: 1 month

0 Month

1 Month

Ocean velocity caught by 2nd Level: 1-5m/s 0 M/S

1 Month

Ocean velocity caught by 2nd Level: 10-20m/s 30 M/S

At the beginning of the research, we put the sand piles into water only and find the sediment areas showing lower ocean velocity and the tide channel meaning higher velocity. Then we put the fix structures around the center sand piles, and we find even though there are much sand loss, there is morphology generated. After that, we put the sublevel structures near the 1st level structures and we find the situation gets better with little sand loss and more comprehensive morphology.

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0 Month

0 M/S

30 M/S


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Morphology 03

Morphology 04

Time gap 1st Level & 2nd Level: 0.5 month

Time gap 1st Level & 2nd Level: 1 month

0 Month

1 Month

Ocean velocity caught by 2nd Level: 1-5m/s 0 M/S

0 Month

1 Month

Ocean velocity caught by 2nd Level: 10-20m/s 30 M/S

0 M/S

30 M/S

Then we change the time gap between 1st and 2nd level points to get different densities of islands and change the velocity caught by the 2nd level points to get the connection to coastline.

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Logic of first hierarchy of fixing material

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.5 | Simulation of New Island Construction

Logic of second hierarchy of fixing deposition 1. The conclusion from material test shows put interpolate point in the The conclusion from existing points make material shows put back areatest more stable interpolate point in the existing points make back area more stable

1.

The location of existing materialdetermine the detecting area The location of existing materialdetermine the detecting area 138 | Relational Urban Model

2.

Logic of second hierarchy of fixing deposition

2.

detecting the point where the velocity of the water is the fast in detecting the area the point where the velocity of the water is the fast in the area


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Following structure The following structure consists of serises of dots of fixing material. The logic is the same as the second one.

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.5 | Simulation of New Island Construction

The generating path of the process

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Chapter 7 | Island Construction

7.6 | Material Tests via Interface

Layout After Selecting Material Types

[Input] Coastal & Tidal Timeline

[Input]

[Output] Cilck the Button to Select Types of Material

Marine & Coastal Ecosystems

Material Tests & Formation Via Interface

[Input] Island Formation Mechanism

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Layout Displaying Selecting Material Formation

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[8.0] NEW RELATIONAL COASTLINE

8.1 Island in Relational Urban Context 8.2 Logic of New Island Formation 8.3 Island Evolution Based on Deposition and Erosion 8.4 Island Formation via Interface 8.5 Island Morphology Based on Current Speed 8.6 Fixing Structure Development in Intertidal Area 8.7 Channel Routes and Coastal Plants Morphology 8.8 Master Plan 8.9 Material Transfer 8.10 Material and Structure Morphology Tests 8.11 Original Growing Process of Mangroves [Natural Way] 8.12 Add Structure to Mangroves Growing Process 8.13 Structure Evolution Based on Current Speed 8.14 Section of New Relational Coastline 8.15 Perspective of New Relational Coastline

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Fig.42 Mangroves, Land and Sea in Abu Dhabi

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.1 | Island in Relational Urban Context

LEGENDS Subtidal Seagrass Meadows Saltmarshes Intertidal Cyanobacterial Mats Mangrove Forests Coastal Sabkha Wind Current Tidal Channel

+

Islands UPC Projects Area

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0

0.5

2.5

5 km

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.2 | Logic of New Island Formation

Logic of 1st Hierarchy of Fixing Material

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Logic of 2nd Hierarchy of Fixing Material

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.2 | Logic of New Island Formation

Logic of Following Hierarchy of Fixing Material

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The Generating Path of the Process

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.2 | Logic of New Island Formation

The Generating Path of the Process

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Generated Morphology

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.3 | Island Evolution Based on Deposition and Erosion

Original Sand Dune

Phase 01

Phase 02

Deposition

Deposition

+

+

Erosion

Original Sand Dune

+

Phase 03

Tidal Direction: SE 80 Tidal Speed: 20-30 M/S Sand Density Level: 2.3 Sand Deposition Level: 3.0 Time Scale: 2 Years

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Phase 04

Deposition


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Erosion

-

+

Phase 05

Deposition

Phase 06

Erosion

+

+

Phase 07

-

Deposition

+

Deposition

Deposition

Phase 08

1. The first lay points come out randemly and find the lower water speed value near the sand. 2. As there are TIDAL TUNNELS between every two points, the second layer points come out and move in this area.

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.4 | Island Formation via Interface

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.5 | Island Morphology Based on Current Speed

0 40

200

LEGENDS

Offshore Water Island Area Value of Current Speed Direction of Current Speed

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400 m


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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.6 | Fixing Structure Development in Intertidal Area

0 40

200

400 m

LEGENDS

Offshore Water

Mangroves Area

Island Area

First Level Structure

Value of Current Speed

Second Level Structure

Direction of Current Speed Intertidal Area [Lowest]

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Structure Service Radius


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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.7 | Channel Routes and Coastal Plants Morphology

0 40

200

400 m

LEGENDS

Offshore Water

Mangroves Area

Island Area

First Level Structure

Value of Current Speed

Second Level Structure

Direction of Current Speed Intertidal Area [Lowest]

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Structure Service Radius


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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.8 | Master Plan

LEGENDS

Offshore Water

Main Channel Route

Island Area

Sub Channel Route

Value of Current Speed

Seagrass Area

Direction of Current Speed

Mangroves Area

Intertidal Area [Highest]

First Level Structure

Intertidal Area [Lowest]

Second Level Structure

Land Area

Structure Service Radius

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.9 | Material Transfer

Roots

Deposition Current

Bioplastic

The Highest Tidal Level Everage High Level [1.6] Everage Low Level [1.3] The Lowest Tidal Level

Growth Timeline [Month]

Consolidate Deposition Decrease Current Speed Nutrient Consumption Material Transfer

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2

4

7

12

16

20


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24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

Material Transfer

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.10 | Material and Structure Morphology Tests

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.10 | Material and Structure Morphology Tests

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.10 | Material and Structure Morphology Tests

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.11 | Original Growing Process of Mangroves [Natural Way]

The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level

Original Species

The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level

Original Species

The Lowest Low Tide Level Original Species

The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Expecimental Pioneer

Original Species

Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level

Expecimental Pioneer

Original Species

Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level

Expecimental Pioneer

Original Species

The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Expecimental Pioneer

Natural Selection of Species

Everage High Tide Level Original Species Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level

Expecimental Pioneer

Natural Selection of Species

After growing to a certain extent, the hypocotyl which seperate from the mother free fall into the mud at the beach, take root in the mud and become new plants just in a few hours. OthExpecimental Pioneer Natural Selection of Species ers that fail to take root in the mud relying on the current to drift on the sea for several months and finally root in the coast. 174 | Relational Urban Model

Everage High Tide Level Original Species Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level Original Species


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8.12 | Add Structure to Mangroves Growing Process

The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level

The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level

The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level The Highest High Tide Level

This image shows the different parts of 1st level structures, the main structure for island forming, the space of mangrove roots and the space of mangrove seeds. So, the upper one is the degradation process of the structure with the growing of the mangrove in 4 years. And the lower one means the material transfer during this time.

Everage High Tide Level Everage Low Tide Level The Lowest Low Tide Level

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.13 | Structure Evolution Based on Current Speed

Plan of Phase 01

Plan of Phase 04

Phase 01

Phase 02

Phase 05

Phase 06

Phase 09

Phase 10

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Plan of Phase 08

Plan of Phase 12

Phase 03

Phase 04

Phase 07

Phase 08

Phase 11

Phase 12

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.13 | Structure Evolution Based on Current Speed

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Phase 01

Phase 02

Phase 03

Phase 04

Phase 05

Phase 06

Phase 07

Phase 08

Phase 09

Phase 10

Phase 11

Phase 12

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.14 | Section of New Relational Coastline

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Chapter 8 | New Relational Coastline

8.15 | Perspective of New Relational Coastline

Mangroves Roots [Decrease Erosion]

Material of Fixing Structure [2nd Level]

Local Habitats Protection [Coral Reefs & Seagrass]

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Mangroves Habitats [For Fisheries]

Diving Activities [Recreation for Tourism]

Material of Fixing Structure [3rd Level]

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[Mangrove Growing Area]

[Subtidal]

[Intertidal]

[Mean lower low water]

[100

+

[Service Space]

+[Tra

+[Open Space]

+

[Transport Stations]

+[Mangrove Protectors] +

[Mangrove Protectors]

0

5

25

50 m

+[Sightseeing]


0M]

[8M]

[Structure Fixing Area]

[Human Acting Area]

[Supratidal]

[Upland]

[Mean higher high water]

+

[Sightseeing]

+

ansport Stations]

+

[Mangrove Protectors]

+

[Mangrove Protectors]


APPENDIX Simulation Catalogue Physical Model


Research On Deposition & Erosion WAVE EFFECT RECTANGLE SHAPE

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

CIRCLE SHAPE

INNER BAY SHAPE

TRIANGLE SHAPE

SQUARE SHAPE

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Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

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Research On Deposition & Erosion TIDAL EFFECT RECTANGLE SHAPE

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

Frame 210

Frame 510

Frame 570

CIRCLE SHAPE

INNER BAY SHAPE

TRIANGLE SHAPE

SQUARE SHAPE

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Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

Frame 690

Frame 780

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Material Test: Sand

+

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

+ + +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion]

[Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year


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+

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ + +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion]

[Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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Material Tests

+

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ + +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion]

[Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

Frame: 200

[Erosion]

+

[Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

+

[Erosion]

+

[Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

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Frame: 200


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Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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Material Testďź&#x161; Concrete

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

+ +

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ +

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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Material Tests

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ +

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

+

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

Frame: 200

+

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

+ +

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

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Frame: 200


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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Material Tests

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+

+

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+

+

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

Frame: 200

[Direction] SE 60

[Density Level]

[Speed]

[Deposition Level] 2.0

10-20m/s

1.7 [Time Scale]

1 Year

+

+

+ +

[Ebb Deposition]

[Erosion] [Flood Deposition] [Tide Tunnel]

Frame: 100

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Frame: 200


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 300

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

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Tide Simulator Tank

Animate Section

Fixed Pulley

Drive Winch

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Sand Landscape

Experiment Section

Water

Side View

Plan View

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Wax and Sand with Robotic Arm

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MATERIAL MIXER

DROP POINTS

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Robotic Arm

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Material Experiment

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Material Tests

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Material Tests

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Material Tests

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Ecological Research along Coastline

Section 1 Cap and Trade Process [involving five materials and buildable areas]

Section 2 Targeted Plots [selection for cap and trade]

Section 3 Material Distribution [eological service related to terrain analysis]

Section 4 Territory Visualization [terrain analysis]

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[Model Appearance Screen]

+

[5 Coastal Ecosystems]

+

From left to right are intertidal cyanobacterial mats (blue), saltmarshes (green), coastal sabkha (orange), mangrove forests (pink) and subtidal seagrass meadows (yellow). 220 | Relational Urban Model

[Import Site Command ]

+

At the beginning of operation, we need to import site information and models via this button.


Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

[System Control Buttons]

+

From top to bottom menue are environmental value analysis, e nv i ro n m e n t a l s e r v i c e t r a d e and environmental service cap processing, which are the essential part of this interface.

We put all the buttons on the layout, as they will not appear if you don't need them. When you click the button, it will be highlighted. The regulation of the appearance is Selected area, Cammond and Control system and Cap and Trade system. Relational urban model is continously show on the right of the interface as the steps go on.

[Features of Solar Fan]

+

From right to left are latitude of site location, day of first frozen date which solar access is no longer needed (default date is 1st November), distance of solar fan extension, minimum hours of sun explore during the growing season. Relational Urban Model

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When an area is selected, simulation of the geography appears when the interface is ready to go. The simple colours illustrate the altitudes of the geography and accurs the mesh. Though the five eco-systems haven't been developed in this step, icons of five habits appear on the screen. In the following steps, our interface will show the distributate of the five habits on the terrain.

The five coloured eco-systems are presented as the floating spheres. The selected habitat is highlighted while the other habitats become dark. Each habitat has a unique type of solar fan. As the feature changes, the shape of and the colour of the fan changes as well.

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Cap and Trade is firstly used in carbon system. In our cap and trade system, we first made the rule which limits the buying and selling. Each plot has the same percentage of eco-system type - are presented in 5 clours. No matter which area you want to use to 'build', Cap is the basic regualtion.

The next step is trade which refers to the marketing regulation in economical world. As we know, we have already cap the type of the land you must have, if you want to have more mangroves rather than much salt marshes, you need to buy from others' plots to balance the regulation. At the same time, you need to sell te same amount of area as you need to have the average plots of built area.

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Bartlett School of Architecture | B-Pro UML

Intervention Visualization of Ecological Sevices 1 In this scenario we try to use particles of 5 different colors to represent the occupied volume that was defined by the intervention of 5 different materials(here we are specifically refering to the 5 vegetation eco-services), which present a legible and explicit hierarchy of spaces dominated by different invention powers, making the individual influence contributing to the final open corridor clear and visible.The reason of using particles to define the boundaries between these volumes can transform isolation towards integrity and make the boundaries blur in order to bring about a whole system that we can observe.

Intervention Visualization of Ecological Sevices 2 In this scenario we try to ues normal vectors of every face of the volumes defined by 5 different materials(here we are specifically refering to the 5 vegetation eco-services) in order to not only know the intervention spaces they define and open corridors they leave behind, but also to visualize the detailed spatial relationship between the spaces around them, for which we tend to use vectors to represent the development tendency of every single intervention power.And based on these information, the designer can understand the regulation of material systems much more profoundly and adapt to it much more flexibly.

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[fig.3] Arab Region: At las of Our Changing Environment, UNEP, 2013

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[fig.4] http://www.pprune.org/aviation-history-nostalgia/374714-raf-sharjah-20.html

[fig.27] http://www.mapcruzin.com/free-maps-unitedarab-emirates/united_arab_emirates_rel95.jpg

[fig.5] Arab Region: At las of Our Changing Environment, UNEP, 2013

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[fig.6] http://www.stregisgrandtour.com/images/content/ gallery/str3561wn-114945-Abu-Dhabi-City-view_desktop_ large.jpg

[fig.29] http://www.naturecoast.nl/en_GB/web/guest/ s3.-marine-ecology

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[fig.30] http://smg.photobucket.com [fig.31] http://www.eikongraphia.com/images/como/Como_1_S_Albyper_Flickr.jpg [fig.32] http://jobs.jandenul.com/nl/activiteiten/ hoe-bouw-je-een-palm-island1

[fig.9] https://www.flickr.com/photos/jkurittu/5250569565

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Bartlett Urban Design 2014-15 Intertidal Engine  

Intertidal Engine is a B-pro MArch UD project submitted by Jiateng Sun, Xuyuan Yao, Junyi Chen and Yiran Hu.

Bartlett Urban Design 2014-15 Intertidal Engine  

Intertidal Engine is a B-pro MArch UD project submitted by Jiateng Sun, Xuyuan Yao, Junyi Chen and Yiran Hu.

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