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ANNETTE

WONG YING YU SELECTED WORKS 2016-19


Annette Wong Landscape Designer | Creative | Motivated

Education

Bachelor of Arts in Landscape Studies | The University of Hong Kong 2014 - 2018

Second Class Honours (Division One)

HKU Shanghai Study Center for Study Trip | Shanghai Sept - Dec 2017

Employment

Three months program

Locus associates

Assistant Landscape Designer Aug 2018 - Jan 2019 Project types: residential, commercial, mixed-use, public realm

Responsiblities: Involved from conception to design development stage. In charge of creating design proposal documents, including research and concept diagrams, MLP, sections, technical DD drawings and perspective renderings.

West Kowloon Cultural District Authority Park Operation Intern

Jun - Aug 2017

Project types: public realm

Responsiblities: Assisted senior managers of Park Operation Department and Landscape & Urban Design Department. Involved in the construction document phrase of Art Park, prepared working documents for Art Park construction and design proposals for interventions.

Klook Travel Technology Limited Graphic Design Intern

Jun - Aug 2016

Work nature: graphic design

Responsiblities: Produced graphic design for online & offline publicity and publication work, for example, poster and billboard design. Provided instant travel updates on social medias.

Ocean Park

Experience

Part-time Narrator

Oct 2014 - Jan 2016

Work nature: education & conservation

Responsiblities: Introduced interesting facts and information about animals to visitors in the exhibits. Initiated conversation with visitors.

Competition Street Railing Add-on Design Competition | Hong Kong Public Space Initiative

Aug 2018 Designed an urban furniture in form of urban hacking to promote re-imagination of street as public spaces. Our design proposal was shortlisted.

International Workshop Urbanactions HK | School of Architecture, CUHK

May 2017 Designed proposals to regenerate underused public spaces in Central in response to local needs led by international architects and urban designers.

Exhibition Threshold on the ‘island’ of HKU Campus | Division of Landscape Architecture, HKU Designed a stage installation with the idea of ‘Trance’ in a black box theatre.

Skills

Languages 2

Visual representation Adobe Photoshop / Illustrator / Indesign

Data anaylsis ArcGIS

3D modelling Sketchup / Rhinoceros / AutoCAD / Lumion

MS Office Word / PowerPoint / Excel

Cantonese | native

English | advanced

Mandarin | advanced

Nov 2016


CONT ENT S ACADEMIC WORKS

01 DESIGNING THE COMMONGROUND Intervention in Yaumatei Fruit Market

02 FROM DETAIL TO THRESHOLD LANDSCAPE Ladder-bench at Chem Keng Chau

03 INTERVENTION IN NATURE Bamboo shelter in Pokfulam Valley

04 AGRI-SPORT SITE

T-Bike in Qing Liang Peak

05 THE ESTATE : PEOPLE AND SPACE The secluded landscape in Choi Hung Estate

06 POST-EXPO RIVERFRONT

Forest city development in Shanghai Expo

07 STUDIO LAOS :

STRATEGIC LANDSCAPE PLANNING FOR THE GREATER MEKONG Cultivating Compensation: Teaching landscape value through distributed demonstration grounds along the China-Laos Railway

08 BLACK BOX THREATE INSTALLATION Trance - The Whoosh of Auto-pilot

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

09 FABER GREEN RESIDENCE Villa landscape design in Singapore

10 HAM TIN CREEK VILLAS

Villa landscape design in Ham Tin Valley, Lantau Island

11 BABYLON : THE FLOATING ISLANDS Pier public space design at Luxe Lake, Chengdu

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01

DESIGNING THE COMMONGROUND Intervention in Yaumatei Fruit Market HKU 2017 Spring Studio Course Course Dynamic Urban Landscape Project Type Group work (2 people)

Yau Ma Tei Fruit Market, founded in 1913, is the oldest existing market in Hong Kong. Originally sitting next to the Yau Ma Tei Typhoon shelter, the market and its surrounding area was one of the most vibrant areas of Kowloon and filled with entertainment, hawkers and traders. Today, though in a vastly different context, the area still embodies the character of its history and maintains artifacts of the past. The public realm of Yau Ma Tei today is constantly negotiated and adapted. The site is challenging and interesting at the same time. An intervention which negotiates, transforms and facilitate the uses of space is designed and it is designed for market venders and tourists. It also takes account into the problem of waste in fruit market.

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BEFORE & AFTER

Circulation plan, Activities Site condition (cross section)

During daytime, Waterloo Road is a busy vehicle road while pedestrians stay on pedestrian road. Only a few fruit stores are opened for retail while others are waiting for midnight wholesaling session. During the night, Waterloo Road become an important hub for Yau Ma Tei Fruit Market. Trucks park on the side, unloading and uploading boxes of fruits. Areas near the barrier in the road centre become temporary storage area for placing fruit boxes from 12am till 7am. The vehicle road on Waterloo Road is limited down to both 1 lane on each side of the road, while minibuses, taxies and trucks drive through. Meanwhile, people share Waterloo Road with vehicles and pedestrian have a higher priority on the street. Workers walk across the road freely while vehicles slow down to fit the pedestrian circulation. Workers climb across the road barrier to cross the road instead of using the crossroad. After the construction of intervention on road barrier, there will be more pedestrian circulation during the day since tourists can enjoy the view from tourist lookout. Meanwhile, socializing zone on the intervention can provide a more proper resting area for workers during the night. Tourist can also witness the life of fruit market on the tourist lookout during the night. Human circulation will both increase during the day and night after the construction of intervention.

Before

SITE OBSERVATION Usage of barrier Site condition 6

After


Before - Daytime

After - Daytime

Before - Night time

After - Night time

Before - Night time

After - Night time 7


DESIGN STRATEGIES Waste collection Socializing zone Tourist lookout Wall experience

PROGRAMS & ACTIVITIES There are 3 focus in our design strategies, first, to create a tourist attraction on the barrier on Waterloo Road; second, to create space for marker venders and delivery labour to rest and socialize at night; third, to provide a better design waste collection on the barrier to ease the 8

rubbish problems on the barrier. Thus, a tourist lookout is designed to provide a higher point for visitors to look at the whole view of the fruit market to have a better tourist experience which is inspired by the view we observed on the footbridge nearby.


Step-like seats are designed for market venders or tourists to sit and rest, socializing with their company, while the area underneath the stairs are saved for creating roomlike experience framed by the fruit boxes tourists may try to room-like feeling there while market venders may rest

and sit on the barrier. There are 2 waste collection points, for either recyclable or non-recycable waste.

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02

FROM DETAIL TO THRESHOLD LANDSCAPE Ladder-bench at Chem Keng Chau

HKU 2016 Spring Studio Course Course Landscape Hodographics/Landscape Topographics Project Type Individual work

Skills of designing details is vital for landscape architect. In this studio, we first studied and analyzed different ecological threshold moments in outlying islands of Hong Kong, such as island ecologies on Tung Ping Chau, Grass Island and Port Island. Afterwards, a human-scaled intervention for individuals and small groups of people is designed individually to emphasize one of the threshold conditions on the site. We started designing from details to the whole intervention, and then to the scale of the whole site, while model-making is important in the process of design; hence, models in different scales are made. Chem Keng Chau on Tung Ping Chau is chosen as the site for my intervention design due to its interesting geometry and space. The linear space is filled with rocks and peddles while being surrounded by water at both ends. The boundary between peddles and water and the boundary between peddles and cliff are interesting and I hoped to design an intervention to make visitors aware and notice these boundaries.

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DESIGN PROCESS

Initial design and design investigation

To fit in the geometry along the corridor of Cham Keng Chau, I wanna develop a vertical structure as the landscape intervention so that people can experience Tung Ping Chau at a higher point of view. Hence, I have come up with two main ideas for the design. First, it is to design a look-out that is cantilever from the headland and people can visit it from the ground after walking up along a staircase. The second approach is to develop a ladder-like structure which have some parts extended to become seats for to sit and stay at a higher point of view to enjoy scenery in Tung Ping Chau. Since rocks on Tung Ping Chau are mostly sandstone and they are too weak for supporting the cantilever structure for lookout, ladderbench which have a relatively smaller cantilever structure needed is then chosen as the design for further development. 12


DETAILS OF LADDER-BENCH

Drawings, study models and 1:2 detail model

Three ladderbenches are further developed to explore the possibily of different forms and structures. All of them are designed with a height of 4m. The size of seats are 60cm long with an interval of 30cm for each step on the ladder. Finally, LADDERBENCH (sketches at the bottom) is chosen as the final design since its form and structure is more interesting and convincing. The detail for steps on ladder and extension for people to sit on are one of the focus for my intervention. The material for ladder structure will be stainless tubular metal, while wooden flat will be placed on top of the structure as steps and extended seats. A curved end for seat is designed for people to sit more comfortably on the ladderbench. However, the angle for the seat’s curved end cannot be bending too much as people may not be able to step on it stably and people may easily slide down from it.

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PERSPECTIVE

Experience of ladder-bench

Locating at the end of Cham Keng Chau where people can enjoy the wind blowing from the sea and enjoy that panoramic view of the coast while ladderbenches are placed along the corridor to let visitors enjoy the view of the coast and have a closer interaction with the stone of the cliff.

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INTERVENTION IN NATURE Bamboo shelter in nature

HKU 2016 Autumn Studio Course Course Landscape and Biophysics Project Type Individual work

Parts of the Pokfulam valley have been inhabited for more than 300 years, and it is known for its remnant agricultural village, the reservoir, the Site of Special Scientific Interest, a famous waterfall, and an iconic flower. Encompassing Victoria Peak and High West it is one of the larger open valleys on Hong Kong island. Despite its proximity to Urban Hong Kong, it remains a largely undisturbed, natural(-istic) and ecologically rich landscape. Hence, Pokfulam Valley is an interesting site to analyses its natural biophysical condition and try to create a place for human habitation so that it can be a refuge for people in the hostile environment. The intervention we designed is meant to stay in the site for at least one year and people visited our intervention will stay in there for 24hours so that our intervention design must be suitable for all-year-round condition, for instance, raining and typhoon. Moreover, since visitors will stay in the intervention for at least 24hours, the design have to be suitable for people to stay overnight under different condition.

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DESIGN PROCESS

Initial design & study model

The chosen site is located at the bottom of the valley. There is a huge bare rock with a stream nearby which can provide water for survival and the dense vegetation nearby can provide shade during midnight. After considering the possibility of flooding and the relief of the bare rock, the site location is moved to a higher point of the site with soil and dense vegetation surrounding it in order to prevent possible flooding after sudden heavy rain. The form of the intervention is designed to be simple while attractive, providing shade, and enhancing wind ventilation within the intervention. The structure will be made by bamboo sticks.

SKETCHES & STUDY MODELS Initial design & study model

Study models are made to investigate possible form for the shelter and after considering bamboo as the material, study model made with sticks are made to study the possibility of making shelter with bamboos and ropes.

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SHELTER ON SITE

Drawings indicated biophysical conditions

It is important to understand the current site condition and how the shelter can adapt to the environment and how the environment will be affected by the construction from time to time. From the sunlight and shadow analysis, the shelter will be exposed to sunlight during afternoon which is good for its drying after rainfall. From the wind analysis, the shelter is protected from strong wind by the vegetation surround it while the gap between bamboos provide a better ventilation. For the hydrology condition of the site, berms will be built around the shelter to direct the water flow from uphill and the location of shelter can avoid being washed away by flood during summer.

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AGRI-SPORT SITE T-bike in Qingliang Peak

HKU 2017 Autumn Landscape Technology Course Course Landscape - Design & Build Project Type Group work (4 people)

Qingliang peak locates in a tranquil countryside in Huangshan. Under the request from a hostel owner, we are asked to design and build a micro-landscape intervention which can provide multiple purposes and experience for his guests. We have spent a month in developing the conceptual design of an agri-sport site in agriculture terraces, providing the experience of both sports and agriculture in the same site. Then, we spent a week in Qingliang Peak, participating and monitoring the construction of technical bike course in agricultural terraces.

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Site photos & Presentation material for the government

Knowing that the hostel owner hoped to provide multiple experience to his guests within the same space, we tried to combine the experience of sports and agriculture within our design. Combining farmland and mountain bike to create an agri-MTB site, hickory trees and tea will be cultivated in the site, using 90% of the farmland for agriculture and 10% for mountain bike. The whole experience will include mountain bike trails circuit and a techincal bike course in 3 agriculture terraces. T-Bike stands for ‘Tea’ and ‘Mountain bike’. Other than combining the experience of agriculture and mountain bike in our design, we also hope to support the operation and maintenance of the bike course and trails with the profit generated from the hictory and tea produced from the site. Interested bikers can also help with the cultivation of tea in the bike course. 22


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MAIN COMPONENTS FOR BIKE COURSE Site photos & Presentation material for the government 24


CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AND OUTCOME Site photos

Spending a week onsite in Qingliang Peak, we have started the construction of the technical bike course from scratch. After confirming our site in the village, we started marking out route for the bike circuit on terraces with white thread. Then, we contacted wood builders in the village to help make our main components for the technical bike course. Also, we collected large stones from river to build turn components with rocks and earth. Small pebbles and gravels are also used as paving along the whole trail to provide stable biking track for bikers. Although the technical bike course was not completed by the time we left Qingliang Peak, we continued to update the construction process and help prepare presentation material for the hostel owner to present ro the government.

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THE ESTATE : PEOPLE AND SPACE Choi Hung Estate : The secluded landscape HKU 2017 Spring Studio Course Course Dynamic Urban Landscape Project Type Site analysis: Group work (4 people), Public space design: Individual work

Choi Hung Estate was built in the 1960s as self-contained enclaves at the urban fringes of the city. After 40 years of inhabitation and territorial transformation, the sites are now embedded within a dense urban fabric with shifting boundaries and centers; as well as evolving relationship with dynamic ecologies. While the demographics of these estates have continued to change, their residents must negotiate their daily life within a landscape that was produced based on rationales nearly two generations old: difficult terrains, harsh project economies, and brutal site engineering that have left a public landscape that is sometimes hard to inhabit and their internal and external spaces largely disconnected. Through documentation of the estate and living patterns of its inhabitants through historical research, participant observation andinterviews, we analyzed the tangible aspects and intangible relationships embedded in the environment and developing a critique of these existing relationships; then we design a public space which fit the narratives we derived from our observation.

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8am

12nn

INITIAL SITE ANALYSIS Site photos & interview result

After having few visits to Choi Hung Estate, we found out that, in most of the time, adults are going in and out of the estate to work, while youngesters and elderly are staying inside the estate. We find these two user groups are interesting to further investigate into. Add on to that, we also interviewed few residents. One of the dialogue that intrigued us the most is from a resident who lived in Choi Hung Estate for 18years. Her example clearly demonstrated a conflict and negotiation of a space between two user groups -- the youngesters and elderly, which further stimulated us to focus our analysis on these two types of people in the estate.

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4pm

8pm


Shadow analysis - summer

Shadow analysis - winter

SITE ANALYSIS

Landscape analysis, Seating analysis, Shadow analysis Landscape analysis

Seating analysis

There is a fragmentation of the landscape elements in this estate after understanding the estate. It lacks a comprehensive and well-connected design throughtout the whole area. To further investigate on it, different types of planters and the canopy sizes are analysised. Most of planters do not allow users to interact with the landscape. Besides landscape elements, by mapping out the formal and informal seatings in the estate, it is observed that seatings are also discrete objects without proper design. And some of them are seriously underused and those space seem to be leftover and isolated.

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PUBLIC SPACE TYPOLOGY ANALYSIS To understand the spatial quality in the estate, we tried to categorize the type of space in to 6 different types and understand how elderly and youngesters use this space. Here we try to illustrate the different activities done by young people and elderly at different time of a day according to the six types of space. The most successful public space in this estate is undoubtedly the rooftop garden of the car park. There is are good mix of the two types of users and also it can accomodate lots of different types of activites. Because of its openness and spaciousness, many of the people are attracted to this place. For the rest of the five types, though there are challenges and limitations in their forms or settings, there are still lots of potentials that are yet to be explored. Like the space between building and highway, it is mostly the boundary or the edge of the estate. the drawback of it is noise and pollution problem, yet some of them are very spatious that can be developed into better buffer zones with proper planning and design. 31


Activities that we observed in the estate and would like to bring to the new areas:

URBAN STRATEGIES - REZONE Open up spaces to provide larger open space for elderly and youngster

Through extending existing successful examples of public space, we hope to form 2 concentrated zones of interaction in order to achieve spaciousness and openness. Introducing activities we observed in the estate back into the public space, we hope to ensure that there will be a mix and match between activities and typologies of space. Making use of landscape design and urban furniture, we would like to create a sense of space for these 2 large public space.

To develop the relocated and unused school area into a bigger public space

A

A’ area that we want to open up

To remove the unnecessary level difference so this area is more accessible to everyone, especially to elderly and wheelchair users

To open up the ground floor spaces to provide a bigger open space for different activities

B

B’

URBAN STRATEGIES - SHIELD

Create landscape and greening system around the edge of the estate Remove underused seatings at the boundary of the estate Create new seating designs which integrate with landscape system

Landscape and greening system around the edge of the estate is created in order to create buffer areas surrounding the estate and achieve a more desirable social space with the use of trees and plants. Underused seatings at the boundary of the estate should be removed while new seating designs which integrate with landscape system should be used to facilitate interaction between human and nature, creating a more desirable resting environment for residents in the estate.

Greenbelt acting as buffer area

green belt landscape design within the two major zones

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roadside pollution surrounding the whole estate


PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN EXISITING SITE ANALYSIS Site plan, Programs & activities

The site I have chosen is an covered area under a 6-storey residential building and 2 linear open space next to it. A community center, a elderly care center and a chess club center where lots of elderly spend their day are located there while kids play table tennis under covered area. Landscape settings in existing site are isolated from residents, limiting interactions between human and nature. Sometimes, residents play badminton at the linear space between 2 buildings.

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DESIGN STRATEGIES 1. Remove level difference: There are around 200-1000mm difference between the ground and covered space under building. The level difference is removed to provide a more user-friendly space for elderly. 2. Open up 2 storeies space: 2 storeies space are opened up to create a more spacious and open space for residents. 3. Introduce tangible landscape: People can interact with trees and vegetations under new landscape settings, instead of solely looking at trees and shrubs planted in planters. 4. Create shared and flexible space for both elderly and youth: Space destined for certain purpose are not designed so as to facilitate the use of space flexibly between elderly and youngsters, increasing their interactions. 34


DESIGNED SITE PLAN & PLANTING SCHEME Multiple shade-tolerants trees species with gorgeous blossom flowers are chosen to create different colour spectrum at different seasons. Several shrubs and groundcovers are also planted to create a more tangible landscape for residents. Berm areas are tangilble landscape which provide seatings and space for residents to rest and socialize. Multiple open spaces are destined for flexible use between elderly and youth. Meanwhile, a playground area surrounding community and elderly care centers is designed to center both elderly and youth in the space.

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SECTIONS

cross section viewing playground space

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cross section through community center

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PROPOSED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES Different types of settings in space are created to accommodate different activities for elderly and youth. The 3 common types of activities carried by elderly are: sit & rest, chat & socialize and exercise. Hence, curved seatings near trees and nature are designed in berms, while having flexible open space for elderly to dance, practise martial arts and exercise. Kids can play badmintons in those open space and enjoy playground fun with the slides and mountain of rocks surrounding the community and elderly care centers.

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POST-EXPO RIVERFRONT A system for forest city development

HKU 2017 Autumn Studio Course Course Research of sustainable planning strategies at mega-event legacy site Project Type Individual work

Expo 2010 Shanghai China was held on both banks of the Huangpu River in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010. The theme of the exposition was ‘Better City – Better Life’ and signifies Shanghai’s new status in the 21st century as the next great world city. By the end of the expo, over 73 million people had visited and 246 countries and international organizations had participated. After the Expo, only 5 structures are left permanent in the site, the China Pavilion, Cultural Performance Center, Expo Axis, Expo Center, and Theme Pavilion, while the rest are all dismantled to make room for site redevelopments. However, after 7 years, the Expo site is still relatively empty and fail to thrive. Hence, a design for sustainable planning strategies at Expo site will be meaningful to experiment mega-site planning and development. After visiting the Expo site, I was surprised by the ‘EMPTINESS’ in the site, the emptiness in landscape, in buildings and on the ground. Among all these ‘EMPTINESS’, there are some I enjoyed while some I would rather it become more lively. According to this interesting and conflicting feeling towards, I would like to focus my design on “EMPTINESS IN LANDSCAPE AND LIVELINESS IN BUILDINGS“. In order to design a site with proportionated Emptiness in Landscape and Liveliness in Buildings, I would like to design a system for forest city development. This is a system for city growth and development. The forest surrounding the “island“ of city will create the emptiness in Landscape for citizens, while liveliness brought by activities and people will be contained inside buildings, inside the city. The system consists of three main elements, building, forest and open space. And these three elements will affect the way of how city grow and be constructed. Through this forest city development, it recreates the empty landscape that people can enjoy and with multiple open space, providing space for different activities. Meanwhile, the forest can act as a kind of attraction for business to develop inside buildings.

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TYPES OF EMPTINESS Buildings, Landscape, Ground

There are multiple kinds of emptiness in the site, including buildings, landscape and ground. ‘Buildings‘ referred to underused or unused office towers and structures. ‘Landscape‘ referred to the Expo Park and Houtan Park, which are both underused and with low human density inside during weekdays. ‘Ground‘ referred to empty construction site after the demolition of pavilions and underused vehicle and pedestrian road.

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EMPTINESS

Site observation and documentation

I tried to record the ‘emptiness’ that interested me, emptiness in the park, inside buildings and on the roads. The silence, loneliness and freedom inside emptiness strikes me in the site. They fascinate me and inspire me to draw this drawing.

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COMPONENTS OF FOREST CITY The three elements in the forest city development system include buildings, forests and open spaces. The forest surrounding the “island“ of city will create the emptiness in Landscape for citizens, while liveliness brought by activities and people will be contained inside buildings, inside the city. Multiple open spaces inside the city provide spaces for citizen’s recreational activities.

THE ESTIMATED CITY DEVELOPMENT The forest and open space will first develop surrounding the existing development in the site, forming islands of forest city. Then, new developments will happen according to the constraints in the current condition of the site. Finally, after all spaces in the site are filled with islands of forest cities, the whole site will become a large forest with islands of buildings.

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MASTERPLAN According to current condition of the Expo site, there are multiple types of land uses. Residential land use focus on the southern side of the Expo site, while the waterfront is mainly recreational land use, such as parks. Following the belt of parks, there are patches of commercial and cultural land, such as office towers and museums. The city will consist of diverse land uses and activities. Moreover, through this forest city development, it recreates the empty landscape that people can enjoy and with multiple open space, providing space for different activities. Meanwhile, the forest can act as a kind of attraction for business to develop inside buildings. 47


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METHODOLOGY

Equation for forest city development

In order to create a forest city with proportionated forest, buildings and open space, an equation for the forest city development is formed to create a basis and reference for cities’ development. Multiple types of open space are set as modules, while the size of forest is calculated according to Shanghai’s aimed average green public space per capita, which is 15m2 per citizen. The size of forest and amount of open space created for citizens can be calculated according to the formula, which highly depends on the population of citizen in that buildings-island.

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DEMONSTRATION OF COMMERCIAL FOREST

Cluster of high-rise commercial office towers and shopping mall podiums

Picking a commercial area in the site of Expo Shanghai, a commercial forest is demonstrated. High-rise office towers with podium as shopping malls are located in the center of the island of commercial forest. Multiple open space located inside the forest to create space for people. Road of the commercial forest were mainly straight roads and trees were planted to create directional signs for citizens. A large commerical forest can be created by buildings located on different plots of land and hence vehicle road exist within the island. However, only limited vehicle access are allowed, for instance through traffic should be elminated from the inner road inside the island.

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DEMONSTRATION OF RESIDENTIAL FOREST Cluster of mid-rise residential buildings

A residential area with middle-rise residential buildings were chosen to be the demonstration site. 14-storey residential buildings were the most common building typology in Shanghai. The design of residential forest is mainly driven by the jogging path and walking trail inside the forest. Different open space, such as sports courts and community farmlands, locate along the jogging path inside the forest. Meanwhile, inside building cluster, there are open space located inside for residents’ daily use. Open spaces that located inside residential forest respond to the needs of different ages living in that ‘island‘. For instance, community farmlands are created for families to enjoy farming experience together while sport courts can provide an adjacent venue for teenagers to enjoy sports.

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STRATEGIC LANDSCAPE PLANNING FOR THE GREATER MEKONG Cultivating Compensation: Teaching landscape value through distributed demonstration grounds along the China-Laos railway HKU 2018 Spring Studio Course Course Strategic Landscape Planning for the Greater Mekong Project Type Individual work

For the past two decades, Laos has been reshaped physically, politically and environmentally by neoliberal development projects of the World Bank, ADB and bilateral aid agencies. Today, the 2013 Belt and Road Intiative assets China’s rapidly advancing role in international development. One of the key economic corridors in Southeast Asia follows the route of Kuming-Singapore Railway across Mekong region, including the segment in Laos, called China-Laos Railway. In my design intervention, it engages the social dynamics, ecological processes, and physical geography of Northern Laos. The design both operate as a single entity at a site scale and as an aggregate system at regional scale, guiding and shaping the development of northern Laos.

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Started the construction of railway Villagers lost their land, crops and structures to the development project. Yet, no compensation has been paid to them.

Dec 2016 Educate compensation calculation

Visit remote villages quarterly

= $$$

Please bring us to your land

Visit villagers’ land through walking tour Villagers from other villages come to this site

Cooperate with villagers, using their land to show how to increase compensation value

Let’s see how compensation is calculated

$

Choose a village as site & cooperate with villagers Locate at site with market access

= $$$

Purchase land from villager to set permanent site

Farmland of learning center is arranged as demonstration ground for educating compensation calculation

Phase1 COMPENSATION EDUCATION 1. What is COMPENSATION ? 2. Compensation Laws: CURRENT vs BEFORE Difference in Decree 84 and Decree 192, 3. How to obtain compensation ? 4. Compensation calculation GoL standard vs World Bank standard 5. How to increase value of potential compensation ?

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2012

Dec 2016

Approval of China-Laos Railway

Commencement of China-Laos Railway construction


26.8% of railway construction is completed. Yet, compensation to villagers has not yet been paid to villagers. However, valuation of land and crops should have completed.

Mar 2018 TIMELINE & Design intiative Development of China-Laos Railway & Phasing design of learning center

In 2012, the project of China-Laos Railway was first approved. In 2016, the construction of China-Laos Railway commenced. By March 2018, 26.8% of the railway is completed. However, compensation had not been paid to affected villagers. In January 2018, the financial compensation plan is approved and some brief information is disclosed. However, the exact date for when villagers will receive their compensation is not confirmed and disclosed yet. Therefore, for the past 2 year, villagers lost their land to the development project but compensation had not been paid. To make a difference, I would like to rewind the clock to 2012 and provide education for compensation-related matter at village level to arouse awareness and enhance their knowledge so that villagers can protect their own right and property with their knowledge. To achieve that, I would like to set up and distribute learning centres along railway.

Propose ways to increase value

$$$$$ $$$$$ = $$$

Proposing 3 types of learning centers fitting the needs of different regions along the railway corridor, nomadic and cooperative learning centers will be operated on a temporary basis, focusing on compensation education, while permanent learning center will shift its focus to education on livelihood improvement through agricultural improvement after the completion of compensation valuation.

Walking tour around different types of land in village to learn compensation calculation Training and workshop will be provided for villagers to learn on-site

= $$$ = $$$$$

Demonstration ground includes demonstration of ways to increase farmland value

Selling farm produce to market for income to sustain its operation

Teaching ways to improve agricultural performance through organic and traditional way

Phase2 LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT Increase farmland productivity Agroforestry, combine forest with rubber/ teak to provide domestic non-timber forest product while earning income from plantation

Valuation of acquired land and properties along railway corridor

Sustainable cash crop farming without using chemical fertilizer and pesticide, increase value and marketing Alternatives for irrigation system

Jan 2018 Approval of financial compensation plan

2021 Completion of China-Laos Railway 55


6 PRINCIPLES FOR REGIONAL COVERAGE SELECTION Boten

Boten <3.5km 15km

20km 40km

>3.5km <3.5km

Vientiane

Vientiane

INCLUDED

Northern provinces & mountainous area

EXCLUDED

1

2

Regional coverage only included areas with land or property resumed by GoL due to railway, excluding Boten,Vientiane and areas only affected by tunnel construction.

Areas being separated by tunnels which are longer than 3.5km or more will be treated as 2 separate regional coverages.

Flatland villages near Vientiane Province

3 Maximum distance between the first and the last village in the same regional coverage is : 15km for small villages and 20km for large villages in northern provinces and mountainous area, taking 2.5 - 3.2hrs to walk & 40km for flatland villages near Vientiane province, taking 2hrs with motorbike

>100 household Villagers!

4

5

TYPE OF LAND TO BE COMPENSATED

STATION BOTEN ! !

LUANG NAMTHA STATION NATEUY !

6

Number of learning center in each regional coverage depend on type of learning center and its relative maximum capacity

At least 100 households in each regional coverage to provide sufficient audience for learning centers

Villages inside the same regional coverage share same or similar agricultural practise, with similar level in village development 3 Station Nateuy

3

Bridge Na Hong 1 Station Namor

!

Bridge Na She 3

STATION NA MOR !

2

Station Houaymun

!

STATION NA THONG !

4

Bridge Hui Zhang Cun 2

Station Na Thong

Station Muang Xi

STATION HOUAYMUN ! !

Bridge Meng Sai Te STATION MUANG XAY

!

Station Nam Nga River

!

Bridge Tiao Cun 1

!

OUDOMXAY

!

2

3

Station Ban Na Coc

STATION NAM NGA RIVER

3

STATION BAN NA COC !

Station Mouang

STATION MOUANG

Station Houang Kho

!

1

2

Station Houay Phouly STATION HOUAY PHOULY

2

!

STATION HOUANG KHO

!

Station Ban Samhouay

Bridge Ban Na Han

!

STATION HOUANG KHA

2

!

STATION BAN SAMHOUAY

! !

!

3

STATION LUANG PRABANG

LUANG PRABANG

!

!

!

Station Luang Prabang

STATION XIANG NGEUN

4 !

Station Muang Kasi

Bridge Nei Shan 3

STATION BAN PHYA

1

Bridge Xiang Nen Nan Kan !

STATION SALA PAC THU

!

STATION BAN NATHOM

! STATION

!

BAN SEN

Station Ban Nathom

2

Bridge Meng Ka Xi

SITE SELECTION

Bridge Nan Feng He

4

Station Bouanm Phek

3

STATION MUANG KASI !

Bridge Pa Hun Cun

Station Vang Vieng !

!! STATION

BOUAM PHEK

Station Pa Tang

!

!

STATION PHA TANG

5

Bridge Peng Song Nan Song STATION VAN VIENG

!

Station Vang Ki Bridge Weng Men Nan Song

!

!

STATION VANG HEUA

!

!

STATION VANG KHI !

VIENTIANE PROVNICE !

STATION HIN HOEUP

!

!

Station Hinheoup STATION PHONHONG

5

!

5 Bridge Geng Kai Te

STATION BAN SAM KHE !

Station Ban Sam Khe

! !

STATION BAN PHONSAVANG !

!

STATION VIENTIANE NORTH

Station Phonhong

!

VIENTIANE CAPTIAL !

Village house

!

Farmland/ Irrigated farm

!

STATION VIENTIANE !

STATION VIENTIANE SOUTH

Plantation Swidden agricultural land

SCALE 1:500,000

!

CHINA56 - LAO RAILWAY

Site coverage for potential learning center Station of China-Lao Railway Bridge of China-Lao Railway

Station Ban Phonsavang

STATION THANALENG

SCALE 1:150,000

KEY Water body

Principles for site selection along China-Laos Railway

Road Provincial boundary Railway Tunnel

POTENTIAL REGIONAL COVERAGE

KEY Water body

Identified village

Settlement/ bareland

Station

Railway

Bridge

Identifing 20 regional coverage along the railway corridor according to 6 principles, I have categorized them into 5 typologies according to village development levels, distance between villages and railway and accessibility to road or river. I believed that villagers’ awareness to compensation is largely dependent on these factors. Village development level also affects villages’ potential in receiving funding and resources. 3 types of learning center will respectively respond to the site characteristics of these 5 regional typologies.


5 TYPOLOGIES OF POTENTIAL REGIONAL COVERAGE FACTORS: 1. DISTANCE BETWEEN VILLAGES AND RAIL-LINE 2. LOCATION OF VILLAGES 3. VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL

1

CHARACTERISTICS

CHARACTERISTICS

• Lack of resources • Limited audience • Low accessibility • Subsistence agriculture

• Sufficient audience • Potential market demand • High accessibility along road • Both subsistence & commercial agriculture

3

Distant from railway Along mountain ridge Small villages

Close to railway Cluster along road / river Medium / large villages

5 • Sufficient audience • High accessibility along road • Agricultural intensification & Chinese investment • Mainly commercial agriculture

• Lack of resources • Limited audience • Accessible along road & river • Mainly subsistence agriculture

2

Distant from railway Along road / river Small / medium villages

4

Along road in form of cluster/ linear settlement Flatland villages dominant with irrigated farm CHARACTERISTICS • Sufficient audience • High accessibility along road • Irrigated farm dominant • Both subsistence & commercial agriculture

Close to railway Along road Town / potential new town

PROPOSED OPERATION MODEL

Nomadic Learning Center

Cooperative Learning Center with villagers

Permanent Learning Center

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SITE TYPOLOGIES & LEARNING CENTER MODELS Firstly, nomadic learning centre targets on remote villages of small and medium size. Since these villages lack resources and audience, the changes to the ground and site will be limited to temporary and minimal. Crew of learning centre will visit these remote villages from time

to time. Secondly, cooperative learning centre set up for small and medium villages with access to roads. Lastly, for large village clusters and towns, I proposed permanent learning centre. 57


Rubber tre

THINGS THAT VILLAGERS NEED TO ACKNOWLEDGE

material to educate villagers on compensation

During Phase 1 compensation education which will be included in all 3 learning centre types since 2012 till compensation valuation is completed, some key details within compensation calculation will be taught to villagers so that they can bargain for more with developers. 1. Market Fluctuation: The current Laos calculation standard is based on market value but this make villagers vulnerable to potential loss due to market fluctuation and inflation. Hence, average market value of previous years should be advocated. 2. Other than access to road: The current Laos calculation standard for land only included the variable of access to different level of roads. Yet, types of crops on ground should also be con58

sidered due to their market potential and to compensate for related hidden cost, such as land preparation cost. 3. Land compensation: Although the current compensation for rice field seems to be fair and sufficient, villagers should be aware of the fluctuation in rice price. The value of monetary compensation will change over time and hence they should fight for land-based compensation to secure their livelihood in the long run. 4. Cumulative valule: When calculating the compensation value for fruit and rubber trees, the cumulative value of produces throughout their lifecycle should be taken into account so as to compensate for the full potential of them.


Plant on fallow land to increase compensation value for land, especially land without land use certificate

INCREASE LAND VALUE : FALLOW LAND INCREASE LAND VALUE : FALLOW LAND Sugarcane INCREASE LAND VALUE : FALLOW LAND Ridge & furrow system

STRATEGY FOR FALLOW LAND

Sugarcane

Ridge & furrow system

Sugarcane

Ridge & furrow system

2-3 cycles 2-3 cycles 2-3 cycles

1.

2.

3.

Slash & burn

Land preparation

Growing sugarcane

Sugarcane

Cardamom

Rubber tree

Slash & burn

Land preparation

Growing sugarcane

- Ridge & furrow system - Flat bed system

Slash & burn

Cardamom

- Ridge & furrow system Digging pit - Flat bed system

Cardamom

Digging pit

Cardamom

Digging pit

Harvest

Ratooning

Burning

Harvest

Ratooning

Burning

Harvest

Ratooning

Burning

(During June-Dec)

- use stalk piece of sugarcane 1-2 years - ratooning cycle

- Ridge & furrow system - Flat bed system Land preparation

(During June-Dec)

- use stalk piece of sugarcane 1-2 years - ratooning cycle Growing sugarcane

(During June-Dec)

- use stalk piece of sugarcane 1-2 years - ratooning cycle

cardamom cutting knife

cardamom cutting knife cardamom cutting knife

Rubber plantation Rubber plantation Rubber plantation

Cassava plantation Cassava plantation

Rubber tree

Harvesting

Land preparation

Growing immature cardamom

Land preparation

Growing immature cardamom

- Selectively cut trees - Remove undergrowth

Cassava plantation

- Weeding - Thinning excess shade trees

- Thinning excess shade trees - Digging pits

- Selectively cut trees - Remove undergrowth Land - Selectively cut trees - Remove undergrowth

- Weeding - Thinning excess shade treescut

- Thinning excess shadeDigging trees pit - Digging pits

Rubber tree

Digging pit

Rubber tree

Digging pit

(During Sept-Oct)

3 years

22 years

Harvesting

- Weeding 3 years - Thinning excess shade trees Growing immature cardamom

- Thinning excess shade trees - Digging pits preparation

(During Sept-Oct)

22 years

(During Sept-Oct)

22 years

Harvesting

3 years tapping knife

cut

gutter tapping knife latex cup

cut tapping knife gutter latex cup gutter latex cup

Slash & burn

Land preparation

Growing immature tree

Slash & burn

Land preparation

Growing immature tree

(During Jan-Apr)

- Terracing - Digging pit

(During Jan-Apr)

Slash & burn

(During Jan-Apr)

- Terracing - Digging pit

Jan-Apr

STRATEGY FOR RICE FIELD

May

June

July

Aug

2.

3.

Soybean

Maize

Sesame

Rice Slash & burn Soybean Rice

25 years

Tapping latex

7 years

25 years

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Rice - Soybean

1.

25 years

Tapping latex

7 years

- Weeding - Intercropping (1st-3rd year)

Ridge & furrow system

Rice - Soybean

Tapping latex

7 years

- Weeding - Intercropping (1st-3rd year) Growing immature tree

INCREASE LAND VALUE : FALLOW LAND INCREASE LAND VALUE: INTERCROPPING Sugarcane INCREASE LAND VALUE: INTERCROPPING Jan-Apr May June July Aug

Intercropping on rice field to increase compensation value for land, while earning value for cash crop

ee

- Weeding - Intercropping (1st-3rd year)

- Terracing - Digging pit Land preparation

2-3 cycles

Land preparation & seedling

Planting Growing sugarcane Weeding & planting - use stalk piece of sugarcane 1-2 years Planting

Land preparation Sowing - Ridge & furrow system Land preparation & seedling

- ratooning cycle

- Flat bed system

Soybean

Sowing

Cardamom

Weeding & planting

Harvest Ratooning Harvest

Harvest

Harvest (During June-Dec)

Burning

Harvest

Digging pit cardamom cutting knife

Rice - Maize Rice - Maize

Rubber plantation Rice

Land preparation & seedling

Land preparation Sowing

Maize Rice

Cassava plantation

Weeding & planting

- Selectively cut trees - Thinning excess shade trees Land preparation & seedling - Remove undergrowth - Digging pits

Maize

Sowing

Weeding & planting

Rubber tree

Planting Growing immatureHarvest cardamom - Weeding Planting - Thinning excess shade trees

Digging pit

Rice

Build dirt road for remote farmland to increase compensation value according to current compensation calculation standard,

STRATEGY FOR REMOTE FARM

tapping knife

gutter latex cup

Land preparation & seedling

Slash & burn

Land (During Jan-Apr)

Planting

Harvest

Land preparationWeeding & planting Growing immature tree Sowing Harvest preparation & seedling- Terracing Planting - Weeding Sowing

- Digging pit

Weeding & planting

- Intercropping (1st-3rd year)

7 years

Tapping latex Harvest

Harvest

3 STRATEGIES TO INCREASE POTENTIAL COMPENSATION Other than teaching viillagers to bargain for more compensation, strategies for villagers to increase potential compensation within current Laos calculation framework will also be taught in the learning centre. For instance, types of crops to be planted on fallow land and types of cash crop to intercrop with rice on rice field will be demonstrated to villagers.

Railway clearance area Affected farmland New dirt road

22 years

cut

Rice - Sesame

Sesame

(During Sept-Oct) Harvest

Harvest

Rice - Sesame

Sesame Rice

Harvest Harvesting

3 years

59

25 years


!

SCALE 1:10,000 Water body Village houses Road !

Station location Rubber plantation Irrigated farm Rainfed farm

Houses/ structures

Farmland / Plantation

Rice

Rice field

Rubber trees

Residential land

Cassava

Fallow land

Corn

ZOOM IN

SCALE 1:500/ 1:1000

SCALE 1:4,000 240x30 = 7,200sq.metre enough for 1 household for 1.5 yr

Compensation for land are calculated according to landâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s adjacency to road

Cassava plantation

Residential land

Access to provincial road

without land use certificate

Fallow land

Upland rice field

0

10,000 - 137,000

Fallow land

Maize plantation

2,500 - 262,500

2,500 262,500

2,500 262,500

LAND 2,500 - 262,500

10,000 - 3 million

8,025

0 annual cassava production (2010) 1.79 kg/sq.metre cassava price/kg: Kip448 1 sq.metre = Kip802.5 x10times

Calculated according to market value

annual upland rice production (2010) 0.194 kg/sq.metre rice price/kg: Kip1,525 1 sq.metre = Kip295.9 x10times

27,580

2,960

annual latex production 0.345 kg/sq.metre latex price/kg: Kip8,000 1 sq.metre = Kip2757.8 x10times

CROP/ TREE/ HOUSE

1. 320,000 to 3.5 million

1,000

60,000-100,000

1,100

495

Market price of material + cost for transportation for material + cost of any labour & contractorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; fee

1,525

1,930,490

1,200

COMPENSATION CALCULATION Station Houay Phouly

average market value for previous years : K1,300(2010) K1,250(2012) K2,550(2013) K1,1000/kg(2016)

cumulative value of a 7-year-old rubber tree with 28years of productive life and any timber value

annual maize production (2010) 0.433kg/sq.metre maize price/kg: Kip1,200 1 sq.metre = Kip 519.6 x10times

5,200

495

average market value for previous 3 years : Kip448/kg but since cash compensation should be enough to purchase equal amount of crops in market, current market value, Kip495/kg become the unit price

60

Rubber plantation

average market value for previous years : K1,300(2010) K1,100(2012)


SCALE 1:10,000 Water body

SECTION

Farmland / Plantation

Fallow land

Rubber trees

Soyabean

SCALE 1:4,000

Rice field

Rice

Corn

Sugar cane

SCALE 1:500/ 1:1000

ZOOM IN

Village houses Road Station location Rubber plantation Irrigated farm Rainfed farm

A’

A

Sugarcane plantation

Compensation for land are calculated according to land’s adjacency to road

Fallow land

Soybean farm

LAND 2,500 - 262,500

A

2,500 - 262,500

2,500 - 262,500

68,950 Calculated according to market value

6,270 annual sugarcane production (2010) 5.27 kg/sq.metre price/kg: Kip1,308 1 sq.metre = Kip6,894.5 x10times

annual soybean production (2010) 0.149 kg/sq.metre price/kg: Kip4,200 (2010) 1 sq.metre = Kip626.8 x10times

CROP/ TREE/ HOUSE

1,692

4,200

1,692

4,200 average market value for previous years : Kip1,308/kg but since cash compensation should be enough to purchase equal amount of crops in market, current market value, Kip1692/kg become the unit price

!

Soil Productivity

!

Value of fallow land A’

Repeat 2-3 years

CULTIVATION NECESSARY FALLOW YEARS

0

10

20

30

3 years

Slash & burn

Cultivation

40

Years

7-8 years

Fallow period

B’

B

Compensation for land are calculated according to land’s adjacency to road

B

Rubber plantation

Rice paddy field

LAND 2,500 262,500 27,580

Calculated according to market value

B’

Maize plantation 2,500 262,500

annual maize production (2010) 0.433kg/sq.metre maize price/kg: Kip1,200 1 sq.metre = Kip 519.6 x10times

5,200

10,000 - 137,000 5,750

annual latex production 0.345 kg/sq.metre latex price/kg: Kip8,000 1 sq.metre = Kip2757.8 x10times

annual irrigated rice production (2010) 0.377 kg/sq.metre rice price/kg: Kip1,525 1 sq.metre = Kip574.9 x10times

CROP/ TREE/ HOUSE

60,000100,000

1,100

1,000

1,930,490

1,200

1,525

cumulative value of a 7-year-old rubber tree with 28years of productive life and any timber value

average market value for previous years : K1,300(2010) K1,100(2012)

average market value for previous years : K1,300(2010) K1,250(2012) K2,550(2013) K1,1000/kg(2016)

COMPENSATION CALCULATION Station Mouang

61


COOPERATIVE LEARNING CENTER

OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR COOPERATIVE LEARNING CENTER 2012

Regional coverage of Station Houay Phouly Jan 2018

START

Mainly subsistence agriculture Livestock grazing

END

1. Operation

2. Time scale

Collaboration with villagers for temporary usage of their land as site for walking tour & demonstration ground

After the process of compensation valuation for land & properties is finished, learning center will be closed down

Cooperative :

Villagers provide land & venue; learning center provide education & resources, such as market information & access

3. Programs

4 15-25 household village cluster 2 70-90 household village cluster

25mins 8mins

Temporary:

Litracy rate: 40-60% of population can read & write Lao SCALE 1:20,000 Site coverage for learning center Location of demonstration ground

4. Site selection 1hr40mins

Weekly Accessiblity:

Walking tour:

Visiting different types of land which are the same as types of affected land along railway corridor to educate villagers on how compensation is calculated & what they should bargain in order to get a fair & secure compensation

<10km

Maximum distance between village & learning center is 10km, taking 1hr 40mins to walk

Farmland Residential land next to provincial road Plantation land next to provincal road

Types of land available:

Weekly

All types of affected land within the regional coverage should be present or located near learning center, so that the duration for walking tour does not exceed 1hr

Upland rice field Plantation land

Demonstration ground:

Demonstrating ways to increase compensation value through cultivating fallow land and intercropping rice field with cash crop

Training & workshop:

Workshop & training for learning compensation & agricultural practise will be provided

Fallow land next to village lanes

Geographical characteristics:

Learning center should be located at site sharing similar geographical characteristics with most of the affected land

Site coverage - walking tour & demonstration farm SCALE 1:5,000

WALKING TOUR

Guide will bring villagers to visit different types of land around the learning center to learn about how compensation is calculated & telling them what they should bargain for a more rightful compensation 1m long bamboo will be used and educated as the basic measurement unit for compensation calculation to make compensation more tangible to villagers

62

Sites along walking tour


COOPERATIVE LEARNING CENTER In the area of Houay Phouly, there are 4-5 village Taking Station Houay Phouly as demonstration

Fallow land Rice field Maize field

Rubber plantation

cluster of 70-90 households and they are settled along the river. In cooperative learning center, walking tour will be provided as the venue for villagers to learn how the compensation for different types of land and crops are calculated with the physical reference of the land and crop itself. I proposed using a one-metre long bamboo stick as a reference to villagers in order to make the calculation of compensation more tangible to them. A demonstration ground will be set up under the cooperation with villagers and set the ground to educate what villagers should do if they would like to increase the compensation value for their land.

Cassava plantation

DEMONSTRATION GROUND

Showcase ways to increase potential compensation for land in demonstration ground Crops & agricultural practises to demonstrate will take reference to major agricultural practise in the villages of regional coverage

VILLAGERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; HOUSE

The nature of cooperative learning center is collaboration with villagers. Land for demonstration ground and walking tour are temporarily borrowed from villagers. If available, villagersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; houses may also be used as venue for meeting & workshop.

63


PERMANENT LEARNING CENTER

OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR PERMANENT LEARNING CENTER 2012

Regional coverage of Station Mouang Jan 2018

START

1. Operation Self funded/ NGO support :

Learning center purchase land & structures from villagers to set up a permanent site in form of a farm, farm produce provide income for its operation Learning center provide education & training for villagers

3. Programs

TRANSFORM

2. Time scale Permanent:

Learning center start with educating compensation-related knowledge since confirmation of railway corridor. After the process of compensation valuation for land & properties is finished, learning center will move on to educate agricultural improvement for villagersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; livelihood

30mins

4. Site selection

Demonstration ground:

2hr30mins

Venue for all kinds of training & workshop to be held in learning center, including

Accessiblity:

!

1 >200 household village cluster 4 70-90 household village cluster

<15km

Maximum distance between village & learning center is 15km, taking 2hr 30mins to walk

Both subsistence & commercial agriculture Dominant with irrigated farmland

= $$$

Litracy rate: 60-80% of population can read & write Lao

Geographical characteristics:

1. Compensation calculation Plots of land within demonstration ground will be used as sample field to showcase how compensation for different types of agricultural land & crops are calculated under GoL & World Bank standard 2. Compensation value increase Plots of land will demonstrate strategies to increase potential compensation for agricultural land Daily workshop & 5-6days long training course will be provided according to villagersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; need but in general learning center open daily & provide service for villagers in need regularly

Learning center should be located at site sharing similar geographical characteristics with most of the affected land

SCALE 1:20,000 Site coverage for learning center Location of demonstration ground

10mins

Land productivity:

Potential in establishing higher agricultural productivity is important, such as presence of river for potential irrigation system

Market access:

Potential market should be located at a distance within farm produce shelf time

LEARNING CENTER

Structures are purchased from villagers to set up permanent learning center where workshops & training courses will take place .

64

WEEKLY WORKSHOP

Villagers coming from more remote villages may stay in learning center for a week to learn about compensation calculation and practise to increase potential compensation for land and crops


Fallow land

Rubber trees

Sugarcane

Soybean

Rice field

Rice - maize intercrop Cardamom plantation Rice - sesame intercrop

PERMANENT LEARNING CENTER Taking Station Mouang as demonstration

size of demonstration ground 90m x 65m

For permanent learning centre, everything will happen within the centre. The farmland will be separated into 2 zones, one is to showcase how different types of land and educate villagers to calculate their compensation and the second zone is to demonstrate ways to increase potential compensation value for fallow land and rice field. Demonstration ground will also become the venue for training courses and workshop to take place.

Site coverage - demonstration farm SCALE 1:2,500

DEMONSTRATION GROUND - INCREASE VALUE OF LAND

Ways to increase compensation for land such as intercropping and planting on fallow land, are demonstrated in the learning center and provide ground for training and workshop to take place

DEMONSTRATION GROUND - COMPENSATION CALCULATION

In the future, demonstration ground will turn into farmland for educating agricultural practise to improve livelihood

DIfferent types of land within the regional coverage of the learning center will be demonstrated in the center as physical reference to how compensation are calculated according to different types of land & crops

65


66


08

_01 _02

BLACK BOX THREATE INSTALLATION

_03

Trance - The Whoosh of Auto-pilot

_04

HKU 2016 Spring Studio Course Course Landscape Hodographics/ Landscape Topographics Project Type Group work (6 people)

_05 _06 _07

_08 _09 _10

is a mental state in which someone is not completely conscious of the sur“ Trance roundings and even himself/herself. One’s vision is fragmented into pieces with a lack of focus. The mind within a trance is empty but still awake to some extent. We perceive information but do not process it.

_11

DESIGN PROCESS At the beginning of design stage, we aimed at creating a space that visitors can both observe and experience the state of trance. Fragmented, simple, repetitive and monochromatic elements were our basic design tools. Various study models were made with inspiration from the Chinese character “呆”, which means ‘trance’ in Chinese looks like an individual in the state of trance. Especially when they were placed in order. Through exploring different ways of making an empty ‘heads’ and forms of bodies, we came up a final study model which hollow boxes were used to construct the body and the head. Boxes represent our fragmented vision and our lifeless, auto-piloted body movement in the state of trance. The empty head symbolizes the empty mind in the state of trance. 67


68


09

_01 _02

FABER GREEN RESIDENCE

_03

Villa landscape design in Singapore

_04

with Locus Associates Commission Schematic Design & Design Development

_05 _06 _07 _08

_09 _10 _11

DESIGN PURPOSE The landscape of this reconstructed corner terrace house for a multi-tiered family has to serve multiple purpose. This small outdoor space is not only a garden and space for family to hang out and hold outdoor gathering, but also a space with household purposes, such as bin centre at the front yard for collecting rubbish, back yard for washing clothes and meter compartment at the entrance.

69


70


10

_01 _02

HAM TIN CREEK VILLAS

_03

Villa landscape design in Ham Tin Valley, Lantau Island

_04

with Locus Associates Commission Schematic Design, Design Development & Construction Documentation

_05 _06 _07 _08 _09

_10 _11

REDESIGN The design of Ham Tin Creek Villas started in 2015, composing of 10 houses in Ham Tin Valley. The site changes throughout time. Some of the design made in 2015 are no longer suitable for current site condition. Beach deck at seashore which shelters the whole villa complex is one of the design changes need to be made. To avoid massive structural work at the beach, new beach deck design consists of gabion wall structure with railing, bench and wood deck to prevent damage caused by strong tidal activities. Other than beach deck, the existing level of the site also changed due to typhoon and tidal activities. Some of the design and finished levels of houses and public space at the seashore are revised.

DD DRAWINGS

Sections for beach deck & ephemeral stream outlet

71


_01 _02 _03 _04 _05 _06 _07

1/ Rotate the axis

_08

4/ Down the shore

_09 _10

_11

2/ Pinch the slope 5/ Pave the way

3/ Separate the circulation 6/ Fantasize the bay

DESIGN PROCESS

6 steps axonometric diagrams

72


11

BABYLON : THE FLOATING ISLANDS Pier public space design at Luxe Lake, Chengdu with Locus Associates Commission Conceptual Design

DESIGN VISION This pocket space serves as a intermediate public space with a jetty connecting 2 residential plots along the river bank. Reimagines the fabled hanging gardens of a mythological time as a fantasy come true. Like a shimmering mirage rising from the prairie hills and lake, we envisage a lush forest ascending in the alcove where greenery cascades around peculiar floating spherical monoliths. This is where you hear the winds and waves encompassed by a sweeping sound wall. Laze in the shaded arches and gaze at the boats pass by the pier and bridge. Luxe babylon is a hidden ephemeral oasis by the jetty.

73


ANNETTE

WONG YING YU

Profile for yingyuwong

Annette Wong Ying Yu | Landscape Architecture Portfolio  

HKU Undergraduate landscape architecture studio work & selected professional work | 2016-2019

Annette Wong Ying Yu | Landscape Architecture Portfolio  

HKU Undergraduate landscape architecture studio work & selected professional work | 2016-2019

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