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Cultural Specificity in a Post-Multicultural Context

Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown, Toronto by Yiming Chen 1


Renderings and Diagrams in this publication are from Yiming Chen unless otherwise indicated.

Cultural Specificity in a Post-Multicultural Context: Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown, Toronto Master of Architecture Thesis, University of Toronto, 2018 Thesis Advisor: Pina Petricone Presented on April 19th, 2018, by Yiming Chen Contact: yim.chen@mail.utoronto.ca


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Post-Multicultural Context and Social Cognition Studies Chinese Canadian Studies Sense of Place: Spadina-Dundas Chinatown Studies Spadina-Dundas Chinatown Mapping and Morphology Studies Cultural Centre Precedents Studies

2.0 Proposed Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre

1 5 11 19 27 31


1.1 Post-Multicultural Context and Social Cognition Studies

1


Canada is identified as a multicultural country since 1971. The current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau seldom uses the points of multiculturalism in Canada. Multiculturalism is criticized as an egocentric way to preserve and present cultures. Thus, postmulticulturalism was introduced. The famous salad bowl theory suggests that the integration of the many different cultures of residents combine like a salad. Each ingredient in the bowl represents a specific culture and is cut into small pieces. When they are mixed together, each ingredient would absorb others’ flavour, in order to make a tasty and healthy dish. By practice, post-multiculturalism allows people to get to know each other better, in order to form a dynamic and harmonious society.

2


Canada 68%

32%

United States 53%

47%

Minorities should do more to fit in with mainstream American/Canadian We should encourage cultural diversity with different groups keeping their own customs and languages

Attitudes toward Multiculturalism: Canadians v.s American

A recent survey organized by CBC and the Angus Reid Institute in 2016 concludes that Canadians exhibit adversary attitudes towards multiculturalism over time. Sixty-eight percent of Canadian respondents reported that they are not satisfied with what the minorities have done, for example, by keeping their own customs and languages immigrants are less likely to adapt to the mainstream culture. While only fifty-three percent of Americans surveyed reported saying minorities need to assimilate to the mainstream culture better.

Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/poll-canadians-multiculturalism-immigrants-1.3784194, organized by CBC and Angus Reid Institute

3


Satisfied with how things are going in Canada

Satisfied they feel welcom in their community

Satisfied immigrants are integrating well in the community

Satisfied with the environment

Satisfied with the amount of crime

Satisfied with your family's access to the quality education

Satisfied with your access to the health care

Satisfied with your person financial situation

Satisfied with your job opportunities 40

45

50

All Canadians

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Immigrants here less than 10 years

Immigrants as satisfied as other Canadians with quality of life

Another survey have found that for immigrants who have been here for less than ten years, they do feel they are well integrated into the community, but when we look at all Canadians as a unit, that sense of integration is diminished.

Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/poll-canadians-multiculturalism-immigrants-1.3784194, organized by CBC and Angus Reid Institute

4


1.2 Chinese Canadian Studies

5


Countries and Areas - the Year of Major Chinese Community Immigration: Greater China Area: Mainland Hong Kong Taiwan Tibet

1858 1940s, 1960s,1980s 1947 1950s

Chinese Diaspora

Argentina Bangladesh Cambodia Cuba India

1988 1972 1975 1959 1962

Chinese Diaspora Map Indonesia Jamaica Laos Malaysia Mauritius

1965 1970s 1975 1970s 2000s

Myanmar Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines

1964 1995 1970s 1975 1960s

South Africa Suriname United Kingdom United States Vietnam

1990 1975 1977

Members of the Chinese Diaspora find themselves settled in Toronto after generations. The Chinese culture in Canada also embodies another level of multiculturalism.

Source: Professor. Lisa Rose Mar, Chinese Canadian Studies, Department of History, University of Toronto; Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council, P.R.C. The outline of Overseas Chinese , Jiuzhou Press, 2005

6


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1871

1881

1891

1901

1911

1921

1931

1941

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

British Isles

Scandinavia

Western Europe

Eastern Europe

Southern Europe

United States

Caribbean and Bermuda

Central and South America

Northern Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

Western Asia and Middle East

Eastern Asia

Southeast Asia

Southern Asia

Oceania and other

Distribution in percentage of the foreign-born population, by place of birth, Canada, 1871 to 2011

Comparing with European Canadians who have slowly stopped their migration, there is a distinct trend of increase in Asian population.

Source: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1871 to 2001. National Household Survey, 2011.

7


Population (in Thousands) 1,600

1,400

1,200

1,000

800

600

400

200

0 1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

Caribbean and Bermuda

Central and South America

Northern Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

Western Asia and Middle East

Eastern Asia

Southeast Asia

Southern Asia

Oceania and other

Canadian population with Chinese origin

Foreign-born population in Canada, and Canadian population with Chinese origin 1951 to 2011.

The distinct trend of increase in population who has Chinese background.

Source: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1951 to 2001. National Household Survey, 2011.; The Chinese in Canada, Jin Tan and Patricia E. Roy

8


YT NT

NU

NL BC QC

AB

SK

MB

PE ON

YT

BC

AB

NT

SK

MB

NU

625

540,155

18,280

375

19,075

30,150

115

ON

NB

QC

849,345 121,445

NS

NL

NB

PE

NS

2,700

4,480

2,735

9,695

Chinese Canadian Distribution in Canada Ontario has the largest Chinese Canadian Community across Canada. 12% of the population in GTA has Chinese background in 2016.

Source: Statistics Canada, census of population, 2016

9


Clarington Brock Scugog Oshawa Georgina

Whitby

Uxbridge Pickering

Ajax

East Gwillimbury Scarborough

Newmarket

Markham

LAKE ONTARIO

Aurora Richmond Hill King

North York Vaughan Toronto Etobicoke

Caledon

Brampton

Mississauga

Immigration Path before 2000 Halton Hills

Oakville Milton Burlington

Immigration Path 2000s Immigration Path 2010s

Chinese Canadian Immigration Path in Greater Toronto Area Chinese Canadian usually settled in downtown first and moved to suburban area. The suburban Chinatowns has caused functional division - only serve as living communities for new Chinese immigrants.

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1.3 Sense of Place: Spadina-Dundas Chinatown Studies

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170 Copies

Sense of Place Survey The notion of ‘sense of place’ refers to ‘a socially, culturally and psychologically constructed man-place relationship, representative of a non-material bonding of human beings with places’. The survey is focused on: How is the sense of place about Spadina-Dundas Chinatown? Does sense of place differ among different groups? What elements help to establish Chinatown’s sense of place? What elements are missing to contribute a better Chinatown’s sense of place? Conduct three dimensions as subscales: place attachment, place identity, place dependence Place attachment refers to the emotional bonds people develop with places; Place identity refers to people’s socialization with physical space or a dimension of self that define the individual’s personal identity in relation to the physical environment by means of complex pattern of conscious and unconscious ideas, beliefs, preferences, feelings, values, goals and behavioural tendencies and skills relevant to this environment; Place dependence refers to people’s functional reliance on the amenities and resources that places provide. Questionnaires were distributed in the following areas: Dragon City Mall, Chinatown Centre, Chinese Gospel Church, Cecil Community Centre, U of T campus, Chinese-Canadian-related symposium and events.

12


3.30

Place Attachment I feel comfortable and safe in Chinatown. I would defend Chinatown if someone criticizes it. I miss Chinatown when I cannot visit it in a long time. Chinatown makes me happier than other places do. If possible, I would like to spend more time in Chinatown.

3.22

2.84

Place Identity

Place Dependence

Chinatown is important to me. I regard myself as a part of Chinatown. Chinatown is unique and irreplaceable to me. Chinatown reflects my ethnic identity as a Chinese very well.

I make a lot of friends in Chinatown. Chinatown is closely related to my personal life. Chinatown is the best place for the activities I like. I feel empowered by the experience of being in Chinatown. My demands for entertainment can be better met in Chinatown.

Sense of Place at three scales People prefer to give a higher score (has strongly agreed on the above sentences) for Place attachment and Place identity than place dependence. It means the functions of Chinatown are inefficient.

Source: : Sense of Place: Toronto Spadina-Dundas Chinatown survey, 2017

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Numbers of People 25

20

15

10

5

0 1-1.5

1.5-2

2-2.5

New comers here less than 10 years

2.5-3

3-3.5

3.5-4

Immigrants here more than 10 years

4-4.5

4.5-5

Average

Canada-born Canadians

Sense of Place Distribution Comparing with immigrants living here for more than ten years and Canada-born Canadian, new immigrants who have lived here for less than ten years have a worse image of Chinatown.

Source: : Sense of Place: Toronto Spadina-Dundas Chinatown survey, 2017

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1

2

54

54+26 5

3

5

32 7

6

15 8

10

15

13 9

9 Sense of Place Survey Images

Source: : Sense of Place: Toronto Spadina-Dundas Chinatown survey, 2017

33+18

9


Exhibition/Art Gallery Food/Restaurant Educational Cleaning Service Festival/Event Performance Recreational/Sport Field Community Centre/Gathering Place Main-stream-friendly Service Chinese-Speaking Service Consulate Service Senior Service Medical Service Directory/Tours Transit Parking Massage Housing Bigger Side Walks Immigration Service

Chinese Culture Introduction/Representation Chinese Canadianess/Chinese Canadian Community Main-stream Welcome Multiculturalism Role Model of Cultral Combination Chinese Canadian History/Heritage Preservation Gathering Place Presenting China as a Clean/Tidy/Modern Country Food Sharing/ Make Connection Business District Festival Celebration Enjoyment of Life Expansion Entertainment Diversity Art Independence Protected from Discrimination Tourist Attraction Politics Centre Service Centre Seniors Friendly Home Sense

Expectation of Spadina-Dundas Chinatown: Service Request and Role in the City Identity of Chinatown is defined as a commercial and culinary area instead of cultural place. A main stream welcoming cultural organization that introduces and represents Chinese Canadians with exhibition, art gallery, educational programs, festival and events, performance, and community centre are expected in Chinatown.

Source: : Sense of Place: Toronto Spadina-Dundas Chinatown survey, 2017

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Julie Jai

Leo Chan

John Thai

Julie Jai

1858

1885

Haibo Zhang

Leo Chan

1924

Kellie Chin John Thai

Haibo Zhang

1947

1878

1977

1980s

Sam Ching - first registered Chinese Torontonian

Sino-Vietnamese, Sino-Laotian, Sino-Cambodian Refugee Arrived

Mass Immigrants from Mainland China and Other Countries Arrived in Canada after Pre-1924 Immigration

free entry period

restricted entry period

exclusion period

selective entry period

Chinese Canadian Immigrants Historical Background and Demand from Five Representative Interviewees 17

Kellie Chin


Five interviewees are selected as the representatives to indicate their need and expectations. - Julie Jai has a collection of invaluable Cantonese Opera artifacts (including music score, scripts, tapes, photos and music instrument) in Canada. As a third generation Chinese Canadian of the first immigration wave, she is looking for a proper organization, an archive or a museum, to house her parents’ treasures and to preserve Chinese Canadian history. Archive and Research Centre are vital to preserve and reflect history. - Leo Chan, who represents the second major immigration wave, sees himself as a real Chinese-Canadian, who has both Chinese and Canadian characters. He would like to introduce his Chinese part to Canadian and share his Canadian part with Chinese new comers. He is dedicated in leading tours and giving public lectures. A proper platform, an auditorium, would allow more people to participate in these activities. - John Thai, one of Chinese Canadian refugees fled from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, finally settled down in Canada to start his new life. Mr. Thai’s life story is truly inspiring. Sharing his 90-year life experience to younger generations is invaluable. At the same time, Chinese Canadian Studies Program at University of Toronto would like to establish connection and trust with the community. A proper meeting place, an oral history lab helps to build that trust. - Haibo Zhang, who immigrated to Toronto in early 1990s, had a strong relationship to Chinatown. He relied on Chinatown for many years in terms of food, grocery and the sense of Chinese Canadian-ness. In the last decades, convenient Chinese markets and restaurants were launched in GTA area. The Spadina-Dundas Chinatown became obscured to a certain extent. He emphasized that he is reminiscing Chinatown, and look forward to being attracted by cultural and art programs in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown. - Kellie Chin, an interracial second generation Chinese Canadian, sees herself as an outsider. She is interested in learning Chinese language, and would like to take part in activities related to Chinese Culture. A welcome and striking facility providing Chinese Canadian thematic workshop and performance becomes a window for many Chinese Diaspora members who are not familiar with their culture. According to quantitive questionnaires and qualitative interviews, a thematic sequence of culture – reflection, production, and celebration is formed.

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1.4 Spadina-Dundas Chinatown Mapping and Morphology Studies

19


Chinese Organizations in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown Signage pointing to the Chinese cultural centre are often obscure by other business signs and make it very hard to find for the public, even for the Chinese population. However there are over eighty organizations that exist in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown, most of organizations are not mainstreamfriendly and have became dormant or only host few activities each year. This is largely due to language barriers and the lack knowledge of Chinese Canadian history. Family organizations and regional organizations are often exclusive as well. Canadian-born Chinese who are removed from their Chinese cultural background growing up are not familiar with the language. Making it more difficulty for them to integrate into these cultural related organizations. As a result, members of these organizations have decreased dramatically over the last decade. Many organizations have been reduced to a lone signage on building facades.

20


1842

1924

1890

1935

Site Transformation Timeline Parade Ground for volunteer Cavalry

1815

21

Houses strated to build by Irish and Scottish Immigrants

1880s

European Jewish moved and operated merchandise shops

1920s

Chinese community moved and operated Chinese shops

1960s


1957

1994

1974

2016 Site Transformation Map

According to the historical maps, large multicultural centres always find themselves situated at the main intersections in this area. However as the neighborhood change, these multicultural centres are abandoned or appropriated by other cultures to better serve their functions. Cultural centres should be built to exert long-lasting impact on our cultures instead of transient structures that are forgotten as time passes.

22


Year of Built Map

23

Organizations Map

Built before 1890

Shopping Malls

Built between 1890 and 1924

Religious Organizations

Built between 1924 and 1935

Community Organizations

Built between 1935 and 1957

Recreational Organizations

Built between 1957 and 1974

Family Organizations

Built between 1974 and 1994

Regional Organizations

Built between 1994 and 2016

Other Organizations


News Paper Reading

Eating Dim Sum

There are over 80 organizations distributed in Chinatown. Shopping malls, religious organizations and community organizations are widely accessible by the public. Besides travellers, students of UofT, and seniors, especially Chinese Canadian seniors are frequent visitors to this region. Lacking of proper space and gathering place, people have to occupy commercial space, for example cafĂŠ, food court, restaurants, and bakery shops, in order to read newspapers and chat.

News Eatingof dragon city mall and stare at crowds day after DozensPaper of seniors just sit inside Tai Chi to Reading Dim Sumuse parks andPlaying day. During summer time, seniors public squares as playground do outdoor activities. Ladies set up their stalls toGames sell homegrown vegetables at the Spadina-Dundas intersection.

Cultural workshops held by young people, such as calligraphy and music workshops, usually squeezed in U of T classrooms or a commercial tea house on Spadina. Workshop groups connects people by social media or through word of mouth. Although there are outstanding community organization, such as Cecil Community Centre and St. Stephen Community House, it cannot deny that the main stream has a weakened connection with them.

News Paper Reading

Eating Dim Sum

Playing Games

Tai Chi

Martial Art Tai Chi

Sitting Sitting

Chatting Chatting

Sitting

Chatting

Activities Organized * Organized

Street Market Vending

Activities Map

Newspaper Reading News Paper

Reading

Eating Dim Sum Eating

Dim Sum

Playing Table Games Playing

Games

Activities

24


The four adjoining neighbourhoods (UofT, Kensington Market, Queen Street West and Grange Park) to the Chinatown region give significance to Chinatown in terms educational, cultural, commercial, art, and historical values. Seniors are moving back to downtown Chinatown from outskirt because they could easily connect to others and they could conduct more activities in Chinatown. New Chinatowns in suburb areas has caused functional division whereas the downtown Chinatown carries a strong tourist and symbolic functions. The suburban Chinatowns only serve as living communities for new Chinese immigrants. Spadina-Dundas Chinatown helps new comers to adapt to Chinese Canadian Life. According to Enrolment Report by University of Toronto, there are over 10,000 Chinese students, among which are potential new Chinese Canadian, studying at UofT. Chinatown is a lighthouse for many Chinese living overseas, especially Chinese Diaspora members. It becomes a meeting space for unexpected encounters. According to a Sino-Vietnamese Canadian, he randomly met his childhood playmates and friends who are now living in USA and Europe in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown in 1980s and 1990s.

Chinatown Mapping

25

The Important Role of Spadina-Dundas Chinatown as Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre


Garage

Party Wall

Fire Escape

Victorian Housing Back Components

Victorian Housing Back Lane Morphology

Spadina Avenue Frontage Morphology 26


1.5 Cultural Centre Precedents Studies

27


Scarborough

Chinese Cultural Centre of Greater Toronto

East York North York Toronto Community and Culture Centre

York

Etobicoke

City of Toronto Tibetan Canadian Cultural Centre

Downtown Toronto

Cultural Facilities in City of Toronto

Freestanding culture centres representing Chinese Culture are far from city centre and they are not public-transit-friendly. They are barely visited by the mainstream population, and mainly used by Chinese Canadians with limited programs.

28


Chinese Cultural Centre of Greater Toronto 5183 Sheppard Ave E, Scarborough

Miles Nadal Jewish Community Centre 750 Spadina Ave, Toronto

Noor Cultural Centre 123 Wynford Dr, North York

Aga Khan Museum and The Ismaili Centre 77 Wynford Dr, North York

Korean Canadian Cultural Association of Metropolitan Toronto 1133 Leslie St, North York

Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre 6 Garamond Ct, North York

Cultural Facilities in Toronto Major cultural facilities in GTA are located on the outskirt. They usually are giant free-standing building with multi-programs. Since the location is far from city centre, the cultrual impact decreased.

29


Toronto Community and Cultural Centre 222 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada

Chinese Cultural Centre of Greater Vancouver 555 Columbia St, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Chinese Community Centre 62 Mott St, New York, NY, USA

Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience 719 S King St, Seattle, WA, USA

Chinese Culture Centre 750 Kearny St, San Francisco, CA, USA

LanSu Chinese Garden 239 NW Everett St, Portland, OR, USA

Chinese Cultural Facilities in North American Chinatowns Cultural facilities located in North American Chinatowns are usually located in a small-scale freestanding building or inside other buildings. Chinese motifs, such as dragon gate and flared eaves, are widely used in Chinatowns. The character of the host city is often lost in the applications of such motifs, as they often result in Chinatowns looking very much alike each other.

30


2.0 Proposed Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre

31


Design Description Extracting elements from the existing Toronto-specific urban context, this thesis narrates a foreign spatial relationship to create both a sense of belonging as well as an awareness of the “hyphenated” Chinese-Canadian Experience. The collected Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre tests this idea in a post-multicultural condition. Considering the outside-in strategy of Chinese architecture, a site surrounded by four back lanes is chosen in Toronto’s Downtown Chinatown. Victorian back lane garage structures are abstracted as the modular units to develop a thematic sequence of culture – reception, reflection, production, and celebration, from public Spadina Avenue to private blocks. A raised wall made of reclaimed brick mined from the site’s Victorian structures creates a walled-in gesture at a civic-scale much like that of a Chinese Palace.

32


Qianlong Garden

Beijing - Forbidden City

Qianlong GardenVictorian Housing

Beijing - Forbidden City Toronto - Cabbagetown

Qianlong Garden

Victorian Housing

Toronto - Cabbagetown

Victorian Housing

Beijing - Forbidden City

Toronto - Cabbagetown

Urban Fabric Comparison 33

35.63m

138.89m

35.63m

138.89m

39.00m

160.00m

160.00m

39.00m


35.63m

138.89m

160.00m

39.00m

Qianlong Garden

Victorian Housing Toronto - Cabbagetown

Building

Building

Courtyard

Front/Back Yard

Path

Laneway

Courtyard Wall

Party Wall

Trees

Trees

Rock

Hearth

Porch and Pavilion

Porch

Beijing - Forbidden City

Hyphenated Chinese-Canadian experience is the key element of designing a Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre. Typical block layout of Toronto Victorian housing and Beijing Courtyard garden are selected to make comparison. Different from Victorian housing using street and back lane to connect housings, Chinese architecture, by practicing outside-in strategy, let path to organize individual buildings and create courtyards in between.

Urban Fabric Requisite Comparison 34


Huron Street

Beverley Street

Spadina Avenue

Cecil Street

Baldwin Street

- - - - - - -

Spadina frontage Pedestrian Perception Assembly space of both indoor and outdoor More intimate single group space A civic scale instead of private scale (10,000+ UofT student) Public space for events Accessibility and universal design

Site Plan 35


9 3 10

4

5

11

1 7

16 16 16 16 16 32 31

3

Chinese Canadian Portrait Gallery Lobby Reception History Exhibition Family History Exhibition Temporary Exhibition Shop Outdoor Pavilion

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

5

Cloak Room Washroom Archive Research Area Oral History Lab Interview Room Meeting Room Office

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

23

22

16

21

26

19 40

27

29

2

2

19

10 10

20 10 10 10 40

Lab Loading and Receiving Storage Staff Lounge Language Workshop Brush Painting and Calligraphy Workshop Meditation Workshop Dance and Workout Workshop

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

28

30

Outdoor Bicycle Parking Theatre Waiting Room Tea House Outdoor Play Ground Service Parking Social Service Centre Consulting Room

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Tax Clinic Photo Studio Community Meeting Area Outdoor Wood Terrace Art Gallery Hand Craft Workshop Community Meeting Room Service Room

36

10

26 35

35 33

6

16 16 17 18 19 19

20

10

24

8

10 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

25

10 13 15 12 14

36 37

11

38

39

35

21

40

2

28

34

36

36

Plans 36


Wall

Reclaimed Bricks

Bridge

Fire Escape

Building

Modular Garage Structures

Garden

Path : Outside-in Strategy

Components 37


Brush Painting and Calligraphy Workshops Cantonese Language Workshops Craft Workshops Dance and workout Workshops English Language Workshops Mandarin Language Workshops Meditation Workshops Community Lounge Community Meeting Room Computer Lab

U AR E

O W FFIC O R E N TR KSH O E PS

CO

M

CO

CO M

M M U

U

M M U

N

Y

N IT Y

CE

SQ

W IT ASH Y LO RO U OM N N IT GE

PE TE RM M A P N EX ORA ENT H RY E EXH IB XH IB IT IB ITIO IO ITIO N N N

CULTURAL EVENTS

BUSINESS EVENTS

SPORTS FIELD

W S AS TO R H M ROO AGE M M LO U N TEA BBY IT H Y OU TH SE

RY LE

HURON ST.

EA TR

E

CELEBRATION CULTURAL EVENTS

PUBLIC EVENTS

CO

CO M

PRODUCTION

W M INT AS EE E H TIN RV RO G IEW O RO RO M O RE O M OM F SE FIC AR AR E C R CH O ESEA HIVE RA RC CE L H H N ISTO ARE TR R A E Y LA B

Chinatown Safety Program Chinese Students Career Fair Consulting Service Immigrant Program Photo Studio Senior Health Fair Tax Clinic Youth Program

REFLECTION

AL

W O A F

Archive Seminar Interview Chinese Canadian Studies

U

Chinese Canadian Art Gallery Chinese Diaspora in Canada Portrait Gallery

M

N S FI SE CO ITY HRO CE M O RV M E M IC MU ETIN E G N CE IT AR EA N Y TR E

RECEPTION

G

Canadian Chinatowns History Exhibition Chinese Canadian Immigrants History Exhibition Family Associations in Chinatown Exhibition Family’s History Exhibition Chinese Art and Craft Exhibition Special Exhibitions produced by UofT Chinese Canadian Studies

AR T

O G FFI CO IFT CE E M SH M O RE XHI U P S N CE BI IT R TO T PT IO Y ME ECEP RAG ET TI E IO N IN ON N G AR EA

CL O W AK L AS R OB H O BY RO O O M M

Mahjong Social Newspaper Reading

HURON ST. Canada Day Celebration Chinatown Festival Chinese New Year Festival Dragon Ball Dragon Boat Festival Dragon Festival Mid-Autumn Festival South Asia Alliance Culture Show Under the Movie Night Under the Sky Concert Chinese Food Festival Farmer’s Market Night Market Taste of China Festival Dragon Dance and Lion Dance Practice Martial Art Practice Play Ground Chinese New Year Gala Chinese Opera Concert Dance Performance Movie Night Orchestra

Public Lecture Seminar

CHINATOWN CIVIC SQUARE

Programs 38


Bicycle Parking Area

Exhibiton and Art Gallery Entrance Entrance on Spadina Avenue Frontage

Cultural Reception

39


Exhibition

Pavilion in the Garden

North Elevation

Skywalk over Garden

Cultural Reflection

40


Community Hall Lobby

Chinese Canadian Research Centre Outdoor Wood Terrace

Cultural Production

41


Cultural Celebration

Outdoor Play Ground

Pedestrain Bridge towards Theatre

Theatre Interior

Huron Street and the Community Hall Huron Street could be closed for Chinatown Festival from Dundas Street Huron Street Square to Cecil Street

42


I would like to thank all those individuals and institutions that assisted in the research and development of the thesis: University of Toronto Pina Petricone, Aziza Chaouni, Lisa Mar, Rick Halpern, Jeffery Reitz, MArch Class of 2018 Sense of Place Survey Team Jiahuan Zhou and Yuxin Yue. Chinese Community Julie Jai, Leo Chan, Arlene Chan, ThuanHoa Thai, Haibo Zhang, Kellie Chin; Alice Chan, Louis Lim, Lily Liu, Chieh Schen Teng, Juni Yeung, Rui Zhang; Wenjin Han, Qi Meng, Luyi Song, Zhiwei Wang, Kui Xia, Xiaoyu Yuan; Jiaxin Shi, Tong Zhao, Bingchi Zhu, Chenxuan Meng, Yazhuo Wang, Jinqin Xiao, Xiaolong Li. Family and Friends

Cultural Specificity in a Post-Multicultural Context (MArch Thesis by Yiming Chen)  

Cultural Specificity in a Post-Multicultural Context: Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown, Toronto. Extracting e...

Cultural Specificity in a Post-Multicultural Context (MArch Thesis by Yiming Chen)  

Cultural Specificity in a Post-Multicultural Context: Chinese Canadian Cultural Centre in Spadina-Dundas Chinatown, Toronto. Extracting e...

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