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Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Yi Jie Lam

(875783) Jun Han Foong Studio 21

Week Three

Reading: Kolerevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age

Kolerevic described three fundamental type of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling. (150 words max)

Subtractive fabrication is one of the fabrication technique by removing a particular volume from a solid either through electronically, chemically or mechanically reductive processes by two dimensional or three dimensional milling machine. Next, layered manufacturing or in other words additive fabrication is another technique which involves incremental forming by adding material in a layer-by-layer fashion. Thirdly, formative fabrication uses mechanical forces, steam, or restricting forms to apply on a material which then form into the desired shape through deformation or reshaping. The Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with paramateric modelling has the potential to create shapes that are accurate in a quick pace as it can be modified with ease and create different iterations. By editing the script on the parametric model, the data input can be simply changed.


Week Three

Surface Creation

Final surfaces are formed by starting off to build some surfaces which are flat and less curvy. The base edges of two surfaces are joined to make sure both surfaces are able to stand by themselves. Next, second attempt was made by creating some curvy surfaces which are responding each other. Then, buldging surfaces were made to show the panels are protruding outwards in an extensive way. FInally, with a combination of curve and flat surfaces, the final set of surfaces were iterated into a hybrid design showing both curve and flat surfaces are being combined and work together. Image 1: Iteration of flat surfaces

Image 3: Iteration of buldging surfaces

Image 2: Iteration of curvy surfaces

Image 4: Iteration of combined flat and curvy surfaces


Week Four Panels & Waffle

Triangulation is the main concept used for the design of the panelling as it blends well with the curvy surface as well as the flat one. By using two types of 3D panels, one with holes at the top vertex and one without, and alternating them throughout one surface and the other surface with only panels with holes to create different design effect. As for the 2D panels, two types of panels are used as well, one with perforation and one which is completely closed triangle and arrange them randomly on both surfaces in relation to the 3D panels.


The waffle structure is like the skeleton of the whole model, supporting the two surfaces and the panels. They are formed according to the shape of the surfaces, and that is why some of the structures appear to be bent or curved. Each of the structure has notches for joining both sides of the waffle structure together.

Week Four

Laser Cutting

To create a laser cut file means to unroll all the 2D and 3D panels, lay them out for laser cut. The process started off by selecting 2 or 3 panels at once, and then join them so that the unroll surfaces are connected to each other. The first mistake I learnt was to remember to select ‘no’ for explode as the panels will then be in bits and pieces. Labelling is important as it helps me to assemble the panels in order when folding process occurs. One of the constraint was sometimes the panels will appeared to be overlapping each other after unrolling and I will have to redo and join the panels in lesser amount before unrolling. This is the part which I found time consuming however it is worthwhile after the final product came out. One thing that I have learnt was trying to connect all the unrolled panels as much as I can for laser cut and delete the overlapping lines as it will save some cost for laser cut. Lastly, seperate the etch and cut lines clearly in layers is crucial. Always label to avoid confusion when assembling the model.

Black straight lines: Cut lines

Red dotted lines: Etch lines

Waffle Structure X-axis

Waffle Structure Z-axis


Week Five

The main concept used in this task is geometric and hence the platonic octahedron is the shape used throughout the design. By trying out different point attractor, and playing with the scale of both larger and smaller shape, the final design is created and booleaned out from the cube. Lastly and most importantly, the boolean shape is boolean again in different angles to obtain the desired final outcome which is to achieve 25% of the cube volume. Image 1: Iteration 1 with regular shape and scale

Image 3: Randomly arranged polygon

Image 2: Iteration 2 with scaling

Image 4: Iteration 4 (chosen design)


Week Five


This isometric is a section of the boolean solid before being subtracted into 1/4 of the volume of the cube to be 3D printed. The iteration process involved trying out with the point, curve and random attractor to obtain different shape distribution of the grid. Besides, the scale of the shape is adjusted as well in order to obtain some bigger and smaller shapes as variation. Ultimately, the chosen iteration was design with polygon in platonic octahedron shape together with scaling as the boolean effect was the best among the other iteration. Next, the booelan structure was further boolean again in different angles to obtain the most interesting 25% volume of the cube. The main concept for the final boolean solid is to create a shelter-liked structure. Thus, the final 3D print solid boolean is like a sanctuary with cap as roofing and also openings for entering, in addition with some cave-liked subtracted voids as interior space. The subtracted structure forms hollow spaces with the shape of the octahedron polygons of different sizes. Hence, the spaces are hidden inside the structure under the capping. Vast amount of hollow volume being form as the result of boolean. Furthermore, with diamond shapes opening at the side of the structure, it gives the notion of permeability to allow light to penetrate in.


Week Six Task 01

Task 01 Matrix Matrix 1.4 is the surface chosen from iteration. These surfaces combine both flat and curvy surfaces which is interesting to be further developed. While trying out with point and curve attractor, the final decision(matrix 2.4) was to stick to the regular grid as the surfaces which is originally curvy and so it will be uneccessary to add more complexity to the panels formed later on.


Week Six Task 02

Grid Manupulation







Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Attractor / Control Curves Grid Points





Shape Distribution

{Point Attractor}

{Point Attractor}

{Point Attractor}

{Point Attractor}








Shape Transformation

{Point Attractor}

{Curve Attractor}

{Random Attractor}

{Grid Centroid}






{Consistent Scaling}

{Reverse Point Attractor}


{Random Scaling}

{Point Attractor}

Flat caping acts like a roofing for the geometrical structure.

Task 02 Matrix 4 iterations had been made as grid manipulation by using point attractor and matrix 1.4 was chosen to be developed as it shows the best manipulation and has greater potential to be further developed. By using point, curve and random attractor, different shape distribution was obtained and finally matrix 2.4 was chosen because it gave a more consistent distribution which is suitable for the desired geometry used for boolean. Platonic octahedron is the primary geometrical shape used throughout the structural design.

Isometric 1:1 Sectional cut boolean

The niches created on both sides are meant to be openings for entering and passing through the structure.

The platonic octahedrons that are being subtracted out of the structure forms various cave-liked voids with different sizes.

9 The diamond shape openings

Week Six

Final Isometric Views




Task 1

Firstly, different iteration of surfaces are created by using grasshopper to test out which surfaces have the most potential to be developed.

Next, 2D and 3D panels of varied patterns are made. Some surfaces are entirely be filled with 2D or 3D panels while some others are a mixed of both.

2 surfaces are chosen and the trianglular panels created from grasshopper are found to work best with these surfaces. 2 types of 2D panels are used, one with perforation and one without.

By altering both 2D and 3D panels, some of the 3D panels are deleted and being replaced by the 2D panels.


Appendix Process

Furthermore, waffle structure are made in grasshopper according to the surfaces chosen. The structure acts as a support skeleton.

All 2D and 3D panels are unrolled in rhino and being labelled properly. Etch and cut layers are being distinguished by the used of red colour lines as the etch.

Waffle are then being exploded and oriented in order, labelled for laser cut purpose.

Modelling is the final steps for task 1. Assembling the waffle structure, folding the 2D and 3D panels and finally pasting both surfaces onto the waffle structure. 12



Task 2

Before adding shapes into the solid for boolean, grid manipulation and iteration was carried out to obtain the best shape distribution of grid. The best choice was chosen to be further developed.

Cylinder was the first shape being used for solid boolean as the first thought was it can create different levels and hierarchy after being boolean out.

The boolean outcome was satisfied however it was hard to be physically 3D printed as there are some hidden cylindrical void in the cube volume.

Next, in order to get rid of the 3D print problem, amendment was made by extruding the length of the cylinder. Unfortunately, the boolean outcome was less satisfied.


Appendix Process

Second attempt was made by changing the shape of the polygon into something more geometrical. Platonic octahedron was chosen

Next, the polygons were booleaned out of the cube. The most interesting part was chosen as a section to be further developed.

and point attractor was added with scaling in grasshopper.

Finally, to get the requested volume of the whole structure, the solid boolean was boolean again in different angles and trim to get the desired shape according to the primary concept which is to obtain a shelter-liked structure.

Additionally, the final solid boolean structure was then sliced into section to show the inner hidden shape of the polygons.




Photographs of task 1 model from different angles

Image 1: Perspective View

Image 2: Top View

Image 3: Elevation view (showing the curve surface)

Image 5: Side Elevation

Image 6: Shadow casting on model

Photographs of task 2 model from different angles

Image 4: Bottom part of model


M2 journal template  
M2 journal template