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Interchange unit 1 "A time to remember" Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. EXAMPLES: I saw a movie yesterday. I didn't see a play yesterday. Last year, I traveled to Japan. Last year, I didn't travel to Korea. Did you have dinner last night? She washed her car. He didn't wash his car. We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on. EXAMPLES: I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc. I lived in Brazil for two years. Shauna studied Japanese for five years. They sat at the beach all day. They did not stay at the party the entire time. We talked on the phone for thirty minutes. A: How long did you wait for them? B: We waited for one hour. The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc. EXAMPLES: I studied French when I was a child. He played the violin.

He didn't play the piano. Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? She worked at the movie theater after school. They never went to school, they always skipped class.

Interchange unit 3 "time for a change" Evaluations and comparisons *Evaluaions with adjetives -Apartaments aren't big enough for families. -Apartaments are oo small for pets. *Comparisons with adjetives -Houses aren't as convenient as apartaments. -Houses are just as convenient as apartaments. *Evaluations with nouns -Apartaments don't have enough parking spaces. -Houses cost too much money. *Comparisons with nouns -Apartaments have just as many romms as house. -Apartaments don't have as much privacity as houses.

Wishes about the present and future We use wish + past simple to express that we want asituation in the present (or future) to be different. I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.) I wish I had a big car. (I don't have a big car.) I wish I was on a beach. (I'm in the office.) Future: I wish it was the weekend tomorrow. (It's only Thursday tomorrow.) We use wish + past continuous to express that we want to be doing a different action in the present (or future). I wish I was lying on a beach now. (I'm sitting in the office.) I wish it wasn't raining. (It is raining.) I wish you weren't leaving tomorrow. (You are leaving tomorrow.) Wishes about the past We use wish + past perfect to express a regret, or that we want a situation in the past to be different. I wish I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot.) I wish they'd come on holiday with us. (They didn't come on holiday with us.)

I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.)

Interchange unit 5 "Going places" FUTURE WITH BE GOING TO The future tense with 'going to' is more commonly used in spoken language when you want to reference the immediate future, something is about to happen. *It's going to rain! Also used to talk about intentions or plans to do something. *I'm going to learn English. Use be going to + verb for plans you've decided on What are you going to do? -I'm going to relax at the beach. -We're going to go surfing every day. -I'm not going to do anything special. WILL One of the most common ways to talk about the future is with will, for example: I will call you tonight. We often call this the "future simple tense", but technically there are no future tenses in English. In this construction, the word will is a modal auxiliary verb. Here are the three main ways that we use will to talk about the future. No plan We use will when there is no prior plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision at the time of speaking. Look at these examples: Hold on. I'll get a pen. We will see what we can do to help you. Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight. In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision was made at the time of speaking. We often use will with the verb think: I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow. I think I'll have a holiday next year. I don't think I'll buy that car. Prediction We often use will to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples: It will rain tomorrow. People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. Who do you think will get the job? Be

The verb be is an exception with will. Even when we have a very firm plan, and we are not speaking spontaneously, we can use will with be. Look at these examples: I will be in London tomorrow. There will be 50 people at the party. The meeting will be at 9.30 am.


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