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YOUR ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT Volume 8 // 9.95â‚Ź

22 pages of exercises More than 1 hour of audio

ORISSA

The Soul of India

THE SECRETS OF

THE BIBLE

The Death of Universities

Christmas Movies from hell!

9 772255 567003

08

Interview with a Neo-Atheist


GENERAL CONTENTS

YES Volume 8

This page should help you to navigate the magazine in general. Notice that on pages 6, 23, 62, 87 and 111 there are more details for each section of the magazine.

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18

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How to Use Your English Supplement

6 7 10 14 16 18 20

Current Affairs Contents News and anecdotes Science News Internet News Technology: graphene Politics: Islam’s impending civil war Economics: atheism, religion and the dismal science

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Culture Contents Travel: Orissa – the Soul of India

THE RELIGION DOSSIER 28 Society: The Niqab Question 32 A Universal Mythology 34 Art & Religion 36 History: the Pilgrimage of Grace – England’s Catholic Revolution 38 Humour: signs outside churches 40 Poetry: The Windhover by Gerard Manley Hopkins 46 The Bible as Literature 49 Psychology: Can we be good without God? 52-53 Education: Moocs & the Death of Universities (as we know them) 54-57 Sports: Who Killed Freddie Mills? 58-61 Cinema: the Christmas Movie

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40

62 63 64 66

Grammar Contents Phonetics: ezh – the French sound Metaphorical phrasal verbs – work & economics Grammar Focus: 10 things you didn’t know about the negative

THE LANGUAGE OF RELIGION DOSSIER 68-84 The language of religion, pronunciation of religion, translation and the Bible, religious false friends, blasphemy and minced oaths, Biblical idioms

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64 Audio Download Code: Yes8_g14p_24 To download the audio files for this issue, please go to the 'Downloads' page on www.yes-mag.com for instructions. You will need the code given above to access the files.

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Subscription Information Picture Description

87 88

Audio Scripts Contents Audio Scripts

111 Exercises Contents 112 Exercises 134 135

Staff and contact addresses In next month’s issue

www.yes-mag.com // facebook.com/YesZine // @yeszine YES 8 | 3


demise2 of humanity. This is not just something that Hollywood scriptwriters3 think about. Such things worry computer-programming expert Jaan Tallinn, co-founder of Skype, Huw Price, professor4 of philosophy at Cambridge,

How to Use Your English Supplement

and Lo Colleg Study Par capaci dicted From telligen ‘the Si beings

SYMBOLS

Each page-long article in the magazine has been created to be used more or less independently so that you can learn and practise even if you only have five or ten minutes free. At the same time, the symbols below allow you to develop a theme you are interested in more extensively. Teachers can use these symbols to instantly prepare a class or classes around a common theme.

Exercise (at the end of the magazine). Test and consolidate what you have learned.

THE EN

Speaking extension. A question aimed at provoking a group discussion of the topic in question.

Photo by GabboT

to bring about (bring-broughtbrought) – cause 2 demise – end, decline 3 scriptwriter – sb. who writes the script (= text) of a movie 4 professor – (false friend) head 1

Downloadable audio file (see also audio scripts). There are recommendations on how best to use the audio files on p. 87.

This arrow directs you to other related articles in the magazine.

p. 40

6, 22

p. 6

of department at a university, senior academic 5 to set up (set-set-set) – create, establish 6 to arise (arise-arose-arisen) – emerge, occur

p.6

ABBREVIATIONS KEY Listening extension (Internet). Once you’ve learned the basic vocabulary of a topic, why not listen to further discussions? 4 | YES 8

These are the only abbreviations you have to know to use this magazine: sb. = somebody sth. = something swh. = somewhere [U] = uncountable noun [C] = countable noun

Some will be idea: f robots in our gent b octopu experi licate t ity can as dra simply obsole from v 1925, “ but a w

speed from t 9 naïve – 10 to tre 11 scena thetic

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phone antennas. There is little danger of the message being garbled5 – as it is in the game of Chinese whispers6 – because it is so simple: “danger predator”.

FOOTNOTES

The superscript numbers in the text refer to the footnotes at the bottom or at the side of the same page. The footnotes explain the difficult vocabulary as determined by our non-native proofreaders. Like you, these proofreaders are learners so they are able to identify the exact words you need to know to understand the sentence. Definitions are given in English, so that you learn to think in English and these definitions are then checked by the non-native proofreaders to ensure that you will understand them. Some words are defined by pictures: we use these visual stimuli when that is the best way to fix an idea in your memory. Read the definition or look at the illustration and then re-read the sentence in question. By working with English-language footnotes you will rapidly increase your vocabulary and learn how English words relate to each other, all of which will have a dramatic impact on your fluency and self-confidence1 . Some readers find it useful to put their finger next to the word in the article that they are looking for in the footnotes to make it easier to return to the text afterwards. Either way, it shouldn’t be difficult to find your place because the footnotes are numbered and the words are highlighted in bold. Notice that the syllables and words that should be stressed2 are underlined. Red footnotes give extra cultural (rather than linguistic) information, or they refer you to other articles.

PHONEMIC SYMBOLS Here are the phonemic symbols that we use which might cause you problems.

Consonants

Meanwhile9, a study from Anglia Rus sity has found that African elephants plan on cropland11 to coincide with the new m raids are more frequent and more substa the nights are darkest. This suggests that stand that darkness lowers the risk of bei farmers12. Or perhaps they know that hu less and more lightly13 when there is a fu

MY NAME IS FLI

Dolphins have a signature whistle14 whi identify themselves and to identify others hear a familiar whistle they will repeat it b acquaintance15, which they don’t do for whistle. Moreover, a study from the Unive cago has now found that dolphins remem signature whistles14 after more than 20 gesting they have the best memory in the Photo by Ikiwaner

NOT-SO-CARNIVOROUS CROCS7

Research from the US Fish and Wildlife Service in Charleston, South Carolina, has confirmed decades of anecdotal reports: over half the existing crocodilian species supplement their diet with fruit. It seems that at least 13 of the 23 species of crocodiles and alligators in the world today eat fruit as well as meat. warning (adj.) – alarm to bang – beat, hit to pick up – receive 4 to relay – resent 5 garbled – incoherent, meaningless 6 Chinese whispers (UK English) – broken telephone (US English) 7 croc – (colloquial) crocodile 8 full moon – when the complete disc of the moon is visible 1

(associated with werewolves) meanwhile – at the same time raid – surprise attack 11 cropland – arable farms 12 farmer – agriculturalist 13 more lightly – less deeply 14 signature whistle – high-frequency sound that identifies an individual 15 acquaintance – known individual, (in this case) friend

2

9

3

10

2

1

self-confidence – self-assurance (opposite of ‘self-doubt’, ‘hesitancy’) to stress sth. – emphasize, underline

2

/ʧ/ as in church, watch /ʃ/ as in wash, sure, action /ʤ/ as in judge, gesture /ʒ/ as in measure, vision /j/ as in yes /θ/ as in thick, path /ð/ as in this, breathe /ŋ/ as in sing

Pure Vowels

/æ/ as in cat /ʌ/ as in cut /ə/ as in occur, supply, aroma /ɜ:/ as in first, turn, earn /ɔ:/ as in court, warn

Dipthongs

/iə/ as in ear, here /eə/ as in air, there

YES 8 | 5


CURRENT AFFAIRS

This section of the magazine offers short news stories organized thematically:

7 News - stories from around the world. 8 Technology News - matters arising in the tech world. 9 Religious News - what’s happening in the world of religion. 10 Religious News - what’s happening in the world of religion. 11 Science: Archaeology - the latest news from prehistory 12 Science: animal behaviour - what scientists are saying about animal intelligence 13 Science: Health - are you looking after yourself? EXERCISE 2 14 15

Internet News: - Authors vs. Google Internet News: - is Google protecting your data? EXERCISE 9

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Technology: Graphene - should you be excited? EXERCISE 11

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Politics: Islam’s impending civil war - is a regional conflict avoidable? EXERCISE 29

20 21

Economics: Why atheism will replace religion - how flat-lining firms hurt the economy Economics: Why atheism won’t replace religion - your most important work decision Economics: the Atheist Mega Church - the secrets to job success EXERCISE 25

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6 | YES 8

SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION 7

Watch this report about Joe Thompson’s hypnosis: http://goo.gl/l2v9nh

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Speak: does the West have a special responsibility to protect Christian minorities around the world?

9

Watch this TED talk in which Alain de Botton talks about his new kind of atheism: http://goo.gl/yDVVE6

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Speak: Can science and religion be reconciled?

16

Watch this simple, fun introduction to graphene: http://goo.gl/pucLiF

Watch this video on the DUKW fire: http://goo.gl/7rHvCj


Technology

GRAPHENE: SHOULD YOU BE EXCITED?

G

raphene is being touted1 as the miracle material of the 21st Century. It combines everything we like in a material: it’s strong, it’s light, it’s transparent, it’s flexible and it conducts electricity amazingly2 well. Graphene’s strength is the stuff of legends3. Prof. James Hone at Columbia University has stated4 that “It would take an elephant, balanced on a pencil, to break through a sheet5 of graphene the thickness 6 of cling film7 ”. 8 Less dramatically, graphene is said to be 200 times stronger than steel9. The material is literally lighter than a feather10 (to use the standard English metaphor)

Graphene is a form of graphite – carbon atoms arranged26 in an ‘atomic chicken wire’27 lattice28.

Graphene fluoride seen from above to tout – promote amazingly – incredibly, fantastically 3 the stuff of legends – the type of thing that is included in legends 4 to state – declare, say, claim 5 sheet – lamina 6 thickness – depth, extent from top to bottom 7 cling film (UK English) – plastic wrap (US English), transparent plastic used to wrap food in the kitchen 1

2

16 | YES 8

Photo by Marina Carresi

and as flexible as rubber11. It is 100 times more conductive than copper12 and 1000 times more than silicon. Why make comparisons? It is quite simply the most electrically responsive substance ever discovered. Graphene could potentially make all our gadgets13 super-fast and extremely energy efficient.

A WEIRD14 AND WONDERFUL GODSEND15

Photo by Krapnik

in fact, the pencil would probably break or go through the elephant’s foot first! 9 steel – a hard ferrous alloy 10 feather – piece of plumage 11 rubber [U] – resistant elastic polymeric substance (used to make tyres24, for example) 12 copper [U] – (Cu) a metal, a chemical element 13 gadget – electronic device, domestic machine 14 weird – strange, bizarre 15 godsend – boon, very helpful 8

Solar panels

Graphene also does weird and wonderful things. It is a barrier to any gas but allows16 water molecules through. This, according to researchers at MIT17, means that it can be used to make seawater18 drinkable. Graphene could be used to manufacture hyper-efficient solar panels that produce energy that is cheaper than coal19. Graphene could even clean up after20 the fossil-fuel industries; graphene sponges can absorb 900 times their own weight in oil making them perfect for mopping up21 oil spills22. Graphene can be used to make tougher23 tyres24 and stronger lighter vehicles – increasing road safety and reducing fuel consumption. Graphene oxide is also effective against bacteria, meaning that, used in packaging25, it could keep food fresh longer. or valuable thing to allow – permit 17 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 18 seawater – marine water 19 coal – 20 to clean up after – eliminate the contamination produced by 21 to mop sth. up – eliminate sth. by absorbing it 22 oil spill – when petroleum 16

escapes into the sea tougher /ˈtʌfər/ – more resistant 24 tyre (UK English) – tire (US English) 25 packaging – the covering of food for sale 26 to arrange – order, organize 27 wire – type of metal string (like the metal inside a cable). ‘Chicken wire’ refers to wire formed into interconnected hexagons 28 lattice – grid, structure 23

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p. 6


CULTURE

This section of the magazine offers...

SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION 24

You can watch a promotional tourist video about Orissa at: http://goo.gl/p4FUUr

Watch this British TV debate about the wearing of the niqab: http://goo.gl/eas4on 28

24-27

Travel: Orissa – the Soul of India EXERCISE 23

THE RELIGION DOSSIER

28-31 Society: The Niqab Question EXERCISE 3 32-33 A Universal Mythology EXERCISE 4 34-35 Art & Religion 36-37 History: the Pilgrimage of Grace – England’s Catholic Revolution EXERCISE 5 38-39 Humour: signs outside churches EXERCISE 4 40-45 Poetry: The Windhover by Gerard Manley Hopkins EXERCISE 22 46-48 The Bible as Literature EXERCISE 4 49-51 Psychology: Can we be good without God? EXERCISE 4

Education: Moocs & the Death of Universities (as we know them) EXERCISE 28

54-57

Sports: Who Killed Freddie Mills? EXERCISE 30

58-61

Cinema: the Christmas Movie EXERCISES 16, 19

52-53

32

Speak: does it matter if large parts of the Bible are not historically accurate?

38

Speak: should organized religions make more use of humour?

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Speak: T.S. Eliot said, “Genuine poetry can communicate before it is understood.” What do you think he meant. Is that comment relevant to The Windhover?

Watch this simple presentation of what Moocs are: http://goo.gl/U0u7Iw 52

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Speak: does Hollywood impose the US Christmas on the world?

YES 8 | 23


Travel

Orissa The Soul of India Text and photos by Belén Gutiérrez

I

t was not the first time I travelled to India, but on this occasion I decided that I wanted to go off the beaten track1 and visit a little known corner of the Subcontinent. I ended up going to Orissa; a captivating state located on2 the west coast of the Bay of Bengal, also known as ‘the Soul3 of India’. How did I discover this state? The truth is my trip was inspired by a photograph of a woman wearing leather4 clothes and a handmade necklace 5, selling tomatoes in a local market. She looked like she came from my beloved Africa, so I instantly decided to go there.

Tribes, Trees & Temples The western hinterland6 of this marvellous state is a forested and hilly7 area full of diverse vibrant cultures, whose tribes preserve their ancient traditions. Not only does Orissa have a tribal area, but you can also find an unrivalled architectural heritage8, together with wonderful national parks and wildlife9 sanctuaries.

A Note on Names Orissa was the name of a state in eastern India until November 2011. The name comes from the Sanskrit term od̥ radeśa; od̥ ra is simply the name of the local people and deśa means country (so the structure of the name is identical to ‘Scotland’, ‘Finland’ or ‘Swaziland’). Anyway, two years ago Orissa officially changed its name to Odisha. While respecting the new name, we have used ‘Orissa’ in this article as it is still more commonly used in the tourist industry. off the beaten track – away from the usual tourist attractions 2 located on – situated on, on 3 soul – eternal spirit 4 leather – hide, the cured skin of animals 5 necklace – 6 hinterland – remote areas away from the coast 7 hilly – covered in small mountains, undulating 8 heritage – patrimony 9 wildlife – fauna and flora 1

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Society

The Niqab: a Test for the West There is an increasingly acrimonious1 debate in the Anglosphere about Islamic face-covering. Can the hostility be defused2?

What’s Not to Like First, it is important to establish why we in the West don’t like the niqab3. The main4 reason is that it is based on a sexist tenet5: women should be invisible in public. Their individuality, their personality, is a private thing exclusively for their families to enjoy. There is a second, less reasoned argument against the niqab and the burqa. Masking6 the face for centuries in the West has been associated with menace7. Teenage8

Photo by Steve Evans

boys are banned 9 from wearing hoodies10 in an ever-increasing number of private-public spaces in Britain (such as shopping centres). The face veil has even been compared to the Ku Klux Klan dressing up in11 sheets12. The head of a niqab-wearer13 looks exactly like that of a ninja or an assassin in the videogame Assassins. Indeed14, the niqab ticks all the boxes for15 the idea that Muslims are ‘the enemy within16’. 17 Frankly, face veils scare us.

Freedom & Integration

Niqab or ninja? acrimonious – bitter, rancorous to defuse – moderate, alleviate, reduce 3 niqab /niˈka:b/ – veil that covers hair, the nose and mouth but not the eyes 4 main – principal, primary 5 tenet – principle, belief 6 to mask – (in this case) cover 7 menace /ˈmenis/ – threat, danger 8 teenage – aged between 13 and 1

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Photo by Joey Gannon

19 years old to ban – prohibit 10 hoody – hooded sweatshirt/ jacket 11 to dress up in – wear 12 sheet – rectangle of textile used to cover a bed on which one sleeps 13 niqab-wearer – woman who

9

It is, rightly, a criminal offence18 in Britain to force someone to wear a face veil. 19 Calls20 to ban9 wearing the niqab or the burqa in public follow a very strange logic. As Dan Hodges of the Daily Telegraph put21 it, “We’re so alarmed that people are being prescriptive22 about what women can and can’t wear that we’ve decided to prescribe what women can and can’t wear”. dresses in a niqab3 indeed – (emphatic) in fact 15 to tick all the boxes for – satisfy all the apparent requirements for, apparently coincide perfectly with the definition of 16 within – inside (the country) 17 i.e. it dehumanizes the individual, makes her look threatening and creates a barrier between her and everyone else 14

to be a criminal offence – be illegal 19 for more on the legal side of wearing the niqab, re-read the text of the homophone exercise (ex. XX, p. XX) after doing the exercise. 20 call – (in this case) demand 21 to put (put-put-put) – (in this case) express 22 prescriptive – dictatorial, authoritarian, despotic 18

3


Sports

ABOVE Randolph Turpin, Jackie Turpin and Frank Algar his trainer

LEFT Jackie Paterson

Freddie Mills

The Death of Freddie Mills by Colman Keane

A Dangerous Sport Britain has over the years had more than its fair share of1 notable boxers but few have been as admired as Freddie Mills and Randolph Turpin. Both were household names2 in Britain in the late Forties and early Fifties, a golden era in which three of the eight world boxing titles were held by3 British boxers.4 By a curious quirk of fate 5 all three died tragically but even more bizarre were the more than one’s fair share of – a lot of, many 2 to be a household name – be famous 3 to be held by – be in the hands of, be in the possession of 4 The third of these boxers was Jackie Paterson, world flyweight champion (19431948). He was stabbed to death (= killed with a knife) 1

54 | YES 8

in South Africa in 1966 in a brawl (= fistfight). 5 quirk of fate – surprising coincidence, strange and unexpected event 6 within – in a period of less than 7 former – ex8 alleyway – alley, backstreet 9 to defeat – beat, be victorious over 10 redoubtable – formidable,

deaths of Mills and Turpin who died in suspicious circumstances within6 10 months of each other. In July 1965 Mills, former7 light-heavyweight champion of the world, was found shot dead in an alleyway8 off Charing Cross Road in London. The following May Randolph Turpin, the highly talented middle-weight boxer who had defeated9 the redoubtable10 Sugar Ray Robinson, was also found shot dead in a room above a back-street café in Leamington Spa. Although Turpin’s death was at the time shrouded in mystery11, today there is no doubt that the ‘Leamington Licker’ took his own life12 after shooting his daughter in the head. He had grown to hate13 his shabby14 , down-and-out café in Russell Street and by 1966 was having trouble15 keeping the wolf from the door16. There can be little doubt that a harassed17 Turpin committed suicide. The death of Freddie Mills on the other hand has never been satisfactorily explained and continues to fascinate, intrigue and puzzle18. daunting to be shrouded/cloaked in mystery – be mysterious and little understood 12 to take one’s own life (taketook-taken) – commit suicide 13 to grow to hate (grow-grewgrown) – gradually begin to detest 14 shabby – scruffy, dilapidated, insalubrious 11

trouble – difficulties to keep the wolf from the door (keep-kept-kept) – survive, avert destitution 17 harassed – troubled, strained, under stress 18 to puzzle – perplex, baffle, mystify 15

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Cinema

Christmas Conquers the World Rabat Santa Some years ago we spent Christmas on holiday in Morocco. One of the strangest sights1 I saw was a guy2 dressed up as3 Santa Claus in front of a department store in Rabat. Here was an icon based on a fictional saint – whose clothing had been turned4 red by a US soft-drinks company5 – who was the primary focus of a secularized version of someone else’s central religious holiday. No wonder6 the Rabat shoppers seemed to view this forlorn7 figure8 with mild9 disdain.

Do They Know It’s Christmas? Every species of frog10 in the world has a distinctive chirp11 that defines its location quite specifically. Frogs in Hollywood movies all croak12 like a species of frog that can be pinpointed13 to southern California. They never sound like the frogs near you if you don’t live there. This, for me, is an illustration of the problem of Hollywood: it makes the local universal. In culturally Christian countries we all have our local traditions of Christmas. In non-Christian countries Xmas14 is simply a bizarre foreign 15 rite promoted by international advertising16 agencies. The US Yuletide17 is the result of British and Dutch traditions being transformed by a peculiarly American experience. Santa Claus (and occasionally the sight – view, sth. seen guy – (colloquial) man 3 to be dressed up as – be wearing the clothes/uniform of 4 to turn – (in this case) change to 5 Coca-Cola 6 no wonder – I’m not surprised that 7 forlorn – sad, unhappy, melancholy 8 figure – (in this case) individual

mild – a little frog – 11 chirp – sound, croak 12 to croak – (of frogs) make a sound 13 to pinpoint sth. – identify the exact location (= position) of sth. 14 Xmas – (US English) Christmas 15 foreign – from abroad, from

1

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2

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Nativity) are joined by Dickensian characters (especially Scrooge), Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer18, the Grinch, Jack Frost19 and, on the peripheries, Gremlins and Hobbits. It reminds me of the cover of the (UK-based) 1984 Live Aid single “Do they know it’s Christmas?” in which two starving20 Ethiopian children look on bemused21 in the centre of a pop-art-like accumulation of Victorian Christmas memorabilia22 . This was obviously insufficiently bizarre because a 2004 version of the same song had a cover with a single starving Ethiopian child trapped23 in a winter landscape between a herd24 of plastic reindeer18 and nine hungry-looking polar bears – the word ‘bizarre’ simply does not do the image justice! Why would they want to know it’s Christmas? Noel – at least in its secular version – makes no sense in West Africa (even for Ethiopian Christians). This is blatant25 cultural imperialism but secular Christmas is ‘so good’ that we don’t even notice. overseas advertising – publicity 17 Yuletide – Christmas 18 reindeer – 16

a personification of winter and cold weather 20 starving – famished, hungry 21 bemused – confused, perplexed 22 memorabilia – souvenirs from the past 23 to be trapped – be unable to escape 24 herd – group 25 blatant – evident, flagrant

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GRAMMAR

This section of the magazine offers...

AUDIO SCRIPTS EXTENSION Track 1

Conversation point: Should drunk tanks be introduced in your country?

Track 2

Conversation point: Should organ donors have priority on organ waiting lists? Would you support an opt-out system?

63

Phonetics: ezh – the French sound EXERCISE 13

64

Metaphorical phrasal verbs: work and economics EXERCISE 26

Track 3

Conversation point: What would be your ideal law as regards smoking in public?

Grammar in Focus: 10 things you didn’t know about the negative EXERCISE 27

Track 9

Conversation point: Do you agree that women have been the primary victims of religion?

66

THE LANGUAGE OF RELIGION DOSSIER 68 70 72 74 78 80

English in Context: the language of religion EXERCISE 4 Pronunciation: Euphony in religious language EXERCISE 12 Translation: mistranslating the Bible EXERCISE 24 False friends: Biblical false friends EXERCISE 17 Words: blasphemy and minced oaths Idioms: Biblical expressions EXERCISE 32

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Subscription Information Picture Description

62 | YES 8

Tracks 11-14 Conversation point: Do you have any regrets?


False Friends

Religious False Friends People Religion is a delicate subject1 at the best of times2, so you should be aware of3 the pitfalls4.

Members of the Church >>  primate =  a simian5 or a prosimian6. =  a senior bishop7. -  The archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of All England. >>  cardinal (notice the spelling) (n.) = member of the Sacred College of the Roman Catholic Church (n.) ≠ bruise8 -  She had a bruise on her leg where she had knocked into9 the table. >>  deacon =  (in the Episcopal Churches) minister of the third order (below bishop7 and priest10); =  (in Nonconformist Churches) lay11 officer attending to12 a congregation’s secular affairs13 ≠  (university) dean (see below) >>  dean =  head of the chapter14 of a cathedral/collegiate church; a senior subject (n.) – theme at the best of times – even in optimal circumstances 3 to be aware of – be conscious of 4 pitfall – mistake that is easy to commit, common error 5 simian – monkey, ape or hominid 6 prosimian – lemur and similar mammals 7 bishop – leader of a diocese 8 bruise – contusion, dark mark on 1

2

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church official in the Anglican or Roman Catholic Church who is responsible for a large15 church or a cathedral. =  supervisor of a group of churchmen (and churchwomen) =  head of a university faculty with disciplinary functions -  He threw a chair through a window on campus and was sent to see the dean.

Primate

>>  vicar16 = Anglican parish17 priest10 ≠ substitute for a bishop7 >>  curate16 = parish17 priest’s assistant18 ≠ parish17 priest10, vicar >>  pastor16 /ˈpa:stə/ =  any ordained minister in charge of a church or congregation (not only a protestant minister – in US Catholicism a pastor is a parish priest.) ≠ shepherd19 your skin 9 to knock into – collide with 10 priest – professional member of the Christian church who administers the sacrament 11 lay (adj.) – non-ecclesiastical 12 to attend to – take responsibility for

Primates

Photo by Visionholder

affairs – business, matters chapter – (in this context) the canons of a cathedral 15 large – (false friend) big 16 this can be a man or woman in the Anglican and Protestant Churches 17 parish (adj.) – referring to the area served by a local church 18 assistant – (false friend) helper 19 shepherd – sb. who cares for sheep 13

14

17


Idioms

The King James Bible N

o book has provided English with more idioms1 than the King James Bible of 1611 (a.k.a.2 The Authorized Version). It is deeply ironic that the monarch who commissioned the translation of the Bible used by millions of English-speaking Christians was James. Although he was formally married to Anne of Denmark, the king described his relationship with George Villiers as a ‘marriage’ and said he would be a ‘widow’3 if he had to live without his favourite. In case there is any ambiguity he also referred to himself as George’s ‘husband’ and to George as his ‘wife’. At the same time, James was no liberal: he passed draconian laws against homosexuality, which was clearly unacceptable... for others!

The Pentateuch The first five books of the Bible are known as the Pentateuch. >>  I am not my brother’s keeper (Genesis 4:9) =  I am not responsible for what someone else does. >>  to live off/eat the fat4 of the land (Genesis 45:18) =  enjoy the best of everything.

>>  an eye for an eye (Exodus 21:24) =  retaliation, vengeance. >>  land of milk and honey6 (Exodus 3:8) =  paradise, place of abundance. >>  manna from heaven (Exodus 16:15) =  unexpected help or a surprise gift7. This is a mistranslation because man-hu means “What is it?” idiom – (false friend) fixed expression, locution 2 a.k.a. – also known as 3 widow – woman whose husband has died

80 | YES 8

Photo by Marina Carresi

>>  a stumbling-block8 (Leviticus 19:14) =  an obstacle: -  The status of Jerusalem is a stumbling-block in the negotiations. >>  to be the apple of his eye (Deuteronomy 32:10) =  to be the object of sb’s love and pride: -  His granddaughter is the apple of his eye.

The Histories The next nine books have contributed comparatively little:

>>  God forbid5 (Genesis 44:17) =  I certainly hope not.

1

She is the apple of her eyes.

fat – greasy material found under the skin of animals 5 to forbid (-bid/-bade/-bidden) – prohibit 6 honey – a sugary golden

4

>>  a man/woman after my own heart (1 Samuel 13:14) =  a person with similar tastes and attitudes to you: -  You drink tea too? You’re a man after my own heart. >>  far be it from me to... (2 Samuel 20:20) =  I certainly would not want to... The expression was in fact first used in Wycliffe’s translation (1382) of Genesis 44:17: -  Far be it from me to criticize the way you dress but do you really think that tie9 goes with that shirt? substance produced by bees 7 gift – present, sth. given 8 stumbling-block

– (literally) sth. that causes one to fall down 9 (neck)tie –

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AUDIO SCRIPTS

The following pages contain the transcriptions of what is spoken on the audio files.

SPOKEN-ENGLISH TIPS

YES NO. 8 TRACK LIST

Spoken English is significantly different from the written language: A more limited vocabulary is generally used and it is, by definition, more colloquial. Moreover1, spoken English uses many more incomplete or badly constructed sentences. On the other hand, intonation and stress can be used in speech.

HOW TO USE THE AUDIO SCRIPTS

Follow our eight-step process to get the most out of the audio scripts:

1

2

3 4 5 6 7 8

Before you listen we recommend that you read through the relevant section of the footnotes2 (not the text itself). This should give you some idea of the subject3 and help you to understand the more difficult vocabulary as you listen. When you listen the first time, don’t expect to understand everything; listening practice should not be a painful4 process. Simply see how much meaning you can extract from the recording.

Mini-debates (21m46s) 1. Drunk Tanks (7m35s) 2. Organs: Give & Take (7m59s) 3. Smoking in Prison (6m13s) 4. Phonetics: Ezh (3m38s) Interview with James McDonald (27m36s) 5. Part 1: Militant Atheism? (4m58s) 6. Part 2: A Conspiracy of Silence (4m41s) 7. Part 3: The Baby & the Bathwater (6m06s) 8. Part 4: Religion vs. Rationalism (3m07s) 9. Part 5: Women & the Church (6m20s) 10. Part 6: The Future (2m25s) Monologues: My Regrets (13m37s) 11. Monologue 1 [UK English] (4m06s) 12. Monologue 2 [UK English] (2m30s) 13. Monologue 3 [US English] (2m51s) 14. Monologue 4 [Irish English] (4m10s)

Listen more times going back to the footnotes to integrate the information you have. Once you understand reasonably well, do the relevant exercise.

Dialogue Improvisations (14m26s) 15. Delivery Problems (5m18s) 16. A Tarot Reading (9m09s)

Finally, read the audio scripts as you listen again. 17. The Windhover by Gerard Manley Hopkins (1m13s) Stop each time you get lost or encounter a structure that interests or confuses you.

18. Picture Description (4m09s)

Repeat words or phrases whose pronunciation surprises you.

Two or three days later, listen to the text again without reading to see if your understanding has improved5.

This process is intense and time-consuming. However, it will eventually6 solve the problem most learners have of relating7 the spoken word to the written. Once you’ve done that, the rest is easy!

Total time: 1h26m27s

moreover – what’s more, furthermore footnotes – notes at the bottom of the page (in this box) 3 subject (n.) – (in this context) theme 4 painful – (in this context) arduous, unpleasant 5 to improve – get better 6 eventually – (false friend) in the end 7 to relate – associate, connect, link 1

2

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AUDIO SCRIPTS

Mini-debates  1. Drunk Tanks1 (7m35s)

Englishman (EM): OK, so what do you lot2 think about this British idea about having what have been called ‘tunk dranks’ although you only say it like that when you’re drunk: ‘drunk tanks’. Irishman (IM): I think it’s a really good idea. American man (AM): Just 3 so I get this straight4, the idea of these drunk tanks is to have a private company deal with 5 drunk-and-disorderly people, right, rather than6 the police? EM: Yeah, this is my… this would be my potential sticking point7. Englishwoman (EW): For three hundred to four hundred pounds to get out? Is that what I understand? EM: Yeah. Well, not to get out but you’re charged8. They’re billed9. EW: Well, when they get out they have to pay the bill for the night. EM: When you’re sober you’re billed. EW: Which apparently is about the price of a night in a police cell10. That’s what I read. EM: And you get charged8 that for drunk tank – prison cell10/jail for sb. who is drunk 2 you lot (UK English) – you all (US English), you (plural) 3 just – (in this case) simply 4 so I get this straight – so I understand this correctly 5 to deal with (deal-dealt-dealt) – tackle, handle, process, (in this case) detain 6 rather than – as opposed to/instead of (... doing it) 1

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being, for spending the night in a police cell10? EW: Well, no, but somebody has to pay that. Well, it’s what I read. AM: Taxpayers, we would be paying that, I imagine. EW: But does it cost that to stay in

sticking point – obstacle, problem 8 to be/get charged – (in this case) have to pay 9 to be billed – be charged, have to pay 10 cell – 11 I mean – (pause filler) y’know, like, sort of, kind of 12 level – (in this case) class, category

7

(21m46s) the drunk tank? EM: I think is going to, yes. I mean11, the other suggestion I was reading was if they’re going to be doing this, then they ought to do it with different levels12. So you could have the thing where you’re just3 chucked13 onto a cold, concrete14 floor, but you also have the possibility of a nice bed with clean sheets15 and tea and toast in the morning. AM: People pay that, yeah. EM: For six hundred. EW: But then you could pay… you could actually16 go to a hotel and get that. EM: Yeah. EW: Of course you wouldn’t be in a... IM: Yeah, you won’t be able to choose. EM: I mean11, it’s very complicated because you’ve got the question of how… what are these people going to breathalyse17 you to decide if you’re drunk? AM: I imagine, I think the idea is the police, the police I think there’s a similar… they do something similar in the States. The police determine whether18 or not the person is drunk enough to be fined19 and they take them to these centers, I don’t know how they call them… EW: ‘Welfare centers’! AM: Yeah! And they leave them there to chuck – throw, hurl concrete – hard building material made of gravel and cement 15 sheet – rectangle of textile on which you sleep on a bed 16 actually – (false friend) in fact 17 to breathalyse – test how much alcohol sb. has consumed 18 whether – ‘if’ (but ‘if’ cannot be used before ‘or’) 19 to fine – penalize financially 13

14

8

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AUDIO SCRIPTS

Monologues: My Regrets (13m37s)

Listen to these people talking about things they regret287.

11. Monologue 1 [UK English] (4m06s)

I had the chance 288 to study drama289 as a minor290 at the university, my major291 was History. I could’ve done the course and I went along to some of the preliminary classes but I was very unconfident292 and I thought everybody was better than me and far293 too

to regret – feel remorseful about, feel repentant about, repent 288 chance – (in this case) opportunity 289 drama – theatre 290 minor – (in this case) subsidiary course at university 291 major – (in this case) primary course at university 287

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drama... dramatic and they were rather155 full of themselves294 and so I decided not to continue. And when I’ve thought about it over the years, I sometimes I wish I had continued and I regret287 not doing drama as a minor290. But then I think if I had done drama I wouldn’t have

unconfident – insecure far – (in this case) much 294 to be full of oneself – be overconfident, be self-important 295 self-confidence – belief in oneself 296 to think back on (think-thought-thought) – consider, contemplate 297 I do regret – (emphatic) I regret 292 293

studied landscape archaeology which is something I was also really interested in. But really I think I should've done the drama minor. But maybe what I really regret287 is not having more self-confidence 295 at that time, but that’s not really something you can change easily. And after I left university I went for an interview in York with The Royal Commission for Building Conservation and I was second choice for the job, but I didn’t get the job and I’m sorry, I’m really sorry that I didn’t continue looking for work in that area. And thinking back on296 it now, I do regret297 not pursuing a career298 or finding a job more related to my interest in history. Of course, now I also realize299 that whatever decisions I made years ago and may have regrets300 about now, there’s no guarantee that I would be happier or more satisfied or richer or whatever now. The job in York might have been awful301 and I could be sitting here today talking about how I wish I hadn’t taken the job. And anyway I’ve been able to do a lot of drama since then, so maybe I wouldn’t have done that. So I think about all the things I have done that I might not have done if I’d made different decisions earlier in life. I suppose regret302

to pursue a career – try to have a professional trajectory 299 to realize – (false friend) be conscious 300 regrets – remorse, repentance, penitence 301 awful – horrible, terrible 302 regret [U] – remorse, repentance, self-accusation 298

21

62


EXERCISES PAGE

EXERCISE

112

1. Illustrations round-up: see if you can identify most of the objects and actions illustrated in the footnotes of this issue.

113

2. Title Tag: can you match these alternative titles to the news and science articles on pp. 7-13? 3. Cloze: answer the questions about the article on niqab-wearers (pp. 28-31).

PAGE

EXERCISE

123

17. False Friends: test how well you have understood pp. 74-77. Then, see if you remember the false friends marked in the footnotes throughout the magazine. 18. Improvisations: an open-question listening comprehension on audio tracks 15-16.

124

114

4. Word Search: find words relating to religion (pp. 10, 34-35, 38-39, 68-69, 95-101).

115

5. Prepositions: replace the prepositions in this text about the Pilgrimage of Grace (pp. 36-37).

116

6. Crossword for general vocabulary revision.

117

7. Sentence transformation for general syntax revision of structures in this issue.

8. Debates: listening comprehension for audio tracks 1-3 (pp. 88-94).

127

125

126

118

119

120

121

122

9. Too many words: find the unnecessary words in this extract from the Internet article on p. 15. 10. US vs. UK: fill the gaps in the chart. This relates to the whole magazine. 11. Technology: answer the question about graphene ((pp. 16-17).

12. Test if you’ve learned the expressions from pp. 70-71. Then, review the difficult words to pronounce from the footnotes. 13. Phonetics: can you distinguish the words pronounced with ezh?

14. Word game: test your vocabulary and understanding of English morphology. 15. Phrasal Verbs: how many new phrasal verbs have you learned this month? This exercise tests for the phrasal verbs in the footnotes. 16. Cinema: a quiz relating to Christmas movie titles (pp. 58-61).

128

19. Homophones: replace the homophones so that this text about Santa Claus and Jesus Christ makes sense. 20. Internet Listening: test your listening comprehension of this fascinating talk about the nature of God. 21. Monologues: a true-false listening comprehension on audio tracks 11-14. 22. Poetry: use the figures of sound to complete the sonnet from pp. 40-45. 23. Travel: fill in the names on this map of the Bay of Bengal (pp. 24-27). 24. Translation: correct this real example of mistranslations of the Bible (pp. 72-73). 25. Economics: test your knowledge of terms from the economics articles (pp. 20-22). 26. Metaphorical phrasal verbs: have you learned the verbs from pp. 64-65? 27. Grammar Focus: find out how much you’ve learned about the negative from pp. 66-67. 28. Wordplay: another word game relating to the Education article on pp. 52-53. 29. Politics: a reading comprehension relating to the article on pp. 18-19. 30. Sports: complete these sentences with expressions from the article on pp. 54-57.

129

31. Listening comprehension relating to the interview with James McDonald (audio tracks 95-101).

130

32. idioms: fill the gaps in this exercise relating to pp. 80-84.

131-133 ANSWERS

YES 8 | 111


2. Title Tag. Read the News (pp. 7-9) and Science News (p. 10-13) articles. Then try to match the alternative titles given below to the originals, without looking at the magazine. This can be one or two exercises: i. 1. Fear of Flying 2. A Bit Too Realistic 3. Gays Stick It Out 4. Tech Stats 5. FB’s Attitude to Nudity & Violence 6. Racist Dogs at LAPD 7. A Noah From Arizona 8. Mass For Atheists 9. Christ: Not Guilty

a. California’s Canine Bigots b. Better Headless than Topless? c. Retrial for Redeemer d. Oceanic Leap of Faith e. Godless Get-together f. Fright or Flight? g. Data on Homo digitalis h. Same-sex Staying Power i. DUKW and Dive

ii. 1. A Roadmap To Heaven 2. Waiting for Gödel 3. Fig Leaves 4. Stone-Age Jamie Olivers 5. The Dawn of Civilization 6. Flipper vs. Daffy 7. Dumbo? He Went That Way 8. Do Gyms Slim? 9. Supermarket Food 10. Tattoo Taboo

a. Pachyderms Get the Point b. Fred Flintstone Liked His Nosh Hot c. Work Out, Then Pig Out d. Monuments Came Before Silos e. Skin Pics Make You Sick f. Finding the Almighty in Algebra g. Globetrotting Groceries h. Birdbrains as Smart as Dolphin Boffins i. The Worst Sort of Underwear j. The Next World Is Defined In This One

3. Cloze. The following text comes from the article about Niqabs on pp. 28-31. Choose the best alternative to fill the gaps: Rosie Kinchen spent two days in a niqab in London to see what it was like for an article in The Sunday Times. In a city in which a punk can have his or her hair in 30cm green spikes and a face pierced like a 1____________ cushion without earning a second 2___________ from anyone, Kinchen found that all eyes were 3_________ her. Regularly, she was insulted (mostly by men). Open ridicule was also 4_____________. Most of the tens of thousands of women who wear the niqab in Britain today are not women from Muslim countries (most Muslims 5_________ the face veil) but young British converts. Young male converts grow big 6_________ if they can, but this isolates them much less from the rest of 7________. In fact, when the niqab is worn by young women in Britain from Muslim families, they are often the first women in the family ever to wear a face veil. In a strange way, the face veil is the equivalent of the radical punk look of the late 1970s – it is two 8________ to modern western secularism. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a.

whoopee look at frequently unlike whiskers Islam rejections

b. b. b. b. b. b. b. b.

needle glare over common disapprove beards Christianity thumbs

c. c. c. c. c. c. c. c.

pin gaze towards happening reject barbs people fingers

d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d.

scatter turn upon received renege hair society toes YES 8 | 113


STAFF Anglo Files, S.L. (publisher) Nicholas Franklin (editor) nick@yes-mag.com Marina Carresi (artistic director and photography, proofreading) marina@yes-mag.com Nathan Burkiewicz (sub-editor, page-design, webmaster) nathan@yes-mag.com Fabiola Vieyra (promotion) Josh Tampico (sound engineer) Gonzalo Cohen (legal)

WRITERS, VOICES, INVALUABLE SUPPORT & HELPING HANDS Douglas Jasch, Prof. Raoul Franklin, Colman Keane, Almudena Cáceres, Susannah Jones, Robbie K. Jones, Jim Trainor, Hamish Binns, Lois Humphrey, Julie Davies, Irene Tremblay, Dave Mooney, Howard Brown, Bea Alzona, Saskia Eijkins.

PHOTOGRAPHY Cover photos: ‘Painting of couple’ by Aromashin; ‘Orissa’ by Belén Gutiérrez; ‘Interview’ by Marina Carresi. Belén Gutiérrez, Mech Mullins, Sara Sanz, Deaglan O’Maolchatha, Alex, David Osado

134 | YES 8

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Published by Anglo Files S.L. C/ Bronce 27, 11-B, Madrid 28045 Depósito legal: M-9788-2013 // ISSN: 2255-5676 PVP: 9,95€ VAT included/incluido IVA // Printed in Spain All rights reserved. Neither all nor part of this magazine can be reproduced, recorded in or transmitted by any information-recovery system by any means, be it mechanical, photochemical, magnetic, electronic, photocopies or any other method or used for commercial purposes without prior written permission from the publisher and in accordance with the Intellectual Property Law. Any violation of these terms and conditions will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.


In the Next Volume of Your English Supplement

Feature

THE IRE OF GAIA Sinkholes, mudslides, volcanoes and tsunamis

Photo by Andreas Gehret

Photo by Belén Gutiérrez

Food Urban myths about health and food

Language Can you speak Jamie? - Learning English with the world's most famous chef

Travel Psychology Love - A User's Guide

Thailand - The Secrets of Siam

Society Driven to Drink Alcohol: the world’s favourite drug

Plus much more on economics, internet, science, news, language etc. Photo by Andre Bortoli



Yes - Your English Supplement: Volume 8