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GENERAL CONTENTS

This page should help you to navigate the magazine in general. Notice that on pages 7, 69, 87 and 111 there are more details for each section of the magazine.

YES Volume 13

4

How to Use Your English Supplement

6

Internet: Getting the most out of Gmail

7 THE SHAKESPEARE DOSSIER CONTENTS 8 10 11 12 14 21 23 30 46 62

Science: a scientist called Shakespeare Language News Economics: the economics of Shakespeare Why Shakespeare? An exceptional genius or just brilliant marketing? Travel: looking for Shakespeare in Stratford, London and Italy Biography: Shakespeare – the mystery History Plays Comedies Tragedies Romances

69 THE LANGUAGE OF SHAKESPEARE CONTENTS 70 71 74 82 84

The Shakespeare Special Audio Download Code: To download the audio files for this issue, please go to the 'Downloads' page on www.yes-mag.com for instructions. You will need the code given above to access the files.

The Grammar of Shakespeare Shakespearean False Friends Idioms from Shakespeare The YES community Words: Shakespeare – wordsmith

85 86

Subscription Information Picture Description

87 88

Audio Scripts Contents Audio Scripts

111 Exercises Contents 112 Exercises 134 135

Staff and contact addresses In next month’s issue

www.yes-mag.com // facebook.com/YesZine // @yeszine YES 13 | 3


demise2 of humanity. This is not just something that Hollywood scriptwriters3 think about. Such things worry computer-programming expert Jaan Tallinn, co-founder of Skype, Huw Price, professor4 of philosophy at Cambridge,

How to Use Your English Supplement

and Lo Colleg Study Par capaci dicted From telligen ‘the Si beings

SYMBOLS

Each page-long article in the magazine has been created to be used more or less independently so that you can learn and practise even if you only have five or ten minutes free. At the same time, the symbols below allow you to develop a theme you are interested in more extensively. Teachers can use these symbols to instantly prepare a class or classes around a common theme.

Exercise (at the end of the magazine). Test and consolidate what you have learned.

THE EN

Speaking extension. A question aimed at provoking a group discussion of the topic in question.

Photo by GabboT

to bring about (bring-broughtbrought) – cause 2 demise – end, decline 3 scriptwriter – sb. who writes the script (= text) of a movie 4 professor – (false friend) head 1

Downloadable audio file (see also audio scripts). There are recommendations on how best to use the audio files on p. 87.

This arrow directs you to other related articles in the magazine.

p. 40

6, 22

p. 6

of department at a university, senior academic 5 to set up (set-set-set) – create, establish 6 to arise (arise-arose-arisen) – emerge, occur

p.6

ABBREVIATIONS KEY Listening extension (Internet). Once you’ve learned the basic vocabulary of a topic, why not listen to further discussions? 4 | YES 13

These are the only abbreviations you have to know to use this magazine: sb. = somebody sth. = something swh. = somewhere [U] = uncountable noun [C] = countable noun

Some will be idea: f robots in our gent b octopu experi licate t ity can as dra simply obsole from v 1925, “ but a w

speed from t 9 naïve – 10 to tre 11 scena thetic

7

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phone antennas. There is little danger of the message being garbled5 – as it is in the game of Chinese whispers6 – because it is so simple: “danger predator”.

FOOTNOTES

The superscript numbers in the text refer to the footnotes at the bottom or at the side of the same page. The footnotes explain the difficult vocabulary as determined by our non-native proofreaders. Like you, these proofreaders are learners so they are able to identify the exact words you need to know to understand the sentence. Definitions are given in English, so that you learn to think in English and these definitions are then checked by the non-native proofreaders to ensure that you will understand them. Some words are defined by pictures: we use these visual stimuli when that is the best way to fix an idea in your memory. Read the definition or look at the illustration and then re-read the sentence in question. By working with English-language footnotes you will rapidly increase your vocabulary and learn how English words relate to each other, all of which will have a dramatic impact on your fluency and self-confidence1 . Some readers find it useful to put their finger next to the word in the article that they are looking for in the footnotes to make it easier to return to the text afterwards. Either way, it shouldn’t be difficult to find your place because the footnotes are numbered and the words are highlighted in bold. Notice that the syllables and words that should be stressed2 are underlined. Red footnotes give extra cultural (rather than linguistic) information, or they refer you to other articles.

PHONEMIC SYMBOLS Here are the phonemic symbols that we use which might cause you problems.

Consonants

Meanwhile9, a study from Anglia Rus sity has found that African elephants plan on cropland11 to coincide with the new m raids are more frequent and more substa the nights are darkest. This suggests that stand that darkness lowers the risk of bei farmers12. Or perhaps they know that hu less and more lightly13 when there is a fu

MY NAME IS FLI

Dolphins have a signature whistle14 whi identify themselves and to identify others hear a familiar whistle they will repeat it b acquaintance15, which they don’t do for whistle. Moreover, a study from the Unive cago has now found that dolphins remem signature whistles14 after more than 20 gesting they have the best memory in the Photo by Ikiwaner

NOT-SO-CARNIVOROUS CROCS7

Research from the US Fish and Wildlife Service in Charleston, South Carolina, has confirmed decades of anecdotal reports: over half the existing crocodilian species supplement their diet with fruit. It seems that at least 13 of the 23 species of crocodiles and alligators in the world today eat fruit as well as meat. warning (adj.) – alarm to bang – beat, hit to pick up – receive 4 to relay – resent 5 garbled – incoherent, meaningless 6 Chinese whispers (UK English) – broken telephone (US English) 7 croc – (colloquial) crocodile 8 full moon – when the complete disc of the moon is visible 1

(associated with werewolves) meanwhile – at the same time raid – surprise attack 11 cropland – arable farms 12 farmer – agriculturalist 13 more lightly – less deeply 14 signature whistle – high-frequency sound that identifies an individual 15 acquaintance – known individual, (in this case) friend

2

9

3

10

2

1

self-confidence – self-assurance (opposite of ‘self-doubt’, ‘hesitancy’) to stress sth. – emphasize, underline

2

/ʧ/ as in church, watch /ʃ/ as in wash, sure, action /ʤ/ as in judge, gesture /ʒ/ as in measure, vision /j/ as in yes /θ/ as in thick, path /ð/ as in this, breathe /ŋ/ as in sing

Pure Vowels

/æ/ as in cat /ʌ/ as in cut /ə/ as in occur, supply, aroma /ɜ:/ as in first, turn, earn /ɔ:/ as in court, warn

Dipthongs

/iə/ as in ear, here /eə/ as in air, there

YES 13 | 5


THE SHAKESPEARE DOSSIER: CONTENTS The Shakespeare Dossier 8-9 10 11

Shakespeare: the Scientist Language News: Shakespeare’s box of tricks The Economics of Shakespeare Exercise 3

12

Why Shakespeare? Is Shakespeare just a product of brilliant marketing? Why Shakespeare? The genius of Shakespeare Travel: looking for Shakespeare – introduction Travel: looking for Shakespeare – Stratford Travel: looking for Shakespeare – London Travel: looking for Shakespeare – Italy Travel: looking for Shakespeare – Venice Travel: looking for Shakespeare – Sabbioneta and Vulcano Exercise 3

21 22

Biography: the Shakespeare mystery The Authorship Debate

13 14 15-16 17 18 19 20

50-52 Hamlet: unreasonable fathers Exercise 22 53-55 Othello: jealous mind 56-58 King Lear: the humanizing of a tyrant 59-61 Macbeth: what price ambition? 62 Romance: introduction – family values 63-65 The Winter’s Tale: love that kills 66-68 The Tempest: virtual reality

SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION 22 52

Watch: Prof. Peter Saccio explains why the authorship debate is ‘crazy’: http://goo.gl/cHwcCN Watch: Dr. Keir Cutler defends the authorship debate: http://goo.gl/eax3jk Watch: Fry and Laurie explain how Hamlet was edited http://goo.gl/6dl4w8 Watch: for humorous trivia about all things Shakespeare, watch this special episode of QI: http://goo.gl/suTfwl

History Plays: introduction – strength through unity 24-26 Richard III: the fascination of evil Exercise 26 23

27-29 30 31-33 34-36

Henry V: political manipulator Comedies: introduction – social cohesion A Midsummer Night’s Dream: love and cynicism The Merchant of Venice: capitalism and antisemitism Exercise 21

37-39 Much Ado About Nothing: love and honour 40-42 As You Like It: variety in human love 43-45 Twelfth Night: exploring sexuality 46 Tragedy: introduction – godless plays 47-49 Romeo and Juliet: statutory rape YES 13 | 7


Science news | PSYCHOLOGY

SHAKESPEARE THE SCIENTIST

Shakespeare is often presented as the hero of humanities, much as Einstein might be the big name in science. But our division of human knowledge into science and humanities – divided by a chasm1 – is a product of modern education systems. Everyone knows that Leonardo da Vinci was a painter and a practical inventor. Similarly, the Metaphysical Poets of 17th-century England were intensely interested in science as were most of the Romantic Poets – indeed2, the marriage of science and Romantic imagination generated Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Meanwhile3, Humphrey Davy, one of the fathers of chemistry, was also an enthusiastic poet. So, it should come as no surprise that Shakespeare’s plays demonstrate an enthusiasm for science that is often overlooked4.

THE FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY

Shakespeare had an undeniable 5 influence on the development of psychology. The father of neurology, Jean-Martin Charcot, openly used Shakespeare’s work to illustrate his theories of neurosis and psychology. Sigmund Freud, who was deeply influenced by both Charcot and Shakespeare, took these ideas further to develop6 psychoanalysis. Indeed2, Harold Bloom of Yale University argues that Freud’s map of the mind is actually7 Shakespeare’s. Shakespeare was a brilliant observer of personality traits8. Leontes in The Winter’s Tale is a textbook case of morbid jealousy, except that the character was created before any psychological textbook. Shakespeare describes obsessive-compulsive disorder in Lady Macbeth and psychiatric breakdown9 in her insomniac husband. King Lear can be diagnosed as suffering from dementia with Lewy bodies10 – his symptoms include Cotard’s syndrome11 and Parkinson’s disease. Falstaff suffers from sleep apnea – the probable result of obesity and alcoholism. Hamlet has bipolar disorder. Coriolanus may be on the autism spectrum. Of course, all the personality traits8 that Shakespeare illustrates existed before he wrote but nobody

chasm /ˈkæzəm/ – abyss, gulf, profound division 2 indeed – (emphatic) in fact 3 meanwhile – at the same time, simultaneously 4 to overlook – not noticed 5 undeniable – irrefutable, 1

8 | YES 13

incontrovertible to develop – generate, create 7 actually – (false friend) in fact 8 trait – aspect, idiosyncrasy 9 breakdown – collapse 10 Lewy bodies – abnormal aggregates of protein in the 6

Sigmund Freud

had written about them in such detail. Bloom goes so far as to suggest12 that Shakespeare ‘invented’ the human – modern individualism, which prompted13 later generations to be more reflective about their own behaviour14. Such is the believable complexity of Shakespeare’s characters that one of the major branches15 of modern literary theory is psychoanalytical criticism, which is largely16 focused on analysing the characters of Shakespeare as if they were real people/patients.

brain associated with Parkinson’s disease 11 Cotard’s syndrome – walking-corpse syndrome, delusion that one is dead 12 goes so far as to suggest – even suggests

to prompt – cause, inspire behaviour (UK English) – behavior (US English) conduct 15 branch – subdivision 16 largely – mostly, primarily 13

14


Why Shakespeare?

Why Shakespeare? A

friend asked me the other day why Shakespeare was held in such high regard1. It’s an excellent question. Shakespeare’s plays are not in a league of their own2 when compared to the best plays of his best contemporaries, such as Thomas Kyd, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, John Webster and Thomas Middleton, though Shakespeare did write more plays than any of them. 3 Indeed4 , many of Shakespeare’s plays were co-written. Henry VI: Part 1 was probably co-written with Thomas Nashe and George Peele, Titus Andronicus may have been co-written with George Peele, Measure for Measure, Timon of Athens and Macbeth were co-written with Thomas Middleton, Pericles was co-written with George Wilkins, Henry VIII, Cardenio and The Two Noble Kinsmen were co-written with John Fletcher. In fact, “Shakespeare’s” plays Edward III and Thomas More were joint projects of a group of authors. So, Shakespeare cannot take sole credit for almost a third of his works. Moreover, from what we know of the Elizabethan stage 5, works were altered as they were developed6 for production, so the Lord Chamberlain’s Men and The King’s Men must take some credit for Shakespeare’s work. Besides7, Shakespeare undoubtedly stood on the shoulders of giants8 – Marlowe and Kyd – whose early deaths allowed9 him to shine10. In his lifetime and for a century or two afterwards Shakespeare was considered one of the big names in English Renaissance theatre but not the big name 11 , much less the only name 12 . In fact, during the 17th Century Jonson was generally considered greater. Even some scholars13 today dare to14 suggest that Middleton was just as great as Shakespeare. 15 to be held in high regard – have a prestigious reputation 2 to be in a league of one’s own – be much better than the rest 3 in fact, he wrote more plays than the first four put together! 4 indeed – (emphatic) in fact 5 the Elizabethan stage – Elizabethan theatre 1

12 | YES 13

to develop – evolve, mature besides – what’s more, in any case 8 to stand on the shoulders of giants (stand-stood-stood) – take advantage of previous advances 9 to allow – permit, enable 10 to shine (shine-shone-shone) – excel

Edward III

Photo by Smatprt

Critical Mass Crucial to Shakespeare’s posthumous success was the fact that his friends decided to collect and publish his complete works after his death; otherwise16, as few of his works would have survived as17 those of his contemporaries. Once ascendancy18 was achieved19, however, Shakespeare acquired critical mass. Every respectable Victorian home had a copy of the Complete Works to be read from and Shakespeare’s expressions flooded into20 everyday English. As the dead writer with universal name recognition, Shakespeare was the natural choice for cinema and, let’s face it21, most of humanity knows Shakespeare through films. 22 Globalization and the British Tourist Board did the rest. achieved around 1800 a Victorian concept 13 scholar – (false friend) academic, expert 14 to dare to – have the audacity to 15 see Professor Gary Taylor’s article in Time (27 March 2006) 16 otherwise – (in this case) if this

6

11

7

12

hadn’t happened as few... as – so few... as 18 ascendancy – dominance, supremacy 19 to achieve – attain, get, obtain 20 to flood into – inundate 21 let’s face it – let’s be honest 22 Shakespeare has had as much influence in Bollywood as in Hollywood 17


Travel

Shakespeare in Italy Wouldn’t It Be Wonderful? To be honest, I planned this article on Shakespeare in Italy as a bit of fun. Shakespeare is a largely1 empty canvas2 onto which people project their fantasies. As Francesco da Mosto says rather too often3 on his BBC documentary Shakespeare in Italy (2012) “wouldn’t it be wonderful if Shakespeare had visited Italy”. Conjecture is one thing, evidence is quite another. There is no question that Shakespeare is popular in Italy and that the Italians have adopted him, just as he adopted them as the subject for a dozen plays. In Sicily they claim4 that Shakespeare was Sicilian 5 and in Rome there is a reproduction of The Globe theatre almost as big as the one in London. 6

Having said that, most of what Roe has discovered is so mundane 16 that it is unlikely to17 justify a special trip to Verona, Padua, Milan, Mantua or Sicily. Three places could, however, justify a Shakespearean trip to Italy (see pp. 19-20).

Detective Work in Italy

Shakespeare’s ‘Italian’

Then I read The Shakespeare Guide to Italy by Richard Paul Roe (2011). This excellent book demonstrates – to my mind at least – that the person who wrote the plays visited Italy. Trawling through7 the Italian plays he gleans8 nuggets9 of information that show that the playwright had detailed knowledge of everyday life in the parts of Italy he wrote about, such as the functioning of the waterways10 of the north of Italy11 or the existence of a wood of sycamores12 just13 outside the west gate14 of Verona. 15 largely – mostly, in general canvas – textile surface on which a picture is painted 3 rather too often – (emphatic) too often 4 to claim – say, state, declare 5 the Sicilian surname Crollalanza can be translated as ‘shake spear’ (see p. 19, fn. 9 + 10) 6 given that both are modern 1

2

18 | YES 13

reproductions, this is as valid a place to practise Bardolatry (= the excessive veneration of Shakespeare) as the London Globe. 7 to trawl through – (in this case) re-read exhaustively 8 to glean – obtain, discover 9 nugget – valuable piece 10 waterways – canals and rivers used for transport

Photo by Salvatore Gioitta

The Globe, Rome.

Shakespeare takes stories from a number of books not known to have been translated from Italian to English at the time. This is often cited to suggest that he actually18 spoke Italian. However, when a phrase in one of the plays is meant to be Italian, it is in fact usually a mixture of Italian and Spanish. For example, Si fortuna me tormente sperato me contento 19 (Henry IV, Part 2.iv.176). Similarly, Shakespeare’s ‘Spanish’ is largely1 Italian: pue per doleera kee per forsa20 (Pericles 2.ii.27). as described in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew and The Merchant of Venice 12 sycamore – (Ficus sycomorus) type of tree 13 just – (in this case) immediately 14 gate – (in this case) entrance in a city wall 15 as mentioned in Romeo and Juliet 11

mundane – (in this case) uninteresting to visit 17 is unlikely to – will probably not 18 actually – (false friend) in fact 19 if fortune torments me, hope contents me 20 more by gentleness than by force 16

3


As You Like It

As You Like It: Play & Wordplay As You Like It As You Like It (1599) has two settings1: the city and the Forest of Arden. In pairs and groups a series of characters2 are banished3 from the city and forced to seek4 refuge in the forest 5 . They all arrive in a state of physical exhaustion but are gradually changed by the forest into better people 6 . Specifically, the magical forest offers self-knowledge7. However, As You Like It is an exceptional play because so little occurs once the characters arrive in the forest. Basically nothing happens – just witty8 dialogues and monologues.

surname11 of Shakespeare’s mother. More importantly, ‘Arden’ is almost a contraction of ‘Garden of Eden’ into one word 12 . Wordplay also occurs in the personal names: the main13 pair of lovers – Orlando and Rosalind – have names that are echoes14 of each other15 .

William Fascinatingly, though Shakespeare created around 400 characters, As You Like It is the only play to include a ‘William’. Presumably, an author gives a character his own name intentionally. In this case the character William is a Warwickshire 16 country bumpkin17. Is this Shakespeare having a laugh at his own expense? Those who believe that Shakespeare was not the author of the plays might argue that this is the author ridiculing the functionally illiterate man from Stratford whom he had chosen to be his cover18.

Wordplay As You Like It is a massive exercise in wordplay. This starts with the names. The Forest of Arden, where most of the play takes place 9, is in theory in the Ardennes in north-eastern France 10 . But ‘Arden’ is also a district near Shakespeare’s home in Stratford and the setting – location, surroundings, context 2 characters – (in this case) parts in a play, figures who are being acted, dramatis persona 3 to banish – expel, send into internal exile 4 to seek (seek-sought-sought) – look for, try to find 5 James Joyce said that banishment was a constant obsession for Shakespeare 6 transforming forests occur in many of Shakespeare’s 1

40 | YES 13

Audrey

plays including The Merry Wives of Windsor, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Love’s Labour’s Lost, The Two Gentlemen of Verona and Macbeth 7 self-knowledge – the act of discovering what you are really like, the discovery of your own character 8 witty – (in this case) humorously clever, intelligently funny 9 to take place (take-took-taken) – happen, occur

A scene from As You Like It it is clearly not really intended to be this specific forest as it includes olivetrees, palm-trees, a green and golden snake and a lioness 11 surname – family name 12 Adam and Eve were banished3 from the Garden of Eden, these characters are banished to Arden 13 main – primary, most important 14 echo – (in this case) evocation, 10

hint, suggestion, near anagram these ‘echoes’; repetitions of consonants with the internal vowels changed are a constant characteristic of the play. They are adopted from the cynghanedd tradition of Welsh poetry. 16 /ˈworikʃə/ the county in which Shakespeare was born 17 country bumpkin – local yokel, ignorant rural person 18 cover – (in this case) front man 15


Hamlet

Hamlet: A Dysfunctional Family Hamlet is a family drama: one of the emotions expressed by Hamlet is simply the rage1 of a son whose mother has remarried. This theme is linked to2 the theme of incest that simmers below the surface3. For the Elizabethans it was incestuous to marry a sibling4’s spouse 5. Incestuous desires are also present in Laertes’ attempts6 to control his sister’s sexuality and in Hamlet’s frustration that he cannot control his mother’s.

‘Hamlet is able to do anything – except take vengeance on… the man who showed him the repressed wishes7 of his own childhood.’ 

Sigmund Freud

Ophelia

Families in this play are institutions for control and spying. Polonius controls every aspect of Ophelia’s life from who she speaks to, to what she thinks. No wonder8 rage – anger, fury to be linked to – be connected to, be associated with 3 to simmer below the surface – be present but not obvious 4 sibling – brother or sister 5 spouse – husband or wife 6 attempt – effort

wish (n.) – desire no wonder – it is not surprising that 9 to allow – permit, give permission for 10 to deny – (in this case) not grant to, not give to 11 insane – (false friend) mad,

1

7

2

8

22

Ophelia before the King and Queen

she goes mad when her father dies! Hamlet is basically a prisoner in Elsinore, constantly spied upon – directly and indirectly – by his uncle.

Parallel Characters The play is full of parallels. Laertes is studying abroad (in Paris) and, after returning for King Hamlet’s funeral and the royal wedding, asks to be allowed9 to return to his studies. Prince Hamlet has returned home for the same reason and wants to return to his studies in Wittenberg, but permission is denied10 him. Prince Hamlet’s father is murdered and so is Ophelia’s and Laertes’ father (by the Prince). Hamlet apparently goes mad and Ophelia does go insane11. Hamlet agonizes about suicide, Ophelia simply kills herself. Both Fortinbras and Hamlet bear12 their father’s names and both have been barred13 from taking the throne by the accession of their uncles. These parallels set Ophelia, Laertes and Fortinbras up14 as alter egos for Hamlet. In contrast to Hamlet, Ophelia is pitiably15 passive, Laertes is rashly16 active, pompous and proud17 and so allows9 himself to be used by Claudius. Meanwhile18, Fortinbras directs his energies outside the claustrophobic nest19 and wins himself glory and a new kingdom. Fortinbras is what Hamlet would have been if he had not learned to question everything – to think too much – at Wittenberg University. crazy to bear (bear-bore-borne) – carry, (in this case) have 13 to bar – obstruct, impede 14 to set sb. up – (in this case) establish 15 pitiably – pathetically 16 rashly – recklessly, 12

impetuously, impulsively proud – self-important, arrogant 18 meanwhile – at the same time, meantime 19 nest – (in this case) home, family 17

YES 13 | 51


The Tempest

The Tempest: In Search of Prospero Prospero & His Books The central character of the play is undoubtedly Prospero. He speaks more than/over three times more lines than any other character. However, not all of these words are spoken to the other characters: Prospero uses more asides1 than any other character in Shakespeare’s plays. In fact, R. S. White has compared Prospero to a controller of a virtual reality à la Matrix. He has such control over other people that he doesn’t really relate to2 them, and his renunciation of magic at the end of the play reminds one of someone switching off3 his or her computer at the end of a VR4 session. Prospero has few social skills5; he is resentful6, untrusting7 and has no sense of humour. Moreover, he is often abusive when he speaks

Photo by Keith Davis

Ariel

to others and he is unrelentingly8 severe with Caliban, generating our sympathy9 for the would-be rapist10 of a minor.

A Composite Prospero Shakespeare’s Prospero also seems to be a composite of several real people. He has much in common with Queen Elizabeth’s magician, John Dee (1527-1609), who died the year before The Tempest was written, neglected11 by the court and looked after by his daughter. Prospero was also based on Rudolph I of Bohemia, who had been a patron of John Dee’s. Rudolph, who was obsessed with the occult sciences, was gradually ousted12 from the throne by his younger brother Matthias between 1608 and 1611 (the period just before the play was written). Finally, Francisco de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany – who was obsessively interested in alchemy – was murdered by his younger brother in 1587.

Prospero, Miranda y Ariel aside (n.) – comment made to the audience that represents the character’s thoughts, whispered remark, confidential comment 2 to relate to – associate with,

1

connect with to switch off – turn off, deactivate 4 VR – virtual reality 5 skills – abilities, talents 6 resentful – unforgiving, 3

revengeful untrusting – distrustful, suspicious, cynical 8 unrelentingly – inexorably, incessantly 9 sympathy – (false friend)

7

compassion would-be rapist – s.o. who plans to commit sexual assault 11 to neglect – ignore, forget 12 to oust – usurp, expel, overthrow 10

YES 13 | 67


GRAMMAR The grammar section is a little different this month because it is entirely dedicated to Shakespeare. Did you know that Shakespeare was the first person to use such basic words as ‘vulnerable’ and ‘bedroom’ in English? Did you know that after the King James Bible (which coincidentally was published in the same year (1611) as The Tempest was first performed), the Complete Works of William Shakespeare has contributed more expressions to English than any other book? However, Shakespeare is not always familiar. There are many false friends in Shakespeare’s plays and poems and the grammatical structures can cause problems for the uninitiated. Welcome to ‘the language of Shakespeare’!

The Language of Shakespeare

Shakespeare’s grammar: What dost thou mean, Bill? Exercise 20 False friends: quoting without comprehending False friends: ‘false’ for whom? False friends: the list goes on Exercise 23 Idioms: expressions from the world’s favourite play Idioms: Hamlet – Act II Idioms: Hamlet – the rest is silence Exercise 12 Idioms: the Merchant of Venice Idioms: more Venetian expressions Exercise 21 Idioms: two British tyrants Idioms: expressions from the Roman plays Idioms: more expressions from other plays Exercises 28, 29 The YES community Words: did Shakespeare really add 1,500 words to everyday English? Exercise 16

85 86

Subscription Information Picture Description

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 84

LISTENING EXTENSION 70

Listening: listen to these three short extracts from Shakespeare in the original pronunciation (Laurence Olivier will be rolling (‘roling’?) in his grave!). We recommend you find the texts first on the Web: http://goo.gl/y1bB9c

AUDIO SCRIPTS EXTENSION Tracks 1-6 Conversation point: have you ever been to a play by Shakespeare? What about seeing a film version of one of his plays? What did you like about it? What didn’t you like? Track 7

Conversation point: which come first – animal rights or religious rights?

Track 8

Conversation point: could you live without money? What would you have to sacrifice to do so?

Track 9

Conversation point: have the ‘honourable’ professions lost their honour?

Track 10

Conversation point: are bicycles the future of urban transport or are they a nuisance?

YES 13 | 69


Idioms

British Tyrants In 1606 Shakespeare wrote two plays about British tyrants of the distant past:

Macbeth The ‘Scottish Play’ has given us several common idioms: >>  (to lead) a charmed life (or existence) [lead-led-led] = have the ability to come out unscathed1 from dangerous situations. The phrase was first used in Macbeth, V, iii, when Macbeth tells

Macduff, “I bear2 a charmed3 life”: -  Adrian leads a charmed life: he works about four hours a day and earns a fortune. >>  The milk of human kindness = compassion. In Macbeth Lady Macbeth worries that her husband doesn’t have the stomach to kill King Duncan, saying, “Yet do I fear thy4 nature, it is too full o’ th’5 milk of human kindness”: -  She’s a rather6 saintly person; full of the milk of human kindness.

King Lear This play focuses on the humanizing of a tyrant.

King Lear - Pacific Repertory Theatre

>>  to feel the pinch [feel-felt-felt] = to suffer necessity, be deprived. The phrase may refer to a line in King Lear in which the king talks of “necessity’s sharp8 pinch9”: -  Many ordinary working-class families are feeling the pinch of this ‘economic slowdown10’.

>>  Every inch a… = in every way, an admirable example of. The phrase was popularized by King Lear. In that play Gloucester asks, “Is’t not the king?” and Lear replies, “Ay, every inch7 a king”. However, the phrase “every inch a man” was used a few years earlier by Thomas Dekker in The Shoemaker’s Holiday (1600): -  Oh, yes, Jack is every inch a gentleman.

>>  to (have) come full circle = to have developed fully and ended up in a similar situation to the initial one. In King Lear Edmund, who is dying, meets his brother Edgar and says, “The wheel11 is come full circle”. The expression is, of course, a reference to the wheel turned12 by Fortune in Greek mythology: -  Musical tastes have come full circle and people are listening to the same sort of music they enjoyed thirty years ago.

thy – (archaic) your o’ th’ – of the 6 rather – (in this case) somewhat, surprisingly 7 inch – 2.54cm 8 sharp – (in this case) painful, severe 9 pinch – act of squeezing (= pressuring) sb’s

skin (= cutaneous body covering) between two fingers to cause him/her pain 10 slowdown – recession, crisis, slump, decline 11 wheel – 12 to turn sth. – cause sth. to rotate

Leopolda Dostalová as Lady Macbeth unscathed – unhurt, unaffected, uninjured to bear (bear-bore-borne) – (in this case) have 3 in Shakespeare’s usage ‘charmed’ means protected by the magic of a prophecy (which said that he could not be killed by someone “born of woman”)

1

4

2

5

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THE YES COMMUNITY THE BOOKSHOPS

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THE YES TEAM We believe this should be an interactive process and as such we welcome all feedback (good or bad!). - Is there a subject you would like us to cover? - Is there something we could be doing better? - Do you simply have a question about English? You can contact us at: nick@yes-mag.com and nathan@yes-mag.com

Almudena Rodríguez de Avendaño Logroño (La Rioja) 941 286 826 (Centro Ibercaja La Rioja) Email: arodriguezav@obrasocial.ibercaja.es

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Xavier Lafarga Ateneu Popular de Ponent - Lleida, Catalunya English classes for adults Email: x.lafarga@gmail.com

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AUDIO SCRIPTS

The following pages contain the transcriptions of what is spoken on the audio files.

SPOKEN-ENGLISH TIPS

Spoken English is significantly different from the written language: A more limited vocabulary is generally used and it is, by definition, more colloquial. Moreover1, spoken English uses many more incomplete or badly constructed sentences. On the other hand, intonation and stress can be used in speech.

HOW TO USE THE AUDIO SCRIPTS

Follow our eight-step process to get the most out of the audio scripts:

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Before you listen we recommend that you read through the relevant section of the footnotes2 (not the text itself). This should give you some idea of the subject3 and help you to understand the more difficult vocabulary as you listen. When you listen the first time, don’t expect to understand everything; listening practice should not be a painful4 process. Simply see how much meaning you can extract from the recording. Listen more times going back to the footnotes to integrate the information you have. Once you understand reasonably well, do the relevant exercise.

YES NO. 13 TRACK LIST Monologues: My Favourite Shakespeare Play (20m53s) 1. Monologue 1 [Irish actor] (3m51s) 2. Monologue 2 [British Actor] (3m30s) 3. Monologue 3 [British Actress] (3m55s) 4. Monologue 4 [British man] (4m05s) 5. Monologue 5 [Irish theatregoer] (2m59s) 6. Monologue 6 [Northern Irish theatregoer] (2m33s) Mini-debates (29m42s) 7. Animal Rights vs. Religious Rights (10m25s) 8. Alternatives to Money (10m15s) 9. Honour in Today’s Society (9m02s) Improvisation (5m31s) 10. A Walk in the Park (5m31s) 11. Shakespearean Idioms (2m47s) 12. Picture Description (2m43) Total time: 1h01m36s

Finally, read the audio scripts as you listen again.

Stop each time you get lost or encounter a structure that interests or confuses you. Repeat words or phrases whose pronunciation surprises you.

Two or three days later, listen to the text again without reading to see if your understanding has improved5.

This process is intense and time-consuming. However, it will eventually6 solve the problem most learners have of relating7 the spoken word to the written. Once you’ve done that, the rest is easy!

moreover – what’s more, furthermore footnotes – notes at the bottom of the page (in this box) 3 subject (n.) – (in this context) theme 4 painful – (in this context) arduous, unpleasant 5 to improve – get better 6 eventually – (false friend) in the end 7 to relate – associate, connect, link 1

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be there wasting your time. But me, I’m going to decide when I’m going to be king.” And his father in the play, Henry IV, he’s – like 8 – up to here18 with Prince Hal because he’s not doing anything with his life and he said you have to take responsibility for yourself. And little by little we see over Henry IV Part 1 and Henry IV Part 2 how Prince Hal does take19 control and then becomes Henry V who is probably one of the greatest kings England ever had and those wonderful speeches. But I think you need to study Henry IV Part 1 before you know what Henry V is about.

2. Monologue 2 [British Actor] (3m30s) Twelfth Night

and the teacher spent weeks explaining what an aside6 was. And we said, “Yes, sir, I think we know what that is”, but not really. And then later as you went on and you realized10 you did have 11 this interior monologue going on in yourself about who you liked, who you didn’t like, who you were going to get back on12. It always came back to me this speech about… when he says, “redeeming time when men think least I will” means he will get his opportunity when people least think he will and he will just13 forget them. And it turns out14 later that Hal, who becomes Henry V, is horrible to Falstaff and the other people. He says he doesn’t remember who they were even though he’s had great times in the bar talking about them. It’s funny because I’ve done a lot of to realize – (false friend) become conscious did have – (emphatic) had 12 to get back on (get-got-got) – take revenge on 13 just – (in this case) simply 14 to turn out – become clear 15 ’cos – (slang) because

Shakespeare since and I like some of the speeches and I think, “Oh, that’s really, really good”. But I always go back to the 14-line speech about Prince Hal in the bar and at school. And I suppose it’s when they say good teachers will teach you Shakespeare for life and it’s true. And I’ve met other people who’ve said, “Oh, I remember that speech. We did that at school.” And I will always remember that more than any other. And as I’ve said, I’ve seen productions that are probably much better than what we ever did at that school but that speech will stay with me ’cos15 I think it connected with the young guy16 in the bar wasting his time drinking and laughing and then a part17 thinking “Yeah. Yes, I can see you all wasting your time and you will always guy – (colloquial) bloke, chap, man part – (in this case) inner voice 18 to be up to here with sb. – be sick and tired of sb. 19 does take – (emphatic) takes 20 landmark – crucial, very important 21 watershed – crucial moment

1960 was a landmark 20 year for Shakespeare fans at Stratford-upon-Avon, and, thanks to one of that year’s summer productions, the year proved to be a watershed21 for me with regards to22 Shakespeare. The play was Twelfth Night, the director was a young Peter Hall in his first season as Director of the Memorial Theatre, as it was known then. The cast – mouth-watering23 if you are over 50! – included Dorothy Tutin as Viola, Geraldine McEwan playing Olivia, Eric Porter as Malvolio, Patrick Wymark and Ian Richardson as Sir Toby Belch and Andrew Aguecheek, and a young Ian Holm in the role of Sebastian. I knew nothing of all these people, including Peter Hall. I was bowled over24 by it all, a jolt25 to the whole system. I had never been with regards to – as regards, in terms of mouth-watering – (in this case) very attractive 24 to be bowled over – be taken aback, be very impressed 25 jolt – shock, surprise, impetus

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so enthralled26 by a production of any kind27, I loved the elegance of it, the energy on stage28, I had rarely laughed so much as I did at the duel29 scene, I fell in love with Dorothy Tutin and Geraldine McEwan. But above all30, I left the theatre knowing that there was so much more to Shakespeare than what I had been taught at school. The only tickets available, by the way – or possibly affordable31, I can’t remember – were standing-room 32 at the back of the stalls33 – unthinkable for the Health-and-Safety people 34 these days. Dress code 35 was also a surprise. I was with my brother, and we were dressed in hitch-hiking gear36 – on a hitch-hiking theatre tour of Stratford and London, and this was our first stop. Nobody seemed to mind37 how we were dressed, but we were surprised to see most of the audience in full evening dress38 for what was a matinee show39. I suppose Shakespeare at Stratford had that sort40 of status back then – and maybe still does, though I doubt it. The Peter Hall production was something special. As the years slipped by41, I realized10 it had been a privilege to see it. Theatregoers42 I got to know later in life looked in awe43 tinged with44 envy when they learnt45 I had been at “THAT PRODUCTION” of Twelfth Night. I have read that the late46 Lynn

Redgrave decided she would dedicate her life to the stage47 when she saw Dorothy Tutin in that production. This type of experience does have its downside48. It leaves you, theatrically, hard to please49. The uniqueness of it is, of course, unrepeatable. There’s only ONE time you can enjoy the revelation of just50 how enjoyable Shakespeare can be. From then on in51, you get reminders, but that’s not quite the same, is it? The London part of my 1960 hitchhikers’ 52 culture tour included a performance of a Shakespeare-inspired West Side Story – that was the original West End production that ran from 1958 to 1961. It was the first

to be enthralled – be captivated, be mesmerized 27 kind – type, sort 28 on stage – in performance 29 duel – swordfight 30 above all – most importantly 31 affordable – inexpensive, reasonably priced 32 standing room – space available for people to stand as opposed to seats 33 the stalls – (in this case) seats on the ground floor in a theatre 34 Health-and-Safety people – (in this case) authorities in charge of public safety 35 dress code – social rules and prohibitions about the clothes one can wear

hitchhiking gear – clothing for hitchhikers52 37 to mind – care, object to 38 full evening dress – black tie, very formal clothing 39 matinee show – afternoon performance 40 sort – type, kind 41 to slip by – pass, lapse 42 theatregoer (UK English) – theatergoer (US English) sb. who goes to the theatre 43 in awe – astonished, impressed 44 tinged with – combined with, mixed with 45 learnt (UK English) – learned (US English) found out, discovered 46 the late – who recently died 47 the stage – (acting in the) theatre 48 downside – disadvantage, drawback

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Eric Porter

36

musical I had ever seen, and, yes I was suitably53 impressed! That again was a matinee show39. After the performance, we moved from Her Majesty’s Theatre on Haymarket to the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane for an evening performance of the original West End production of My Fair Lady, with Rex Harrison, Julie Andrews and Stanley Holloway. Once again, the double-whammy54 proved to be the peak of my musicals! I mean 55, you can’t beat 56 that, can you? Two of the top musicals of the second half of the 20th Century in their original West End productions and both on the same day!

3. Monologue 3 [British Actress] (3m55s) My Favourite Shakespeare... This is an interesting question. My first inclination was to answer Midsummer Night’s Dream performed in Regent’s Park – about a hundred years ago! I think that was the first Shakespeare play I ever saw performed and, of course, I fell completely in love with it. The woods 57, the fairies 58 , the bawdy59 humour of the mechanicals60 tumbling about61. However, now I think about it hard to please – demanding, exacting just – (emphatic) quite 51 from then on in – after that 52 hitchhiker – 53 suitably – appropriately 54 double-whammy – (in this case) two simultaneous events 55 I mean – (pause filler) y’know, like, sort of, kind of 56 you can’t beat – there is nothing better than 57 the woods – the forest 58 fairy – 59 bawdy – sexually suggestive 60 mechanical (n.) – workman, artisan 61 to tumble about – fall about, roll around

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Collision of the Costa Concordia

Photo by Roberto Vongher

9. Honour in Today’s Society (9m02s) EM: I’ve been mulling over358 the idea of the decline of honour in our society and – I mean 55 – one, perhaps, symptom of that is there’s359 been a couple of360 cases recently – I’m not talking about ‘our society’, almost – sort of243 – globally now we’re in this global village – but there’s358 been a couple of cases recently of captains instead of361 – sort of243 – going down with their ships 362, getting off363 their ships to safety before the majority of their

to mull over – consider there’s – (informal) there have 360 a couple of – several, various 361 instead of – rather than, as opposed to 362 to go down with one’s ship (go-wentgone) – stay on board a ship when it sinks205 (and so effectively commit an honourable suicide) 358

359

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passengers are off 364 . I mean 55 , there’s the famous case a year or two ago in Italy and in spring we had that case with the Koreans. Is a… do you feel that there’s a decline of honour in society in that – sort of243 – sense? EW: Also there’s the example of… countless examples of doctors pushing365 drugs366 – y’know5 – with the backing 367 of the pharmaceutical companies, who are amongst the richest in the world. EM: I mean 55, that’s another case of

to get off (get-got-got) – leave, abandon to be off – (in this case) have escaped, be safe 365 to push – (in this case) promote 366 drugs – (in this case) pharmaceutical products 367 backing – support, approval 368 to hoodwink – cheat, defraud 363

a profession which had great prestige in society because they had this – sort of243… the idea of a – sort of243 – vocational prestige. EW: Totally. And you can trust your doctor. IM: Hey, what about the bank managers who hoodwink 368 customers just13 in the short-term interests of the bank. We all know about the bankers. EM: That’s a good one. I have this wonderful anecdote of somebody who wrote a letter to the newspaper that they happened to keep in a drawer369 from the 1970s when they were a student and this letter said… the bank manager had written – sort of243 – saying, “I’m writing to inform

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drawer –

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EXERCISES

PAGE

EXERCISE

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16. Names: can you guess where Shakespeare got the names of his characters from?

PAGE

EXERCISE

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1. Illustrations round-up: see if you can identify most of the objects and actions illustrated in the footnotes of this issue. 2. Word game: find words relating to Shakespeare and the theatre

17. Pronunciation round-up: do you remember how to pronounce the words whose phonetic transcription is given in the footnotes in this issue? 18. Internet Listening: test your listening comprehension of this fascinating talk about how Shakespeare’s plays were pronounced back in the day.

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3. Homophones: Read this article about Shakespeare and Italian Renaissance finance and change the wrong words back for their homophones. (p. 11) 4. Word Search: complete the titles of Shakespeare’s plays. 5. Reading comprehension: Bitcoins. Do this exercise after listening to the second debate on the audio files. (pp. 100-103)

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6. Crossword for general vocabulary revision.

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7. Sentence transformation for general syntax revision of structures in this issue.

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8. Debates: listening comprehension for audio tracks 7-9 (pp. 96-107).

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9. Too many words: find the unnecessary words in this extract about Shakespeare’s knowledge of the law. 10. US vs. UK: fill the gaps in the chart. This relates to the whole magazine. 11. False Friends round-up: see if you remember the false friends marked in the footnotes throughout the magazine.

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12. Hamlet idioms: relating to pp. 74-76.

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13. Word game: test your vocabulary and understanding of English morphology.

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14. Phrasal Verbs: how many new phrasal verbs have you learned this month? This exercise tests for the phrasal verbs in the footnotes. 15. Cinema: test your knowledge of movies based on Shakespeare’s plays.

21. Venetian Idioms: fill the gaps in these sentences to form idioms from Shakespeare’s plays set in Venice (pp. 77-78). 22. Yorick: fill in the prepositions in this text about the most unusual part in Shakespearean theatre (pp. 50-52).

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23. Shakespearean false friends: an exercise relating to the article on pp. 71-73.

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24. Monologues: a true-false listening comprehension on audio tracks 1-6. 25. Early Modern Vocabulary: relating to the article on p. 70.

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19. Clichés: can you complete these wellknown phrases from Shakespeare’s plays? 20. Translation: ‘translate’ this text from Early Modern English into Modern English.

26. Alternative prepositions: choose the correct alternative for this text from pp. 24-25. 27. Open-question listening: relating to the improvisation on audio track 10 (pp. 107-109). 28. Idioms: relating to the Shakespearean expressions on pp. 79-81. 29. Extra expressions: can you match these additional idioms to their meanings?

131-133 ANSWERS

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21. Idioms: The 10 sentences given below have been based on the idioms given in the article about expressions from the Merchant of Venice and Othello on pp. 77-78. Study the different expressions carefully and try to complete the following gaps with the correct word. 1. Since the judge was a recovering alcoholic he was lenient with the first-time offender. As they say, the quality of ___________________ is not strained. 2. All of the contestants of the ballroom-dancing competition waited with _________________ breath for the judges to announce their decision. 3. Any salesmen who have to travel outside of city limits will receive additional pay _______________ and above their normal salary. 4. It has come to __________________ that the assassination attempt on the president was masterminded by the CIA. 5. I really do not know what I saw in her. The expression “love is ________________” is so true. 6. I’ve told him umpteen times not to call me after two o’clock, but he continues to do so. What a _______________ idiot! 7. Parents need to pay more attention to their children nowadays. It is a wise _________________ that knows his son. 8. I wouldn’t be surprised if the building owner asked us to pay for the lift repairs. He always gets his pound of _____________________. 9. I warned you that being famous has its drawbacks. All that glitters is not ___________________. 10. Something __________________ me that the neighbours in the building opposite ours are spying on us. 11. I don’t know how people like that can be ___________________ their pockets when so many people are suffering real poverty at the moment. 12. Everyone thought the result of the match was a _____________________ conclusion, so the final score came as a genuine surprise. 22. Prepositions. Read this brief story about posthumous Shakespearean actors and fill the gaps with a suitable preposition:

Alas, Poor André, I Knew Him, Del Surprisingly, the role of Yorick seems to be one 1) ____ the most popular 2) ____ Shakespeare’s plays. This is unexpected because Yorick, King Hamlet’s clown, only appears as a skull. 3) ____ spite 4) ____ this, Juan Potomachi, a businessman 5) ___________ Buenos Aires who died 6) ___ 1955, left 200,000 pesos 7) ___ a fund 8) _____ trainee actors 9) ____ the condition that his head be preserved and used as a skull 10) ____ a performance 11) ___ Hamlet. Potomachi had been a failed actor himself and this was his last desperate effort to succeed 12) _____ stage. Similarly, pianist and composer André Tchaikowsky (1935-1982) left his skull 13) ______ the Royal Shakespeare Company 14) _____ use as Yorick’s skull 15) _____ Hamlet. The RSC used Tchaikowsky’s skull 16) ______ their 2008 production. Likewise, actor Del Close (19361999) donated his skull 17) ____ the Goodman Theatre 18) _____ Chicago. Mr Close appeared as the clown’s cranium 19) ______ July 20) _____ the same year.

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STAFF Anglo Files, S.L. (publisher) Nicholas Franklin (editor) nick@yes-mag.com Marina Carresi (artistic director and photography, proofreading) marina@yes-mag.com Nathan Burkiewicz (sub-editor, page-design, webmaster) nathan@yes-mag.com Fabiola Vieyra (promotion) Josh Tampico (sound engineer) Gonzalo Cohen (legal)

WRITERS, VOICES, INVALUABLE SUPPORT & HELPING HANDS Douglas Jasch, Prof. Raoul Franklin, Colman Keane, Miles Pratt, Almudena Cáceres, Susannah Jones, Robbie K. Jones, AmyJo Doherty, James Duggan, Jim Trainor, Rod E. Musselman, Adrian Hall, Paul Thomas, John Adedoyin, Hamish Binns, Lois Humphrey, Julie Davies, Irene Tremblay, Dave Mooney, Howard Brown, Bea Alzona, Saskia Eijkins.

PHOTOGRAPHY Marina Carresi, David Osado and Jorge Román

134 | YES 13

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YOUR ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT

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Published by Anglo Files S.L. C/ Bronce 27, 11-B, Madrid 28045 Depósito legal: M-9788-2013 // ISSN: 2255-5676 PVP: 9,95€ VAT included/incluido IVA // Printed in Spain All rights reserved. Neither all nor part of this magazine can be reproduced, recorded in or transmitted by any information-recovery system by any means, be it mechanical, photochemical, magnetic, electronic, photocopies or any other method or used for commercial purposes without prior written permission from the publisher and in accordance with the Intellectual Property Law. Any violation of these terms and conditions will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.


In the Next Volume of Your English Supplement

Feature:

OUR ORIGINS - Archaeology and propaganda: lies about prehistory - When did we stop being ‘just animals’? - What makes us unique? - How cuddly were Neanderthals? - We interview archaeologist Mary Prendergast who has worked at Altamira and in Kenya Photo by Tim Evanson

Travel

History

Ancient Britain and Ireland: - The secrets of Stonehenge

World War One Centenary: - the British Aristocracy & the Great War - the Toxic Legacy

Internet Game of Drones

Cinema Colin Firth: the subversive gentleman

Poetry Astrophil and Stella: a 16th-century best-seller

Language Parsnips: or “Why is my Efl course-book so boring?”

+ False Friends, English in Focus, Idioms, Phrasal Verbs and much more.



Yes - Your English Supplement: Volume 13