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MODERN MEDICAL CONTROVERSIES

MEDICAL ENGLISH THE COMPLETE GUIDE IDIOMS FALSE FRIENDS PHRASAL VERBS PRONUNCIATION REGISTER US vs. UK COLLOCATION SEMANTICS


GENERAL CONTENTS

YES Volume 12

This page should help you to navigate the magazine in general. Notice that on pages 6, 19, 63, 87 and 111 there are more details for each section of the magazine.

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How to Use Your English Supplement

6 7 8 9 12 14 16

Current Affairs Contents News and anecdotes Language News Health News Internet News Technology: thorium – a godsend? Economics: does our new technology make us inefficient? Economics: Greece – 6 years after the GFC

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19 Culture Contents 20 Travel: a Quickie in Thailand 24 History: the Battle of the River Plate 27 Language: accents and the British social radar MEDICAL DOSSIER 30 Modern controversies: antibiotics, antidepressants, bipolar disorder, dyslexia, Huntington’s disease, autism, tuberculosis, myalgic enchephalomyelitis, homeopathy, syphilis and the making of the modern world, allergies, poisons 46 Food: is sugar the new tobacco?

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Cinema: Peter Weir – the Anthropologist’s Dilemma Literature: Orwell in Burma Politics: Ireland’s most controversial leader Art: the Nazis and other art thieves Psychology: addiction

63 64 66 67 68 70 73 76 78 80 82 84

Grammar Contents English in Context: illness, sickness and disease Collocation: cure, heal or treat? Semantics: when is a disorder a disease? US vs. UK: the health divide Medical false friends Medical phrasal verbs Etymology: Galen and his humours Idioms: good health and bad health Pronunciation: medical terms The YES community Register: technical vs. everyday medical terms

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Subscription Information Picture Description

87 88

Audio Scripts Contents Audio Scripts

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52 NOTE: While every effort has been taken to represent modern medical issues as accurately as possible, this is an English-learning magazine. Always consult a qualified doctor before taking any decisions that could affect your health.

Audio Download Code: To download the audio files for this issue, please go to the 'Downloads' page on www.yes-mag.com for instructions. You will need the code given above to access the files. www.yes-mag.com // facebook.com/YesZine // @yeszine

111 Exercises Contents 112 Exercises 134 135

Staff and contact addresses In next month’s issue YES 12 | 3


demise2 of humanity. This is not just something that Hollywood scriptwriters3 think about. Such things worry computer-programming expert Jaan Tallinn, co-founder of Skype, Huw Price, professor4 of philosophy at Cambridge,

How to Use Your English Supplement

and Lo Colleg Study Par capaci dicted From telligen ‘the Si beings

SYMBOLS

Each page-long article in the magazine has been created to be used more or less independently so that you can learn and practise even if you only have five or ten minutes free. At the same time, the symbols below allow you to develop a theme you are interested in more extensively. Teachers can use these symbols to instantly prepare a class or classes around a common theme.

Exercise (at the end of the magazine). Test and consolidate what you have learned.

THE EN

Speaking extension. A question aimed at provoking a group discussion of the topic in question.

Photo by GabboT

to bring about (bring-broughtbrought) – cause 2 demise – end, decline 3 scriptwriter – sb. who writes the script (= text) of a movie 4 professor – (false friend) head 1

Downloadable audio file (see also audio scripts). There are recommendations on how best to use the audio files on p. 87.

This arrow directs you to other related articles in the magazine.

p. 40

6, 22

p. 6

of department at a university, senior academic 5 to set up (set-set-set) – create, establish 6 to arise (arise-arose-arisen) – emerge, occur

p.6

ABBREVIATIONS KEY Listening extension (Internet). Once you’ve learned the basic vocabulary of a topic, why not listen to further discussions? 4 | YES 12

These are the only abbreviations you have to know to use this magazine: sb. = somebody sth. = something swh. = somewhere [U] = uncountable noun [C] = countable noun

Some will be idea: f robots in our gent b octopu experi licate t ity can as dra simply obsole from v 1925, “ but a w

speed from t 9 naïve – 10 to tre 11 scena thetic

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phone antennas. There is little danger of the message being garbled5 – as it is in the game of Chinese whispers6 – because it is so simple: “danger predator”.

FOOTNOTES

The superscript numbers in the text refer to the footnotes at the bottom or at the side of the same page. The footnotes explain the difficult vocabulary as determined by our non-native proofreaders. Like you, these proofreaders are learners so they are able to identify the exact words you need to know to understand the sentence. Definitions are given in English, so that you learn to think in English and these definitions are then checked by the non-native proofreaders to ensure that you will understand them. Some words are defined by pictures: we use these visual stimuli when that is the best way to fix an idea in your memory. Read the definition or look at the illustration and then re-read the sentence in question. By working with English-language footnotes you will rapidly increase your vocabulary and learn how English words relate to each other, all of which will have a dramatic impact on your fluency and self-confidence1 . Some readers find it useful to put their finger next to the word in the article that they are looking for in the footnotes to make it easier to return to the text afterwards. Either way, it shouldn’t be difficult to find your place because the footnotes are numbered and the words are highlighted in bold. Notice that the syllables and words that should be stressed2 are underlined. Red footnotes give extra cultural (rather than linguistic) information, or they refer you to other articles.

PHONEMIC SYMBOLS Here are the phonemic symbols that we use which might cause you problems.

Consonants

Meanwhile9, a study from Anglia Rus sity has found that African elephants plan on cropland11 to coincide with the new m raids are more frequent and more substa the nights are darkest. This suggests that stand that darkness lowers the risk of bei farmers12. Or perhaps they know that hu less and more lightly13 when there is a fu

MY NAME IS FLI

Dolphins have a signature whistle14 whi identify themselves and to identify others hear a familiar whistle they will repeat it b acquaintance15, which they don’t do for whistle. Moreover, a study from the Unive cago has now found that dolphins remem signature whistles14 after more than 20 gesting they have the best memory in the Photo by Ikiwaner

NOT-SO-CARNIVOROUS CROCS7

Research from the US Fish and Wildlife Service in Charleston, South Carolina, has confirmed decades of anecdotal reports: over half the existing crocodilian species supplement their diet with fruit. It seems that at least 13 of the 23 species of crocodiles and alligators in the world today eat fruit as well as meat. warning (adj.) – alarm to bang – beat, hit to pick up – receive 4 to relay – resent 5 garbled – incoherent, meaningless 6 Chinese whispers (UK English) – broken telephone (US English) 7 croc – (colloquial) crocodile 8 full moon – when the complete disc of the moon is visible 1

(associated with werewolves) meanwhile – at the same time raid – surprise attack 11 cropland – arable farms 12 farmer – agriculturalist 13 more lightly – less deeply 14 signature whistle – high-frequency sound that identifies an individual 15 acquaintance – known individual, (in this case) friend

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self-confidence – self-assurance (opposite of ‘self-doubt’, ‘hesitancy’) to stress sth. – emphasize, underline

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/ʧ/ as in church, watch /ʃ/ as in wash, sure, action /ʤ/ as in judge, gesture /ʒ/ as in measure, vision /j/ as in yes /θ/ as in thick, path /ð/ as in this, breathe /ŋ/ as in sing

Pure Vowels

/æ/ as in cat /ʌ/ as in cut /ə/ as in occur, supply, aroma /ɜ:/ as in first, turn, earn /ɔ:/ as in court, warn

Dipthongs

/iə/ as in ear, here /eə/ as in air, there

YES 12 | 5


CURRENT AFFAIRS

SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION 7

Speak: German Jew, Michael Wolffsohn, recently argued in Munich’s Focus that the time had come to call a halt to demands for the restitution of property stolen by the Nazis, arguing that the descendants of criminals aren’t themselves considered criminals. Do you agree? Or is this simply a question of stolen property which, under any legal system, should be returned to its rightful owners?

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Watch: a 30-minute documentary about thorium: http://goo.gl/PUKHlA

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Speak: is our technology too entertainment oriented in the West, causing us to lose out to those countries that are more focused on efficiency?

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Speak: will the Greeks one day thank the Troika?

This section of the magazine offers short news stories organized thematically:

7 News - anecdotes from around the world. 8 Language News - the latest linguistic stories 9 Health News - the latest medical stories 10 Health News - the latest medical stories 11 Health News - the latest medical stories EXERCISE 2 12 Internet - Are your parents killing Facebook? 13 Internet - Too much sharing online 14

Technology: God-given Thorium - Could this little known metal save the planet?

16 Economics - Is email killing productivity? 17 Economics - Switch off your Smartphone 18 Economics - The Greek Economy: Six Years On

6 | YES 12

Yes writer George Sandford


CULTURE

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Art: Lost, found and burnt EXERCISE 24

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Psychology: new frontiers in addiction

This section of the magazine offers...

SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION 24 20-23

Travel: A Quickie in Thailand EXERCISE 23

24-26

History: the Admiral Graf Spee & the Battle of the River Plate EXERCISE 9

27-29

Accents: the Social Radar EXERCISE 33

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MEDICAL CONTROVERSIES DOSSIER

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Antibiotics: the honeymoon is over Antidepressants: billion-dollar placebos? Bipolar disorder: the price of talent and celebrity? Dyslexia: a peculiarly English-speaking condition Huntington’s disease: a test case for health insurance Autism: autie pride and the autie advantage Tuberculosis: the white plague rides again Myalgic enchephalomyelitis: chronic fatigue and terrorism Homeopathy: an elaborate placebo? Syphilis and the making of the modern world Allergies: helminths and hay fever EXERCISE 5 Poison: a user’s guide Food: is sugar the new tobacco?

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Cinema: Peter Weir’s World EXERCISE 16

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Orwell in Burma: skeletons in his anti-imperialist closet EXERCISE 19

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38

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Watch this five-part Timewatch documentary (10 minutes each) about the Battle of the River Plate: http://goo.gl/RMyDuZ Watch these two old ladies telling a funny story in their traditional accent. How much can you understand (yes, it is English!): http://goo.gl/lCZxvZ Watch this short Ted talk about a new alternative to antibiotics: http://goo.gl/9I1oUp Watch this fascinating TED talk about publishing bias or how ineffective and/or dangerous drugs get permission for sale: http://goo.gl/2fSXOu Watch this short talk about the misdiagnosis of autism and the use of neurology to correct it: http://goo.gl/2lqfcD View this photographer’s powerful images of XDR-TB from around the world: http://goo.gl/ijH2xZ Watch Jamie Oliver getting passionate about diet and sugar: http://goo.gl/vR77Mg Watch this 2010 interview with Peter Weir at the BAFTA awards: http://goo.gl/FNKzU2

Politics: Charles Haughey – the most controversial name in Irish politics EXERCISE 25

YES 12 |  19


Travel

A Quickie in Thailand by Irene Tremblay

L

ast Summer I visited Thailand. It was my first time in Asia, and my first long vacation in a while1: two full weeks! When the planning got serious, I realized2 that two weeks wasn’t really much time. Not for all the things I wanted to do and see. In fact, a guidebook I bought described a two-week itinerary as ‘just a quickie’ 3. So I resigned myself to simply grazing the surface of4 the country, without much time to venture off the beaten path5.

My First Buddha First stop, Bangkok. Getting around6 on the modern BTS Skytrain was pretty7 easy, figuring out8 how to get to the

View of Bangkok from the train tracks

Photo by Nacho García Tejedor

river bus service was trickier9. We made it across10 the city and up the river to the famous Wat Phra Kaew, the temple housing the revered Emerald Buddha. The elaborate beauty of the site almost made me forget the fatigue, the boiling-hot11 humidity of the air, and how crowded12 the complex was at the time. We made it out13 just in time for the rain to force my companion and me into the nearest restaurant. It was a small family-owned14 business, with plastic tablecloths15 and mismatched16 place settings17. The lunch we had there was the first of many delicious meals. I thought I could never get tired of Thai food.

Unicorns & Replicants

Curry in Bangkok in a while – in a considerable time 2 to realize – (false friend) become conscious 3 quickie – (in this case) rapid visit. ‘Quickie’ can refer to anything done quickly but especially a drink or sex. There is a sexual innuendo in the comment. 4 to graze the surface of – (in this case) superficially visit 5 off the beaten track – away from the established routes 6 to get around (get-got-got) – move about 1

20 | YES 12

Photo by Irene Tremblay

pretty (adv.) – quite, reasonably to figure out – discover, determine 9 trickier – less easy, more difficult 10 to make it across (makemade-made) – manage to cross 11 boiling-hot – (emphatic) very hot 12 crowded – full of people 13 to make it out (make-mademade) – manage to leave 14 family-owned – managed by a family, independent 15 tablecloth – covering for a table off which one is going to eat

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Bangkok felt like the quintessential Asian metropolis. Impeccably dressed young women watched soap operas18 on their smartphones, as they stood on raised19 train platforms20 that overlooked21 crowded12 neonlit22 streets. We watched the steam23 rise24 from the food stalls25 up towards the skyscrapers26. At times it was like walking onto a set of Blade Runner! mismatched – inconsistent, assorted, miscellaneous 17 place setting – 18 soap opera – melodramatic TV series 19 raised – elevated 20 train platform – 16

to overlook – look onto, offer a view of, be above 22 neon-lit – illuminated by neon lights 23 steam – hot water vapour 24 to rise (rise-rose-risen) – ascend 25 food stall – stand offering takeaway food 26 skyscraper – very tall building 21

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Language

British Accents as a Social Radar by George Sandford

disparaging15 their neighbours’; examples include Newcastle and Sunderland in the Northeast, Liverpool and Manchester in the Northwest, Sheffield and Barnsley in South Yorkshire and Wolverhampton and Birmingham in the Midlands. The ear of people not directly connected to such communities will be less finely16 attuned 17 but, in general, most Britons have what seems to be an innate ability to identify the accents of the major cities and regions.

A History of Invasion

The Invisible Social Radar Two British strangers1 meet for the first time in a hotel reception in Spain. After just2 one minute of exchanging polite pleasantries3 such as, “Lovely weather!”, and “How was your flight?” they will have ascertained4 all they need to know about their interlocutor. Specifically, they will have gleaned 5 the person’s hometown, their social class, likely6 education and profession and all without asking for this information directly. How can this be possible? The answer is simple and comes down to7 accent. The UK is blessed with 8 a myriad of9 accents which go far beyond 10 simple classification into English, Northern Irish, Scottish and Welsh. Each country has its regional and local variations which are as obvious to the listener as somebody wearing a brightly coloured 11 hat. Towns and cities no more than a stone’s throw12 apart proudly boast13 their own accent whilst 14 strangers – (false friend) people who do not know each other 2 just – (in this case) only 3 pleasantries – phatic exchanges, inconsequential comments made as part of a polite conversation 4 to ascertain – determine, discover 5 to glean – garner, obtain 6 likely – probable 1

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to come down to (come-camecome) – be a question of 8 to be blessed with – have (fortunately) 9 a myriad of – a lot of 10 to go far beyond (go-wentgone) – are much more complicated than 11 brightly coloured – colourful 12 a stone’s throw – a relatively short distance

7

Robert Winder in his book Bloody Foreigners, contends18 that ultimately19, every resident of Britain is the descendant of an immigrant. It’s believed that the first settlers20 came to Britain around 25,000BCE 21 when the ice age caused Britain to be a peninsula connected to mainland22 Europe. After melting23 glaciers marooned24 the island, the next group of migrants were the Celts in the 2 nd Century BCE, although they were only given that name much later and were not a homogeneous people but various tribes from Northern Central Europe and, later, Iberia. The Romans occupied ‘England’ from 43-410CE 25 and, when they left to defend Rome, the power vacuum26 was filled by the Anglo-Saxons. In the 9th Century Danish and Norwegian Vikings occupied large27 parts of Britain. Then, in 1066 William of Normandy conquered England and many Norman French words were added to the Germanic lexicon of Anglo-Saxons and Vikings. Over the next thousand years today’s local accents emerged from the relative importance of the different invaders’ languages and the natural evolution of local varieties in relative isolation. to proudly boast – take pride in whilst /’wailst/ – by contrast 15 to disparage – (false friend) have disdain for 16 finely – precisely, subtly 17 to be attuned – (in this case) be able to differentiate 18 to contend – argue, say 19 ultimately – (false friend) in the final analysis 20 settler – colonist

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BCE – before Common Era, before Christ (BC) 22 mainland (adj.) – continental 23 melting – changing from solid to liquid 24 to maroon – strand, isolate 25 CE – Common Era, Anno Domini (AD) 26 power vacuum – absence of a central authority 27 large – (false friend) extensive 21

YES 12 | 27


Society

The Great Pox S

yphilis, also known historically as ‘the great pox’1 was almost certainly brought back to Europe by Christopher Columbus’s sailors2. If the European diseases measles3 and smallpox4 decimated the Native American population, syphilis also brought epic suffering to the Old World. The German humanist Joseph Grunpeck (14731530) commented, “Nothing more terrible or disgusting5 has ever been known on the Earth”. We are not going to dwell on6 the hideous7 things that untreated syphilis did to the human body but rather8 this article will look at the disease’s impact on European society.

Syphilitic Nationalism Syphilis was a stimulus to nationalism in Europe. It was apparently essential to link such a divine punishment9 for sexual sinfulness10 to others. The English called the great pox ‘the French disease’. The French called it ‘the Italian disease’, the Italians called it ‘the Spanish disease’ and the Russians called it ‘the Polish disease’. Finally, the Arabs called syphilis ‘the disease of the Christians’!

Syphilis & the Reformation11 One early sufferer was Pope Alexander VI’s son, cardinal Cesare Borgia. He ended up having to wear a mask to cover his deformed features12 . In fact, the ‘purple flowers’ (i.e. pustules) on the faces of members of the Church throughout13 Europe was indisputable evidence of the lie14 in clerical celibacy and indeed15 Protestants used the syphilis epidemic for anti-Catholic propaganda purposes.

Changing Symptoms Initially, the disease spread16 quickly causing hideous7 disfigurement and many deaths in the early stages17. However, syphilis gradually changed to a chronic form. in contrast to ‘smallpox’ sailor – seaman, mariner (poetic) 3 measles – rubeola (technical) 4 smallpox – variola (technical) 5 disgusting – (false friend) repulsive 6 to dwell on sth. – consider sth. in detail

hideous – very ugly, shocking but rather – by contrast 9 punishment – retribution, disciplining 10 sinfulness – immorality 11 the Reformation – the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant churches in the 16th Century

Portrait of a Syphilitic by Rembrandt

The initial symptoms of the disease could remain18 dormant for up to19 25 years. Then it led to20 heart damage and insanity, typically delusions21 of grandeur. At one time 10% of patients in mental hospitals were suffering from syphilitic madness.

Doctor-Patient Confidentiality Syphilis had a massive impact on Europe. It is estimated that between 1494 and the 1940s perhaps a fifth of the population were infected at any one time. Yet22, because syphilis was a sexually transmitted disease it was more or less unmentionable for those 450 years. The concept of doctor-patient confidentiality arose23 largely24 out of25 the syphilis epidemic. (facial) features – face throughout – in every part of 14 lie (n.) – untruth 15 indeed – (emphatic) in fact 16 to spread (spread-spreadspread) – propagate 17 stage – phase 18 to remain – continue to be, stay

up to – as many as to lead to (lead-led-led) – cause 21 delusion – fantasy, self-deception 22 yet – however 23 to arise (arise-arose-arisen) – emerge 24 largely – mostly, primarily 25 out of – from

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Food

Sugar The New Tobacco T

he latest food scare1 in the Anglosphere2 revolves around3 sugar. Sugar has been labelled4 as ‘poisonous’ and ‘addictive’. In March 2014 the World Health Organization recommended that our daily intake 5 of sugar be 6 the equivalent of six teaspoons7, 8 the average 9 American consumes 20 10 . “Sugar is the new tobacco” according to Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Liverpool, Simon Capewell.

Bags of white sugar

Photo by OSU Special Collections & Archives

Adding Sugar The problem started in the 1970s when the developed world went fat-free11. To compensate for the effect of reducing fat, the food industry added sugar. And then they added more sugar. Adding sugar makes food more tasteful and causes people to eat more. Over the last 25 years British sugar consumption has increased by a third. Meanwhile, 80% of US grocery items12 contain added sugar. There is added sugar in sausages13, smoked salmon, soups, pizza, salad dressing14 , breakfast cereals and sliced bread15. A cinema-size Coke allegedly16 contains the equivalent of 44 teaspoons of sugar – more than what the WHO recommends you consume in an entire week!

The ‘Diabesity’ Epidemic The result of the switch17 from fat to sugar has been the ‘diabesity’ epidemic. Obesity, heart disease, diabetes and Alzheimer’s are now a bigger health problem than infectious diseases. The link between obesity, type-2 diabetes and dementia has now been largely18 accepted in the medical community. Only a generation ago none of these conditions was a major problem. There are now more obese people in the world than undernourished19 people. Photo by Alians PL (alians@mm.pl)

food scare – food-related news story that causes public alarm 2 the Anglosphere – English-speaking countries 3 to revolve around – be centred on 4 to label – call, categorize as 5 intake – consumption 6 be (subjunctive) – should be 1

46 | YES 12

teaspoon – a can of cola contains approximately 10 teaspoons 9 average (adj.) – typical 10 equivalent to 40kg per year 11 to go fat-free (go-went-gone)

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– stop consuming fats (= natural subcutaneous oily substances in animals bodies) 12 grocery items – food for domestic consumption 13 sausages – 14 salad dressing – sauce for

salads sliced bread – 16 allegedly – supposedly 17 switch – change 18 largely – generally 19 undernourished – having insufficient food for good health 15


Literature

ORWELL IN BURMA by Colman Keane

An Odd1 Choice By late-1921 Eric Blair (later known as George Orwell 2) was in a quandary3. Although many of his Eton contemporaries were going to Oxford or Cambridge or had landed4 cushy numbers 5 in the City, the former6 18-year-old Eton7 slacker8 was still unsure 9 as to what to do. In January 1922 he decided that, given his family’s long connections with colonial service, he could do worse than10 sit11 the entrance exam for the India Police. For a former12 Eton boy the entrance exam was far from challenging13 and Blair sailed through14 getting the seventh best mark in the process. He placed the far from

The passport photo of Eric Blair (George Orwell)

Moulmein where Eric Blair’s relatives lived odd – (in this case) strange, surprising 2 a pen name he adopted in 1933 while writing for the New Adelphi 3 to be in a quandary – be in a state of uncertainty, face a dilemma 4 to land sth. – obtain sth. 5 cushy number – attractive job 6 the former – (in this case) the 1

52 | YES 12

Photo by Arnold Wright

man who had been an Eton College is one of the most prestigious and elitist secondary schools in Britain 8 slacker – idler, sb. who does not like work or effort 9 unsure – uncertain 10 he could do worse than – a reasonable option for him was to 11 to sit (sit-sat-sat) – (in this case)

7

fashionable Burma as his first choice of five possible postings15, a choice that can only be understood when we remember that his mother’s family were still living in the Southern port town of Moulmein and that there “he would possess a swathe of16 family connections”17. Nevertheless, Burma (essentially a backwater18 of the Empire) would have been viewed as an odd19 choice. Indeed20, the India Office records of the time pointed to the fact that in recent years as many as six officers posted to Burma had suffered mental breakdowns21 while two others had taken their own lives22. take former – ex13 far from challenging – easy 14 to sail through – pass without effort 15 posting – destination 16 a swathe of – a series of, a lot of 17 D. J. Taylor, Orwell: the Life, Vintage, London, 2004 18 backwater – isolated 12

peripheral place odd – strange, unusual 20 indeed – (emphatic) in fact 21 nervous breakdown – emotional collapse, period of mental illness characterized by depression and anxiety 22 to take one’s own life (taketook-taken) – commit suicide

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GRAMMAR

SPEAKING EXTENSION 67

This section of the magazine offers...

THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE 64 65

English in context: illness vs. disease English in context: sick of being ill EXERCISE 11

66

Collocation: cure, heal or treat?

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Semantics: when is a disorder a disease?

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US vs. UK: the health divide – spelling US vs. UK: the health divide – different words for different folks EXERCISE 29

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Medical false friends 1 Medical false friends 2 Medical false friends 3 EXERCISE 30

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Medical phrasal verbs: illness, pain and death Medical phrasal verbs: care and treatment Medical phrasal verbs: symptoms EXERCISE 26

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Etymology: Galen and his humours Etymology: more Galenic terms EXERCISE 31

Speak: look through the list of conditions and debate which you consider diseases and which you don’t. Reading and Listening: you can find a long list of short articles, many of them read in US English at: http://goo.gl/y3hB2t

AUDIO SCRIPTS EXTENSION Track 1

Conversation point: should people be forced to eat more healthily? If so, how?

Track 2

Conversation point: should all religions be treated equally or are some religions better than others?

Track 3

Conversation point: the ‘shale revolution’ means that the USA will be the world’s biggest supplier of hydrocarbons by 2020. This will “transform world politics as profoundly as the collapse of the Berlin Wall” (according to Fraser Nelson). What implications does it have for the world and for the English language?

Tracks 5-8 Conversation point: have you ever got lost? How did you feel? What did you learn?

Yes writer George Sandford

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Idioms: good health and bad health Idioms: metaphorical illnesses EXERCISE 32

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The YES community

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Register: technical vs. everyday medical terms EXERCISE 3

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Subscription Information Picture Description

Pronunciation: medical families Pronunciation: key medical terms EXERCISE 12

YES 12 | 63


False Friends

Hospital False Friends

A casualty Photo by UN Photo/Logan Abassi

Casualty Casualty does not mean ‘by chance’ or ‘by coincidence’. In British English ‘Casualty’ (or ‘the Casualty Unit’) is the part of the hospital where accident victims or other emergency cases are brought. A casualty can also mean the victim of an accident, disaster or act of war: - The military refer to civilian casualties euphemistically as ‘collateral damage’. The patients in Casualty normally have injuries, i.e. physical damage to their person – they are not suffering from ‘insult’ or ‘offence’. At the weekend in Britain most admissions to Casualty are intoxicated. This means that they are drunk. Similarly, intoxication refers to a state of drunkenness, not to food poisoning1.

A hospital normally has an out-patients’ department – do not confuse this with the word ‘ambulatory’, which is a part of a church in which processions sometimes take place2. The adjective infirm is a false friend – the infirm (particularly old people) are weak, but not necessarily ill. However, an infirmary is another word for a hospital.

Healthcare The word ‘assistance’, meaning ‘help’, is not normally used to refer to treatment in the health service, for example we talk about ‘Primary Health Care’ for patients (not assistance). Moreover, the words ‘sanitary’ and ‘sanitation’ have more to do with3 hygiene /ˈhaiʤi:n/ than healthcare. For example, sanitary towels4 are a product of feminine hygiene, and ‘public sanitation’ may include street cleaning or refuse 5 collection.

Surgery

Surgery 1

food poisoning – illness caused by bacteria or other toxins in food, typically with vomiting and diarrhoea

30

Photo by Espa1010

to take place (take-took-taken) – happen, occur 3 to have more to do with (havehad-had) – be more closely

Surgeons perform surgical operations, not ‘interventions’. The word ‘surgery’ itself can be confusing, too. It refers, of course, to surgeons who perform operations on people, but it has another meaning: a doctor’s surgery is the place where patients visit and consult their doctor (in the USA the doctor’s surgery is called, more reasonably, a doctor’s office). In British English the alcohol used for disinfection is known as surgical spirit.

2

4

related to sanitary towel – sanitary napkin (US English), soft absorbent pad used during

5

menstruation refuse – rubbish (UK English), garbage (US English), waste

YES 12 | 71


Etymology

Medical Expressions Expressions from Defunct Doctors English is littered with1 expressions that show a profound ignorance of modern medicine. Greek medicine – as promoted by Galen of Pergamon – was based on the belief that there were four humours which had to be kept in balance. These were blood2, phlegm (associated with the brain), yellow bile3 (associated with the liver4) and black bile (associated with the spleen5).

Bloody Angry

Medieval Medicine

Blood was closely associated with anger. So, when you were angry your blood would be hot and vice-versa. This is reflected in the phrase “it makes my blood boil6”, which means ‘it makes me very angry’: -  When I think of how I looked after him all those years, it makes my blood boil. Likewise7, if you kill someone in cold blood it means that you murder him/her intentionally, not because you were in a passionate rage 8. Similarly, “there’s bad blood between them”, means that two rival individuals or groups hate each other. The blood’s association with

Galen

littered with – peppered with, full of 2 blood /blʌd/ – red liquid typically found in veins and arteries 3 bile – alkaline fluid which helps digestion and is secreted by the

1

76 | YES 12

liver (= hepatic organ) liver – hepatic organ 5 spleen – organ that controls the quality of your blood 6 to boil [I] – (of liquids) be so hot that it becomes vapour

4

anger led to9 the spleen5 being linked to the same emotion. That’s why we say that someone vents10 his (or her) spleen when s/he has a fit11 of anger; -  He used the departmental meeting as an opportunity to vent his spleen about the inefficiencies. However, notice that when blood was the predominant humour people were believed to be optimistic, so ‘sanguine’ means ‘optimistic’.

‘Bile’ Bodies Since Greek times it was thought that bile3 influenced the emotions. Indeed12, the word ‘melancholy’ comes from the Greek words for black (= melaina) and bile (=chole 13). On the other hand, someone who had lily- (i.e. white) coloured bile was thought to be frightened. Someone whose liver4 was permanently white was a coward14. So, in Modern English we use the adjectival phrase ‘lily-livered’ to mean ‘cowardly’ (adj.): -  They haven’t spoken since she called him a lily-livered coward. Mediaeval medicine associated green bile with jealousy. That is the reason why we still say that someone is green with envy in Modern English: -  When they saw his new car they were green with envy. likewise – similarly, in the same way 8 rage – fury, attack of anger 9 to lead to (lead-led-led) – cause 10 to vent – express 11 fit – attack, bout

7

indeed – (emphatic) in fact this word also gives us ‘cholera’ (= a disease) and ‘choleric’ (= angry) 14 coward – sb. with no valour 12 13

31


AUDIO SCRIPTS

The following pages contain the transcriptions of what is spoken on the audio files.

SPOKEN-ENGLISH TIPS

Spoken English is significantly different from the written language: A more limited vocabulary is generally used and it is, by definition, more colloquial. Moreover1, spoken English uses many more incomplete or badly constructed sentences. On the other hand, intonation and stress can be used in speech.

HOW TO USE THE AUDIO SCRIPTS

Follow our eight-step process to get the most out of the audio scripts:

1

2

3

Before you listen we recommend that you read through the relevant section of the footnotes2 (not the text itself). This should give you some idea of the subject3 and help you to understand the more difficult vocabulary as you listen. When you listen the first time, don’t expect to understand everything; listening practice should not be a painful4 process. Simply see how much meaning you can extract from the recording. Listen more times going back to the footnotes to integrate the information you have.

YES NO. 12 TRACK LIST Mini-debates (35m25s) 1. What should be done to make people eat more healthily? (15m43s) 2. Religious Statues in Oklahoma (11m31s) 3. Whither America? (8m11s) 4. Emergency Call (5m36s) Monologues: Getting Lost (16m29s) 5. Monologue 1 [British English] (3m21s) 6. Monologue 2 [US English] (4m13s) 7. Monologue 3 [US English] (7m08s) 8. Monologue 4 [US English] (1m47s) 9. Pronunciation: Medical Terms (3m17s) 10. Picture Description (5m00s) Total time: 1h05m47s

4 5 6 7 8

Once you understand reasonably well, do the relevant exercise.

Finally, read the audio scripts as you listen again.

Stop each time you get lost or encounter a structure that interests or confuses you. Repeat words or phrases whose pronunciation surprises you.

Two or three days later, listen to the text again without reading to see if your understanding has improved5.

This process is intense and time-consuming. However, it will eventually6 solve the problem most learners have of relating7 the spoken word to the written. Once you’ve done that, the rest is easy!

moreover – what’s more, furthermore footnotes – notes at the bottom of the page (in this box) 3 subject (n.) – (in this context) theme 4 painful – (in this context) arduous, unpleasant 5 to improve – get better 6 eventually – (false friend) in the end 7 to relate – associate, connect, link 1

2

YES 12 | 87


AUDIO SCRIPTS

Mini-debates  1. What should be done to make people eat more healthily? (15m43s) Englishman (EM): OK, do you think they should be making unhealthy1 foods more difficult to buy in one way or the other or more expensive? Should they be nudging2 people to eat more healthily3 or is it your personal right to eat as badly as you like? American woman (AW): I think they should make it easier and cheaper to eat healthily. The problem with these sugary foods and the – y’know4 – unhealthy food is that you can buy a lot of it for cheap5. American man 1 (AM1): It’s convenient6. American man 2 (AM2): It’s convenient and the processed food as you say is a lot cheaper than, say7, buying fresh ingredients and cooking yourself. EM: Well, the manufactures would just8 say that they make food that people like because they’re interested in selling things. AM1: Well, they pump it… the reason why people like it is because it’s so

unhealthy – harmful to health, insalubrious to nudge – gently encourage, stimulate, coax 3 more healthily – in a way that promotes good health 4 y’know – (pause filler) I mean, sort of, kind of, like 5 for cheap – (informal) cheaply, inexpensively 6 convenient – (false friend) easily available 7 say – (in this case) for example 8 just – (in this case) simply 9 bland – (false friend) tasteless, flavourless, insipid 1

2

88 | YES 12

bland9 that they have to pump it full of10 salt and sugar in order to make it flavorful11. So, I mean12, what’s giving the flavor in those processed foods is your13 salt and your13 sugar. AM2: Yeah. EM: But if that’s what people like? Isn’t that their choice? AM1: I don’t think – I mean12 – you should ban14 anything personally. But I do like15 the point that you made... is that they should try to make organic food cheaper to buy so that the people could eat more healthily in that sense. But banning14 food I don’t think... EM: What is this? How are you making it cheaper? How do you make it cheaper? AM1: Well, my question is why is it that organic food is so much more expensive than nonorganic food? It seems to me the pesticides are pretty16 expensive. EM: Because it’s grown in a smaller quantity.

to pump A full of B – fill A with B flavorful (US English) – flavourful (UK English), tasty 12 I mean – (pause filler) y’know, like, kind of, sort of 13 your – (colloquial) the 14 to ban – prohibit 15 do like – (emphatic) like 16 pretty (adv.) – quite, reasonably 17 amount – quantity, (in this case) proportion 18 crop – harvest, agricultural production 19 ladybird (UK English) – ladybug (US English)

(35m25s) AM2: Yeah. AM1: Probably, yeah, that reason. But – y’know4 – that’s true; good point. EM: But, I mean12, if you don’t use pesticides, presumably you lose a certain amount17 of the crop18. You have to use alternatives to pesticides like putting in your13 ladybirds19 or... AM1: Well, but there’s20 all sorts of things 21 . Companion gardening, for example. There are certain foods that are grown together repel insects. There’s20 also insects that eat the bad insects like, for example, the ladybird19 or – what do they call them? – I think ladybird and ladybug, depending on which country you’re from, whether English or American. EM: But you’ve got presumably buying in your13 ladybird/bugs cost money. It’s much easier just8 to get a big vat22 full of – sort of23 – poisonous24 chemicals and just8 spray everything if you’re doing something on that scale. AM1: Yeah. EM: Part of the problem with organic is that it’s not on a scale that would serve to feed large25 sections of the population. It’s very good for middle-class people who want to be liberal and want to be... AM1: I think more than that it’s the

there’s – (colloquial/in this case) there are all sorts of things – many different alternatives 22 vat – container 23 sort of – (pause filler) kind of, I mean, y’know, like 24 poisonous – toxic 25 large – (false friend) major, significant

10

20

11

21

8

63


AUDIO SCRIPTS

4. Emergency Call (5m36s)

Listen to this authentic dialogue between a woman giving birth alone and an emergency-services operator.

Operator (Op): Go ahead216, caller. What’s the problem? Tell me exactly what’s happened. Sarah L (SL): Er, um, I think I’m having a baby right now217. Op: You think you’re having a baby? SL: Yes (Groans218) Op: OK, hold the line219 one moment for me... I’m going to ask you some questions – it won’t delay220 the ambulance, OK? SL: OK... Oh, Jesus Christ, gagh. (Groaning sounds) Oh God. Op: OK, how old are you? SL: Um, 30. Op: 30. Is there anyone there with you? SL: No, nobody. There’s someone on their way over221, apparently. Op: Somebody’s on their way over, are they? SL: Yes. Op: OK. How many weeks or months pregnant are you? SL: I’m 40 plus222. Op: You’re 40 plus, are you? OK. And is the baby completely out? SL: No, I’ve just8 got so much pressure, and I’m pushing223 so much, I... Op: OK, can you see, feel or touch any part of the baby? go ahead – (in this case) please start talking right now – (emphatic) now, at this moment 218 to groan – make a deep inarticulate sound expressing pain 219 hold the line (hold-held-held) – don’t ring off 220 to delay sth. – cause sth. to arrive later 221 to be on one’s way over – be coming here

SL: Um, no, I don’t think so, but it looks very open down there. Op: OK, are you having contractions? SL: Yeah, every 30 seconds or so224. Op: Right, is this your first delivery225? SL: No. Op: Is there any serious bleeding226? SL: Yes. Op: Right, OK. Do you have any highrisk complications227? SL: Um, no. Op: OK. SL: (Cries out) Op: Listen carefully and do exactly as I say, OK? SL: Yeah. Op: Right, OK. Where are you now at the moment and how long is the person who’s coming with you going to be?228 SL: (Voice strained) Um, I’m not sure. Op: You’re not sure. Is the door open for them to come in? SL: No. Oh God... Op: The door’s not open. How far are you away from the door? Can you get to the door and back to the phone? Or take the phone with you? SL: I ca... at the moment... there’s something coming out. to be 40 plus – be over 40 weeks pregnant to push – apply pressure, squeeze or so – approximately, more or less 225 delivery – (in this case) baby 226 serious bleeding – a lot of blood 227 high-risk complications – medical problems that make the birth especially dangerous 228 how long is the person who’s coming

216

222

217

223

18

224

Illustration by William Hunter

Op: Right, OK, get on229 the floor, OK? SL: Yes (Cries out). It’s the head. It’s out. Op: It’s the head, is it? OK, the head is out. SL: Oh. Oh, it’s the head. Oh. Head’s out. Op: OK. Is the baby crying or breathing230? SL: I can’t tell. (Groans218 in pain) Oh my God! (Gasps231) I can just8 feel the huge232 lump233 in-between my legs. with you going to be? – how much time do you think you will have to wait for the person who is going to accompany you? 229 to get on (get-got-got) sit on, descend to 230 to breathe – inhale and exhale 231 to gasp – inhale noisily with one’s mouth open 232 huge – enormous, gigantic 233 lump – irregular-shaped mass YES 12 | 101


EXERCISES

PAGE

PAGE

EXERCISE

123

112

1. Illustrations round-up: see if you can identify most of the objects and actions illustrated in the footnotes of this issue.

113

114

2. Title Tag: can you match these alternative titles to the news, language news and health news articles on pp. 7-11? 3. Register: match the everyday medical words to their technical synonyms (p. 84). 4. Word Search: find words from the medical dossier (pp. 30-47, 64-84).

124

125

115

5. Prepositions: replace the prepositions in this text about peanut allergies (pp. 42-43).

116

6. Crossword for general vocabulary revision.

126

117

7. Sentence transformation for general syntax revision of structures in this issue.

118

8. Debates: listening comprehension for audio tracks 1-3 (pp. 88-100).

119

9. Too many words: find the unnecessary words in this extract from the history article on pp. 24-26. 10. US vs. UK: fill the gaps in the chart. This relates to the whole magazine. 11. English in Context: vocabulary relating to illness and disease from pp. 64-65).

127

120

121

122

12. Pronunciation: on mispronounced medical terms from (pp. 80-81) 13. Have you learned the pronunciation of the words highlighted in the magazine? 14. Word game: test your vocabulary and understanding of English morphology. 15. Phrasal Verbs: how many new phrasal verbs have you learned this month? This exercise tests for the phrasal verbs in the footnotes.

EXERCISE 16. Cinema: a quiz about the films of Peter Weir (pp. 48-51). 17. False Friends: see if you remember the false friends marked in the footnotes throughout the magazine. 18. Dialogue: a multiple-choice listening exercise on audio track 4 (pp. 101-103). 19. Homophones: replace the homophones so that this excerpt from the article on Orwell in Burma makes sense (pp. 52-55). 20. Internet Listening: test your listening comprehension of this fascinating talk about dying. 21. Visualizing Vocabulary: can you identify these medical pictures? 22. Translation: correct this real example of Tinglish – broken English from Thailand (p. 23). 23. Travel: fill in the names on this map of Southeast Asia (pp. 20-23). 24. Art: answer these open questions about the text on pp. 60-61. 25. Politics: test your knowledge of Irish political terms from pp. 56-59. 26. Phrasal verbs: have you learned the medical multi-word verbs on pp. 73-75? 27. Monologues: a true-false listening comprehension on audio tracks 5-8. 28. Wordplay: another word game – relating to the article on poisons on pp. 44-45.

128

29. US vs. UK: fill in the chart with medical terms from pp. 68-69.

129

30. False Friends: relating to the article on pp. 70-72). 31. Etymology: test your knowledge of the medical origin of everyday terms from pp. 76-77.

130

32. idioms: fill the gaps in this exercise relating to the medical expressions on pp. 78-79 33. Accents: can you place these varieties of British English? (pp. 27-29).

131-133 ANSWERS YES 12 | 111


21. Visualizing Vocabulary. See if you can match the medical pictures below with their definitions. Notice that this vocabulary does not necessarily appear in the magazine: an anaesthetist an injection a scalpel

crutches a mask scrubs

a drip MRI a splint

a gurney operating theatre a witch doctor

the Heimlich manoeuvre paramedics an x-ray

1.______________________

2._____________________

3._____________________

4._____________________

5._____________________

6._____________________

7._____________________

8._____________________

9._____________________

10.____________________

11._____________________

12._____________________ 13._____________________ 14._____________________ 15._____________________

22. Translation. The following examples of Tinglish (broken English from Thailand) come from the internet. Try to work out what is wrong and correct the text. The footnotes to the right should help you: 1. Don’t drive the boats by careless or use highspeed near Please wear preserver every times when drive or travel by waterway. 2. Shrimp tempura gyoza with raspberry source1 3. Decommentary (a section in a DVD store) 4. You sahtoopid by yourself (meaning: you made an error that was completely your fault) 5. This is suck! (expressing frustration) 6. Are you boring? ­ 7. I’m not pretty sure 8. Please beware of2 your belongings 9. Steep cliff. Don’t be closed3 10. Sorry for you uninconvenience 11. Go slow. Accident porn4 area

misspelling: the correct word is a British homophone of ‘source’ 2 wrong word but similar spelling to one possible correct alternative 3 wrong word but similar spelling to the right one 4 wrong word but similar spelling to the right one 1

YES 12 | 125


STAFF Anglo Files, S.L. (publisher) Nicholas Franklin (editor) nick@yes-mag.com Marina Carresi (artistic director and photography, proofreading) marina@yes-mag.com Nathan Burkiewicz (sub-editor, page-design, webmaster) nathan@yes-mag.com Fabiola Vieyra (promotion) Josh Tampico (sound engineer) Gonzalo Cohen (legal)

WRITERS, VOICES, INVALUABLE SUPPORT & HELPING HANDS Douglas Jasch, Prof. Raoul Franklin, Colman Keane, Miles Pratt, Almudena Cáceres, Susannah Jones, Robbie K. Jones, AmyJo Doherty, Jim Trainor, Rod E. Musselman, Adrian Hall, Hamish Binns, Lois Humphrey, Julie Davies, Irene Tremblay, Dave Mooney, Howard Brown, Bea Alzona, Saskia Eijkins.

PHOTOGRAPHY Cover photo: Jack Delano - Library of Congress Irene Tremblay, Sara L Carresi, Leonardo L Carresi, Irene Sanz, Nicole Jewell, Nacho García Tejedor, Carlos Recio 134 | YES 12

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Published by Anglo Files S.L. C/ Bronce 27, 11-B, Madrid 28045 Depósito legal: M-9788-2013 // ISSN: 2255-5676 PVP: 9,95€ VAT included/incluido IVA // Printed in Spain All rights reserved. Neither all nor part of this magazine can be reproduced, recorded in or transmitted by any information-recovery system by any means, be it mechanical, photochemical, magnetic, electronic, photocopies or any other method or used for commercial purposes without prior written permission from the publisher and in accordance with the Intellectual Property Law. Any violation of these terms and conditions will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.


Photo by Brice Stratford

In the Next Volume of Your English Supplement Travel

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

Looking for William: in Search of Shakespeare - Shakespearean sites in England

Feature

Shakespeare in Love Italy - Did Shakespeare travel to southern Europe? The secrets behind all Shakespeare’s major plays

Cinema Shakespeare: scriptwriter

The greatest poet and dramatist in the English language was born 450 years ago (in 1564). We celebrate with a special edition dedicated to William Shakespeare.

Idioms How Shakespeare transformed the English language

False Friends Shakespearean False Friends ...and much more.


Yes - Your English Supplement: Volume 12  

Medical English: The Complete Guide

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