YOUR ENGLISH SUPPLEMENT Volume 11 // 9.95â‚Ź
22 pages of exercises More than 1 hour of audio
Secrets of A Suffragette Martyr Interview about the Cathars New Confucianism
The Passive Voice
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YES Volume 11
This page should help you to navigate the magazine in general. Notice that on pages 6, 19, 65, 87 and 111 there are more details for each section of the magazine.
68 Audio Download Code: Yes11_a52w_74 To download the audio files for this issue, please go to the 'Downloads' page on www.yes-mag.com for instructions. You will need the code given above to access the files. www.yes-mag.com // facebook.com/YesZine // @yeszine
How to Use Your English Supplement
6 7 9 10 12 14 16
Current Affairs Contents News and anecdotes Language News Science News Internet Politics: Whither Democracy? Economics: why we buy
19 Culture Contents 20 Travel: Boating through Britain & Ireland 24 History: the Battle of Clontarf VIOLENT EARTH DOSSIER 28 Feature: a Glimpse of Gaia 30 Earthquakes 33 Floods 34 Volcanoes 38 Sinkholes 39 Landslides 40 Earthquake Myths 42 Sports: the 1913 Derby 45 Visualizing Vocabulary 46 Biography: Emily Davison 50 Art: Waterhouse 54 Society: Nymphs 58 Cinema: Geology at the Movies 62 Philosophy: Confucius 63 Explorers: Frobisher in Frisland 64 Religion: the Cathars 65 66 68 74 76 78 79 80 81 82 84
Grammar Contents English in Context: dirt and cleaning Grammar Focus: the passive Metaphorical Phrasal Verbs Geological Idioms Word Building: kind Etymology: earthquakes and Quakers Pronunciation: two-vowel schwa Translation: error detectives The YES community Names: mononyms
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Audio Scripts Contents Audio Scripts
111 Exercises Contents 112 Exercises 134 135
Staff and contact addresses In next monthâ€™s issue YES 11 | 3
demise2 of humanity. This is not just something that Hollywood scriptwriters3 think about. Such things worry computer-programming expert Jaan Tallinn, co-founder of Skype, Huw Price, professor4 of philosophy at Cambridge,
How to Use Your English Supplement
and Lo Colleg Study Par capaci dicted From telligen ‘the Si beings
Each page-long article in the magazine has been created to be used more or less independently so that you can learn and practise even if you only have five or ten minutes free. At the same time, the symbols below allow you to develop a theme you are interested in more extensively. Teachers can use these symbols to instantly prepare a class or classes around a common theme.
Exercise (at the end of the magazine). Test and consolidate what you have learned.
Speaking extension. A question aimed at provoking a group discussion of the topic in question.
Photo by GabboT
to bring about (bring-broughtbrought) – cause 2 demise – end, decline 3 scriptwriter – sb. who writes the script (= text) of a movie 4 professor – (false friend) head 1
Downloadable audio file (see also audio scripts). There are recommendations on how best to use the audio files on p. 87.
This arrow directs you to other related articles in the magazine.
of department at a university, senior academic 5 to set up (set-set-set) – create, establish 6 to arise (arise-arose-arisen) – emerge, occur
ABBREVIATIONS KEY Listening extension (Internet). Once you’ve learned the basic vocabulary of a topic, why not listen to further discussions? 4 | YES 11
These are the only abbreviations you have to know to use this magazine: sb. = somebody sth. = something swh. = somewhere [U] = uncountable noun [C] = countable noun
Some will be idea: f robots in our gent b octopu experi licate t ity can as dra simply obsole from v 1925, “ but a w
speed from t 9 naïve – 10 to tre 11 scena thetic
phone antennas. There is little danger of the message being garbled5 – as it is in the game of Chinese whispers6 – because it is so simple: “danger predator”.
The superscript numbers in the text refer to the footnotes at the bottom or at the side of the same page. The footnotes explain the difficult vocabulary as determined by our non-native proofreaders. Like you, these proofreaders are learners so they are able to identify the exact words you need to know to understand the sentence. Definitions are given in English, so that you learn to think in English and these definitions are then checked by the non-native proofreaders to ensure that you will understand them. Some words are defined by pictures: we use these visual stimuli when that is the best way to fix an idea in your memory. Read the definition or look at the illustration and then re-read the sentence in question. By working with English-language footnotes you will rapidly increase your vocabulary and learn how English words relate to each other, all of which will have a dramatic impact on your fluency and self-confidence1 . Some readers find it useful to put their finger next to the word in the article that they are looking for in the footnotes to make it easier to return to the text afterwards. Either way, it shouldn’t be difficult to find your place because the footnotes are numbered and the words are highlighted in bold. Notice that the syllables and words that should be stressed2 are underlined. Red footnotes give extra cultural (rather than linguistic) information, or they refer you to other articles.
PHONEMIC SYMBOLS Here are the phonemic symbols that we use which might cause you problems.
Meanwhile9, a study from Anglia Rus sity has found that African elephants plan on cropland11 to coincide with the new m raids are more frequent and more substa the nights are darkest. This suggests that stand that darkness lowers the risk of bei farmers12. Or perhaps they know that hu less and more lightly13 when there is a fu
MY NAME IS FLI
Dolphins have a signature whistle14 whi identify themselves and to identify others hear a familiar whistle they will repeat it b acquaintance15, which they don’t do for whistle. Moreover, a study from the Unive cago has now found that dolphins remem signature whistles14 after more than 20 gesting they have the best memory in the Photo by Ikiwaner
Research from the US Fish and Wildlife Service in Charleston, South Carolina, has confirmed decades of anecdotal reports: over half the existing crocodilian species supplement their diet with fruit. It seems that at least 13 of the 23 species of crocodiles and alligators in the world today eat fruit as well as meat. warning (adj.) – alarm to bang – beat, hit to pick up – receive 4 to relay – resent 5 garbled – incoherent, meaningless 6 Chinese whispers (UK English) – broken telephone (US English) 7 croc – (colloquial) crocodile 8 full moon – when the complete disc of the moon is visible 1
(associated with werewolves) meanwhile – at the same time raid – surprise attack 11 cropland – arable farms 12 farmer – agriculturalist 13 more lightly – less deeply 14 signature whistle – high-frequency sound that identifies an individual 15 acquaintance – known individual, (in this case) friend
self-confidence – self-assurance (opposite of ‘self-doubt’, ‘hesitancy’) to stress sth. – emphasize, underline
/ʧ/ as in church, watch /ʃ/ as in wash, sure, action /ʤ/ as in judge, gesture /ʒ/ as in measure, vision /j/ as in yes /θ/ as in thick, path /ð/ as in this, breathe /ŋ/ as in sing
/æ/ as in cat /ʌ/ as in cut /ə/ as in occur, supply, aroma /ɜ:/ as in first, turn, earn /ɔ:/ as in court, warn
/iə/ as in ear, here /eə/ as in air, there
YES 11 | 5
This section of the magazine offers short news stories organized thematically:
SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION Watch this report on the French hydrangea thieves. The presenter has real problems pronouncing ‘hydrangea’! http://goo.gl/n66Uey 7
Speak: What music could they use to torture you?
Watch this short report from The Daily Telegraph about the Happisburgh footprints: http://goo.gl/neGbIw 11
7 News - anecdotes from around the Anglosphere. 8 Celebrity News - alternative stories about the famous. 9 Language News - the latest linguistic stories 10 Science News - the latest scientific stories 11 Archaeology News - the latest news about the past EXERCISE 2 12 13
Internet: Netnominations - the latest stupidity from cyberspace Internet: What’s up with Whatsapp? - did Facebook make a good buy?
Politics: Whither Democracy? - Where did all the democratic optimism go? EXERCISE 3
16 17 18
Economics: 5 Reasons we by stuff we don’t need Economics: The Rising Cost of Breakfast Economics: New York Replaces London as World Financial Capital EXERCISE 25
6 | YES 11
Speak: is the advance of democracy unstoppable?
News the ‘Purr Minister’ – their favourite moggy9 owned by10 a Member of the House of Commons. Within11 hours ‘Bosun’ – owned by Conservative MP Sheryll Murray had received 30,000 votes – 70% of the votes cast12. Labour’s Andrew Gwynne withdrew13 his cat ‘Jude’ in protest, pointing out14 that at one point Bosun was getting 70 votes per minute. A Tory spokesperson for Bosun said that he had been framed15. Murray eventually16 withdrew13 ‘Bosun’ from the race but claimed17 that neither the cat nor any of his electoral team had done anything wrong.
Photo by Guillaume Baviere
PITY 1 THE GALLIC GARDENERS
If it weren’t bad enough that their gnomes leave home and travel the world, hard-pressed French gardeners are now facing2 a new problem. Thieves are arriving in the dead of night3 and stripping4 their hydrangeas5 of their flowers. According to French police hydrangea blooms6 are a ‘legal high’ which produce a hallucinogenic and euphoria-inducing effect when smoked. Given the recession, stolen hydrangea blooms are a cheap alternative to cannabis, the Gallic police speculate.
FELINE VOTE FIXING
Britain is famous for its democratic tradition but it seems that not all British politicians play fair7 in elections. Battersea Dogs and Cats Home, one of the UK’s most famous animal charities, organized a poll8 to find the country’s top political cat. People were asked to vote for pity – (in this case) you should feel sorry for 2 to face – confront 3 in the dead of night – the darkest part of the night 4 to strip – (in this case) rob 5 hydrangea /hiˈdreiʤəs/ – flowering Asian plant 6 bloom – flower 1
to play fair – act equitably poll – vote, election 9 moggy – (informal) cat 10 owned by – property of 11 within – (in this case) after only 12 to cast – (in this case) emit 13 to withdraw sb. (-draw/-drew/drawn) – stop the participation of sb.
An enterprising couple in the USA are planning to use a 3D printer and ultrasound images to create lifelike models of foetuses for parents-to-be18 who can’t wait to hold19 their babies. Depending on the size of the model, the 3D foetuses Photo by Evkrieken will cost between $200 and $800 each. There’s only one problem; they seem to have forgotten quite how ugly foetuses are.
Canadian rock band Skinny Puppy have been collaborating with the US War on Terror, albeit unwittingly20. A fan, who was also a guard at Guantánamo prison, recently revealed to the band that their music was being used to torture terrorist suspects. The band reacted by billing21 the US government for $666,000. They confirmed that the music had been used without their knowledge, let alone consent22 and emphasized that they were against the use of music “to inflict damage”. Other music used to torture prisoners at Guantánamo includes that of Metallica, Nine Inch Nails and Queen. to point sth. out – indicate sth. to frame sb. – falsely incriminate sb. 16 eventually – (false friend) in the end, finally 17 to claim – declare, say, state 18 parents-to-be – soon-to-be parents, people who will soon be mothers and fathers
to hold sb. (hold-held-held) – have sb. in one’s arms 20 albeit unwittingly – even though they didn’t know 21 to bill – send a bill (= demand for payment) to 22 let alone consent – much less permission
YES 11 | 7
o, what went wrong2? Well, first there was an excess of optimism. From the US attempt3 to ‘bring democracy’ to Iraq to the fact that tens of millions of new voters thought that democracy would be their fast track to4 prosperity. It would be well to remember what democracy can and can’t do.
NO SILVER BULLET5
First, democracy is no protection against corruption or incompetence. What it does do 6 is offer a system by which corrupt and incompetent politicians can be removed7 and replaced. Democracy does not give power to the best and the brightest8. However, it does give a means9 to replace an unpopular government peacefully before they do any more damage. Even the most dissatisfied individuals in society can wait a few years for the next opportunity to vote the current incumbents10 out of office11. It is this ability to change governments without social upheavals12 which makes democracy attractive for businesses and tends to make democratic countries more prosperous.
Democracy does not offer efficient planning and a clear vision. Democratic governments tend to just13 muddle through14. Yet15 it is precisely their inability to act decisively that gives democracy one of its strengths16. The power to enact17 a visionary project, without having to square it constantly with18 voters, is a recipe for disaster 19. In its muddling through14, democracy jumps from one alternative to another until it comes across20 one that works21. wither democracy – should we cause democracy to wilt (= decline, evaporate)? 2 what went wrong? – where was the error made? 3 attempt – effort 4 fast track to – easy way to get the desired results in terms of 5 silver bullet – magic solutions to one’s problems 6 does do – (emphatic) does, is capable of doing 7 to remove – (false friend) get rid of, eliminate 1
Another big advantage is that democracies don’t go to war with one another – at least they never have done so far. 22 On the subject of war, it would be good to remember that democracy won the Great War, the Second World War and the Cold War. Democracies are more prosperous and they win many, many more Nobel prizes. Democracy is the best system for letting people get on with 23 their lives without having to periodically man the barricades24. As Churchill once said, “democracy is the worst form of government – except for all the others that have been tried from time to time”. Winston Churchill
the brightest – the most intelligent people 9 a means – a way 10 incumbent – sb. who is occupying an official job 11 to vote sb. out of office – eliminate sb. from government through an election 12 social upheaval – violent rebellion 13 just – (in this case) simply 14 to muddle through – survive by improvising 15 yet – however 8
Photo by Carol Highsmith
strength – advantage to enact sth. – put sth. into practice 18 to square sth. with sb. – obtain sb’s approval 19 is a recipe for disaster – will probably have disastrous results 20 to come across (come-camecome) – encounter 21 to work – function, be successful 22 the exception that proves the rule is Britain and 16 17
Finland’s declaration of war during World War Two because Britain was fighting Germany and Germany was fighting the Soviet Union and Russia invaded Finland, but not a single shot was fired between Britain and Finland 23 to get on with (get-got-got) – live 24 to man the barricades – participate in a revolution
YES 11 | 15
This section of the magazine offers...
Travel: The Canals of Britain and Ireland EXERCISE 23
History: the Battle of Clontarf – the Irish vs. the Vikings EXERCISE 5
VIOLENT EARTH DOSSIER 28
30 33 34 38 39 40
Feature: a glimpse of Gaia – geology, the biosphere and the Anthropocene Earthquakes – seismic secrets and killer quakes Floods – deadly water Volcanoes – the surprising role of volcanism in human history Sinkholes – on shaky ground Landslides – grievous gravity Earthquake myths – 10 seismic legends from around the world EXERCISE 4
Sports: the 1913 Derby – scandal at the racetrack EXERCISE 30
Visualizing Vocabulary: Equestrian Terms EXERCISE 21
Biography: Emily Davison – the secrets of a feminist martyr EXERCISE 28
Art: John Waterhouse – a controversial Victorian painter EXERCISE 24
Society: Nymphs – from girl power to eroticism EXERCISE 9
Cinema: Geology at the Movies – which was the most absurd movie ever made? EXERCISE 16
Philosophy: Confucius – China rediscovers its conservative sage EXERCISE 33
Explorers: Frobisher in Frisland – off the map
Religion: the Cathars – Crusading against Christians EXERCISE 19
SPEAKING & LISTENING EXTENSION View: Here is a slideshow of sinkholes from The Daily Telegraph: http://goo.gl/QMui0y 38
Watch: the original silent newsreel of the 1913 Derby and Emily Davison’s collision with the racehorse: http://goo.gl/vGrzED
View: here is a slideshow with commentary on John Waterhouse: http://goo.gl/djSY9T 50
Speak: Waterhouse made use of photographs for the composition of his paintings. do you consider this to be cheating or is it just the creator making use of all available technology? Did the existence of photographs turn this sort of representation painting into an anachronism?
Speak: should Confucianism be taught in Western schools?
YES 11 | 19
Canals in England and Ireland
Photo by Marina Carresi
The First Canals Canals were first built in Britain by the Romans. For example, the Fossdyke Canal between Lincoln and the River Trent was built around 65CE1 (and part of it is still in use). The Exeter Canal was constructed in the 16th Century under Queen Elizabeth I. This was the first English canal with locks2.
Canal Mania However the first major canal was the Bridgewater built in 1761 which connected Worsley and Manchester. 1790-94 was the period of ‘canal mania’ when Parliament authorized the cutting3 of 81 canals. The basic idea behind the principal canals was to connect the four CE – Common Era, Anno Domini (AD) 2 lock – section of canal with gates at each end where the level of water can be changed
20 | YES 11
to permit boats to move between parts of the canal which are at different levels 3 cutting – (in this case) excavation, construction
major rivers of England (the Thames, the Severn, the Mersey and the Humber) and their respective ports – London, Bristol, Liverpool and Hull with two other major industrial centres: Manchester and Birmingham. Most of the 6000 km of the canal system had been built by 1830. The majority of British canals were nationalized in 1948. The canals were dug4 without the help of machinery by men known as ‘navvies’. ‘Navvy’ was an abbreviation of ‘navigator’. These rough 5 men, many of whom were immigrants from Ireland, were feared for their drunkenness but their engineering achievements6 were amazing7. As you travel through tunnels, locks2 and aqueducts you can’t help being8 impressed by their enormous transformation of the natural surroundings9. to dig (dig-dug-dug) – excavate rough – (in this case) unsophisticated, violent 6 achievement – success, accomplishment
amazing – incredible, fantastic you can’t help being – you have to be 9 surroundings – setting, physical context
Death by Earthquake Deadliest1 Quakes2 The death tolls3 from earthquakes are increasing. However, this is because more people now live in affected areas, not because earthquakes are getting stronger. The two most deadly1 quakes ever were all in China. The Shaanxi quake of 1556 killed a staggering4 830,000 people. The Tangshan quake of 1976 killed around half a million. Outside China, the Indian Ocean quake2 of 2004 killed around 230,000 people. Finally, the Haiti earthquake of 2010 seems to have killed around 222,000 people 5 .
The Quake Busters The country with the best record for earthquakes is New Zealand. Aotearoa 8 regularly suffers major tremors yet9 in the country’s entire history fewer than 500 people have been killed by quakes2. Low population density of course helps as does the fact that outside the major cities people tend to live in bungalows. But even taking these factors into account, it’s clear that the Kiwis10 are certainly doing something right.
New Zealand earthquake, 1901 deadly (deadly-deadlier-deadliest) – lethal 2 quake (n.) – (informal) earthquake, tremor 3 death toll – number of fatalities (= deaths) 4 staggering – shocking 1
Photo by Cheviot
estimates vary from 316,000 to 158,000 6 thunderstorm – 7 euphonic 5
Haiti earthquake, 2010
Photo by Brandyn Hill, U.S. Coast Guard
The Most Bizarre Victim The massive Chilean earthquake of 1960 killed relatively few people (approximately 5,700). However, the most bizarre victim of the event was José Luis Painecur. José was a five-year-old member of the Mapuche community in Collileufu in Central Chile. José had been left in the care of11 his father because his mother had gone to work in Santiago de Chile. A machi12 decided that a human sacrifice was needed to pacify the tsunami deity Kai Kai and José as an ‘orphan’ was chosen to be thrown into the sea13.
Pliny the Elder, who was killed by a volcano, called earthquakes ‘underground thunderstorms’6, which is not only semantically pleasing but euphonic7 in English! – pleasing to the ear. There is internal rhyme in ‘underground thunderstorm’ 8 the alternative official name for New Zealand 9 yet – (in this case) however 10 the Kiwis – New Zealanders
in the care of – under the protection of 12 machi – Mapuche shaman 13 to be thrown into the sea – be cast/hurled/flung into the sea, be sacrificed in the sea 11
YES 11 | 31
John W. Waterhouse by Colman Keane
y the second half of the 19th Century a great many1 artists, rebelling against the realistic lines of the Neo-classical period, were in search of a romantic imaginative form of art which would to some extent2 break the social shackles3 of the Victorian age while at the same time enable4 an increasingly cultured public to escape from the ugly face of the Industrial Revolution. Spiritualism, imaginative stagecraft 5 in theatre and ballet, a remarkable interest in fairy6 painting over a 30-year period 7 and the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites had provided a much-needed intellectual, emotional and psychological escape from what were highly8 conservative surroundings9. By the 1870s (although interest in the frail10 winged11 royalty of fairyland 12 had waned 13) there was still an acute14 and serious interest in otherworldly15 subject matter16 and a rekindling17 of interest not only in myths, but also in both tales18 and legends of Ancient Greece and Rome.
Consulting the Oracle
Initial Success It was against this background19 that the 25-year-old John W. Waterhouse, after a four-year stint20 at the Royal Academy School, made his entrée into the artistic world when his painting Sleep and His Half-Brother Death21 was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1874 and won the praise22 of the art critics. a great many – (emphatic) a lot of, many 2 to some extent – to some degree, in part 3 shackles – (in this case) constraints, obstacles 4 to enable – permit, allow 5 stagecraft – the way theatre is presented, mise en scène 1
50 | YES 11
fairy – 1840 to 1870, known as ‘the Golden Age of fairy painting’ 8 highly – very 9 surroundings – milieu, setting, context
Sleep and His Brother Death (1874) frail – delicate, fragile winged – flying, having wings 12 fairyland – the imaginary dominion of fairies6 13 to wane – decline, decrease 14 acute – intense, great 15 otherworldly – ethereal, mystic 16 subject matter – themes
rekindling /riˈkindəliŋ/ – revival tale – story 19 against this background – in this context 20 stint – period 21 oil on canvas 70 x 91 cm. A work inspired by his brother’s death the previous year 22 praise – admiration, applause
Dodgy Science at the Cinema F
or decades Hollywood has been offering us pure hokum1 as far as science is concerned2. Resisting any temptation to provide pedagogical support3 relating to real events, the movie industry prefers to simply entertain. Perhaps the very worst aspect of this is the number of geological problems that they suggest can be solved with a nuclear explosion4 ; the suggestion seems to be that the atomic bomb is the geological equivalent of penicillin.
Fantasy & Pseudo-Science
Over the next couple of pages we will have a look specifically at some of the crimes16 against geology committed in Tinseltown17.
There are occasional half-hearted 5 attempts 6 by the scientific community to counterattack. In 2011 a committee of experts at NASA declared 2012 (2009) “the most absurd science-fiction film of all time”. Why is a 1500-metre high wave7 going to affect a Tibetan monastery 4000 metres above sea level, anyway? The problem is not just an unrealistic premise – movies like 10,000 B.C. (2008) or One Million Years B.C. (1966) have as much scientific rigour as a Creationist museum but they make no claim to accuracy8. The problem with movies like 2012 is that they purport9 to be scientific by throwing in10 a bit of (largely11 made-up12) technical jargon13 – ‘solar flares’ 14 cause accelerated ‘Earth Crust Displacement’ and ‘extreme polar instability’ by heating up the Earth’s core15. This is what marks the difference between pseudo-science and fantasy (dinosaurs and humans, Egyptian mammoths, etc.). hokum – nonsense as far as... is concerned – as regards..., in terms of... 3 support – help, information 4 for example, in The Core (2003), 10.5 (2004) 5 half-hearted – unenthusiastic, perfunctory 6 attempt – effort 7 wave – 8 to make a claim to accuracy (make-made-made) – say that sth. is precise and correct 1
58 | YES 11
to purport – claim, profess, seem 10 to throw in (throw-threwthrown) – include 11 largely – mostly, mainly, for the most part
Historical Events The earliest movie about a real volcano is The Last Days of Pomeii (1935). You can gauge 18 its level of historical accuracy19 from the fact that Pontius Pilate is resident in the city, apparently unaffected by his death 40 years earlier. The new movie Pompeii (2014) makes a much more serious attempt at historical and geological accuracy19. Similarly, the BBC’s docudrama Karakatoa: The Last Days (2006) is properly20 researched and accurate. As regards21 earthquakes, the best film depiction 22 of how awful such events are, is Aftershock (2010). It is about the little-known (in the West) 1976 Tangshan quake 23 , which killed between a quarter and half a million people. Not to be confused with the “geologically improbable”24 Aftershock: Earthquake in New York (2000). made-up – invented jargon – technical terminology 14 solar flare – brief eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun’s surface, associated with sunspots and causing radio and magnetic disturbances on the earth 15 core – very hot centre of the Earth 16 crime – (in this case) offence 17 Tinseltown – (informal) Hollywood
to gauge /geiʤ/ – evaluate accuracy – exactness, precision 20 properly – seriously, adequately 21 as regards – in terms of, in relation to 22 depiction – representation 23 the biggest earthquake of the 20th Century, which occurred in northern China 24 Danny Leigh in Sight & Sound
SPEAKING EXTENSION 64
Speak: what type of household dirt do you find most repulsive? What chores do you dislike least and which do you hate most?
Speak: do you agree that the passive should be avoided?
This section of the magazine offers... 64 65
English in Context: dirty words English in Context: the language of cleaning EXERCISE 11
68 69 70 71 72 73
The Passive structure Exotic passive structures Using the passive The decline of the scientific passive The pseudo-passive and the false passive The anticipatory ‘it’ passive EXERCISE 29
Metaphorical phrasal verbs EXERCISE 26
Geological Idioms: blowing your top on shaky ground EXERCISE 32
GRAMMAR FOCUS: THE PASSIVE
AUDIO SCRIPTS EXTENSION Conversation point: would you prohibit segregated meetings from university campuses? EXERCISE 8 Track 1
Conversation point: should the Bechdel test be used in your country? If so, how? EXERCISE 8 Classwork: as a group try to draw up a protocol for brainstem dead cases that is acceptable to every member of the class. EXERCISES 8, 20
Conversation point: which types of advertising irritate you? EXERCISE 27 Track 6
Word Building: why is that tablet called a Kindle Fire? EXERCISE 31
Track 11 79
Etymology: what’s the connection between earthquakes and Quakers?
Pronunciation: two-vowel schwa EXERCISE 12
Translation: error detectives EXERCISE 22
The YES community
Names: mononyms – how can we measure celebrity?
Subscription Information Picture Description
Conversation point: should children be discouraged from playing war games?
YES 11 | 65
Exotic Passive Structures
The ‘Get’ Passive In colloquial speech the passive can be formed with ‘get’: - His hat got blown off1 in the storm (= his hat was blown off in the storm). - Barry got invited to the concert but I didn’t. Photo by Pavel Sevela
The windows need cleaning.
The Double Passive Occasionally, you will come across2 a double passive structure, such as: - The drug-trafficker was sentenced to be beheaded3. - The guidelines4 are scheduled5 to be put into force next April. - The new conference centre has to be seen to be believed. - King Pellinore explained to Arthur that he was hunting6 the monster because it is destined to be killed by the best knight7 of his lineage. Such structures are cumbersome 8 and you should avoid using9 them.
Direct & Indirect Passives He was given a book.
Photo by Marina Carresi
to blow sth. off (blow-blew-blown) – eliminate sth., carry sth. away 2 to come across (come-came-come) – encounter 3 to behead – decapitate 4 guidelines – formal suggestions, 1
Some verbs can have both a direct and an indirect object. In modern recommendations to schedule – programme, plan 6 to hunt – chase, go after, follow and try to kill 7 knight – 8 cumbersome – awkward, 5
English either can become the subject of a passive sentence: - She gave him a book (or She gave a book to him.) - He was given a book. (indirect passive) - A book was given to him. (direct passive)
The Quasi-Passive The verb ‘need’ (and occasionally ‘want’) + -ing can be used to form colloquial sentences that have a passive meaning: - The windows need cleaning. = The windows need to be cleaned. - The car wants10 servicing11. = The car needs to be serviced.
unmanageable, incommodious you should avoid using – you should try not to use 10 or more usually ‘needs’ 11 to service sth. – perform routine maintenance and repairs on sth.
YES 11 | 69
THE YES COMMUNITY THE BOOKSHOPS
You can buy Yes – and a good selection of English-language books – at the following specialist bookstores: In Use Academy & Books C/ Carles Riba 4 43007 Tarragona 977 29 09 31 firstname.lastname@example.org www.inusetgn.com Booksellers C/ Fernández de la Hoz 40 28010 Madrid 914 42 81 04 email@example.com www.booksellers.es Central Librera C/ Dolores 2 15402 Ferrol - A Coruña 981 352 719 / 638 59 39 80 firstname.lastname@example.org www.centrallibrera.com Come In C/ Balmes 129 bis 08008 Barcelona 934 53 12 04 email@example.com www.libreriainglesa.com Doña Revis C/ Gernikako Arbola, N 2 local 48902 Barakaldo - Vizcaya 944 37 81 63 / 664 629 770 firstname.lastname@example.org www.eurobookonline.com Eurobook C/Fray Luis de León 23 47002 Valladolid 983 399 899 email@example.com 82 | YES 11
Librería Victor Jara Calle Meléndez 21 37002 Salamanca 923 261 228 firstname.lastname@example.org www.libreriavictorjara.com
Librería Donosti Plaza de Bilbao 2 20005 San Sebastián 943 42 21 38 email@example.com
Herso Bookshop C/ Dionisio Guardiola 18 02002 Albacete 967 50 71 57 firstname.lastname@example.org www.herso.com Librería Hojablanca C/ Martín Gomero 6 45001 Toledo 925 25 44 06 email@example.com www.libreriahojablanca.es Librería Pléyades Avda.de España, 17 C. Comercial Cánovas local 12 10002 Cáceres 927 22 80 23 firstname.lastname@example.org www.libreriapleyades.com
Pasajes Libros C/ Génova 3 28004 Madrid 91 310 12 45 - 1 email@example.com www.pasajeslibros.com
Planet Book Librería de Idiomas C/ Doce de Octubre 15 14001 Córdoba 957 49 24 86 firstname.lastname@example.org www.planetbook.es
If you would like a specialist bookshop in your area to stock Yes, tell us and we’ll get in touch with them.
THE LEARNING CENTRES
Are you looking for a language school that uses stimulating up-to-date material in class that results in effective conversation classes and tangible progress in your English?
BackUp Lines Barcelona, Spain 935 47 88 53 www.backuplines.com
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YES 11 | 83
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The following pages contain the transcriptions of what is spoken on the audio files.
YES NO. 11 TRACK LIST
Spoken English is significantly different from the written language: A more limited vocabulary is generally used and it is, by definition, more colloquial. Moreover1, spoken English uses many more incomplete or badly constructed sentences. On the other hand, intonation and stress can be used in speech.
Mini-debates (32m02s) 1. Gender Segregation (13m23s) 2. The Bechdel Test (7m03s) 3. The Brainstem Dead (11m36s)
HOW TO USE THE AUDIO SCRIPTS
4. Pronunciation: Two-vowel Schwa (3m15s)
Follow our eight-step process to get the most out of the audio scripts:
Before you listen we recommend that you read through the relevant section of the footnotes2 (not the text itself). This should give you some idea of the subject3 and help you to understand the more difficult vocabulary as you listen.
5. Interview with James McDonald: The Cathars (10m02s)
When you listen the first time, don’t expect to understand everything; listening practice should not be a painful4 process. Simply see how much meaning you can extract from the recording.
Monologues: Publicity (16m12s) 6. Monologue 1 [US English] (3m24s) 7. Monologue 2 [Northern Irish English] (4m53s) 8. Monologue 3 [South African English] (3m20s) 9. Monologue 4 [UK English] (4m35s)
Listen more times going back to the footnotes to integrate the information you have.
10. Dialogue: The Suspicious Shopper (3m25s)
Once you understand reasonably well, do the relevant exercise.
11. Picture Description (3m36s) Total time: 1h08m32s
5 6 7 8
Finally, read the audio scripts as you listen again.
Stop each time you get lost or encounter a structure that interests or confuses you. Repeat words or phrases whose pronunciation surprises you.
Two or three days later, listen to the text again without reading to see if your understanding has improved5.
This process is intense and time-consuming. However, it will eventually6 solve the problem most learners have of relating7 the spoken word to the written. Once you’ve done that, the rest is easy!
moreover – what’s more, furthermore footnotes – notes at the bottom of the page (in this box) 3 subject (n.) – (in this context) theme 4 painful – (in this context) arduous, unpleasant 5 to improve – get better 6 eventually – (false friend) in the end 7 to relate – associate, connect, link 1
YES 11 | 87
Photo by Tracy Ducasse
2. The Bechdel Test (7m03s)
EM: OK, well let’s move on80. Apparently the Swedish Government has just81 introduced a complementary filmmaking system whereby82 they rate 83 films according to gender equality and one of the systems they’re using is what’s called ‘Bechdel test’. Have you heard about ‘Bechdel test’? IM: No. EW: No, never. EM: Well, basically this is... to some extent84 it comes out of85 a cartoon strip 86 by a woman called Alison Bechdel but it’s related back to what Virginia Woolf wrote in A Room of to move on – proceed, change the theme just – (in this case) very recently 82 whereby – according to which 83 to rate – evaluate 84 to some extent – to some degree, in part 85 out of – from 80 81
One’s Own. But it’s the idea that whether a piece of literature in Virginian Woolf’s sense, in the sense of this whether70 a film has at least one scene where there are two women speaking to each other about something which isn’t about a man. EW: Is that so rare then apparently? EM: It’s hideously87 rare. EW: Really?! EM: All of the Star Wars films, all of them, fail88 the test, all of the Harry Potter films bar89 one fail the test. It’s… y’know12 – it’s shocking how many films fail on that measure that – y’know12 – women can actually90 cartoon strip – narrative sequence of humorous drawings 87 hideously – shockingly 88 to fail – not pass 89 bar – (in this case) except for, apart from 90 actually – (false friend) in fact 86
talk about something apart from you know… EW: But they’re quite boysy91 films, aren’t they? Star Wars and Harry Potter. IM: Yeah. I think predominantly because male7… well Harry Potter maybe not but most scriptwriters are men. There’s65 a lot more scriptwriters and most men do not profess to 92 know what women are talking about, you know? EW: You just19 presume93 that we’re talking about you! IM: Yeah, we like to think that but it’s not true. Yeah, but I agree I think it’s probably a lack of94 any kind58 of… EM: Even if you don’t know what is being talked about presumably scriptwriters give themselves a certain amount95 of preparation and there are so many women writers who have written about what women talk about boysy – (informal) masculine to profess to – claim to, pretend to, purport to 93 to presume – suppose, imagine 94 a lack of – an absence of 95 amount – quantity, degree 91
YES 11 | 93
Monologues: Publicity (16m12s)
Advertising that irritates me, advertising I tolerate.
6. Monologue 1 [US English] (3m24s)
Let’s face it246, there is no escaping 247 ads248 . You come across249 them in printed materials like magazines and newspapers, on billboards250, at bus stops and in the subway, on TV, on web pages, in YouTube videos and even above urinals in public bathrooms! They’re everywhere! In general I’m pretty251 tolerant with advertising especially if it’s of the printed sort2. To tell you the truth I usually pay little attention 252 to print advertising in magazines and newspapers or publicity ads on billboards250 or at bus stops. The ad has to be really good for it to get my attention. For example, it has to have an impressive photograph or use some sexy195 typeface253. Only then will I have a look. Unfortunately for internet users many web pages now use intrusive pop-up ads. These types of let’s face it – let’s be honest, frankly there is no escaping – you can’t escape from 248 ad – advertisement (UK English), advertisement (US English) 249 to come across (come-came-come) – encounter 250 billboard – hoarding (UK English) 251 pretty (adv.) – reasonably 246 247
ads are the ones that irritate me the most. You can use a pop-up ad blocker to evade most of them, but some still get through254. If you’re hoping that this was just11 a fad 255 , I’m afraid to tell you that pop-up ads 248 are here to stay. Studies have shown that these – the most annoying 256 advertisements – are most of the time the most effective. When surfing the Net you’ll also no doubt find the typical banner ads257, flash animation ads, auto-play video ads and the huge258 sidebar ads that seem to be all the rage259 now. To me this is not surprising since the to pay little attention to (pay-paid-paid) – focus little on 253 typeface – typographic style 254 to get through (get-gotgot) – manage to arrive 255 fad – transitory fashion, passing trend 252
Photo by Almudena Cáceres
monopoly on advertising has moved from print to the web. I’m not too annoyed260 by this type of advertising and I rarely look at it to tell you the truth. I think once the technology for dynamic personalized ads annoying – irritating banner ad – advertisement embedded on a web page 258 huge – enormous, gigantic 259 to be all the rage – be very popular and fashionable 260 annoyed – irritated 256 257
YES 11 | 103
1. Illustrations round-up: see if you can identify most of the objects and actions illustrated in the footnotes of this issue.
2. Title Tag: can you match these alternative titles to the news, language news and science articles on pp. 7-11? 3. Cloze: answer the questions about the article on Democracy (pp. 14-15).
4. Word Search: find words relating to geology (pp. 28-38, 76-77).
5. Prepositions: replace the prepositions in this text about the Battle of Clontarf (pp. 24-27).
6. Crossword for general vocabulary revision.
7. Sentence transformation for general syntax revision of structures in this issue.
8. Debates: listening comprehension for audio tracks 1-3 (pp. 88-99).
9. Too many words: find the unnecessary words in this extract from the Society article on pp. 54-57. 10. US vs. UK: fill the gaps in the chart. This relates to the whole magazine. 11. English in Context: vocabulary relating to dirt and cleaning from pp. 66-67.
12. Pronunciation: on two-vowel schwa words from p. 80. 13. Have you learned the pronunciation of the words highlighted in the magazine?
14. Word game: test your vocabulary and understanding of English morphology.
15. Phrasal Verbs: how many new phrasal verbs have you learned this month? This exercise tests for the phrasal verbs in the footnotes. 16. Cinema: a reading comprehension about the article on geological disaster movies (pp. 58-61).
17. False Friends: see if you remember the false friends marked in the footnotes throughout the magazine. 18. Improvisations: an open-question listening comprehension on audio track 10 (pp. 108-110).
19. Homophones: replace the homophones so that this text by the man who led the Albigensian Crusade and his son makes sense. 20. Internet Listening: test your listening comprehension of this fascinating talk about the Bechdel Test.
21. Visualizing Vocabulary: can you identify the pictures from p. 45? 22. Translation: correct this real example of broken English (p. 81).
23. Travel: fill in the names on this map of the canals in the British Isles (pp. 20-23). 24. Art: use the idiomatic expressions from pp. 50-53. 25. Economics: test your knowledge of terms from the economics articles (pp. 16-18).
26. Phrasal verbs: have you learned the multi-word verbs on pp. 74-75? 27. Monologues: a true-false listening comprehension on audio tracks 6-9. 28. Wordplay: another word game – relating to the Biography article on pp. 46-49.
29. Grammar Focus: a varied revision of the passive in relation to pp. 68-73.
30. Sports: use the horseracing terms and phrases from pp. 42-44. 31. Word Building: practice the morphology relating to ‘kind’ from p. 78.
32. Idioms: fill the gaps in this exercise relating to the geological expressions on pp. 76-77. 33. Philosophy: match the halves of sayings by Confucius (p. 64).
YES 11 | 111
15. Phrasal Verbs. Throughout the magazine phrasal verbs are identified and explained in the footnotes. Fill the following sentences with phrasal verbs from Yes 11. The first letter of the base verb and the particle are given to help you. The page (p.) and footnote (n.) reference is also given: 1. She p_____________ the famous actors’ houses o______ to me as we sped past in the car. (p. 7, n. 14) 2. Could you t__________ d________ the central heating, please? It’s really hot in here. (p. 10, n. 11) 3. The rate of unemployment has been c_____________ u_____ for a couple of years. (p. 10, n. 16) 4. When the teacher started talking about econometrics I just t_________ o______. (p. 13, n. 13) 5. With such high unemployment figures it’s hardly surprising that so many young people are t__________ t______ petty crime. (p. 13, n. 14) 6. It was meant to be a lightning campaign but it soon t___________ i_________ a war of attrition. (p. 14, n. 6) 7. As Western consumerism swept the country many people t____________ a________ from their customs and traditional way of life. (p. 14, n. 16) 8. There’s little point in planning far ahead in such unstable conditions. We might as well just m_____________ t______________. (p. 15, n. 14) 9. It sounds like a great plan but I’ll have to s______________ it w________ my wife first. (p. 15, n. 18) 10. I c_____________ a_____________ a load of medical records in the rubbish! (p. 15, n. 20) 11. Let’s just g________ o______ with life and not worry about that possibility for now. (p. 15, n. 23) 12. Like most teenagers he was desperate to f_______ i_____ with his peer group. (p. 16, n. 5) 13. The price has been very volatile but I think it’s beginning to s____________ d_________. (p. 17, n. 24) 14. The estate is m____________ u______ of an expanse of arable land and a small forest. (p. 24, n. 20) 15. As the conflict w____________ o______ civil society began to lose its bellicose enthusiasm. (p. 27, n. 2) 16. Did any of the candidates for the job really s____________ o_______ for you? (p. 30, n. 4) 17. Is he still g___________ o_______ about that blessed football match? (p. 30, n. 5) 18. Over the years the town’s port gradually s____________ u_______ and Ostia is now a couple of kilometres from the sea. (p. 33, n. 15) 19. That factory b_______________ o_______ smoke all day long polluting the entire valley. (p. 34, n. 24) 20. She had s____________________ the documents a__________ in her bureau and we only found them some years after her death. (p. 36, n. 3) 16. Cinema. Read the article about Dodgy Science at the Cinema (pp. 58-61) and try to answer the following questions: 1. What for the author is the difference between the bad science of movies like 2012 and the bad science in films like 10,000? 2. What does “Hollywood’s geological pathetic fallacy” refer to? 3. Why does the author feel bad about pointing out the geological mistakes in Dante’s Peak? 4. Why does the author suggest that you could avoid most geological disasters simply by not living in New York or Los Angeles? 122 | YES 11
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WRITERS, VOICES, INVALUABLE SUPPORT & HELPING HANDS Douglas Jasch, Prof. Raoul Franklin, Colman Keane, Almudena Cáceres, Susannah Jones, Robbie K. Jones, Jim Trainor, Hamish Binns, Adrian Hall, Lois Humphrey, Julie Davies, Garrett Wall, AmyJo Doherty, Miles Pratt, Bea Alzona, Saskia Eijkins.
PHOTOGRAPHY Cover photo: Mt. St. Helens by Mike Doukas Marina Carresi, Almudena Cáceres, Josh Tampico, Irene Sanz, Sara L Carresi, Mario Herrera, Fabiola Vieyra, Belén Gutiérrez
134 | YES 11
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Published by Anglo Files S.L. C/ Bronce 27, 11-B, Madrid 28045 Depósito legal: M-9788-2013 // ISSN: 2255-5676 PVP: 9,95€ VAT included/incluido IVA // Printed in Spain All rights reserved. Neither all nor part of this magazine can be reproduced, recorded in or transmitted by any information-recovery system by any means, be it mechanical, photochemical, magnetic, electronic, photocopies or any other method or used for commercial purposes without prior written permission from the publisher and in accordance with the Intellectual Property Law. Any violation of these terms and conditions will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.
In the Next Volume of Your English Supplement
MEDICAL ISSUES -
How to fight allergies The mystery of Huntington’s disease The advantages of autism TB: the white plague rides again The dark secrets of the Black Death Homeopathy under the spotlight The depressing truth: antidepressants Defenceless: the end of antibiotics Photo by Kimberly & RC Stone
In Search of Siam History
Psychology Brilliant Conditions
Idioms Medical idioms
False Friends Medicine & Health
The Sinking of the Graf Spee World War II in Argentina
Sugar: the new tobacco?
Health: words on the wards
Medicine & Health
Plus loads more stuff on economics, internet, science, news, language etc. which we haven’t decided yet! Photo by Belén Gutiérrez