__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1

FRAGMENTS

RESTORATION CITY

DESIGN REPORT

Island Territories vi : Manhattan scapeland

Master of Architecture 2018-2020 Edinburgh School of Architecture & Landscape Architecture The University of Edinburgh

Yedija Markus


Side Wall of Entrance to Manhattan Studio featuring studio book cover MArch 1 2018-2019 poster Manhattan Studio, 3rd Floor, Printhouse 7-8 Chamber Street, Edinburgh


Fragments Restoration City Overview

City Hall Park, New York, Manhattan


Fragments Restoration City Overview

City Hall Park, New York, Manhattan


Fragments Restoration City

The generation of skyscrapers that once heralded Manhattan as the metropolis

of the future have now become objects of forensic restoration. The proliferation of scaffolding throughout lower Manhattan signifies the aging process and deterioration of what was once visionary. Cass Gilbert’s Woolworth Building, whicah recently celebrated its centennial, is an exemplar of this phenomena. Its ongoing restoration reveals this nascent typology to be not one of cold mass-production but of rich ornamentation and materiality that demands a remembering of fading craft skills. This project proposes a constructed landscape forming a new edge between Broadway and City Hall Park. This architectural topography choreographs and performs the processes of maintenance and reconstruction associated with the aging metropolis. Conceived as a shadow to its first client, the Woolworth Building, the array of material storage and craft processes is calibrated by a careful conceptualised dissection and unpacking of the skyscraper’s iconic form. The resultant layered and fragmented landscape provides a rich seam of workshops and material production defined by an itinerary of craft evident in the Woolworth itself. As a traversable landscape, the proposal reveals the complex taxonomy of materials and their associated crafts from the heat of cast glass to the finery of gold leaf. The work of sculptors and artisans become public spectacle and the transient fields of polychromatic tiles offer a new form of seasonality. Smaller workshops form a permeable screen to Broadway. Here the original, worn materials of skyscrapers are up-cycled as trinkets, souvenirs and curiosities.


Fragments Restoration City City Hall Park


a1

b

c

d

a2 e

f

g

h

i


j

k

a1

Traffic Island Tower

e

To Brooklyn Bridge

k

Terracotta Workshop

a2

Tower Two / Entrance One

f

Stone Masonry

l

Dining Room

a3

Tower Three / Entrance Two

g

Bridge

m

Chandelier Workshop

b

Broadway Street

h

Bath

n

Office

c

Wooloworth Building

i

Gold Leaf Workshop

o

Fabric Printing Workshop

d

Loading Yard

j

Colour Pigment Chamber

p

Chambers Street

l

m

n

o

a3

p

Fragments Restoration City: Section Facing City Hall & Tweed Courthouse City Hall Park


Fragments Restoration City: Section Facing City Hall & Tweed Courthouse City Hall Park


Gold Leaf Workshop, Bath, Colour Pigment Chamber Section

Facing City Hall, Tweed Courthouse


Terracotta Workshop, Dining Room Section

Facing City Hall, Tweed Courthouse


Chandelier Workshop, Office Section

Facing City Hall, Tweed Courthouse


Fabric Printing Workshop Fragments Restoration City City Hall Park


Ground Plan

Fragments Restoration City


Underground Plan

Fragments Restoration City


Ground Plan

Fragments Restoration City


Underground Plan

Fragments Restoration City


w

Broadway Street

b

h

c

a

i

eii

j

ei f d

a b c d ei eii

Loading Yard Tower Two Entrance via Kiosks into Stone Masonry Glass Recycling Feeder Outdoor Stone Masonry Entrance into the Underground Indoor Stone Masonry f Water Wal g Kiosks h Stairs to Ground Floor i Weave Room j Kiln k Glass Making Workshop

l

l Gold Leaf Workshop m Colour Pigment Chamber n Terracotta Workshop o Dining Room p Chandelier Workshop q Office r Fabric Printing Workshop s Tower Three t Entrance via Kiosks & Ramp to Basement u Tweed Courthouse v City Hall w Woolworth Building x Terrascape

m


s t

g

Chambers Street

k

r n

o

p

q

x

v

u

Ground Plan

City Hall Park, New York


A

A


Section AA

Weave Room - Water Wall - Gold Leaf Workshop Indoor Stone Masonry - Water Wall - Bath


BB

BB


Section BB

Glass Workshop - Water Wall - Terracotta Workshop


C

C


Section CC

Glass Workshop - Water Wall - Chandelier Workshop


D

D


Section DD

Glass Workshop - Water Wall - Office


E

E


Section EE

Glass Workshop - Water Wall - Fabric Printing Workshop


1

2

3

1 2 3 4

4 5

6

Atlantic Trust Building United States Express Building Kuhn-Loeb Building Equitable Building

7

5 6 7 8

8

9

10

68 William Street Building 80 Maiden Lane Building Wyllys Building Hilliard Building


11

12

13

14

15

Sky-line of New York City [New York] From Thompson-Starret Company: Building and Industrial Construction (Montreal: Thompson-Starret Co. 1922). Science, Industry and Business Library, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden

9 10 11 12

Frankel Building 123 Willian Street Building 134 William Street Building Woolworth Building

13 14 15

Municipal Building Chapel Court Building Schieren Building


Trinity Church ‘whale’ held between monumental architectures 75 Broadway, New York


The Whale

: the protagonist The Whale is represented as a figure, a vast, monumental structure or entity caught on the shoreline or held, as the Trinity Church is held, between the towers of the adjacent and omnipresent institutional architectures and skyscrapers. The Plane Table made manifest the following prompts as a sequential survey of urban artefacts - the Manhattan 1911 film, pre-gridded geological and watery seams of Manhattan. The film drew out extant architectures and ‘ghosts’ now lost to the city but recalled to memory and analysis of photographic devices. The study of protocols of the whaling hunt and the processing of whale meat and oil triggered ways of cutting monumental things, a sensibility with regards to mass and volume and the potential for cutting, occupying and recalibrating building skins. Manhattan Island is sliced into six key fault lines from the Battery to Central Park and ‘meta’ fault lines in the northern reaches of the island. The fieldwork in Manhattan comprised ‘walking the fault lines’ and collecting whales and, in an allied and collecting building reflections. Fieldwork investigations, resulted in a set of delaminated drawings of the whales and ghosts and, a series of ‘forensic’ slides of layers of reflections of buildings on buildings as acts of unpacking whales. These provided moves which we then proceeded to take forward individually as: cut, recalibrate and ‘bleed’ [leak/spill/stain/channel/spray].


C B

A

A

B


E D

E

D

C

Sections - The slicing of a whale Fragments Restoration City


Manhattan’s Walk 1911 Walking through Manhattan captured in 1911 (Manhattan 1911 film) through the camera lens, identifying whales, ghosted whales that was once there and no longer in the present


Met Life Building, 1911 ‘Manhattan 1911’ Film


Brooklyn Bridge, 1911 ‘Manhattan 1911’ Film


The Lake in Central Park

Taken from Upper West Side of the Park

Wednesday 31st October 2018 Manhattan


Tutorial session with module tutors at Central Park 1st Novermber 2018

‘Manhattan within Manhattan’


Hudson Bay Building Project In Construction New York, Manhattan Site visit with module colleagues 2nd November 2018


New York World Building Construction started: 1889 Destruction date: 1955

Singer Building

Opened: 1908 Destruction date: 1968

Collected Ghost Buildings Manhattan’s Walk 2018 Group Work


Collected ‘Whales’ Buildings Manhattan’s Walk 2018


Collective Field Drawing:

‘walking the fault lines’ and collecting whales and, in an allied and collecting building reflections


Woolworth Building The Chosen Whale


Erection of structural steel, April 4, 1912

[Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, New York. City, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]

Erection of structural steel, July 1, 1912

[Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, New York. City, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]


Woolworth Building 233 Broadway in Manhattan, NYC “The Cathedral of Commerce� Architect: Cass Gilbert Completed in 1913 It was the tallest building in the world from 1913 to 1930, with a height of 792 feet.


Erection of structural steel, December 28, 1911

Erection of structural steel, April

[Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, New York. City, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]

[Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]

Photographer (New York, 1911-12). Milstein Division of United States History, Local History, and Genealogy, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.

Photographer (New York, 1911-12). Milstei History, Local History, and Genealogy, New Lenox and Tilden Foundations.


l 4, 1912

Erection of structural steel, July 1, 1912

, New York. City,

[Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, New York. City, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]

in Division of United States York Public Library, Astor,

Photographer (New York, 1911-12). Milstein Division of United States History, Local History, and Genealogy, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.


Restoration / Replacement : Endurance of a century The Woolworth building celebrated its centennial in 2013 in Manhattan since its opening on 24 April 1913 after its completion in 1912. The glistening glazed terracotta cladding pieces of nearly 400, 000 units fastened across the facade of Woolworth building together with other varieties of terracotta ornaments and decorative spandrels had endured the past century. As early as 1913 after its opening saw the need for a comprehensive cleaning of Woolworth’s facade that has become dark and bleak. The second cleaning was carried out later in 1923 less than twenty years after its completion. A scaffolding system was erected for the cleaning by workers. RESTORATION By 1978, the tourelles (four little openwork towers) that rose from the 49th to 51st story at the corners of the main shaft suffered the most loss of the original terracotta ornaments. As they were constructed as separate structures each with its individual steel skeleton, water infiltration took place overtime via the space between the units coupled with weathering over the decades which led to structural issues. Facade restoration of the tourelles took place that instead of replacing them, they were covered with an aluminum sheath similar to the original shape and colour.

REPLACEMENT In the later years, terra cotta ornaments, crockets (“ a type of foliage-motif ornamentation placed on spires”), cladding, and tracery panels were replaced by creating their replicas. Architectural drawings were reproduced for the replacement. A widespread of damaged cladding panels had to be replaced with new terra cotta or alternative materials due to lack of maintenance which had caused the steel frame that held over 400,000 cladding units to rust and weaken. Gladding, McBean, and Company, known for their masterful manipulation of clay, was commissioned in 2005 for the replacement of terracotta pieces.

Fragments Restoration City addresses this evitable reality of the deterioration of

New York’s skyscrapers out of studying the livelihood of Woolworth Building and presents a solution through a series of workshops for the restoring of skyscrapers closer within reach situated at the heart of lower Manhattan thus tackling expensive transportation problem when sourced outside the vicinity of Manhattan.


Renovation & Restoration of Woolworth Building Erection of scaffoldings, nettings 233 Broadway Street, New York


Steeplejacks repair the facade of the Woolworth Building in 1932


Woolworth Building on City Hall Park, ca. 1915 [Lower Manhattan]


1913 City Hall/Park Row Panorama

From left: Times Building, City Hall Post Office, Woolworth Building, City Hall Park, City Hall, Tweed Courthouse, Surrogates Courthouse, Brooklyn Bridge transit station, Municipal Building


Fragments Restoration City Interwoven landscape City Hall Park


Fragments Restoration City

Woolworth Building’s shadow casting City Hall Park


Typology of Architecture : the interwoven landscape The architecture and form of Fragments Restoration City evolved from a series of physical model making exercises which involve CNC wood base - a cut and carved topography followed by amounting paper cards atop the solid cut ground. The paper cards form the roofscape canopies and thin walls that continue from the embedded landscape. The installation of terracotta pieces for the cladding of Woolworth building which makes up most of Woolworth’s facade material began in 1912 when eighteen stories of the steel skeleton of the building were completed. The steel skeleton here mimics the third typology of the architecture of Fragments Restoration City: the micro-architectures that sit on the embedded cut topography. They are the steel elements that activate the programmes under the canopies. The emerging typology of the architecture of Fragments Restoration City has its foundation set on the way of model making and can be categorised from heaviest to lightest as: i. Embedded/set into the ground ii. Canopies/ Walls iii. Jewel-like steel/furniture


iii Jewel-like steel / furnitures

ii Canopies / Walls

i

Embedded / set into the ground


Typology of architecture

Lightest (top) to Heaviest Elements (bottom) Fragments Restoration City


Typology of architecture

Lightest (top) to Heaviest Elements (bottom) Fragments Restoration City


Topping off the steel frame, July 1, 1911 [Woolworth Building] c. Bettmann/Corbis.


Oberservatory, 1913 [Woolworth Building]

From the Skyscraper Museum Collection.


Structural ironworkers, 1912 [Woolworth Building] Photograph by Brown Brothers.


Towers

: the panoramic view of the city and the workings of artisans Traffic Island Tower, Tower Two and Tower Three The pinnacle observatory of Woolworth Building by 1916 annually drew over 100, 000 people and was advocated as a “wonder to tourists”. To ascend to the top, sightseers shuttled in a high-speed elevator to the 54th story. Then they are presented with options of climbing a spiral stair or taking a six-person glass elevator to reach the 58th outdoor terrace where a captivating panoramic view of the city below unfolds. As illustrated in Above the Clouds and Old New York (1913) by H. Addington Bruce:

“Looking down on the thousands of great structures, the wonderful bridges that span the East River, the beautiful parks, the great steamers berthed at piers along the rivers, one realizes the grandeur and vastness of the metropolis. The serried peaks made by the giant buildings, towers, church steeples all seem to contend with each other for the distinction of “highest and greatest.” But above them all rises the Woolworth Building, calm and unassailable.” Towers: There are three towers namely Traffic Island Tower, Tower Two, and Tower Three. Traffic Island Tower is situated on the edge of the City Hall Park on the traffic island. It stands 37.4 metres tall with seven stories, with each floor having different viewing levels and reached upwards by stairs.

The Traffic Island Tower is a viewing station of a panoramic scene stretching from the Woolworth Building but this time also includes the view of the workings of artisans in the outdoor stone mason yard, the hustling of inbound and outbound of materials within the loading yard, the distribution of people spreading along Broadway Street, in through the kiosk booths, then pass through the bridge that cuts across the workshops and eventually to the City Hall and Tweed Courthouse grounds. The four-stories Towers Two and Three are 15m height and attached to the ends of the kiosks passageways. Level one of the towers brings visitors to the kiosks walkway level or continuing upwards the flights of stairs to levels two and three where they can pause for closer views of workings of yards and of Chambers Street for Tower Two and Three respectively.

The topmost level of the two towers leads visitors to a long processional bridge connecting the two towers that span across the workshops along Broadway Street atop the kiosks. As the people walk along the bridge, they can take a glimpse of activities happening within the Weave Room, Kiln Two Chamber, and the Glass Workshop through the translucent screen facades.


Tower Three

Tower Two


Traffic Island Tower Towers

Along Broadway Street Fragments Restoration City


Detail of terra cotta, crockets at fifty-fifth story, 1912 [Woolworth Building]

Photograph by Tebbs Hymans. Collection of the New York Historical Society, negative 73191.


Visitors that started their climb from Tower two can diverge to another bridge atop the Glass Workshop which is connected to the walkway of the central Water Wall. Upon reaching the end of this second connecting bridge, a decending flight of stairs cuts into the roof allowing visitors to peep though the window glass into the traditional making of glass below and look up and gaze at the smoke out of the kiln.


Roofscape

Connection to water wall via kiosks top walkway and the viewing towers


Erection of structural steel, December 28, 1911 [Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, New York. City, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]

Photographer (New York, 1911-12). Milstein Division of United States History, Local History, and Genealogy, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.


The setting and the anchoring of limestone at the three-story base, June 10, 1912 [Lower stories under construction, Woolworth Building]

Photograph by Wurts Brothers. Collection of New-York Historical Society, negative H751.


View along Broadway showing lower stories with store fronts, ca. 1915 [Woolworth Building] Photograph by Wurts Brothers. Museum of the City of New York.


Kiosks

: the upcycling of New York skyscrapers’ materials According to The Skyscraper and the City: The Woolworth Building and the Making of Modern New York by Gail Fenske, “Gilbert introduced the sidewalk spectator to Woolworth’s skyscraper as a particular kind of “city” with his design for its Tudor Gothic portal and monumental lobby­arcade.”

Kiosks: Along Broadway Street and Chambers Street stands an elevated array of shop booths or pods called kiosks for the selling and exhibiting of upcycled materials from New York skyscrapers including Woolworth Building. As conservation of skyscrapers are taking place with parts being replaced, original bits and pieces of unusable or unmendable materials from buildings are upcycled into wearable vintage items such as jewelry from chandelier crystals, iron, and brass pieces and chipped fragments of gargoyles, cushions, and clothes from worn tapestry and into household items such as topping tables with colourful glass mosaics and into coasters. One will be surprised to see a fragment of the ornamented wood coffered ceiling has now become part of the feature wall of someone’s front porch entrance and another smaller piece becomes the handle of a ladle in the kitchen.

The kiosks are arranged in rhythmic sequencing of varying sizes to accommodate the kinds of items sold or exhibited within them ranging from large ones for household furniture to medium-sized for fashion exhibition and the littlest being jewelry kiosks.

The kiosks are off the ground elevated above the hoppers and are accessible via central stairs or Tower Two and Three. A linear passageway connects the entrance to the smaller and medium-sized kiosks and cuts through most of the larger kiosks where visitors can find resting sitting concrete bench within the curved solid walls and view the textile exhibition displayed on through the glass screens.

The passageway is shielded with a series of concrete ‘flaps’ with openings that hold in place steel frames where foldable timber panels and terracotta pieces affixed themselves to their respective structures. The opening of the foldable timber panels signifies to the public that the kiosks are in operation. Atop the kiosks is a top walkway reached by Towers Two and Three.

Between the Broadway and Chambers Street facing kiosks are balcony-like spacings where the people can take a glimpse of the activities taking place within the Weave Room, Kiln Two Chamber, and the Glass Workshop and the marching in of artisans down the ramp entrance in the mornings. In the heat of the afternoon sun, the foldable timber shutters are raised to varying heights by respective kiosks person in charge to shield from the heat and cool the passageway whilst watching an interplay of shadows under the diffused shade through the apertures of timber panels and terra cotta pieces above.


Kiosks Axo

Along Broadway Street Fragments Restoration City


Kiosks Axo

Along Broadway Street Fragments Restoration City


Bridge to water wall

Top walkway

Top walkway supports

Posts

Kiosks

Flap

Steel

Terracotta

Timber shutters Glass railings

Walkway podium Kiosks base Stilts


Terra-wind

Terracotta pieces that are still of good quality and of robust condition from the restoration of Woolworth building are upcycled. As the array of kiosks along Broadway Street faced West, the terracotta pieces offered a solution to vertically screen the facade from the morning and afternoon sun. A series of terracotta tiles are held in place by vertical steel rods allowing free movement to swivel and turn. As people walk through the shielded, cool and well-ventilated walkway podium along the kiosks will see the interplay of shadows as the terracotta pieces turn with the wind. In the sun the terracotta glows a warm cream. The major structure of the fenestration facade of the kiosks is a series of ‘flaps’ that hold the terracotta screen and the foldable timber screens in place. This reduces the solar gain. At night when viewed from the outside, there is a soft tremulous lighting effect with the internal lights switched on.

Exploded Kiosks Elements Fragments Restoration City


C B

A

A

B


E D C

D

E


C

C


Workers shoveling coal

[Boiler room, Woolworth Building]

Photo­graph by Wurts Brothers. Wurts Collection, Museum of the City of New York.


Hoppers

: the offerings Along with Broadway Street, the public stops by the recycling Hoppers beneath the kiosks to ‘offer’ scraps of materials: glass, iron, or steel pieces, tiles others into allocated Hoppers’ openings specific to the type of materials. The underground Hoppers are topped with a glass roof submerged in water that surrounds the workshops along Broadway Street allowing visitors the inside of each Hopper chamber through the water. Similar to the function of a machine hopper which is a device for moving substance from one container to another, the Hoppers transport the ‘offerings’ from the people as they are being dropped to the underground level to the artisans of the workshops. These offerings are being received by collector workers with carts. Collector workers sort through the materials and distribute them into carts similar to the scene of workers shoveling coals into carts in the boiler room of Woolworth Building back in the days. The ground is inset with trails for the transportation of carts from their respective Hopper chambers to their designated workshops to be upcycled. Since each Hopper chamber is of a different size thus the passageway entrances, adjacent to it is a row of steel carts customised to that chamber. The Hoppers underground is a long passageway down the ramp from the underground level of workshops. A wash of natural daylight infiltrating through the water on the glass roof creates an array of patterned light and shadow projected on the walls and reflected off the materials within the chambers.


Hoppers

The ‘Offerings’

Along Broadway Street


Hoppers

Underground

Fragments Restoration City


Underground

Perspective Section

Underground Indoor Stone Masonry Kiln Two - Hoppers - Ramp - Entrance


Passersby, Main Entrance [Woolworth Building]

Unidentified Photographer. Collection of the New-York Historical Society. negative 46308.


Entrance

: into the horizontal skyscraper of workshops Besides the open entrances: loading yard and terrascape into the stone masonry and workshops respectively, there are two main entrances into the workshops. One is along Broadway Street by the loading yard via Tower Two through the kiosks and to the outdoor stone masonry. The other entrance is along Chambers Street via Tower Three through the kiosks down the ramp to the underground level.

Interior Main Entrance [Woolworth Building]


Entrance one is along Broadway Street by the loading yard via tower two through the kiosks and to the outdoor stone masonry.


Entrance One Via Tower Two

Fragments Restoration City


Entrance two is along Chambers Street via tower three through the kiosks down the ramp to the underground level.


Entrance Two

Via Tower Three

Fragments Restoration City


Bridge

Passageway to City Hall Along Broadway Street


The Journey

01

The contract for the Woolworth Building called for 7,500 tons - 16.5 million pounds of architectural terra cotta, one of the largest contracts ever commissioned for a single structure. The project went to Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, the largest manufacturer after it merged with three other firms in 1907, and was manufactured at its factories in nearby Tottenville, Staten Island and Perth Amboy, NJ.

Staten Island

Perth Amboy

Tottenville


Up

pe

rB ay

H ud

son Rive r

02

Coordinating the delivery of the terra cotta from the factory to the site was as intricate as its manufacturing process. Multiple methods of transportation were utilized to transport the cargo and included horse carts, trains, barges. According to a well-ordered and systematic workflow schedule, the terracotta for the Woolworth Building was ordered 2-3 days in advance of when the worker on-site would need to install it. The pieces were then crated in straw, sent by train car, and unloaded onto a lightening barge used short-distance transport to ship directly to Lower Manhattan around Staten Island via the upper bay and the Hudson River.

Delivery of terra cotta to construction site by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company [Near the Hudson River docks, June 1911] Unidentified photographer, Collection of the New-York Historical Society, negative 5345t


The Standard Terra Cotta Company [Perth Amboy]


Loading Yard

: receiving yard; inbound and outbound Atlantic Terra Cotta Company factory in Tottenville, Staten Island merged with the Standard Terra Cotta Company, Perth Amboy, NJ for the production of terra cotta pieces for Woolworth Building in 1907. The Atlantic Company was a large factory but was limited to storage space. Plaster moulds from old projects were discarded outside the factory which over time were moved to a dumping ground to accommodate for the incoming new moulds.

The Loading Yard of Fragments Restoration City is the receiving yard for the incoming materials from skyscrapers awaiting restoration. Its topography cuts into the ground and sloped downwards towards the outdoor stone mason yard. An array of completed glazed terra cotta pieces are being stacked across the landscape and creates a glistening lighting effect as the cream glazing of the terracotta is caught up with sunlight along with piles of steel rods.


Loading Yard

The loading of teracotta pieces and steel rods from skyscrapers to be upcycled


Loading Yard

Facing Outdoor Stone Mason Yard


Installation of terra cotta cladding on the first two floors of the tower as it rises above the main building, 1911 [Woolworth Building Tower]

Unidentified photographer. Collection of New-York Historical Society, negative 78898d.


Stone Masonyard : Sculpting, Chiselling, Carving, Washing The stonemason yard is the working ground for sculpting, chiseling and carving of stones and marbles take place. The yard is carved deep into the ground. Craftsmen will be out and about ready to collect from the Loading Yard either stone pieces that needed repairing such as chipped stone gargoyles or worn and unmendable corbels that could be upcycled and become part of another product in progress. Within the yard is a carved pocket for the piling of recycled glass pieces that will then be mounted on to the conveyor belt that runs across the Water Wall and eventually fed into the melting kilns of the Glass Workshop for the making of glass. The outdoor mason yard is also a transition ground for craftsmen and artisans from entrance one into respective workshops through a series of arched openings into the basement indoor mason yard and upwards the flight of stairs. Alternate arched openings when opened are tool walls functioning on both sides for both the indoor and outdoor yards. Above the arched entrances and tool walls is the bridge that connects pedestrians from Broadway Street into the City Hall Park whilst pausing to watch the workings of stone artisans in action. Amidst the hustle and bustle, the air within the yard is being humidified through the water mist from the running of the waterfall. At certain times of the day when it becomes too hot for sculptors to be working outdoors, they take shade by moving into the indoor yard whilst watching the dusty outdoor working grounds being flushed down by clean water as the water is being released from the waterfall walls.


Atlantic Terra Cotta Modeling Room [Tottenville, Staten Island] Collection of Roger Verkuil


The Workings of Artisans Dry Outdoor Stone Masonry Fragments Restoration City


Collection of stoneworks [Woolworth Building]


Atlantic Terra Cotta workers with gargoyles [Tottenville, Staten Island] NY Collection of the Staten Island Museum

Atlantic Terra Cotta craftsmen, ca. 1921 [Tottenville, Staten Island] Collection of Roger Verkuil


a

b

c


Left: a. Rainwater collection from the top of Woolworth to fill the tank for the dyeing process b. Elevator dispatcher’s desk, south balcony [Lobby-arcade, Woolworth Building] Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University

c. The dyeing of blue cloth hanging 12m within Woolworth and the dyeing of Woolworth’s wall via Woolworth Building’s dissection

The Washing of The Ground

Wet Stone Masonry The release of water from the waterfall


1

“...The Royal Charter gale, so remarkable in its features,...and because the storm passed over the middle of the country, is one of the very best to examine which has occured for some length of time...The lowest barometer and a corresponding...central lull prevailed over areas of ten or twenty miles successively. But at the time that this comparative lull existed, there were violent winds around this central space (...there was no central disturbance), while there were only variable winds or calms in the middle of the area… The wind attained a maximum velocity...from this comparatively quiet space, and in successive spiral eddyings from all points of the compass consecutively around the lull; so that while at Anglesea the storm came from the north-northeast, in the Irish Channel it was northerly, and on the east of Ireland it was from the north-west; in the Straits of Dover it was from the southwest; and on the east coast it was easterly - at the same minute. Thus there was an apparent circulation, or cyclonic commotion,...while outside of this circuit the wind became less and less violent;...” -Description of the Royal Charter Storm in the Tenth Number of Meteorological Paper ‘Storms if the British Isles’ occured on the 25th and 26th October 1859, by Robert Fitzroy “...”Nature” is not to be understood as that which is just present-at-hand,...the wind is wind ‘in the sails’...the Nature which ‘stirs and strives...’” “...By the very nature of expecting, the possible is drawn into the real, arising from it and returning to it.”

3

-Martin Heidegger, Being and Time

4


Blue Wash 1: Weather chart of the royal charter gale 2: The Device: The Wind Pendulums Painter 3: Wind blown blue dye 4: The Wind Pendulums Painter 5:Manhattan ‘whales’ buildings, Woolworth and their reflection slices 6: Woolworth’s blue dye wash , colour pigment hoppers and blue flower wall

5

6


Construction site, May 11 1911

[Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway, New York. City, I911-11., Irving Underhill,]

Photographer (New York, 1911-12). Milstein Division of United States History, Local History, and Genealogy, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.


Dust Catchers : the shield of stone masonry Dust catching canvas is fastened onto steel structures surrounding the stone masonry to trap dust being blown by the West prevailing winds as the artisans are chiseling away on the grounds of the outdoor stone masonry to prevent dusty winds towards Broadway Street. In due time when the dust catcher fabrics become filthy, they will be washed by the strong gush of the waterfall in the mason yard and then mounted up onto and stretched along the undulated canopy to dry.

Dust Catchers & Terra-wind

Dust catchers trapping dusts as the artisans are working away and the twisting of the terracotta tiles (terra-wind) according to the West prevailing winds


Dust Catchers Stone Masonry

Fragments Restoration City


Atlantic Terra Cotta Company factory

[Tottenville, Staten Island]

NY Collection of the Staten Island Museum


Terra-Scape

: the landscape of terra cotta Terra-scape is a landscape of terracotta tiles outside along the Terracotta Workshop, Dining Room, Chandelier Workshop, and the Office which is on the right-wing of the Water Wall. The topography of Terra-scape is a combination of six stairs steps, a continuation of City Hall’s stairs landing and downwards a gentle slope where clear water is being pooled. The slope reaches towards the solid concrete base of the workshops where decks are attached to so that it seems to be floating above the waters. An array of varying types of recycled terra cotta or leftovers from constructions are stacked on the gentle slope creating a beautiful landscape of terra cotta being submerged and flooded in water. The ‘offering’ of terra cotta tiles and occasionally bricks from the Woolworth Buildings and the public alike for their recycling and upcycling are gradually stacked up on the long steps to create an undulation topography and an interwoven landscape between the restoration workshops and the civic centres. Thus encourages more visits of the people into City Hall Park towards the non-barricaded civic grounds as well as allowing pausing and watching the workings of the artisans within the different workshops through the open shutters above respective decks.


Terra-Scape

Along City Hall City Hall Park


Terra-Scape

Along City Hall City Hall Park


Terra-Scape

View from the rear of Tweed Courthouse City Hall Park


Terra-Scape

View from the rear of Tweed Courthouse City Hall Park


&

Water Wall


&

The Workshops


9504

Fault line two 3.4 2.6 11.1 5.6

7.0 4.5

0.5 1.2

3.2 2.7

5.9 2.6 4.1 2.7

0.5 1.2 7.8 3.3

2.7 2.6

0.5 1.2

5.0 2.9 2.9 2.2

2.7 2.5

0.5 1.2

10.7 3.4

0.5 1.2

17.4 3.9

38.0 8.3

7.4 5.2

7.4 5.2

Fault line one


Fault line three

Fault line four Fault line five

The fieldwork in Manhattan comprised

‘walking the fault lines’ and collecting whales and, in an allied and collecting building reflections. As Manhattan’s buildings are never really seen fully on its own as a single erected monumental architecture but an interplay of a reflection of the building being reflected onto another glass facade of another skyscraper, the fieldwork investigations resulted in a series of ‘forensic’ slides of layers of reflections of buildings on buildings as acts of unpacking buildings.

New York World Building Construction started: 1889 Destruction date: 1955 f rames

342 frames

288 frames

684 frames

342 frames

792 frames


Fault line one

Fault line three Times Square

Fault li


ine four

Fault line four

Dissecting and Unpacking

Reflections of Manthattan’s Buldings A building within a building


Unpacking Woolworth ‘a building within a building’ The dissection of the reflection of Woolworth against the glass curtain wall of One World Trade Centre according to the gradient of darkness These reflection fragments become the framework set into place onto City Hall Park for the building of the horizontal skyscraper ‘ The Restoration City’. This is such that the shadow of Woolworth Building is being cast onto the park.


Resin Model Encasing Layers of Reflection Fragments on Acetate Sheets


Dissecting and Unpacking Woolworth Building

Reflection of Woolworth onto glass curtain wall of One World Trade Centre A building within a building


These reflection fragments become the framework set into place onto City Hall Park for the building of the horizontal skyscraper ‘ The Restoration City’. This is such that the shadow of Woolworth building is being cast onto the park.

Conceptual Framework Derived from the Reflection Fragment of Woolworth Buildings


Stone Mason Yard

Weave Room


Kiln Two Room

Glass Workshop


Water Wall

Gold Leaf Workshop


Colour Pigment Chamber

Terra Cotta Workshop


Dining Room

Chandelier Workshop


Office

Fabric Printing Workshop


Cass Gilbert’s Woolworth Building, which recently celebrated its centennial, is an exemplar of this phenomena. Its ongoing restoration reveals this nascent typology to be not one of cold mass-production but of rich ornamentation and materiality that demands a remembering of fading craft skills.

This project conceived as a shadow to its first client, the Woolworth Building, the array of material storage and craft processes is calibrated by a careful conceptualised dissection and unpacking of the skyscraper’s iconic form. The resultant layered and fragmented landscape provides a rich seam of workshops and material production defined by an itinerary of craft evident in the Woolworth itself.


Electrical switchboard

[Subbasement, Woolworth Building]

Photo­graph by Wurts Brothers. Museum of the City of New York.


Detail of caisson, May 16, 1911 [Woolworth Building]

Photograph by Wurts Brothers. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


Water wall

: the spine of workshops The water wall is the spine of the workshops and the heart of the Fragments Restoration City. It is a place of transition that connects one workshop to another. It is an inhabited wall within which lies amenities including tool walls, showers, washing stations, changing rooms, WCs, thermal stores, pantries, and a sickbay. Artisans would make their way to the water wall to change to their working attire upon arrival, grab hold of necessary tools from the tool wall and it is a resting place for a quick cup of coffee or tea throughout the day. The water wall separates the heavy-duty workshops on one side along Broadway Street including the Glass Workshop whereas the opposite side is catered for cleaner dry works such as chandelier crystals assemblage and Gold Leaf Workshop. The top of the spinal wall is a public walkway to watch the workings of artisans into the workshops on both sides of the walls. The water wall incorporates a rainwater harvesting system to which its name is rendered. The open steel grating walk receives rainwater to be contained within the water tank which will later be filtered through filtration tanks before being supplied to respective washing pipings. Within the heart of the walls are thermal stores that manage and store heat including a portion of the water supply to be heated to generate heat to respective workshops.


Water Wall : Spine of Workshops Perspective Section

Fragments Restoration City


GLASS KILNS | FURNACE | CHIMNEY The melting and mixing of recycled glass pieces (50%) in the furnace generates heat within the workshop providing comfortable working temperature for glass masters and is also stored in thermal stores to generate heat to other parts of the building

THERMAL STORES

THE WATER WALL

Storing and managing renewable heat. Heat pump to generate energy.

Rainwater Harvesting System Collected water via the metal grating walkway is stored and distributed for WCs, showers, washes and baths. Some portion of the water is heated to generate heat throughout the building

THERMAL STORES


THE WATER WALL A long conveyor belt runs within the water wall from the cutlet receiving yard within the mason yard and gets feed into the glass kiln where these recycled broken glass pieces make up 50% of the ingredients (with silica sand, soda ash and limestone) to make new glass window panes for skyscrapers. Reusing glass waste reduces embodied energy compared to remanufacturing of new glass

Environmental Strategy Water Wall

The Spine of Workshops


C B

A

A

B


E D C

D

E


Glass Windows at Twenty-Seventh Story [Woolworth Building]

Photograph by Tebbs-Hymans. Collection of the New-York Historical Society, negative 78892d


Glass Workshop : the traditional making of recycled glass Broken glass pieces from skyscrapers glass windows including Woolworth’s are collected and contained within the receiving yard part of the stonemason yard and are then mounted onto the conveyor belt which runs into the water wall and gets fed into the glass factory kilns which comprises 50% of the glass composition. A major part of the workshop’s grounds folding up to the kilns is red bricks in which concrete is set in followed by steel furniture-like structures that sit on top of them. The traditional making of recycled glass is a ceremonial one from one station to another with some stations that involve the repetitive procedure of going back and forth. The heat from the kiln is used to generate the workshop and warm artisans during the cold seasons as well as supplying heat to other workshops. An open steel room is elevated above the ground of the workshop and reachable via stairs. This is where the assemblage of coloured stained glass is assembled. A few steps beyond the kiln is a steel mould wash room on a submerged ground; a wet space catered for the vast sprinkling of water from the ceiling for the cooling of glass moulds after use.


TECHNICAL ANNOTATION WATER WALL Floor Floor covering material to contain water First layer of waterproofing compound 4mm Second layer of waterproofing compound 4mm Water stop (PVC) Reinforced concrete 270mm Vertical and horizontal reinforcement 12mm x 150mm Insulation 200mm Reinforced concrete 270mm Water filtration tanks Reinforced concrete 100mm Insulation Reinforced concrete 100mm Water Insulating Membrane Barrier Walls Reinforced concrete with water proofing with insulation STEEL ROOM Steel post inserted into concrete envelope Galvanised steel pin pinned into steel post Galvanised steel post base protector Galvanised trubolt min 60mm embedment into concrete footing Concrete foundation ROOF Aluminum capping 2mm Metal roof 50mm Roof underlayment 45mm Self-adhered membrane 6mm Roof sheathing 13mm Rigid insulation 150mm Roof sheathing 15mm Reinforced conrete rafters Concrete Portal Frames with reinforcement 12mm x 150mm Supported by steel connectors Brick foundation


Glass Workshop

Traditional Making of Glass Along Broadway


B

B


Steel Sitting furnitures

Concrete Walls and canopies

Bricks Set in the ground

Typology of Elements Glass Workshop

Fragments Restoration City


BLOWPIPE

Glass masters collect the blowpipes from their storage. The tip of the blowpipes is sunken in ice to keep them cool.

FURNACE

The glass furnace melts 50% of recycled glass, silica sand and other natural materials into the glass. [ ] Inserting the end of a blowpipe into a furnace. [ ] Taking a small amount of colourless glass out of the furnace

MOULDS

Rotating the glass into a wooden mould. The mould is lined with heavy paper to soften the surface [ ] Inserting the metal needle into the blowpipe to create a pathway for air [ ] Returns to the furnace for molten glass (multiple trips in stages)

The master glass blower begins turning and blowing into the pipe and gradually inflate the glass. This requires great physical strength as well as great artistic and technical skills. [ ] The piping glass weighs 30pounds combined


BLOW

MOULDS

Rotating the glass into a wooden mould. The mould is lined with heavy paper to soften the surface [ ] Inserting the metal needle into the blowpipe to create a pathway for air [ ] Returns to the furnace for molten glass (multiple trips in stages)

SHAPE

The piping glass is reheated in a smaller oven. [ ] The piping glass blower resumes inflating it. This time he swings it upside down using gravity to elongate the shape. [ ] Next, he will transform the glass into a cylinder by reheating the tip of the glass and weakens it with a hot burner. [ ] Then he reheats the entire glass cylinder. This expands the air inside.

SLICE

The glassblower taps the opposite side of the hot glass with a cold metal stick. The thermal shock causes heat stress breaking. This releases the glass from the blowpipe. [ ] Then the slices lengthwise with the glass cutter

Glass Workshop

The artisinal way of making of window glass


MELT

FLATTEN

The flattening team is to transform the cylinder into sheet glass. [ ] The flattening master assistant passes the cylinder into a furnace. It is heated at 1500 degrees. [ ] The glass softens in about 30 minutes.

Then the flattening master reaches the opposite end of the furnace with a stick and gently opens the cylinder. [ ] Next, the flattening master irons the glass sheet with a special wooden tool

Next, the glass sheet goes into the annealing oven for a cool down. This relieves stress and prevents cracking. [ ] The master glass assistant removes the glass sheet from the annealing over and performs a visual inspection. [ ] The last step is to cut the edges straight.


COOL TRIM

ASSEMBLE

Steel Room [ ] The assemblage and composition of stained glass

WASH

Glass Mould Wash: The cooling down of glass moulds with the use of water

Glass Workshop

The artisinal way of making of window glass


Wash Room

The glass moulds Glass Workshop


Wash Room

The glass moulds Glass Workshop


C

C


WATER WALL

STEEL ROOM

PORTAL FRAMES

Floor: Floor covering material to contain water First layer of waterproofing compound 4mm Second layer of waterproofing compound 4mm Water stop (PVC) Reinforced concrete 270mm Vertical and horizontal reinforcement 12mm x 150mm Insulation 200mm Reinforced concrete 270mm Water filtration tanks Reinforced concrete 100mm Insulation Reinforced concrete 100mm Water Insulating Membrane Barrier Walls: Reinforced concrete with water proofing with insulation

Steel post inserted into concrete envelope Galvanised steel pin pinned into steel post Galvanised steel post base protector Galvanised trubolt min 60mm embedment into concrete footing Concrete foundation

Concrete Portal Frames with reinforcement 12mm x 150mm Supported by steel connectors Brick foundation


ROOF Aluminum capping 2mm Metal roof 50mm Roof underlayment 45mm Self-adhered membrane 6mm Roof sheathing 13mm Rigid insulation 150mm Roof sheathing 15mm Reinforced conrete rafters

FLOOR EDGE CAP SLAB Reinforced concrete 500mm Vertical and horizontal reinforcement

Glass Workshop Technical details


Colourful Mosaics Covering the Vault [Lobby Arcade, Woolworth Building]

Close-up View of Mosaics Pattern [Lobby Arcade, Woolworth Building]


Gold Leaf Workshop : from gold bar to gold leaf Woolworth Building is glistening with touches of gold here and there worthy of a ‘Cathedral of Commerce’. Architect Gilbert applied touches of bright gold glaze as highlights in ornamental shields which sparkles when caught by sunlight. Woolworth Building was originally topped with gold leaf. However, the gold just blew off the building. One will see bits of the gold leaf being blown off through the openings of the Gold Leaf Workshop from the trimmings of the finished bundle of gold leaves.

The layout of the Gold Leaf Workshop is a processional one designed for the ceremonial procedures involving the making of gold leaf from a gold bar. The workshop consists of two zones: basement level for heavy-duty work and the upper ground level for ‘dry’ processes. Heavy-duty work involves melting the gold alloy from raw materials with a mixture of silver and copper taken from the carts parked within its concrete slots brought in by collectors workers from the Hoppers. Once the melted gold alloy is poured into its gold moulds, the formed gold bars are then rested on the inset concrete trays to cool down. The solid bars will then be brought up a flight of stairs to the mezzanine level into a tight gold chamber spacious enough for only one person and locked when not in use. Within the chamber, gold bars will be inserted into the wall slots similar to pigeon holes and later taken out by the gold stretcher artisan. from the other side. The dry zone housed a series of stations for the rest of the procedures: stretching the gold, cutting into square pieces, placing them between sheets of paper, and pounding the gold. The pounding room is enclosed and acoustically sound to buffer out loud thumping noises. The stairway connecting the basement and ground levels aligned with the outer wall has large windows allowing the beaming of natural sunlight into the gold melting basement.


k l

i

f


a From the hoppers to the gold workshop Silver and copper carts from the hoppers arrive b Mixing A little silver and copper are mixed to make it easier to produce gold leaf. c Melting the gold A gold alloy is produced by melting the materials at around 1,300 degree Celsius. d Into the gold mould The gold alloy is being poured into gold molds e Onto the gold tray The cooled down gold bars harden and await to be collected f Into the gold chamber The gold bars are collected and brought up into the gold chamber and into gold wall slots g Stretching the gold The gold bar/ allow which is about 1 centimeter thick is taken out by the artisan to be strecthed by the roller machine.

j

The gold is gradually thinned by running it through rollers.The gold has been thinned to 0.05 millimeters

h

g

h Collecting the gold The stretched gold is collected from the other side of the stretching machine into the allocated box i Gold box The box is transffered to the working station

b

j Cutting into squares The stretched gold is cut into square pieces of about 6 square centimeters.

a

c

d e

k Placing in between The small-cut gold is placed between sheets of paper. l Pounding the gold It is then pounded and thinned out. Rather than thinning all at once, it is done in 4-5 stages. k Placing in between The gold is placed between larger sheets of paper l

Pounding

The finished gold leaf is checked and trimmed for size.

Gold Leaf Workshop Plan, Perspective

Fragments Restoration City


A

A


Polychromatic Array of Mosaics Covering the Vault [Lobby Arcade, Woolworth Building]


Parrot Scarlet Mosaics

[Lobby Vaults, Woolworth Building]

‘Labor’ Mural Painting by C. Paul Jennewein [North Balcony of Lobby Arcade, Woolworth Building]


Colour Pigment Chamber : the library of colours

Woolworth building is a jewel of colours from the dazzling colourful mosaics covering the dome-shaped vaults of the grand arcade zooming in to the scarlet parrots to the two prominent “Commerce” and “Labor” mural paintings by C. Paul Jennewein and flamboyant Gothic tracery patterns of golden yellow, sienna, bronze-green and light and dark blues.

Above the gold melting room sits Colour Pigment Chamber situated within the heart of workshops. It contains numerous colours of varying tones. Artisans from different workshops including the glass, terracotta and the fabric printing workshops and office would meet as they gather colours for projects of their respective workshops. It is accessible via the Water Wall and connected by a mini enclosed passageway bridge from the Terracotta Workshop. The chamber also becomes a library of colours visited often by designers from the Office as they decide the colour templates amid blueprint creations. Colour pigments are kept in deep concrete vats and strategically positioned to prevent the overcrowding of artisans upon collection of pigments. The vats along the outer wall protrude out creating an undulating shaped wall when seen from the outside. The high pitched roof ushered in a wash of natural light needed for seeing the true pigment colours of varying tones. Artisans are provided with glass jars lined up against both the entrance walls upon entering the space. In the corner of the chamber tucked in a Crush Room where an artisan will be found crushing and grinding of cochineal insect for carmine colour pigments and shellfish and snails for Tyrian purple pigments so that very little comes into the workshop pre-fabricated from elsewhere.


Colour Pigment Chamber Intervention

Woolworth Building


Crush room: the crushing and grinding of cochineal insect for carmine colour pigments and shellfish and snails for tyrian purple pigments. Very little comes into the workshop pre-fabricated from elsewhere

Colour Pigment Chamber Fragments Restoration City


Gold Leaf Workshop Fragments Restoration City


Colour Pigment Chamber Fragments Restoration City


The setting and the anchoring of limestone at the three-story base, June 10, 1912 [Lower stories under construction, Woolworth Building] Photograph by Wurts Brothers. Collection of New-York Historical Society, negative H751.


Detail of terra cotta: arches and spandrels at twenty-seventh story, 1912 [Woolworth Building] Photograph by Tebbs Hymans. Collection of the New York Historical Society, negative 78892d.

Detail of terra cotta, crockets at fifty-fifth story, 1912 [Woolworth Building] Photograph by Tebbs Hymans. Collection of the New York Historical Society, negative 73191.


Installation of terra cotta cladding, May 18 1911 [Woolworth Building] Photograph by Wurts Brothers. Collection of New-York Historical Society, negative 70851.


Terracotta Workshop : moulding and glazing Terracotta tiles make up the majority of Woolworth Building’s facade material. In the evitable need of restoring and repairing the facade of Woolworth Building, the worn terracotta pieces are sent and placed onto a designated space on the terra-scape that has been sectioned out specifically for incoming terracotta tiles from Woolworth Building, allowing terracotta workshop artisans to easily recognise the pile that is needing mending when he or she goes out onto the deck for collection. The Terracotta Workshop is zoned to encompass the three activities: moulding station on a slightly lower level separated from the glazing station to prevent contamination of clay dirt and contains within the workshop pockets of washing stations. There are four moulding stations of varying sizes for the different moulding pieces. The moulding stations are lined up along the outer side of the workshop each with its own tool wall and an opening of foldable vertical shutters. There are concrete washing basins on the exterior decks for a few quick washing trips by the moulding artisans. In the event of terracotta tiles or crockets or tracery panels needing to be replaced with new ones, the artisans will make their preparation for moulding. After moulding, the moulded piece is passed to the four respective glazing tables before they are sent to be kiln in Kiln Two Room on the other side of the Water Wall. Restoration of tiles will also take place on glazing tables. There is an interior carved ground for washing with water coming out from spouts that have been collected and filtered within the Water Wall. The working zones are arranged in such a way that it allows the passing through of other artisans from other workshops as they make their way to the Colour Pigment Room via an enclosed mini bridge that connects the Terracotta Workshop and the Chamber.


Terracotta Landscape Perspective


c a

e

b

f

d

g


a-b Moulding stations c-d Glazing stations e-f Washing stations Passageway to the colour g pigment chamber

Terracotta Workshop Plan

Fragments Restoration City


B

B


Rathskeller

[Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


Dining Room

: the resting place of artisans The high ceiling dining room is the resting place where artisans from different workshops and yards can gather and mingle over lunch and take a quick breather outside on the deck surrounded by calming waters by the terrascap e. Louvre shutters are left open on fine days to usher in cooling winds and wentilate the space. There is a kitchen within the dining space for artisans who were not able to prepare their lunches or for a quick grab of afternoon tea time. The space also accomodates celebratory dinners for the milestones achieved by the artisans.


Dining Room Perspective


Dining Room

Perspective


Structural ironworkers hoisting a beam in place, 1911 [Woolworth Building ]

Photograph by Brown Brothers.


Structural ironworkers, 1911

[Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Cass Gilbert Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American Hisrory, Behring Center, Smithsonian Institution.


Chandelier Workshop : the assemblage of crystals New Year’s Eve 1914 saw the inauguration of night illumination of the tower of Woolworth Building, proclaiming its modernity as the Cathedral of Commerce. The World’s Advance described the tower “burst forth from the black night one giant shaft of uniform light crowned with a great scintillating jewel...the greatest permanent lighting spectacle in the world.” The overwhelming floodlights amounted to twelve million foot candles illuminated uniformly across the facade. At the pinnacle of the tower shone “an immense ball of fire” through a bespoke cluster of twenty 1,000 watt lamps designed by engineers commissioned by Woolworth and Gilbert. The interior of the Woolworth Building is not less magnificent than its exterior with the suspension of chandeliers distinctively designed for respective chambers and ambiance.

The Chandelier Workshop is situated adjacent to the open space between the City Hall and Tweed Courthouse where the people who take night walks can view the illumination of the jewel box through the fenestration of glass facade of the workshop whilst watching the tremulous lighting effect of the reflection of the moving chandelier crystals dancing on the still waters of terrascape as artisans who worked overtime pull the completed assembled chandeliers from a lower ground working level to the loft.


The Chandelier Workshop has a systematic way of working for the assemblage of crystals including the architectural structures within the workshop. The solid concrete floor base has clear lines of demarcation of six working stations of varying sizes to cater to the diverse chandelier steel frame dimensions ranging from a standard room size to a grand ballroom chandelier size. Each station is with its trailing system inset into the ground for the transportation of wheeled carts and wheeled seats. Within each working station, wheeled carts and seats are held in place by steel frames that go all the way to the ceiling where the top end of the steel bars are capped with wheels and attached to the loft trailing system that echoes to the ground trailing system so that as the steel-framed carts and seats are wheeled about, they move along both the ground and loft trailing system. When a suspended chandelier steel skeleton arrives at its designated assemblage working station, it is lowered down to the ground by the artisan in charge. The cart is filled with crystals custom made for that specific chandelier and is usually pulled close next to the steel-framed wheeled seat. In the case when working with a large chandelier and attaching crystals to the upper chandelier ring tiers are unreachable, the seat and cart are adjustable to ascend upwards and move downwards the steel frames to the desired height. Completed chandeliers are pulled up and moved along the chandelier loft trails to be parked with other completed chandeliers of that row to allow for the incoming of the new chandelier skeleton.

Chandelier Workshop Day View

Fragments Restoration City


Chandelier Workshop Night View

Fragments Restoration City


Chandelier Workshop Night View

Fragments Restoration City


Night Time View of Woolworth Building, 1913

[Woolworth Building]


Rathskeller

[Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


01 Beams 02 Bracing 03 Railings

04 Chandelier Steel Rings

05 Chandelier Crystals

06 Trellis

07 Timber shutters

08 Steel

09 Glass

10 Concrete columns

11 Chandelier Crystals Carts & Seats The carts and the seats are adjustable to the height of the chandelier whists assembling the crystals. The completed chandeliers pulled up for the incoming of chandelier steel rings 12 Inset concrete floor 13 Concrete stairs 14 Timber deck


C

C


Purchasing department, American Steel Export Company [Woolworth Building]

Photo­graph by Wurts Brothers. Museum of the City of New York.

Offices of Broadway Trust Company [Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


Banking hall, Irving National Bank [Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


F. W. Woolworth’s executive office, twenty-fourth story [Empire Room, Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


Office

: the creation of patterns and ideas Woolworth’s executive office - “Empire Room” - on the twenty-fourth story is detailed lavishly. He described it as the “handsomest of office of any corporation in this country and possibly in the world”.

Office: As designers and artists sketch down ideas and create blueprints ranging from fabric printing patterns to stained glass combinations, stone sculpture designs and choosing colour templates on the grounds of the Office, they are able to witness the drying of long rolls of coloured printed fabric moving above across the working spaces fastened to steel structures. It will be quite an overwhelming sight especially the designer of that particular fabric witnessing the finished product being unfolded. The office consists of working spaces of varying heights, meeting space and a blueprint room where an archive of fabric pattern drawings is kept.


Office

Perspective View

Fragments Restoration City


D

D


F. W. Woolworth’s private apartment, fortieth story [Woolworth Building]

Unidentified photographer. Woolworth Collection, National Building Museum.


Fabric Printing Workshop :the transferring of patterns Sits within the grand Woolworth building on the fortieth story is the Renaissance style private apartments of Frank Woolworth himself complete with sophisticated richly designed a Flemish Renaissance tapestry and an Italian Renaissance fire mantle.

The Fabric Printing Workshop processes the traditional way of printing of patterns onto fabric using flat bed printing machines. The workshop has two longs rows of printing machines to accommodate fourteen and nineteen screen respectively. Printed fabric begins with uncoloured white rolls of fabric being amounted onto the roll holders which is then fed through the rollers onto the printing bed beneath the screens where the first colour is transferred onto the white fabric as the squidgy moves across the first screen. Chosen colour pigments for the patterned fabric are mixed in the colour hoppers which will then be fed to the squidgy of each screen in the order of darkest (most likely black) to lightest. After each screen, the fabric is getting more colourful and less white is showing. It is of utmost importance to make sure the screens are properly lined up to prevent registration problems of one colour bleeds into another or goes out from an outline. Some screen stations are left empty and sometimes drying elements are placed between screens to help dry the fabric. The printed fabric is taken up through an opening and is being dried as it spans across the loft of the office prior to lowering it through a slit wall opening of the other end of the office between the office and chandelier glass walls and folding it into carts in the basement level.


Fabric Printing Workshop Perspective view

Fragments Restoration City


Fabric Printing Workshop Perspective view

Fragments Restoration City


Engine room, subbasement [Woolworth Building]

Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University


E

E


f

The Printing Process

Flat bed printing machine Colour Hoppers: this is where the colours are mixed and the dyes are matched and fed into the colour screens The screens are flat rectangles 24 inches from the top to the bottom and as wide as the fabric’s width. The bed of the machine has to be quite long to accommodate fourteen and nineteen screens. The fabric is placed on the rubber belt This first screen is putting down black colour. The screen is put down on the table. The squidgy moves from side to side and prints the colour on the white fabric. The screen is lifted. The squidgy moves back and the belt 24 inches to advance the fabric to the next screen. The next screen is green in colour. In addition to black, there is now green on the fabric. The next screen is pink. At this stage, there are now three colours on the fabric: black, green and pink. Next comes purple. One can see the areas on the screen that are purple as opposed to black. Those purple areas are open. The rest of the screen is closed. Dyes only pushed through the open holes to be applied to the fabric. A lighter green is applied next. This colour is printed on top of the darker green and in some surrounding areas to make light and dark green tonal effect. Next comes a lighter pink. After each screen, the fabric is getting more colourful and less white is showing.

a b c d f

entrance via water wall into the workshop up the stairs white cotton fabric rolls colour hoppers screens printed fabric to dry across the heights of the office


d

a

c

b

Fabric Printing Workshop Perspective Interior View Fragments Restoration City


Fabric Printing Workshop Perspective Facade View

Fragments Restoration City


Fabric Printing Workshop View of workshop above office Fragments Restoration City


Fabric Printing Workshop

Perspective view facing towards Chambers Street The Restoration City


Fabric Printing Workshop

Perspective view from Chambers Street The Restoration City


New York City

Traffic Intersection Manhattan


Crafting

&


& Making Craftsmanship Materiality


The Plane Table

cnc model of ‘sliced’ Manhattan topography according geological fault lines


The Plane Table

cnc model of ‘sliced’ Manhattan topography according geological fault lines


Resin Model Encasing Layers of Reflection Fragments on Acetate Sheets


Exhibition Installation Semester Two, Year 1


Exhibition Installation Semester Two, Year 1


Studio Working Space Manhattan Studio


Interwoven worlds of working : Three parallel ways of working co-exist in my working space; below the skylight on the topmost floor of the Manhattan design studio within the Printhouse building on Chambers Street, Edinburgh.


INTERWOVEN WAY O F WORKING


Working involves: [i] testing and experimenting: the making of physical three-dimensional models (e.g. paper card models) and welcomes surprises of unexpected outcomes in the process, [ii] expanding the idea: the sketching of two-dimensional plans, sections, the introduction of dimensions, [iii] envisioning the reality: creating computer three-dimensional models and details.


The process of inventing and creating follows the back and forth rhythm. This way of working presents itself in the very outcome of the ceremonial process involved in each material workshop of the Fragments Restoration City project the procession of moving from one station to another in a loop as presented in the vertical assemblage line of chandelier crystals, the elongated pattern transfer line of fabric printing, terracotta working of receiving incoming faulty tile pieces to moulding, glazing and back to the landscape to be collected. The back and forth rhythm is evident in the conventional way of making glass, the traditional making of gold leaf and the collecting of colour dyes among the workshops at the Colour Pigment Chamber.


INTERWOVEN WAY O F WORKING


Gold Leaf Workshop

Glass Making Workshop

Stone Mason Yard Physical Models 3D Prints


Physical Models Version 1 Unpacking and Packing cnc and cards


Physical Models Version 2 Unpacking and Packing cnc and cards


Physical Model

Interplay of shadows


Physical Model

Interplay of shadows


Physical Model

Interplay of shadows


interplayof interplayof


fshadows fshadows


Physical Model

Interplay of shadows


Physical Model

Interplay of shadows


e

i

ii

iii

d a c h b


iv

v

f g

a

Banner 1:

Fragments Restoration City - Overview, Section, Axonometric, Plan, Reflection Fragments

b c d e

Folio Site Context Model 1:700 Fragments Restoration City Model 1:250 Woolworth Images

i. Construction site, May 11 1911 ii. Erection of structural steel, April 4, 1912 iii. Erection of structural steel, July 1, 1912 iv. Installation of terra cotta cladding on the first two floors of the tower as it rises above the main building, 1911 v. The setting and the anchoring of limestone at the three-story base, June 10, 1912

f

Banner 2:

Gold Leaf Workshop, Colour Pigment Chamber

g Banner 3: Fabric Printing Workshop, Terrascape

h

Design Report

Exhibition Installation

Manhattan Studio, Printhouse 7-8 Chamber Street, Edinburgh


Exhibition Installation

Manhattan Studio, Printhouse

7-8 Chamber Street, Edinburgh


Banner 1

Exhibition Installation


The Unpacking & The Packing of Workshops Typology of elements: i

Embedded / set into the ground cnc grey urethane foam

ii Canopies / Walls white 3D prints

iii Jewel-like steel / furnitures black 3D prints

1:250 Fragments Restoration City Model Exhibition Installation


a

a


The Unpacking & The Packing of Workshops Typology of elements: i

Embedded / set into the ground cnc grey urethane foam

ii Canopies / Walls white 3D prints

iii Jewel-like steel / furnitures

a

black 3D prints Glass Workshop pieces being lifted ‘unpacked’ and placed into the allocated in-set table space

1:250 Fragments Restoration City Model Exhibition Installation


b


The Unpacking & The Packing of Workshops Typology of elements: i

Embedded / set into the ground

cnc grey urethane foam

ii Canopies / Walls white 3D prints

iii Jewel-like steel / furnitures black 3D prints

b Underground

1:250 Fragments Restoration City Model Exhibition Installation


Typology of elements: i Woolworth Building cnc walnut

ii City Hall & Tweed Courthouse cnc grey urethane foam

iii Buildings clear 3D printed resin

iv Plan rastered


1:700 Overview Site Context Model

Fragments Restoration City, City Hall Park Exhibition Installation


Exhibition Installation

Manhattan Studio, Printhouse

7-8 Chamber Street, Edinburgh


Banner 2

Exhibition Installation


Banner 3

Exhibition Installation


The Lake in Central Park

Taken from Upper West Side of the Park

Wednesday 31st October 2018 Manhattan


Appendix of Precedents Peter Salter Peter Wilson Ann Hamilton [ ] Image Archive Fenske, Gail. The Skyscraper and the City: the Woolworth Building and the Making of Modern New York. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2014. https://www.nycgovparks.org/about/history/before-they-were-parks/manhattan NYC Municipal Archiver https://old.skyscraper.org/EXHIBITIONS/WOOLWORTH [ ] Woolworth Text Archive Fenske, Gail. The Skyscraper and the City: the Woolworth Building and the Making of Modern New York. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2014. https://old.skyscraper.org/EXHIBITIONS/WOOLWORTH


CONTACT

[ ] Email yedigrace7@gmail.com

Hudson Bay Building Project In Construction

New York, Manhattan Site visit with module colleagues 2nd November 2018


in transition: a new temporary working space

home: a familiar surrounding


[ A Special Thank You ] to my wonderful tutors: Professors Adrian Hawker & Victoria Claire Bernie who walked through with me my thesis project these two years with great dedication, inspiration, guidance and immense support, and thank you for believing in me


Manhattan Studio

View from my working table February 2020 @ Printhouse 7-8 Chamber Street, Edinburgh

Profile for Yedija Markus

Fragments Restoration City | Design Report | Yedija Markus  

Design Report for Master of Architecture 2018-2020 "Fragments Restoration City" project by Yedija Markus: This project proposes a constructe...

Fragments Restoration City | Design Report | Yedija Markus  

Design Report for Master of Architecture 2018-2020 "Fragments Restoration City" project by Yedija Markus: This project proposes a constructe...

Advertisement