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Constructing Environments Logbook Week 9 Knowledge Maps

Knowledge Map 1

Knowledge Map 2

Studio During the studio session, the whole class went on a site visit. The building was 5 stories high with a basement. Since the building has a multiple stories in a different stages (1.5 weeks behind or forward), students were able to see the gradual advancement through each construction stages. Throughout this site, the main material used was concrete. According to site manager, all vertical concrete members were precast while all concrete slaps were in-situ.

Picture 1 shows the exterior of the construction. From Picture 1, it can be seen that different floors are in different stages of construction. The first floors have more frames emplace than the second floor. Then there are no frames emplace on 3rd and 4th floors.

Picture 1. Exterior

In the basement, the main material used is can be seen that the steel sheeting of the ground floor slab is still exposed. The circular mark on the upper part of the wall is where the diagonal pillars are connected to the wall. The diagonal walls used to support the lateral force of the basement wall. However, once the slab of the ground floor was set, the pillars no longer carry any load as the slab holds the walls emplace. This is shown in Diagram 1, the section drawing of the basement. The line horizontal line just below the pillars are where the precast concretes are connected to each other. According to the site manager, there is a steel plates bolted to these concrete parts to enhance the connection. This is also shown in Diagram 1. Lastly, a drainage system can be seen where the white pipe carries the water to the edge of basement floor. Then the small trenches around the edges of the floor will carry the water away from the building.

Picture 2. Basement

The question mark drawn on Diagram 1 represents the concealed footing of this building. However, it can be presumed that a building of this size constructed mainly on concrete would require a deep footing system along with shallow footings such as strip footing.

Diagram 1. Section View of Basement

Picture 3 and 4 shows the construction stage of the 1st floor. As mentioned below, this is the floor that is the furthest into the construction process. It is almost 1.5 months in front of the 4th floor where only the concrete has been set. This illustrates that it would take another 1.5 months for the 4th floor to be at the current stages of the 1st floor. From Picture 3, shows ventilation and fire sprinkler system. The ventilation pipes extend to the balcony of the floor. The sparkler system is a safety measures in case there is a fire.

Picture 3. 1st floor service system

From Picture 4, it can be seen that there are yellow steel frames and concrete columns. The main purpose of the steel frames seems to be for walls which will divide rooms and apartments. Hence it seems that steel frames are not a part of a structural system of the building as they do not carry any load.

Picture 4. 1st floor steel frames

Picture 5 shows a water proofing strategies applied in this site. The concrete barrier initially prevents the water from breaching into the building. However, as a secondary safety measure, there is a steel trench which will carry any water that has penetrated away from the building or at least stop them from further damaging the structure.

Picture 5. Water proof strategies

Diagram 2 is a section view of 1st floor of this building. It can be seen that the live load of a person is only carried by the concrete members of the frame. Also, according to the site manager, the 1st floor slab is a transfer slab. This means that the some of the vertical members of the structural frames are at a different position as can be seen on the bottom part of diagram 2.

Diagram 2. Section View of 1st Floor

Picture 6 shows the roof of the 2nd floor. Since this floor is 1.5 weeks behind compared to the 1st floor, it can be seen that 2nd floor is missing some parts of the service system. For example, only some parts of this floor have ventilation and sprinklers emplace.

Picture 6. 2nd floor

The green clamp-like steel bars provide a temporary support for the 3rd floor slab while it is still being set. Since this was not present in the 1st floor, it can be assumed that this green bar will be removed within that time as well.

Picture 7. 2nd temporary support

Picture 8 shows the floor slab of the 3rd floor. The square concrete is the part where there is a reinforcement cable which connect the concrete slab and the columns. The cables can be seen on the photos from the roof.

Picture 8. 3rd floor slab

Diagram 3. Section View of Structural Joint Diagram 3 shows the section view of the reinforcement for the slab. The purpose of this reinforcement is to establish a stronger connection between the concrete column and the slab. As can be seen in Diagram 2, the steel cables are made by winding thinner steel strips together. Then the diameter of the cable was around 4.5 cm.

Picture 9 was taken from 4th floor. Apart from the temporary balcony support, the 4th floor and 3rd floor was almost the same. Although it is not well depicted in this photo, the balcony is reinforced by a timber frames. Similar to the green bars on 2nd floor, there is a temporary support while the balcony sets.

Picture 9. 4th floor balcony support

Picture 10 shows the reinforcement for horizontal slabs before they are covered by concrete. The steel cables are inserted into the black pipe. Then once the cables are stretched out due to force between the slab and the column, concrete gets pumped into the black pipe holding the cables tightly emplace.

Picture 10. Steel cables

Key terms & Glossary Sandwich Panel : A structural panel consisting of a core of relatively light material enclosed between two sheets of a high-strength material. Composite Beam

: A steel beam with concrete decking above it


: The bowing of an elastic body as an external force is applied transversely to its length.

Shadow line Joint



: A wooden board running along the base of an interior wall

Cornice : The uppermost member of a classical entablature, consisting typically of a cymatium, corona, and bed molding.

Logbook week 9