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C___a_O_'/1_t._e'/1_t._"S_O_1'_tiJ_e_lJ_tJ_O_k ~) Edilor's note ... ... .......................... .......................................................... 3 Parts of speech ................. .................................................... ............... 7

Chapter 1 The Noun ............................................................................................. 8 Kind s of oOllns .. ... .... ....... .... ... ....... ............ ................ .. ......... .... ............ 8 1 â&#x20AC;˘ The Proper noun ........ .................................................................... 8 2 - The Common noun ........................................................................ 8 3 - The Material noun ..... .. ...................................... ............................ 9 4 - The Collective noun ......................................................... .............. 9 5 - Compound no un ............................................................................9

Forma tion of the plura l .. ............... .............. .. ....................................... 10 Noun cases ... ..... .. ........... ..... ......... .. ........................... .......................... 13

Chapter 2 The Indefini te Article ........................................................................... 17 The Definite Article with co un ta ble and uncoun table nou ns .............. 19

Chapter 3 Pronouns .............. .............. .............. .............. ...................................... 23

Chapter 4 The Verbs .................................... ......................................................... 37 Kinds of verbs ....................................................................................... 37 The Tenses ................................................................... ................ ........ 57

Chapter 5 The Interrogat ive or quest ioning ............. .... ......................................... 83

-4 -


Chapte猫 6_ ,-J, Active and Passive Voiee

............ ....... ........... .......................92

路Chapter 7 - Imperative form 1The Gerunds .................................. ... ....................98

Chapler 8 Adjectives ........ ... .... ... ... ... ...... .......................... ..... .... ........ .. ......... ..... 104 How to use Adjectives ..................................... .. ........ ... ................... 104 Comparison of Adjectives ..................................................... .. .......... 113 Negative Form .. .. ...

.................................................................. 114

Chapler 9 Adverbs .. ............ .

.. .......... ...... ...... ............... ......... ... ............... ... 11 9

Functions of Adverbs ...................................................................... 11 9 The kinds of Adverbs ........................ .......... ...........

.. ... ..... .. . 11.1

Compariso n with Adverbs .................. ... ........ .. ........ ........... ...... ... ... . 129 How to use Adve rbs ...................................... ... ...... ............ ..... .... ... 129 Adverbial particles

.................................................................. I~

Chapter 10 Co nju nction s .... ... ..... ... ..... ..... .... ....................... ...... ................. .... ..... 132

Chapler Il - Use of sorne clauses with examples ..... ... ........ .......... .............. .......... 138

Chapter 12 . - IF- Conditional ..................................................................... ......... 144

-5-


Direct speech ........ .................................................................... .. .. . 148 Indirect Speech .......................................................... .. ............ ... .... 148 1 - Indirect Statement .. .. .... .. .. ......................................................... 148 2 - Ind irect Questions ...................................... ........ ....... .... ............. 155 3 - Indirect Commands or Requests ................................................ 157

4 - Direct Exclalua tioll ..................................................................... 159

Chapter 14 Prepositions ........................ ... .......................... .......... ..... ........... .. ..... 160 The use of prepositions ..................... . ................ .... ............ ........ IM

Chapter 15 - Interjections and Exclamations ...................................................... 196 - Contraction ......... .. ....................................................................... ... . 196 " Irregular verbs ............. .. .. ...... ............ .... ....... ... ... .. ... .... ............ .. ... .... 196

-6-


Parts of speech l - Nouns

,1.--':11

2 - Pro nouns

)I-AJI

3 - Adjectives

..:...I.i...:a.ll

JW':l1

4 - Verbs

~I 0).;>

5 - Prepositions

6 - Conjunctions

.k,IJjl

-7-


CHAPTEDf

I~J,J\I

1The Nounl ~

A nouo is a word uscd for naming

J--; W> l''"''jl

anything

-..;. <.fÎ

.rJ ,

Man W oman

Book

;;'/ 1

Schoo l

Boy

-uJ

Girl

~

Song

Lion

.J..,.i

Glass

J)~

Acto r

Box

Fox

<CL,- j )

Ji .ft>

J'l

k\rjJ\ t~il

IKindS of Nounsi

( ~I r i)

1. Th e Proper Noun

,,,,\J.I 1'-'""lI

particular person, pl ace or Cl'cnt,

1""' 1 JI' '-'" 1:>-1 1""''')1 ~.I>- )Î _..;. ,,,\S:... ,~

as distinct from any other.

.• 1)-" ~

A proper nouo is a oame for one

Oran

The Revolut ion The Alge ria n

0'.1') ;;)),

4..!)\)...\

fl'>") ..:JI.:U1.!

~

~'y , .,-JI

The Red sea

The Atlanlic ocean The Mississipi river

.,,--lI-'y, .J.,>'I .Ii

cr-:-

. ft'

(.!l ë-'JI 1 rWI 1'-'""l\

2. The Comma" Noun A commo n nouo is a name which is common to any persen or thing

r-- r

r

.

I Y' rWI '1'1 , ~ .:.r' -..;. J I ...,a>.:.. ~'1'

.!l

,t.y:ll

of the kind .

-8-


Lake

'ft""'-!

Hospita l

~ ; yli

Dictionary River

'"

3. The M aterial Noun

theat re

Cr'

;J.,...

Magazine Garden

U:!..b-

Museum

~

c?,\ll l'....:~ I .3

t yJ r i JI' <pll.l

A materi al noun is the name of

. i~lI.l '" .;,...

particular kinds o f matter.

Water

Gold

M ilk

Silver

~I 1'="1 .4

4. Th e Collective Noun

~.,.;:. r i JI' ~I r i

A collecth'c noun is the noun of

J>-

a group of persons or things as one

4-}! .A< v"~ ~I

.Î.i":"" ~

complete individual whole:

a.. \S' i.l>-J •

Examples

!~

'"

~i • tl

. ~ ;,J..

,~ ..". . (;"')--1 er'--ll '" ,-", ) J.,h--i .(,yJ-1'" '-"') ~

Jury (a group of judges). Fleet (a group of warshi ps). Army (a group of soldiers).

J

Empire (a group of nations

/,11 '" '-"') <;J}:I.r'1 .(-'>-1) ~

under one rule rship).

·<,..')1....1 <;J}:I. r'1

lslamÎc empire.

· (t~ '1'1'" ' -"') c:W

Flock (a group of shecp).

...s,.11

S. Compound Nouns

School master Shopkeepe r

r~1

J' J.A.o

<.fjiJ.

J>-.o -,....-t.... -9-

Gu npowder Moonlight

-k ')1 .5


;"'.:1 L,::"

Seashore

..N' c}>L:.

-'<.1 ;;Ik,

Tea-time

."WJI .;..;)

Housemaid Postcard

oJ..!.,r:-

Newspaper k e-cream Apple-tree

c.lA.i

• ~

or-!-

~)~ B.,r-

Sleam-engi nc Night-train

J,lll - u.;

Sa nd-storm

~) ~\s.

)

: ~ )i o~).-

Nouns cau be singular or plural: A singular noun denotes one objec.t. A plural noun dcnotes more than

IJfo .u ".....oI~1

""r J l ~ ~.)1' r"i l pi J l ~ ~, ~"i'

.".,..,) ;.,-

one objectA

.".,..,) ",,;.

(.J.,ij~ ./~~~.II)~YIMUV..r"~.II Y :~>I-

[

d ' JJd.§.:;

formation of the plural

AI By adding (s) to the singular noun

>;ill ,..... ~I IJS.l.t

This applies to most nouns exccpt somc cases that will be explaincd lalcr on:

Singular

r-

~I ..:;"i~1

,

Plural ~15

;j,;

Ca t :

P

:..w- W-..-..,.. ,~- ."y• ", 1

>p

Book :

Map :

J! (,) ;jw,. /\

,,~~I ~~ '~t$;-:!

Exame1es:

/

]

Ok-.,>

~

"1

~

Books

...,.5

Cats

.bJ,j

.hll/,

Maps

Rose

0.:1))

Roses:

.:1)))

\.Hand

-'<

Hands :

• .,,-,<1 ./

BI By adding (es) to

• "L....... "lI

the singular

JI (es)

ow,~ / Y

~ ~,

fo r words ending in ;

- sh-

-ch -x- -z- -0-

Examples: CH + ES

- 10 -

o.:lpl

:;"Jl:II ..j))-I,


'l'-

Singular

Plural

~-t)

Branches:

c:'" 0~i - t.Jj

Bench :

.w.

8enches :

-",Li,.

Church :

'-$

Churches:

Branch :

ylZ "'y

Match:

.. SH + ES Brush Bush "X+ES Box Tax .. S + ES Mass

Glass

Matches:

O\.:..)

Bushes

JJ..\.:..,p

Boxes

~.........

Taxes

.l,.!.,.

•1

ç - cris'

.

'"

Masses

,~

Dresses

(':";W) yI,:

. ü, \}"-

,/,/1

Gl"ses (Cl",. j) y l"sl-

Fezes

Topaz

Topazes

C " By changing (Y) prcccdcd by

'0 (lES)

~L,.,

~\?

"Z +ES Fez

a consonan'

~~

Gases

jli.

<Cl",. j) y

.))

Brushes

• o..r.f':'-"

Gas

..,-lIS ~W~\yi

ri ./_.", /->:

...;

(lES)

J! JL..

,j.ru. J,r.-11 (Y)

toi

Examples:

1

Lady

Ladies

:ül~

Story

Stories

:~

Fly

Flies

Army

Armies

" 11 "

:'-:-'~~ .

:J-?-


..,jru. ;ij.!':-" (Y 1 ~ IS' I;! loÎ

But if (Y) is preceded by a vowel. the plural is by adding (s) only.

.bll (SI ;';\..;01. ~fo e;--+-I ~~ !Ir,

:<,S,I)

Valley

Valley,

:~)J\

Boy

:..ù)

Boys

:,'i}

Key

:CL:.<.

Keys

:&W,

Day

:rY.<..,J ..

Days

:r~1

Toy D - By changing the (F) or (FE)

Toys

to (VES)

Leaf

:...,.,WI

, )1 (F) ,j.r (VES)

:op:..

J!

(FE)

Wife

:~Jj

Wives

:..::A". )j

Knife

:~

Knives:

:.§l5:....

Thief

:vd

Thieves

:cf'"..,J

Wolf

:~~

Wolves

: ...:,..>l~~

e' "y

E - irregular Qlurals

Examples:

d'

!

t.oi

JI.".)

Man

J-"-) ,

Men

Woman

,Ifl

Women

Tooth

.:r

Teeth

Foot

r.û

Feet

, JL..I , rl.ûl

Ox

),J'

Oxen

JI"';

Child

/,

, :JI))I

Leaves

4,;)J

.1_;"

,

Jib

Children

, 12 -

.L;

JlAkl


Deec

Deer

Sheep

Sheep

Duck

Duck

<rl.;<.i)

Jo,

h-~I

INoun-casesl

Jlyll

C:!) •L..... Su

;,....,:) ..;.,,, L..

The noun has four cases

iJ" jiJü.r'

i..l:,ll } j>'\.iJI <JL.. - 1 ~ Jy-i11 ;JL.. - 2

1 • Subjective case

2 • Objective case 3 : Possessive

<$ill ;JL.. - 3

4 . Vocative case

,-"UI ;JL.. - 4

:i..l:,ll } j>'\.iJI <JL.. - 1 i.l::,l.l. Ji J-.ill j>'1l ~ -

1 . The subjective case: - It denotes the subjeet of the verb

7

Examples: Ladies gossip

o.'I•r.,:.,l.J......Jl -.

Readers read

,,};, ,I.,;JI

The sky is clear

."ki ;.r.1J1

The sea is rough

Birds ny Friends coopera le

i.JjJ~ ~\iJ......~\

J,l< ,I.,.ll

The air is fresh The sun is shining

e:k-' ~I

The heal is unbearable J\,b; "j i})-1

The rain is heavy

yL,., ~ L.....J\ c1l..11 ~\ .J.j- ):J.\

The dog is faithful

~\ ~\

The snake is dangerous , ~

2. The objective case

J,..;.I.I

0~\

;JL.. -

2

. ..,,)lJ.J1 iJ~ iJ.,.J.II

Teachers teach st udents.

...?)I iJ)-1...., .1,).(yI •

Doctors treal patienls.

Ahmed likes music.

'il ~ ..;.,I.,:AJI ...;.,.-}.1 ..,...,., ..l..>-i

We speak English.

·<.P"I ~ ~

Girls pick nowers.

.}"j

.<.~) i~) <';.1'

The poel composed an çlegy. ~

13 -

...;.Ji fl.!JI


:~I ;Jl,... - 3

3. The possessive case:

.,,?' ;"s:.t. ~

It denotes oWDership.

For singular nouos we use ('8)

(S) ..)f

"}l'

~ ,L....',u . (') lL.o \.il 4 ij.r.-'

Examples: The boy's bail The artist's touch

j

-Il)I '.f 0UIU

The actor's movement J!..ll ;s'.rThe tiger's strength

..,...JI~; ~,;J I~)2.i

The cat's paw

.b.iJ1 ~

The mookey's look

The writer's mind

--,.;15J1 J'>

The girl's bag

The singer's voice

~'

The soldie r's gun <?4\ ~~

"'7"

"}l'

~ .,,:l' ,L....',u l.,..J4 • ..bil ;u." \AJ 1 J--.I (S) ..)f"

For singular Douns ending in (8), use the apostrophe ooly.

Ji.....:;;

Hercules' power. Moses' law. For plural nOURS ending in (5), use the apostrophe only.

~y

(S) .,j.f"; );.6-.11 ~' ,L...,.,~

.Jj!;

A.,-;!4 .

....;..a; 'JJ .bil ;u." \AJI ;;"~I J--.I :yU i .... (S) .,j.f

Examples:

j

.>y.!-I u l.f.-..

The soldiers' camps.

;ij.f

The players' room.

.~)UI

The nations' hopes.

.y.,...=J1 Jt..Î

The dogs' lire.

.,f;,J1 .l,>-

The eagles' nest.

.J.r--JI

~

The teachers' room.

.• xL.~I ;ij.f

The doctors' office.

.,l,k'J1 ~

- 14 -


• For plural nouns not ending

(S) ';'f";.,FI

r-< ~I ,,--~ 4,.-J, •

('S)

..jf J ;u."WI ..jw,;

in (S), use ('S)

j

Examples:

JI..,-)I ~ ,UI'ct..-

The men 's society The women's suffering

• ..., •..J"

The children's nurse

J W.}I1

4. The vocative case:

,-"U.I ;Jb- .4

fo.

'-" U.1lJ b- .) 1'""'':/ 1i>

A noun is in the vocath'e case, when

.l.,l>~1

it is used for the sake of address. Examples:

.\6.,

Son, you must be ca refu!.

.}

~ lo-""

,

,,~ "i ..,..."., .,rI 4 •~ J..o,-

4 IJ..o,- ..;..,.ici ..j<-'-"' 4 .!.Al; ..,-:J

l'm very sorry, grandpa. Let us forget that, my friend .

.yi 4 ~.,.<JI ,.L. J!-- ';.Ji. 'J

Don't make such a fuss, Amina .

YLll

• Now can vou do ihis exercise ?

e11 loi.> ,Is' ,,1 ,:;l::.J , ,. lil , '• . W-I . ,; , L.... :YI ",,'JI..- ,ni

State the case of the oo uns in the

-'"

following sentences:

-:UWI..1.il

. .;~

l. You opened my eyes.

. (<bJJ)

2. My friend has just arrived.

Pl

~-'-"'

J--»

J.iJ

~~ <.$"))1 ~ if ~ifL.... l.! \.:....... r .>\,j ~i j.A .~\))I "" \~ b~ )2.:;i

3. Please, tell your brother another story. . \.S/Î l.....:ü 4. Are you coming with us, Sami?

5. 1 expeet m.ny guests. Use each of the following

4::11;:11 ~t.-..~I ~ ri

DOUDS

:i~ ~

in a suitable sentence:

Address

J5' ~I .

,,\.-"'r

Music

. 15 -

~Y'

J


Word s

Train

Library

Heart

* Write 5 sentcnces on each of the

"":--"'"

following pattern:

~ ~ :.)WI

4' ~I

JJ + y.~ IÎ

A , ubject (noun) + verb

B. subjccl + verb + complement (object) 4:! J~ Express by usi ng the possess ive form

+ J.tl + ~\..i

/ "--:"

~<.u\ ~ ~ ..r?

Examples: The house of my uncle . My unclc's housc. . ~ )j

1. The cat of his wife .

.ï..ki

3. The room of the teachers.

.4"Î ~"' .i.\;\.... ~I ~\i

4. The toys of the boys.

.J W.~I -,...J

2. The boo k of her fat her.

5. T he gun of my friend.

- 16 -


CHAPTeo2 The Articles

al

The Indefinitc Article

Singu lar A

t;

MI

ClI,.)i

A/AN'.tWJ (A)

1 AN

'.riil r~1 J:i J--3 .J'-' ";.f'" Î-':! ~.\J 1

(A) is used before singular nouns

beginning with a consonant sound

Examples:

. O~W~ .,lh....!. j~

A happy family. A hag.

.(}w ".1')

A compartment.

i)""""" - i.f"'""

.Je-)

A man.

.~ ~..l>-

A beautiful garden.

.ôp-:.

A lcee.

.j;~~

A lucky fcHov.'.

·t~1

A meeting.

.).,...dl r\b. i f ...ç .--YJ Cl,...>

A heap of broken images. A niec morning.

.,.=II ~I

(AN) is used bcfore a word

or ,'oicclcss or wcak (H)

An orange An cgg An inkpot

J:i J--3 (AN) •

J Î "-' '"" JI !l...,..,.. . j/'! ÎoU .~ (H).j.r

beginning with a \'owcl sound

The vowels arc =

li

:"j'

A,O,U ,E,I ~\.i;

<>.rdl

j)}-I

An hour

.Ji

~

An hones' man

o~

An angry wornan

- 17 -

",\..., . 1..1:"

r ~) 1_

~\j:. 01/1


!J.f""-' . j.ru. loU '" i.$J 1~ •

'" Some words slart with a \'owel a consonant sound and

~" JJ'il "'.,..-J 1.j:JJ 01 ~ <#J J ..... "'J""

Ihus (A) must be used.

,AN) ~J ,A) ~

.J"

but the tirsl sound is

"Jl.:l1

Examples: A European

A university

A useful thing

A o ne-eyed man

,,-,1 J,j iI,l

No article is uscd with

~ ':1

.iPlI~1

indcfinite plural nouns.

Examp1es: .~ éJ..~1

Devils laugh.

. -J~

Boys play.

,"}'I

Flowers wither.

.J.i; .,J"')I

Bird s sing ..

..,?

."".r

Aeroplanes are fa st. Horses run .

J.,.)-1 •

.Jlik"l ~ ~~y- ~lj..o" l

Mothers are kind to childrell . Acts speak louder than words. '" Try to do Ibis exerCÎsc.: Add (A) or (AN) when necessa ry 1. 2. J. 4. S.

",1;L6J1

.<.?.J.

.,.r-hI1

. ",l.KJ1 i f Ij"oU"

~i Jl.};'1

:...,.JI 1';"

ji 0 1JJl>- •

i.,J.r;,l1

=

(AN) } (A) .........

That is ... great idea. Take .... advice from . . .. expert What .... wonderful surprise! 1 am sta rling .. . . new life. 1 want ... glass of lemo nade wÎth ... piece of sugar in il.

- 18 -


bl The Definite Article

(The)

u..,....:W1.1.1/"" If"

nThe" is used:

Th,

'-"-",,"1. ibl

.:.r ...:....~ 1o..l:.Y -

1 - When we are thin king of one particular thing

100 king

1

.

For example: He is

~

~

:~

.J.." i f ~ '"1 rlAo ",..\JI J....l1 Js. ? J.-

for a job.

Did he gel the job he applied for ?

Y.J.".Î i f if 1>...;.1) J ~ L.= - 2

2 - When it is clear in the situation

..:..W ,~ )1 ~ '-$Î , - , J....,- .b,- '" WI ",..\JI J-,-,,"I

which thing or person we mean The hotel we stayed in is very nice

Vi J.Li ",Î ~)) .ë"rJI

1 want to see the ma nager of the firm . 3 - When there is only one of something: the sun, the moon,

fiJ..A ~li! ~)

0./' <jll •t,.:..l..Il ~ - 3 ... dl,h'il ,.,...;JI ,~I :~j .:J' i.l,>-J,

the earth, etc

J.:.i - 4 , .Ju y.. ~u

-1 - Before "same" (the sallie)

( Same)

Her dress is the same as mine.

4.Jf

~\ ..:,...I...L,,:,

5 - Before superlatives. The Amazone is the longest river in the world .

. ~W\

J:i -

J -* J.."kÎ Y'

0 ) jlo ~\

6 - When we are thinking of

J .f..A; \..t"l;; -

something as a general idea

~\s. ~

He goes to the cinema every weekend.

- 19 -

J5'

'ô..fJS' t..

~\

5

6

~~

Ji ~~


7 - The + adjective

...... + ~.,.-:;JI il.i J--l-7

W(' use the + adjective (withoui a noun) 10 talk about

.r

groups of people.

':"-'"<:U

<,..-1

~J")

.;, ~-'"""

...,.. U1 ,J'

Example:

"lc.?~ l ,.)p l

The young, the o ld, the rich,

,y I.,-!JI

. .. c?".J-1 "I.;.;JI

the poor, the injured etc ...

8 - Thc + nationality We use "the" with sorne

~I

+ ~.,.-:;JI il.i - 8

.p., c:'

~.,.-:;JI il.i J--l

1-4< ~) ~I ~LQ....

nationality adjecth'cs to mcan

.•\l,JI

"the people of Ihat country.

For example:

1';'" .) tS:....

.

,:>1---;.0

The Algerians.

. .»)/)1)-1

The French.

..).r.--".,AlI

... dl ;#-)'1

The English etc ...

9 - Wc use thc

,..-1 r:: . . . .p l il,i ~ -

+ a singular

9

countable noun to talk about

.rJ I.\.>J .~ ~ ,}>

a typc of animais, machines ctc ...

... .;,~'jl ,';'UIy.1 ,J'

t<j

For example:

.,,",~Ir-l-I

The girnfTe is the tallest animal. Thc piano is my fa vourite instrument.

J}>i 01))1 .u.1.ii1 -Ii 'UI "

, ~Ir<J1

10 - With Ihe names of canals,

... ·d l ~u",.:1

rivcrs, seas, oceans, etc ...

- 20 -

y ..

.l...oi c:' -

10

,)b..,J1 ')4-l~1


and in Dames with "Republic l1

l'Kingdom'' "states" etc ...

J).:iJ\ ~ ~k..,..t C;:J ... 11 " "-'':! - , ".11" ." ,," "'cJy , ".'-, ~ '~J~

J:.-

,~/ ~\ o•.l~1.I

such as the U nited States of America,

"':"'I..!)I

yI

,,-»dl <S:.WI

The Uni ted K ingdom,

.~J..ul "J~

The D orninica n Repu blic Omission of the definitc article:

: ~ ,.:JI

a .. \Ve don't use IIlhe ll when

\.0= ~~I ;Ii·~ '1 -

or people in gencral

i

For example:

.. ,-,

:)\........!...

..

. .." """,1 ";1.;.1 "1 -

.. l'Ill afraid of dogs.

b .. With uReountable oouns

J~I e~ .:.'11>-

.t,.:..~1 ,:r ~ ... ~ ....... ..,.\;,,;,,'11 Ji

wc a rc talking a bout things

.. Ail cars have wheels.

;I,i

J$' . I.>~ ~ '1 .;JI .1..->'11 ~ - .."

...:- ~ 4l

,

",I},...JI

e"

.!.lI .r.<- ~I .1..-> ~I ~ <.Â,!.J.,JI ;i>i J--i .. \Ve use "the" with the oouns ;,:""" ..:.;IS' I;! .~i ;)ft".ul rncntioned abOl'c if they are qualified .. Sugar is not good for you

l')\......!..II

For example:

,.\Jill Jj <?iJl j:..J1 ~I

Ca o you pass the sugar on the lable?

* 1 .. Countable and uReountable A nQun ca n be co unta ble

Rouns

..f..<.

or uncountable

, 1..-> Î ,,1..->"'1 .:r' J ~ j li L.. l.:"" ..f..<. 'J ,1..->ÎJ l.:""

1) A coul1table no un ean be sing ula r (apple)

ois. .:.r~ ,-:?1l\ r--")'\ ( 1 \.0...,... J Î 1;· J" . C . Î \.lI

"y<" .

1 1 (app 1es) o rpura

· i~ j) ~ \..Q;

- 1 eat an apple evcry day.

- 21 -

J5'ii -


0~ o.:ls. ~

2) An uncountable noun has

"'i ":FoUI l'',,.,''-'i l

(2

.bii ....1) ~ J<·i.J"!. JS' j)'1\ JS'\\

only one forRl

o

1 eat rice every day.

"

.j }l\ I...:-""'Î liÎ

llike ricc .

3) Countablc nonns arc things we can count, so we can say "one apple" "lWO apples" etc .

4) Uncountable nouns arc things wc cannot count Wc cannOl say "one rice "two

\A.:ls. ~ ~I ~4,....~1 (3

."01.::>-11" "4,:,-\Âi" ~ b.:ls. ~ "'i ~I $.4,....~1 (4 .. j)" Jy4i 0i ~ ":J ":k.-

. " etc ... nces

". \. i"

• 1,)))

t: ~I il,i .,)1.,.,0:...1 ~ (5

5) We can usc a/an with

singular countablc nouns:

a book , a sllldent , an egg. 6) Wc can' t usc singular count ablc

nouus alone (without a/an/the/nay ctc) 1 want an apple (nol 1 want apple) 7) We can' t use alaD with

uDcountablc nOUDS. We do nOl say lia rice" or lia water" BUl we cao say a bowl of rice,

a drop of watcr

- 22 -

:,,:,. .:f..! .;JI i,)ll

,l...~1

.~ ,~I.k

'y1..::S"


CHAPTEOS

I..JÇiJ\1

Ipronounsl ,,~

A pronoun is a word that replaces

y

W> J" ~I

1'"'" ~I

a noun

••

1. Personal pronouns ~ lI bj eç tl

I

SI

. , Il .,

~ ' oQû"

IObjeCl I +-

--+

,/

(JJpo')

S

Persan

We

• '1 • 1

J.!~

yi

i d

Me

cl

Us

~ ...J,~ I

2nd Perso n

.

Y ou

Yo u

J.,....

!l

r.-"'.

,;;i - r>i - w i - ..:...;i

,?) ..r- 'c:.- ' '':'';.YJ .?.i... (-:JWI j )JI) ......:WI d

3rd Persa n

He

Him (4../.... )

She

Her

It

Il

They

Them ( I.J,/~)

1"

(\10)

0/'

(lA , 4.)

jiWI ."J 1" Ji 0/'

.,.

":"';YJ '?:V "" - 1"" - \...0 . i jil. ji l. rJ 1

Examples:

! '"

,i

.It--f>i ~i .....'-'1,1; .;rù .~ '1 c.;i

1 respect her.

Wc met them . You don'( like her.

'<li) ,.;1 ,-".f.; <1'

He saw me . She hates him.

" 23 "


Il bit

IllC .

Thcy tied it.

5ubjcct

Object of preposition

Verb

Îx,.!cY ü

J-i

?

J.f"! ))f'"

He

played

with me

1

talked

wilh him

She

laughed

all hem

We

Iislened

10 her

.~

.."..i ~i .r+'~ crV) L; y .i->'< 1'" • • .(? L..:; 0./') Lo..(? L..., f

1 Iike him and he likes me. They respect us and we respect them. He helps her and she helps him.

Subjeet + Verb + Obj«t + Subj«1 + Verb + Obj«t

cYl;

J-.' 1 like

Jri-' him

cY ti J-.' and he

Jl <iL) J--fi We

Yo u li ke him

and he

.!.ll <iL) likes me

41 They like

liS

sends

id

~

crV

hi s regards

f)

1 send

<iL)

to you

..,i ~i my regards

to

her

J--) d) ~ 0./'

and we

Our· Your

1"')

J--fi

and

~ l:.;L) My

f ) .."..

))f'"

me

like (hem and they scnd their regmds to us

U r-o'L) j}--fi

She

+ Prep + Objecl of prep

Jri-' ? . j ? his regards to

sends

f)

send our

J-- j crV) • His

-

regards

L;.r.'"'<

Her

lo them

1'" -

Its

• Their

. These are possessive adjeçtives and they qualiry nou ns

,t.....'>'\ ~) 4

..;.,li..,

• 24 •

0./' .~i

':.1\

..;.,ws:J\ -


S,b

+ "('rb

j?\i

Jo'

+ possessh"e adj

+ No un

;.,s:J.. '-'-"

('"""" 1

,

o.F' 'j... 1.f';';;1 ",loi t ~ .:r' é..6) c7-'" -:..;Î (r" Î)

1

pu t on

my

clothes

We

respect

our

fathers

You

waste

you r

time

He

revises

his

lessons

She

cats

hec

lunch

t..,I~ J)G

They

wate r

thcir

fanus

~;I.r.Jyi--< ~l

lt

feeds

its

you ngs

J,..... )J ~

l:"=" \.J. ...:;1

t..JI;.....~4'l (J;W\

Verb

S ubjeci

yli

J-'

Indirect object

Direct obj«t

'c. . J . r.~ ~

.,oc,. J,...

She

gave

me

a nower

She

wro te

him

a lettcr

T hey

lo ld

me

a story

wish

yOll

He

did

hec

She

bo ught

her

1

;J\...J J.:.-5-'Ài .

~ t5:.,.

J I.,s:.,.

-'Ài

L;b lb- (~<J) c.lJ ..,Ji a great favou r ~~ v.l>- I,J (Ji ..Li! a present ~J.A 4J ..;... J.iJ

rI

"..-4' (So)

50

1 hope 50

1 believe

;;~.J) ~t

good luck

"(SO)" as a pronoun

1 was told

.r-"!)

J I..A::..I

.0J~ ~

..vil

.!.lI;

J-i

~)~Î

50

.!.lI.i5" .r'JI .Ji ~i

l'ru afraid 50

• 25 •


~ (ONE) J~I

(ONE) as a pronoun

One of you has wo n the first prize Do one of these exercises Onc has to do one's best

J) •'YI

;)t)-~ jÜ

r5 ...l>-I•

o~ ...l.,J JI)~ L»~ J~ 0Î ;)L.;)I\ Js- ~ J';L..:J\

lt is ail one to me

One for ail and all for one

Lf.J.;s.. J~

/,:.yl

.).,;.u c:J-1) ~

.).}JI

(lf»

.)L...;JI)

;;..ml ,i\.W> .2

2. Possessive pronouns:

~L<. ~.;s ~I }l...:. '1 ~ ~ .!.ll.l!) • L...,., ~I

Possessive pronouns stand for nouns and arc thus used instead

.~! ;:-;; ifl .L...,.,~I

of the Douns to which they rc(er

.;J'

I<$J.. iL...:.1

IPossessive pronounsl

..p. .:..."JI .!.ll;

Thal house is mine. That institu te is ours.

. Cl -4--i1 !lI;

This suit is his.

..J <J-ûl ,.i.

.41

Thi s book is hers.

yl.:5Jl Il.

.U) ~I U);

That pen is yours.

. ~ .) L.a.J..1 Il.

This horse is theirs.

1#1 ;;;J

Ipossessive adjectivesl

.0'

That is my house.

U);

. ~-4-v U);

That is our institute.

This is her book.

.d-.4 ""U .4<15 Il.

Thal is your pen.

..!l..li !lI;

This is his suit.

.~t-. !lI;

That is tlteir horse.

- 26 -


Arc you indeed in love with her? Perhaps tbey will ring me up al six o'clock. G - Adverbs of manner Badly

(i,I>.I-)

u,...

~

Wisely Carefully

~~

Foolishly

o~

Slowly

~~

Weil

\...",.

J\....>~

Carelessly

~~

Boldly

sadly

i.>J'"

Cleverly

i)~

Ligh tly

~

Heavily

....;"

.)il=,

Weakly

~

'J"i

Clearly

CYJ!

Correclly

~

Strongly Polilely noisily Proudly Decently Simply Secretly Rapidly Urgently

~;ty ~p.

Severely

o~

~ " ~rA!

Sharply

o~

,"~

Silently

J~'

a.;.ü ....;"

Wickedly

;.1-;':' .....,6

<kt-"

Firmly

r:r<

('i.,....,) Ir'

Calmly

,)-4< •

;;r,

o~

Suddenly

;J"-"' ....;,,

o~

Strongly Promptly

.~

You should not behave badly.

,

\S'yL &-ï '1 0\

\Jj ~

Il is raining hard.

.o)jo.? )al

He did it cleverly.

.oj~~

We solve our problems wisely.

.(JuiJ~) ~~ .

w.n..:...

~l

\..t.\Si J.iJ j...; <f"

The number of the inhabitants is increasing rapidly.. ;;r. ~\.?- 0tS:....J\ ;tJ.s.

- 127 -


. ~ ~ \~

Thal is not truc.

.\."sutiÎ s.~jA

Thesc are my relatives. Thosc are the actoes.

r-'"

s. ~ Y'

.~

Joo.iL

..J.f!..J.1

1 will d o the same as yOll.

.f'fi ~.J......::> )i....; ..:.-:S'

If yOll are rcally my friend. show

Js-

.1.!...lJ~

you rself as such.

.J1

Vou arc the boss heee and as such you

~I o~) \.;.;. ~)I ~l

are the o nl y onc eesponsible before me

if\"'\ J)j--1\ ~\ ...:....;Î ~\.l..:b

Why a re you teUing me ail this ?

"".LoIS .;JI, :i

4. Rellexive and emphasizing pronouns:

J J~ I;,U

§

.(ft

iJ.\"":'\.G..QJ\

M yself

Ourself ,!.L...i;

Yourself Yourselves

}

Himsetf Hersetf

...,.JW\

Itself Themsetves

Onesetf

~

Reflexive pronouns!

;t....P

~I ~ I.,....l:$o

When the action passes from the subject back

oI,.......A,i J&-IAII ~

aga in to the same subject: They arc te.ching thcmsclves Engli sh.

..,;,Li->' I

.~

Make yoursclf at home.

- 28 -

J

~\ ..:.-:S' "J

ri-<

.)

w

('"f'!

j."..,a;


rJ.>.!

,~~

Help yoursclf.

,(.JWI

It hurt itsclf.

",.J) 4----'" w;i .l.iI

,"Gu 4----'" .:.-,lÎ

She dressed herself carefull y. Emphasizing pronouns: when

\...w. :;"JoS - - y - .T'L....;.

used for the sake of emphasis

.;,,?.,.:lI

They told me that themselves.

'r+-" ~

.!.lJ; .j)r',Î ,<i-"'L.. ~ \;1

1 myself helped him .

,

!

Did you see that yourself ?

~:tI r~

S. Interrogative pronouns:

Whom? Whose? Which? What?

~ .!.lJ; ,,-,1;

J-

,<-.i.:, .!.lJ; Cfll .l.iI

He suggcsted thal himsclf.

Who?

Joc '" J-..:...i

". ',

J-J~

Jo J IJ-ll) 0" (.JWI J"..J.I Jo JIJ-ll) 0" (.JWI .!.lJlll Jo JIJ-ll) J , ' , (i>J.....< ,1,-:-1 0" 'o.? ; "",,1 Jo JIJ-ll) <$1 (i'':'"'''' .r-' ,I,-:-Î 0" 'o.? Jo JIJ-ll) I;\.. (.JWI j?WI

J

Interrogative pronouns arc uscd in

~ ~~~I }4..Al 1

. ~I J.:-ï WilJ •.l!.}"il l$.~

forming questions and they always prccede the \'crb. Who told yo u that?

Y..:JJ':' ..:JJ

if

Y...: . ,)) if

Whom did you see?

,J. YWI ii ~I ~ 4 i Yo)::-.!JI

Whose car is this? Which do you prefer, the film or the story?

o~

Y~ \,:,\'"

What did you do?

V JJj.-l.1 if Y?i ~ ($..ut if

Who is responsible for that?

Y..:JJ':'

Whom do you like better?

- 29 -


* Interrogative pronouns may introduce a direct or an indirect question.

What ha ve yOLL said?

(Direct

rY)

~...:..J.i I~ L..

.

..rf:-) y~ bL.. J.r.>1 (Direct rY) Yo?~1 ~ 0'"

(Indirect .".;.y

Tell me what you have said Who will give the leçt ure?

o?LÀ\ ~ 0'" tSj ~.)

Let us see who will give the lecture

.r-y .r.'-)

(Indiroct ~WI

Who?

(~ Ji J j.-) rJ"~'lI4.f' Jlj-U

For persons singular or plural

(~.,;..

masculine or feminine:

Ji

}'j.,.)

Y'ljÎ ~ 0'"

Who came ficst? Who ca n answer thi s question?

Jlj-ll~.;,'

if

YJ\j-J1 \~

Js- ~ 0' ~ 0'" YJ.kU

Who is your bcst Criend? Whom?

:Jyui11

~~

if

0'"

Jlj-ll ~.;,'

:..,.,I,;,..;.~I

For pmons:

r

.r Jlj-ll Y...:.JL 0'"

Wholl1 did you ask?

?;5'i

Whom do you like beu,,?

(J.Ai') .:,..;-

4i

Yi~ 0'"

Whom does he respect?

(.!ll11l ~ Jlj-ll)

Who,.?

?J

Whose flag, are Ihese?

.r JI);......u • ?t~ 'JI ,.\.0 J

Whose papers are these?

~ J I)) ~I oh

Whose car is this?

YOjt:.-J1

:..,.,t;...,)jl

For p.rsons:

- 30 -

J. oh J.


i.:..... ,I,!-i .:.r' '.r ) \,;:>-1 <.:" Jlj-ll ~."i

Which?

..r'L;".:.,~IJ s.~'J1 ~ Jlj-U .(..!...ij.a Ji j' j".) ~ Ji ~j-t) ri ~P}fl U"Jx..... 4Î

For things and perl'ons singular or plural subject or object. Which will you study, English

Y~}JI

or French ?

YyJ..i

Which of them can we invite ?

i ~.>..,a.i; W> <,$i

Which ward do yo u mean ?

,,~t iJ:! rj& ,,~ Y' Jlj-U ~I$i ~Ijl,.

What? For things generally

\..~ j:.~~ ,o,).l"..,..

singular or plural, subjcct or object.

.<J~ ) 'yu

.r-'-

'e:-- Ji ,.,.u) ~j:.;,;

Whal are you lhin king or?

l...:-'

YF L..s.

What are you talking about?

Ylh t..

What is this? What do you need?

Yc.l.::i \;,)...

o,)~1 ~ ".jt......QJ\ .6

6. Indelinite pranouns:

Somebody

t.:.:5:..ç 4Î

!;;I.c...J1 ri "";'1 ~ 4

Which do you prefer, love or friendship ?

Something

Ji

\..

,.,,:-

Anything

\..~

anybody

• ,.,,:- ,,1 . • <.SI•

~

.

• • -,>-1 ,,1

Someone

• \.. -1>-1

Nothing

,.,,:- 'i

Nobody

-I>-i 'i

None

Noone

-I>-i'i

Ail

~

Other

.r''11 .r''11

Everything Everybody Everyone

A few

AnyaDe

One

,.,,:- J> ~J>

-I>-i

Another

,) J>

<,.wJ)

• • ,) )1 -1>-1

Much

J,li

Less

- 31 .

(~)

'>'

.r.> J,J;


A litt le

(~) J,li

Each

(-,>-1)

y

Eilher

Many

('.wJ)

r.>

Neither

!l\~ ~) Li.:. ~

~>'I

"YS

Several

...l:!Js.

Bot h

'-'1.5'

Enough (,-",,':II

-I>-i) <fi

Eithcr

or' "i

Eithcr means one or the other of IWO

}

persons, things or matlers

J.~ 'lI) -l>Ă&#x17D; ~ ? '1\ )i (~\

)i <f- loi (~II.i,. ~

Either Ali or Sami will come Ihis morning. .... L. 1 don '( need either.

,:,1 L. <fi ~ J,>.:.--- d )"'"

ft seems impossible fo r ei ther of

us

10

.)~

apologize.

I.i,.

'J

':'1 ~ ~jJl ':1) 'yi:I' ':1

Neilher money nor gold can yOll

'J,

.!lI;'

Ncither . , , . Nor

give

ifi J.,) ':1

.L...p

. ,,\......JI

happiness.

.!J;~

.~t".

':1) ,1';; LJ .;rV .L...p <fI.} J!i ':1 . !lI; ':1) I.i,.- ..,...,.i ':1

We are neither hungry nor pOor. Trust neither. 1 Iike neither.

,IS' 'b"""

Ali

<i'"

â&#x20AC;˘ lt is singular ",hen it meaus

(everything).

lo~ ')ll ilb-

.if:'" 'J

Ali ou r love is for everyone of our

if

.j

~fo

.

'J>-.f' ,.;. J'

-1>-1)

j5J

\.:.,>-

y

.ulihi

ch ildrell.

- 32 -


.~ ~ ~ 4.!~ ~ l,.

Ali is weil that ends weiL

. .!JJL.. t.

That' ail.

j.:;

** lt is plural. ~'hcn it is lookcd upon

aS:l

J

I~! ~1 ;U~

.:r

numbcr of diffcrcnl

Ail the people li ke to live in peacc.

Li..

,-,.Ps 4-ï Î Js- 4Jl

(Ali)

~.JS.

.~ ~~i

indh'iduals or things:

<>0

Ji

~I)Î

.r"')....,. ,,} ~1 ~ ...,..U\ JS' .~;l,.;.

Ait my friends are gen tlemen.

Js-

'J? 'lI

Ali of them respect the olhers.

Jti...l...<:>Î

JS'

J.r~ ~

. ~ Jli...l...<:>Î ~Î L;Î

1 like ail my frie nds.

,}5" (, rW!)

E.ch

.?

Each boy has brought his bail. Each o f Ihem came

Y

.P

al

....; .~ ...:.j)

a

.j

~

Y ~Î ..l.>-I) Y ~ ..li)

different time. Each nighl. we listen to the news.

.)..~

Su

~

Y

E,'cHone

~ ,

..J..,-\, , [

.<l..iL<... j f i ..1.>\)

Everyonc knows his place.

.~ ..1.>1)

1 respect everyone of them.

Y r.rÎ liÎ Ji ~~ bl

If yOll go 10 the stadium, yOll can

.;J.;\.5:.,.~ ~I

see everyone of the playe rs

.~')lI\ i f ..l.>-I)

Everyone ha s his own favourite

Y

Y

~b)' 1 ~t.;fi ~..lI ..1.>1)

4.!j)

J5'

~\

radio programme

Evcrvbodv

,lfil (i,f) , ~ , }5"

Everybody enjoyed the match.

.a:\.il~

Her beallty was admired by everybody.

- 33 -

.4Jl......:,.;

:J}

j5J\

~!

JS'

~i


.~

He tells everybody about his problem.

,) JS" .r.'-<~!

---'1".JYfi..f UI cr '("

Everybody knows the f<let.

.~

"'.,.~ ! [

Ercrvthin g

.J~ r"

Evcrything cames to him when he waits. Everything 1 do is for my co untry. If yOll wo rk hard , yO ll will get

,f

..,J.)yi..f Y'~i;it.y JL:.... ~ ~ J!

",r- y

everything. Not cverythi ng you say is true.

.~

-

.JJ'"-- \.. cr..r-' ,(" 1 <,JAU)

Man\' Many kiss the hand they wish ta

J f-"<

rĂŠ'

J I .c,J1 J# J J"';>

.4---W

c ut o ff. Many li ke ta pass without doing

J J' Cc,..J1 J r'"'< J J"';>

.J.>-

anything. You have made many mistakes.

.i"? ,lk-i

Many will curse yOll after your death.

..!J.;y

Many love ta praise right and do wrong.

J..;

~) .Cil

?JI

~

..)--..lI) jJ-I t1.. ..;...,.., r.-<JI .JkI;J\' ,;".:!"i 1 /'JS

Roth Bath we re barn in Nottingham.

'i~f

,j Illj L..>'JS .~

T hey we re ba th poor.

1 have two brothers, they are bath

L..>'JS) JI.>'''; <$=

rnarried.

~ ....i , ~>'I .i>-i Ji

Can 1 have bath, fathe r?

'Or

.:r<.c. J>

..e;

Sorne

â&#x20AC;˘ ~ >' -!.L,JI

1 went to the bank ta draw

L..>'JS

Ji

..;:...,>;

"'pI~

sorne money.

- 34 -


He went

ta

..;u., <.?A

...,WI

bll y some fruit.

Some of you find English difficult

..".....,

,,;).;'" ""'" ~

..!-U.i5' ~ ~)

but il is not so .

.l... ,.)" ,j>- ";;1) ~

Some oflhem agreed ta come with liS. Somcthing

1..0

.ti'1.,>-

There is so melhing abOlit their lire.

.,.5- ,

Something is beuer Ihan Ilolhi ng. Don'I you wallt

10

.f \..

....f i ,

There is so mething 1 don'I know.

~0

tell me somet hing?

J

'C?

,j

!:- !_2 !.lb, !.lb,

J..'>ii oc? J.,., Ji J.;.J ·,i ,f

I..o,~

So mebodv

J"'" Ji ,J...<. \..

..!-U;

Somebody can do that.

.~

Somebod y enlered your office.

J>'>

~

\..~ \.0 .... i

SOIl1COIiC There is somconc behind the window . Are you cxpecl ing someone Ihis eveni ng ? None LIS

is perfect.

None of my friends is bad. None 50 blind as those who won"t see.

.(,...,i) J ~

Jl>. \.0 ..l>-1!.le..

. i.i.;UI

Somcone ca me and asked for you.

None of

-,...0;

..!.Lo JL) ,le- \.. ~,UI li. \.. I:c..i p

J>

!:-!.,.;., 'i ,1 ~1 'i • " J~ t.:.,. ...l>i '1 .!:-'..5"'" Jli~i .y ...l>i '1 .!...W} .:." - ? pi ..l>-Î '1

J-.ill Jl.ii) '. ..'

Ji

J J>JI , J-.ill

~-

~, "..l>-Î <Û..I.....:::! ~

No olle believed him . No one ca n drink the sea \Vater. No one can have everything

-,>-1

~\ !:-~

r- ..l>-'ï ~

'1 ,~J5)ç. ~ Ji J..>.1 ~ '1

.( # . 35 .

'-:-'

, , ..";1

Wb !.lb,)


...:.5..i f i..lÎ L.. , ,

No one ever repented o fh aving held his tongue. 1 asked man y questions but no onc

~ ~) ili.....1 oJ.s..

answe red me.

-

. J.>.\

c> i~1

alher, Another

He carried one melon in one. li

o (

bag in the other.

...

'd\... .r-'- ~'I.i.o. J\) J!

If this pen is not good.

o.;>'i 'J.>-') .r=-!

bu y another.

J'>')

1 have bought one and now l'II

'J.>-')

..:.....r=-'

r-' .,sWI 0' l,ç J)G"

He had a cup o f tea , then

o.;>'\; .;>'i

anot her and anolher.

J,.. ~I ,.l\.W

7. Relative pronouns

That

..Li!

o.;>'i .,s.r=-L

buy another.

Wh ich

, ,,.<;1

oc>.;>'Î iJ.>-') 4<..u crJ 'h) ;.;..,k, J->- ..Li! oc>.;>':Y, -y, J y.,..) -'< J

Shc has no other.

hand and

..:JL...

JM ,,;J

Whose W hom

jiWI ,,;J) jiWJ {

}

Who

r

The book which 1 bought is abou t

~?\ ~.i.I\ ,,"-:..A:5J\ . ~)\)-\ O).f.I'

the Algerian Revolution. Those who live in glass houses

ü

must not throw others wi th slones .o}.'!•..::l~ The boy, whose father is a tcacher, is the best o ne in the c1ass. The lady, whom you met, is our

Jo::!

d

,y-

J ~ J.i.l1 '" 'JY.

U"'Ullj~ ':J Ji ~ (~j ..:.T' Y" r-Lv oJ"!Î t$.i.l1 ...u}1 .~I d -\.>.1) j.aJÎ L:.;iL::......Î l/' ~ü ~\ o~\ .o~..L:!- 1

new teacher. He is a man that cao oever be trusted.

- 36 -

. "-!

:).Y. 'J

~) . . .1


CHAPT.E.n4

IcJl.:,j)\1

jThe u erbsj

J

The verb plays the mosr important

)J~ ~i Juill ~ .:i.:!~~1 ~I

role in the E.nglish sentence.

J--' WS' r J-Ali

The ",b i, a "ord that telIs

Jyil

somcthing about a person or a thing.

. ~~ J Ă&#x17D; ~ 4.F ~ ~~

JWSl fi ~i ~~L:Jl J w \rl) ~ .:>Wl Jw)r\

Kinds of verbs 1. Regular a nd Irregular ver bs

~~laJ\

A. Regular "crbs

.;l' JW~\ JS' ~ Ă&#x201A;:!,)Wl JW"1 1 ~ J! (0) Ji ( ED) 4:i Jl.a,;

The rcgular \ubs arc those verbs in which (ED) or ( D) is added to the

~\ll .y)1

infinith'c in ordcr to form the past

J.l..all

S. Pas!

Pasi partici ple

(I nfinitive)

.",...UI

JJ"'11 ('"""I ,-, b ,

Melted

,......1.1..

Loaded

.)~

Meil

'-:-' )~

Mel ted

Load

~ ~

Londed

;r-

Laughed

~

W ork

~

Worked

~

Worked

Jr""

Open

C'-"

O pened

1:"

Opened

~

Walked

cr-

Cr'"

Wa lk

Walked

..r'

Needed

Cb-I

Needed

Cb...

Laugh

Need

Cb....

.:.r..# ).l.A11

J~I

tcnse or the past participlc

r

JI.a.iSl .1

Laughed~~

(Y ) .jP. ~.;JI

For the v<rb, th.t end in (Y)

prcccded by a consonant, we change the (Y) into (1) bdorc adding (EO)

. 37 .

r' Ji

.r.fU (ED)

\.:.j~

J.,.a.;

JI,..., ,,1

JW';J;"..J, J ~ J.r.-

J:! (1) J! (V)


• ,...,

E .rame.1('s:

In fi niti ve

Simple ~

Dey

Deny Occupy Marry Accompany Classiry Satisry

Tcy

.A

~ C).?1.,..';1; ~

:Ç," )1.>..,

Past

Oried Denied Occupied Married Accompanied Cla ssified S::lIisfied Tried

For n~ rbs that end in (Y) preecded by a ,·owel . we only

,

Annoy (~j<) ",WPlay ~ Belray Enjoy ~

:.Jr

r-

:../' W- ( V) ..j-:» Annoyed Pla yed Betrayed Enjoycd

The final eonsonan t lelter is doubled before we :\dd (ED) if it is preccdcd by a s ingle l"owel letler

r

Inl"i nitive

Simple Past

.....o..i; Stop Fit ,.-!)\, Marvel J->.!.; Worship T ravel .1'L-,. Control ~I.IKid nap (Jw, ~') ...;.b., .hi...., Drop Admit fi Com mit ~<;" R ub ~~..!:lI~ Rob ..J~

"""'"

'?

O ried Oenied Occupied Married Accompanied Classified Sat isfied T ried

Stoppee! Filled Marvelled Worshipped Travelled Controlled Kidnapped Dropped Admitted Commilted Rub bed Robbed

- 38 -

LJ,

(V) . jT" ~ .;J' JW';J ~ li~ !l . jT" J.r--

add (ED) a nd k ccp the (Y) as il is

r

Past participle

.Jo.i.U (ED)

Annoyed Played betrayed Enjoyed

Pa st Participle Stopped Fitted Marvelled Worshipped Ir:welled Cont rolled Kidnapped Dropped Admilled Committed Rubbcd Robbed


Some useful regular \'erbs:

,

~~

Endure Guide

,-

J~

..0..) -. J)

i~j

Hire

,

))j

-

~

Treat

J-~

-

J:,s -

Grieve

Jy.

Grant

Increase

J.ô

.

jG - ty -

- ~ ;1)j! - ) \j

Earn

~

Overtu rn (~ ~ t..:.ÎJ)

jy j>- - é? <.S}f - ~j

Prevent Disappear

~Î Recover

-;Ji

(~}f)

,I..:...j - ~ :..i' - '.>'~I

Pretend

r)

é -

L5 "

iJ.; RÎ <.Sr - ~j Produce ~ f"'Î - CJÎ St ruggle J-"~ - -">t.- - c'l5' SufTocate ? I}:;';' ~Î -

Inquire Insist

cL

Notify

Jor:-~

Object

--..JI . J - b-'J

Observe

...h -

Poilu te

SufTer

~ ~\ Swullow

y~

cr: - ~Î

Declare

).1; \ - ).1.,..

Warn

.

(~

-

J

-

JI;.

)~) ~\ - c--:· .. bl ) L

--A.t ç-'

~li

:..;15' -

Threaten

JJ-j -

Reproach

f'J - .:j\i;

Profit

- Reform

~I

Us urp

.'

' t; - ,.A;:; 1 r'

Revenge

......JI

Leak

Testify

.

f::,.> -, C-

~

J-.<:; - "'~~

To rture

'F" -

j>'Î Deserve

~

Jj; -

Decrease

J.r'-! ,-,k - .r, ~Î . <.S?~ (~) J8~ , ' .j.;2. ~ - JO \.,..j

~-~

-.:. :i' -

• jl -

Deny Contain

j

-

- ~)

Facil itate

Biarne

Deprive

, "'pl - J..-'I .:JÎ - 8) - i 'J

Neglect

cl~

Fry

.L,;,Î )Î J~Î

Illurninate

• - :;'8.j Confess

Hesitate

Fix

.

~

Encourage

Mu lt iply

, 39 '

~t ~

-

).:k..;

'.1

(0.;,0'-) i f , ti ~

..:.,~ - r)j - ~' j~ - -,,1)

J.;.S -


'jy-:.

Wither

OlTend

Wet

Oppose

, ,_;...l..- - r'L>

Roam

Js-.;4' - .b..;, - ~ , Shelter J! L;.:I! - ? - ~ - <.SJI Sq lIeeze

tft -

jjS' rJli - j.j~

J.Lë

Flatter

yl5 -

Improve ;"')I~! -

:;.i - ~

'

J>- J8-1 - t:c;. - jJ. f:? - 11;. - .!lj>- Exaggerate J? - jlJ - ,(3~ Stir Revea l l'r, ~,- v ;.~ - ft" .. I,i Depart .!l; - )'~ - J>-j :;0 - J ' Pro vid e l..i - lii - Jy - ,~j Desire

.:-ii - is"Î

Affirm

Cheat

o

.ft ,.-1>- - r""" --.r-"-?

(~ij) {)li1,)

Adopt

J!~! -;,;. Demolish

Belong

Ali the ,'erbs that don't ha\'c

"""

r."

(D or ED) in the past, arc

~ ...-"111

"j

.}I JW~I JS'

ci (ED) Ji (0)

.;;\:. ' 'jwi

irrcgular \'crbs.

.r.dü l$i ~ i~ ':1

aj lrregular verbs w!1Îch have no cha nge Infinitive

Simple

)~I

C..IS!

H il Loi Sh,d

Spread Swe:1I Rid

Cu t Bet

,

Pas!

..,..UI

.

--1

~

"

.,.;.;.; - cs'l' f:uw.! - .:;~ . ' .!l/-H

t) -

~.

• .iWJI ';WSI _.,..

B. Irregular ycrbs:

Bu rst

'

~.

Change

Alter

~)

é? -f* :r-;

, ,;.-.:.:;\

J'i-

J'

- -J/'

..;..t;.;

~/t!"

.:,>,)

Bursl c.\st Hil Let Shed Spread Sweat(swe,lIed) Rid

Cul Bol

- 40 -

ô.>L;.

Jwi - i

Pas! Part id pie

JyAll,-1 Burst

Cast Hit Loi

Shed Spread Sweat(Sweatro)

Rid

Cu t Bol


-'<r"I ~ t-" JW~I .?- -..,.. Jyill r-I) ""UI <JI..- J

bl Some verbs have the same fo rm In the pa st and past participle:

r

Infi nitive

Simple

L;,J - j.:.; - A'

Past

Past Participle

Beseeoh Buy ~ •$ <.Sr! Creep .j8 • -' • ' $ . - ......A>- j ..:...A.i - ;".Dig '~ ~ ~_ Foretell .Jj __ ) Î-~ sleep Keep .6l;. - d- )' ,",;;1 - .:-i> Lie w.,.. Pa y (;,;.wl) if) - '-'"'\ Shool Spend (Ci)) ~ - ~! ..l-,jl - ..;.1;1 SpoLl ,

Besought Bo ught Crept Dug Foretold Siepl KepI Lied Paid Shot Spenl Spoilt

Besought Bough t Crept Dug Foretold Slept Kept Lied Paid Shot Spent Spoilt

J,/:r<;i

Thought \Vept

Thought Wept Won Swept

J8

-

é!y - ,- _: -

J.>

-

ti;

Think Weep Win Sweep

..:-;.j •• ' l> - 8.1 )

~

I..S"" ...

.:..-:S .-

Won

c - .:rS

Swepl

~ ..:...~..,...aï

cl Some verbs have diffcrent

Break Drive Forbid Forget

--

Fly Fo rgive f$""

- -':"

,

Exumplcs:

Begin Blow

,

..:...)ll>- ..:.-,')131

conj ugations in the three fonns:

In finiti ve

4J J W~\ ~

"

Simple Past Began Blew Broke Drove Forbllde Forgot Flew Forgave

- 41 -

Past Participle Begun Blown Broken Driven Forbidden Forgotten · Flown Fo rgiven

J


Grow p. - .(7"<) li ~ - J..!..;. Freeze . Know ji; ~. s::.:., Shrink ...,.- . .J..." - .J-li ' . - J.~. j)~ $,w Ride (<;b.,;J»..,h-! - ~) Swim o~ ..:..i J)j-! ' - /' Shake ii) 1 . - r' ~ Spring ~J

F -

,

.'

. tf

Grew Froze Knew Shrank Sewed Rode Swam Shook Sprang

Grown Frozen Known Shrunk Sewn Ridden Swum Shaken Spnmg

Remark: there are Intransitive and transI/ive verbs

-!-.JA;. JW& -<-jY JWÎ ~f :b)i.. "'j:>U1 Jw)'i ,i

a/ llltunsith'c I"crbs: They are the verbs tllat dOIl't take

i>-Î; 'J

.

.JI Jw:", d' . . .'; 'J"..,...

an object. Examp /e!>·:

...,......u1 JI """ i; .:r'

Wc go to the stadium .

.J.r; ~I 'cP-'~1

The sun shines. The d og disappea red.

.';:";j- ~I .I,,->-Î:.. ~Î; 'J

The shîp sa nk. ,Don 't come Jale. l didn 't sJeep weil.

.I.t,>c lA

.~ il.r.f

Live and let live.

r.I

é'J J->-

":-.....11 JW)'i ,,,, • • i>-\; .JI Jw'Jl d'

bl Tran s iti n~ ,·crbs They are the ve rbs whîch tukc an object.

.

.'; 'J;'"

:"

EXllIllp/es:

i.f -,....; .,;1

He Iikes rootball very llluch.

.1pS' t.c<J1

Don't expect :lny help rrom me.

. ..;- i -'" L-

• 42 •

",i è ys 'J


ln a few yea rs, he wi ll carn fllm e and wealth. We bought a new T.V set. She is having her lunch. Somc \'crbs tukc

IWO

.:..,1 """ j,,;. b J W~ l , ~ (.:..,1 t'# ~ ~)

objects:

:~

Extl/"ples:

,4,ü

He made her happy.

J>- )),r-l' Jo',i ..\.il , W~ ' )-'e-) ..\.il

They found him a slecp.

C'......

"L......J'

l.,.<Jki ..\.il ,~i J5'L<..l1 o~ .(..»)\) ~~\ \ j -.:...:.:-- ~l:.il o~

They set the prisoners frec. These problems made me tired. T hi s conversation l1ulde me sick.

l.,jw.)'1 ) Î l..Wl1 Jw~ 1 , 2

2 - Auxilia ries

Ji ..........

Gro up: A = The au xiliary verbs.

.:.,..-.i if ,i.\<oUI j w'>" :(i) ...~ I

Groll p: B = The defect ivc verbs.

,WiUI j w'>'l :(-,') ...-"",,,,1

They are divided into two groups:

,.\<oUI JW~I :Î

A: The auxiliar\" \·crbs

,,,Çi

The il llxiliary verbs a re TO DE,

J-i)

if '.\<oUI J w'>'l

The a uxiliary verbs help the ma in

,.;,.U.. i J-i J w '>'I .\<oL...; ,.\<oUI jw'>'l

verb ta form the foll owing:

:J< \.. J-r<'; J>-

(J-Ïi

TO HA VE und TO DO

J-i

~}oll -

1 - The tenses 2 · The voice (uctive, passive)

;""":)i

J~ ~\;

r;.......t!

1

~I ~ - 2 r~ 'lI1 _ 3

3 . The interrogat io n 4 - The Ilegat io n

~\ _ 4

5 - The emph asis

..J..$"'p l _ 5 - 43 -


Ive'b 1o Bf - ,-,pl J.;I ,.~ é\:JI

Formation

r)L.,a,.

Present

Am ~ Ace

(-,...1.'-"1)

0o' y 0

,0o'~

,'oy 0

0;1 ~,~

,y;:,

~,

Future

of.; - of;

ShaH - wi ll + be

0-;"-

Present

.JÇi

am

off< - 0y<O

,He i,

Been

=

- Off-,. - Oy0 - 0;1 j y ..,..~

Past

J

were

,

Will

If" sha ll

.

~

Present Participle

~~

r

Pas! Participle

=

- 1:) -

.. (' - .;..5 -

+ jJ"" + b<

of-,.

r- I

J.,.wr l vl.r~h ~

Affirmath'e (orm

,,- Pronouns

j,.i:--'\

Future

(.;.,) 0\5'

was

0"" -of< Being

;L...;.JI

,0~

Simple present .h...., ..

t ) L;...

Simple pas! .h..., . \..

.. .r

Future simple"

.k,..., ~ will, shall be will , shall be will be

am

was

We

are

You

are

were were

~ he

l'

was

will be

are

were

will be

[

He} 11

they

• 44 •


Somc cxamplcs:

,.. ... . , . 4. 1 L.JQA:I

,j

4'1 ..!l)\. 4'1

.(<,\.:5") i) ';- }>.ë

It is raini ng dogs and cats.

She is an ange !.

·(rjJl) Jkll

He is a bore.

..,r)jd

You are the light of m y eycs.

.Ii.". J.' t". Ij \5"

They were dead serious.

.\..\i ~Î ~

Vou are just like your brother.

.;.".?

1t was a bad moment.

.,j~

They a re funny persons.

..0;1

<kl- .:..;\5" .>..il

.r.,J1 .:.:;)

lt is time to bed.

,j \.,..

.>..il

.rI.;...:.Î

ti'l

.Ill ~iL

1 shaH go T ommo row.

. .!..lb

W c will do il.

J-.L

,~

..wl ~

Nce:atiw (orm

V

J,Z ...;1

'=t-

Pronouns

Present simple

)I....AII

.J,...,..., -'

t ) \..4.

Past simple

Future simple'

~

.J........ - . .r''l.

J,.i:--

1 We Vou

am not are not are not

not were not were not

She It They

is not

was not

will not be

are not

were nOI

will not be

He}

was

will/shaH not be will,shall not be will not be

...:..~

Somc cxamples:

This art icle is not worth read ing. 1 am not ail right.

It was not a nice time. You a re not the master of the situatio n .

. i, 1,;1 ~ ;.J.>,

- 45 -

.r.'- J l.il\ \.i.o

. ri; \.. .}>- .:.-J .\.i.kJ \:i . (". . 1 ) .:r" r.Ji}1 .>;..- .:.-J .:..; Î

<,;~ ~y

She will not disturb me again

..,;...,.

..rs-J J

,jy


InlerrOJ!:lliw fOrln

1/

~

Simple Presen t

Simple Past

F uture Simple "

(). ..,..

..r"\..

~

Am I? Are we? Are you? Is he? ls she? Is il? Are they?

\Vas I? Were we? Were you'! Was he? \Vas she? \Vas il? \Vere they?

Sha H 1 be? Shall we be? W ill yO ll be? Will he be? Will she be? Will it be? Will Ihey be?

S ome examples:

~I~ ,).;;......

W ill yO ll come tomo rrow?

\r-'-JI., c..

Were yOll he re yesterday?

J

~- L ,......;:.\,

Is that clear?

~~I

Am 1 that bad?

li"

J!

'c?' t;รŽ

~)\k'jl

A re you tired of waiting?

,.:...lJ..

~Jรง.. -/,

Why are you ail mixed up?

l '"

~

~

Jo Jo

1"": H

~.hk>.;

What are yOll planni ng?

Jo Jo

1; \..

Vcrb l'to ben is used to fOfln

:lI the continuous tcnscs: Examples:

-t1;..w.J J ~ r-'"'! -r..wl i.? Jy-l, Iyl> ..w

Th~y are listening to the radio. They were playing football. They will be doing theircxam tomorrow.

_"I..o..~\ "y';' "f;;""..1.0;; 1 -.1 ~,

-r

She is getting on weil.

- 46 -


;;.;.".... ",-Y.;;.J

Verb "to be" is IIscd to rOrln

bl

p~ssin~

'ù~' ~

J~

,'oic('

V .. - 0; ,..,JI 1..." •

J"....:l' 1""'1 + iJh J..i

To bc + past p:uticiplc

Exumples: The ne\V hospital is built.

...I.:!JJ..\ ~\ ~~ ;;

Ji ....r.

The agreement will be signed . YOuf

. e·",

...I.:!JJ..1 ••i

. JlQ.;)l1

li

~

. ~.,..u:.. J.N ~ -!.J.;L.....I.>-

services are no longer needed .

.~ft l ..;:.;. ~

Crimina ls must he hanged.

.(~)

Many ho uses \Vere demolishcd.

..:...-lk ., :. .r-JI.;/ 1? M;..P le. , 1" Q i

el the subjuncth'e mood

, .fl,;j'il

E:mmples:

.~ ~t5:...

If 1 \Vere yO ll . 1 \Vould kill him.

.:-:S yi

.J.>..i u..:llJ:...:,1li 0:.-.....:..,;1$' ,}

Ifshe \Vas a fish.llobody would catch her.

\J.>.. ~ yi ~tS::...

If he \Vere yo u, he wou Id put an end

.)1.5'" yi

.•!..lb ~

to all thal.

If he was a lion. he \Vould hunt ail

'vUI

JS"

v./J)I LL.,..Î .)1,)

yi

the people. Vcrb to have Formation

Presen t

ha ve

Past

..,-"\..

Future

~ -~i

had

.;..5J..-.;).\,

sha ll

'-14 + j,..

will

(.J).!.ll.€

JA has

~

ljw.-

(Ip t .

+

ha ve

(.)') (.J)

Had = Pasi p:lrticiple

J.,...... ,-'

.!lli - .:.Ll.€ Having = Pre'

nt

participle

" :'7 -

Jo- ,-'


Affirmath"e (orm

V

Pronouns

Present Simple l ;L.;.,.

,s-"\..

1

have

We

ha ve have

had !lad had had had had had

)l....>.Il

You

He} She

has

Il

They

Future Simple"'\

Pa st Simple

h:IVe

~ shall have shaH have will ha ve will havc will ha ve will ha ve wi ll ha ve

Examplel': 1 have my lunch at twelve thirty.

. ~I)?

We had a happy lime al the sca-sidc.

... ~l!J1

You have my ward. They have

il

grcat many things to do.

1 have a reaso l1 or my

41!11

Js-

..w

s::.;; <5.u .

c#l.û J~

.,UI Il.> , -II -.

(orin

~~

Present

Past

Future

\..

~

....

1:)':0.. Has not (hasn't)

\....::1 l::.i) ~

..}.r-< .!l ~ i .op> J~i ~.u

Ihis evcning.

,

JIjJ;. J)L;Î

•'-'" CL 1 <5 _r

OWIl.

He will have finished his work

Negalh"c

~

Had not (hadn 't)

ShaH

Have not (haven·t) \ViII

} ."Ol +h,", ~

Examplel': 1 haven't any idcu. He has not any choice.

She hasn't ally rriend in the c1ass

- 48 -

.o.f.> <.fi <.f.u ..:. . :i . ~ '-'1) )t,>- ",.u c.r-J ,...-'l' J ,-,<-'-" ."i \;<.u ~


They have [lnl gal experiencc. You

Ihe ambition.

h:lvc 11111 gUI

.i.r." r-".u .;.".y. 'i .c.rk ~-~ J.>,.y. 'i r~~1

Inlcrrogalin' rorm Have (in Ihe appropri:l1e tense + Subjecl . Exampfe.\·:

~ J-""

Have yO ll anything to say?

.....,...,

\.. .!J,.u J.'>

Y. ,Ji wy

~4:iL-) ~

Has she reccivcJ her letter?

~\.!..\.:l:- ~J.>. "::"'J.>...::.j Will yOll have dinner with me tomorrow? ~ !..\i. '-tI'" "L.!..J\ J)O j..t>

Shall we have ;\ serio tls wlk?

~~\.:.\.1

Have yOll a lot of Iroubles? Had Illey reviscd their lessons before

,,<>1.11 .r''JI JS'jll .r' 'JI

+ Object

Do hrn'c + Objcc! 011

.JJi " <f'">;1

me.

r J

.Lo

Have fai th. Have patiençe.

.1)-,""

good time.

.-!Jjy

h~n"c

+

Objec!

Don' t han

+

objeci

c!

(,,,.dl /il) ,-,+11 .--'

B. Negatil"c Impcrntil"c

Ncvcr

J

. i\.)-l ~I} ~

Have the cOllfage ta face life. 11

J!

~I z'~1

A. Affirll131h'c ImpCr3lil"c

Have

j.:.i r-'-"))J 1~ 1) ~

......')\ ~

ImpcralÏ\'c t'orlll:

God. have mercy

\~ ~..u ~

~Îr!1

Illey went ta bcd'?

I-Ial"c

....,..,~jJ l

..:.r

.I..f.:! . I-'..<J\'.IJ,Î . '" 'i .u,.::\.J..1 J>- F 'i

Neve!" have faith in liars.

1,.>

Don't have mercy on traitors.

.~ \, IJ,Î c:-ë 'i .b <i;i 'i

Never have a secret discJosed . Don '1 have him herc.

- 49 -


'..u..ï ~J~I

The usage of nrb "10 h:l "c"

e~ , ~ .i

A • As a full ,"erb:

~I..,., ~

to express possession

U~ (GOT)

ln conycrsation, GOT is

Examplc!i: fi

".)1..;0;

. ,;:;li,\.:1

of tell added.

She has

;ws•

lot of English books.

.,,~'J I ~I .:r .?JI 4<J.! ., L.,;",

Ali has a fai r complex ion.

1 haven't 1l111ch mo ncy.

.j>- i A

.,,,..w' .:r p:..<J1cfJ.!

~

..:,.,\}~...

tT...u

.wl>

They have privale cars.

.~

We had no IÎme 10 spare.

u) l,J.!

~

B. As ail auxiliar" "crb

~I..,... , ~ . ..."

rO (ofm the perfecr tense

rI:J 1 .J') l ""fol

Fu ture Perree!

ShaH } + P.. S! Will h<l ve Participle

J

Present Perreet + H"') Particip1c P oIS!

Have

Examples:

Past Perfeet Had

+ Past Participle j

'r-"~ c5JW>

They have done thei r besl. He hasn't finished his homework yel.

I}..c .J.i!

•..M.,. ~l) ~ ~

.:ü,.iJ-1 ~I .J.i!

Wc had discovered the truth.

1 had never seen him berore. Wc will ha ve prepared ol'··selves

.j,i .:r ,) r-' L.A;i l;'" J,j j rC

·rWI "'4-'<

by the end of the year.

- 50 -


~" ! W

Ycrb to Do

-

formation

t JL;... j-W- J--'i

Past

J.-.i; -o~

did

Present do

does

'-""\..

.. -

(0) \.:•.J.,;.!

'r

Fut ure

JL--' •

Y;\.... ShaH } d o wil! 1..I~+Jy .k

j-W

J./

.

y\i r--I

Doing = Present plIrticipJe Done = Past purticiple

. )\..<,

.-J

Jy-i-or-- I

J lç-"c..:'J 1 .}IS" J...iS" .. J-di" J-i

US i":e

Yerb to HOf)!I as a full l'erb

J-i Ji ~

10 express pcrfur,llill!! an action

,I,i

.:r ~

Examples: ~.)~ bL.

What arc they doing? He will do his best ta win the prise, They did thcir work very weil,

,o)W-~

jyiU

o~ !.SJ\....a! J~

.1*

At Rome. do as the Romans do

.)L.))I ~

~ \yl ..ûl L.S

Jo.il L.)J

.j

.(r-")." "--', \..)

.~ L.S ~l:.::lf ..ûl

We have do ne il as yotl likc. Vcrb to "DO" as ail auxiliary \'crb

al

to Corm thc ncgath'c

D o not (don't) D oes not (doesn' t)

Did not (d idn't)

- 51 -

J.a.AS 'J,Aj1' J.-..i ~I ~ ,;.r..# li

~\....0...4


Exumples:

.,j.ut!;.I\

1 don't lîke the talkati ve persons.

(..!"~~\ ~i 'Y .~\ ~

He didn't tell the truth. She doesn'l respect him. We don't build castIes on the air.

.~\~,

J

r..l

. otA .;i.

'Y 4-il

0

'Y ~

(Ij~) t;')ü (J"";1)

J'd J")

Vou didn 't lislen carcrutly 10 his advicc.

bl

to fonn the interrogative:

Formatioll:

Ooes Do

+

Subje<:t

+

Infinitive .

?

Did

J' ~i,I.r'l1 J.:..ii J' ~!ljL J'

~,,;# 'YI

Does he like English? Do yo u prerer rcading? Did Ihey belicve you?

..,....."

~..l....aZ I.~\..

What do you mea n?

~~i)

Where did yo u sec him?

~,-).ul

How do yO tl co me 10 school? cl to build the cmphalic fOfln ofvcrbs:

Examplej':

1 do see him every day. She does trust you. We do hale cowa rds. He does see lire . They do love hîm.

- 52 -

Ji

Ji

di,; ~

:JW~I J.fb ;,;.,., :#,>.J le.


dl to

make question tags:

Examples: Hedoesn'tcareabou tthaL doeshe ?

~~..iS' ~; ...!JJ~ "'::"'f-~ '1 <01 ~~..iS' ~\ .~ ..:.Li

Vou understand me, don't yOll?

klJ.iS' ...,...,JÎ , ~Irdl :.;,>- c:.J.i .li!

She di d the ri ght thi ng,

didn 't she? We don 't deny your rights, do we?

el

~.:.U..iS'~; ,..0i~ .f..;:, '1 ~

to give short ans\\'ers:

Yes, 1 did. No, she doesn' t.

JAAi

.:J.i!", '1 4' l "jS' "jS'

No, 1 don·{.

J-".i' :,k pl t' .le- ,II

Please do.

fI to express urgcnt requesls:

,(.:1,;<) ;)1 , j", J~L. '

Do help me this time.

, (~ JJI,) ~-'-"

Do trust me.

gl

:f: r::tdJ!)

la forlU the IIcgativc Impcratiyc:

:,#

l

""""

.ri,>::J !<$

,.}' ~ '1 ,<,; li .!.ll; JU' '1

Don' t disappoint me. Don't do that agai n. Don 't blame me.

'<F'~ '1

Don't tort ure her.

.4;.i...; '1 UjUI J w~1 - ..."

B - The dcfectives The defectÎ\'es do not folio\\' the same

... I}

&' '1

UjUI Jw~1

.l;,WI Jw~1 ~.r'

rules of ordinary l'erbs.

- 53 -


/t../~

Pa"

shaH

..)r-

Should

will

"'>y

Would

~

Could

4') 'jJ

MiglH

Present

Can May

~.

, '

/...?\..

+ intinitivc

Must Ollghllo

Ji ~ '.

Need

r-"'r}····

Used

to

.... infinitive

b\w.... j\S .....

Dare

Ocf('cth'cs are always fo llowcd by the infiniti\"c. ~~~,

Ex amplcs on the usc or the

!

~ ~1

~W,

"efecl ivcs

.r.,)1 p.J.1 .j~ .:)

The beadmastcr wouldn't come IOday. 1 would ralher wail ifyûll don't milld . . L.ù\...o Vou would better star( al once.

JwSl

..:...~:.JJ.:..r~ ~ b!).1..:i')l\ ..J-~i .JlL\

J

1 would l'al ber SI,lY al home

J

.Ji ~

Î..l:i

~l

J

~~\ ~i

.J~) ~

in Ramadhan. -

/"

....:....W ~.J..Ç. r-L<.....;I JI

1 can speak many languages.

bl

Vou can llse Illy lIbrary if you want.

é" . ..,r-"'f

.r~ ~k... ')Il ~LS:...~ . ...:.....:)

- 54 -


He

CêllÙ

,~~

bclieve yo u.

JL..,.,...I ~

.)! ,j)L,..

You can have Ill y car ir yO ll

Ji )J.4: '1

.~

are În a hurry.

. J.rJ1 ~),i

ifl

~ l...o ..:, -""'" .)i J-c.

J-

1 ca n see the diITerence.

C m wc talk?

ë.-S

J>- j<WI .!..L~ J-

~ -'..l);

Can yO ll get ro und that?

ci

~ ,j_,A..... .!..L~i

Can yOll give me a hand?

.~I.? _d

1 cOllldn't remember h is \lame.

~~).J'"

COllid yO Ll d o me a ra vour?

Ji ~ I

~

JI <.?.J.-:i J-

.l;;-'>-L. ~ ~

He couldn' l hclp her.

.Jfl.i.:l ~

He l11ay cOllle within a rew minutes. They ma y go wit h us.

~.!.li #

May 1 use your telephone?

J\.......:......~

J

. Jb...;;..)1\ .} \~ ~

They might nOI pass the eX'lin.

~r«,JI ~L...;,,;'1t,

May 1 join yon?

. j)?)rl

The martyrs d ied so that

J)6:. ~ 4") ,L:..v J rit. 4")

~

J .)~

l/) J- '

Ji ~î ,J" d~\ ..:...t...

othe rs might live.

~\

1 ll1ay be olel bul l reel yo ung.

-,r-<J)

..:rJI

.r-$' j..fi -li .~L:.

Il might be

il

,(o~) I..:;.....! li.:. .j.r~

tra p ,

Jj

.o.:l\.........J\ .!.1l ~\

Ma y yOll be happy. M ay you live lo ng.

,

May a il yOuf dreams co me truc. YOll mU SI tell the t r uth

,

if"

..Br-'" .jJ\ J\.kÎ

.

,

..u\ . .~ ,J.:L \.ri- .. ~ ":l) J.:L I J ';; Ji ~

and llothing but the truth .

- 55 -

.~')\:...\ ~


You must rcvise your lessons.

e-\; .Ji ~

.:,L..).J)

..)\,.;.. ~I

berore the cxam. .;..:.~\

YOlt must Ilot drive too fast. You must Ilot miss that film .

J

.1;; ':} .)i ~

.~I \...Î.:l ~~ ':}

Ji ~

.0':;\ ~\)

~

1 must sec him now.

.~..ul)

You ought 10 respect your parents. . ~~I

Sneh a monkey business

J,i

,Ji i.ri .)i

~

Jl...>- ~\ ~...Î.:l ~ i~' ~ ':J

oughl not to be donc. You ought to look beforc you leap.

.;."k>- -$Î Js- iU,;':}' j:.i )1;; ,Ji ~ .,:..d) bl ',.$ §t- ':} ,Ji ~

She ought to stop ealing too much ir sile wants to be slim. You oughl Ilot

10

,:loi"

go beyond the ma rk

.cLl li> j)~ ~ .)Î """"" .;J."...JJ .;'1, ~

YOli nccdn't be hmry.

..!Ji,ri

You ncedn't come back. YOli needn't have answcred ail

J- ;" le- JU

t 1,

A

..!..lb .)

50.

1 l1scd to go to the sladiulll

.;'1, ~

. .,r-l .Uc..~1 J'

.'.lL.>

't he Qllest ions. People used to think

:'~.J 0)-<; .)Î

.:.r<o.

;fUI.)\)

Ji """,.il 1 ..:..= 1 L.= ....... (fi J'

..,.....J11

cvery Friday when 1 was in the

.j ..:-S

...,..M·I

university. Thcre lIsed to be an army camp.

.~

I.f-... L.>

J.o,.fi .)\)

.~..J...> -' ~ 01.5'

Hc used 10 live alone.

'-'<,.hll '-4< ej-L.l..i I-,<Î

You !lever lIsed to trcat me like th is.

. 56 .

cf.; r-l


Dar..: he spcak

(0

~~ jl)/,!

he r ?

,~)i

She d'lfe IlO I refuse.

How dare

yOlL

.)>-

" Jy

say slIch a th ing ?

,<'

10 ' i.

l........j~11 :~) ~j tUÎ;;~ ..l.>:-j

Thcrc arc threc main lime divisions:

t.;LAl.I -1

"/ - Tlle Present

.,....,111 - 2

2 • Tile Pasl

J,iW1 - 3

3 - The Future ~,

Thc rc are Ilnce main forms

~.J)~

or lc nses:

l.h,....,J1

A - The simple tenses

ir-ll

The continuous censes

":.•/"j':; ..l:>:- ~~

:'-'..},u "") ~ 1 -1

",,)~I -..,.,

... 1;;)1 "")~I

C • The perlect censes

A -

'J 4'!

<5"" ) ç ~

IThe ' e nsesl

B -

).J.

Y.

-t

;ih ",II L',"ll

The simple tenses

.i

.l:,....,J 1 E) WoU 1

Thl' present simple tense

.;;w~\

1 - Affirmative farm

The infinitive \Vith L we, yotl. chey

("r)

r-t> (-:..Ni) ~i ,.:..J

4...i.......o -1 ,t;i ~ )~l

~I cl

1 Iisten Wc li sten

<,?""" J'"

j y....a; ~I} d

You Iisten

j'

They lislen The Infini tive

S+

y.-.a<

+S

\Vith the third person sÎn gula r (he- she-it)

).c..ll

(he , she . il)

He lislens

. 57 ·

" ,;lI -,..)WI ~

r


Shc listens Ir barks

(ë")

l\~ B:

l(;e ad(/

~</' (JM ~) </' /r

~~

ES

• ES for vcrbs cuding in: SH • CH • O· SS

J

: ~.,k.;

i.}WI ..J)}-4 <,pl JW~I (ES).i>.b

Wish - catch· ki ss-Go

. ..:J.;..~) - .t

He wishes to sec you

Sile catches the .ball

. i .r<J\'

'-) _u.1

He goes to school

•• 1ES· for ve rbs ending in ( Y)

(Y) ..J.?'< '.,: \1

JL..

preceded by a consonant

.!.l-.i

....:; <1

4-'1

JI ..,...,; ';1

Jw)iJ j.?'<

( l ES) ~) (Y)

and we o mit the (Y)

'-,-J\,

Jr-1 '

..Ji.., r~

tr"" - ~

Cry - Crics

~

The baby cries

Dry - Ories

JAWI ~

He dries his c10thes near tbe fin:.

.)U\ ~} ~;A. ~ ....:;1

J)i>."

Try - Trics 10

.1""

.t.. 1 ;, 1. '1 ~...r.- ~<

She kÎsscs her baby.

She trics

j.....J.. '"' .

0.:;

".5- J5'

unders tand everything.

~ J)1.i

4-'1

.jJ1 ~ . 2

2 - Negatil'e lorm:

+

Does not (doesn·l)

+

Infin itive

).l.all The other PronOllns +

Do not (Don·t)

-

"pl .J.<UI wJl

.

• 58 •

Infini livc


She docs "01 gct up early.

.C.r~ ~)I

+;

....:.....JS â&#x20AC;˘\ ....::.:>v- )

....; \

He dOl'S liaI kce p his wo rd.

,

We do "01 hate yOll.

. ..:.>t.Y~ 'lI, j)~ --; ~!

They do liaI a ttend the meetings.

e~")\ ~

3 . Interrogative form:

Docs

+

~

Third persan

+

~;: \ ~W \ ~

With the othe r prolloull s: V~rb 10 Do

+

il

Infinime ~

~ Co.k..!J1

Docs he play chess?

Do yOll pre/er

) -'-.d l +

Subjcn

Cr) ~

V)

.~y-I!

Dacs sile listen to music?

.3

~

"

.r J-'

~b)~ ~' J..r-" . ' .....)...:U;" .....

cold drink'?

~. ~ ..JI l )~j \.::> '-' ... .....

Do the)' accept the p roposaI?

.

'-:--:l t 1 .;.,~ l.A:...> ~I

The main usages of the

. .h,...J1-t ,i.=ll

simple present.

;...\> .;.,~" .;.,WI } ,yIA>-I Y ~

1 - To express faets or genera l stalclIlcnls

The eart h m ovcs round the-

<

(-"'" 'i '" ~)

A . Etcrnal faets: ~.

. .....-:JI -,..iU)

The sun fi ses in the East and

J

~I

i. Il \.>.

â&#x20AC;˘;5\,i,.. -1

Jr- 1..~ J~l\ ..... j

~~-

~

....-:JI

.-' ,il! .j

se ls in the West.

j J=!. L;;! li". i"".L';, i ,1 ).1 ~ ....A;-.d 1ci .,1 ".....dl ,/ .,\.:.!JI

Il rains in willl er. l n Sl1mmer il gels very hot in Ihe Sahara.

. 59 .


~ ,~li>- , .... ~ Jl,ii - ,-"

B· Special fucts and genenll sla!ements:

.I.?'

1 like travelling very ll111ch.

JI.>-)l ,,-:--,"""i . ..!..li~ ~

We bclievc yO ll.

.~ j~ Wb ,-\k.!.J1 4bJI

Active students alwa ys work hard.

.\J..:.Î JJ.....a.l1 j}~ 'j /,;. \;1

Bad people !lever tell the trllth.

c - Provcrbs

-1:

(;);ÎJ.I JI";:"I) J\;.:"I

.,-t:i~ \;1 ~

Advcrsity trics friends. Oiamond cm Oiamond.

·C.f'UI

F

jJI..l.!J1

V"111) ~ ~J.J.-~ J..!..u..\

. 04.iU jL.,., ,y

A wise hcad makes a close mOlilh.

.J\j:.y\ ,y

Acis speak louder Ihan wo rd s

~i Jw\;\

"~I )-'-" JI..;.

A light pursc makes a heavy heart .

r i J>- J-i'.Il5" ;....all J

You can Ilot teach an old dog new Irick s.

yW\

.rJ1

"'-'1)4--

J>- J-i'.Il5" Pl J t:.,.;

l,l5"

r

JW~I) .;.,I,WI

2 • To express habils aud

~I

~I)

Ji ~

'i)

.:r ~ - 2 ;)#1

rcpea ted actions:

ory. §

Pupils go 10 school every day. 1 revisc my lessons bcfore 1 go ta

'-).0.1

Ji Jr"~ .i.,.-)ldl

"r.,J1 cP <-?))> t""1) <l,I §

bcd every night.

,

1 shave and have a b:llh cvery Frida y. 1 have a cup of coffee cvcry morning.

.~ rY- J5' ~i) ,..;;~ j,!;-i ·C~ J5" ~~ j~ J)GÎ ;.ri''J.-\ ~I..l>-'i\ ~ ,

3· To express present actions

..rU - 3 '

. L~ ~\

1 understand yO ll very weIl.

- 60 -


.~I)

1 live in a very nice house.

~i \;i

i.". J.r- ,j

. .jI.r-:- '>'L "":'1 ~ 1Âť .,tp '>'~ .,..:.i

That makes me Ceel quite sick. 1 Ceel lircd o ut.

.J"", \..

He repcats what he says. Devclo pmcnt starts with people.

i"",

. jL....;'>'L

).f-, ..;!

(tJ..i,Jl) WI

.k.....J\ ! gèUI

The past simple tense

.. ~ ,?::lI

Formation

..;.. W~I ~

Affirmative Corm:

:(~I) <1.,-,)1 J W~ I

Weak ve rbs: Wc add (0) for vcrbs cnding in the "owcl (E) .

. (E) .:JJI .jr~

~

.;lI

JWSU

(0)

~

Wc add (ED) for the verbs ending in a consonant Wc add (IEO) for the "crbs whieh end in (Y) preccded by a l'owel.

.;lI

JWSU (IED) J.,.A;J

Jt... .j.i'" ~ .;lI JWSU (ED) ~'

.(!lf"") .;,J .j.i'" ..;J:-' (y) .j.i'" ~ Examp/es:

,

(D)

..,.;)

like - liked

~I

if

live - lived

cf

,j.:,;

serve - served

rJ.>.

,.w

hope - hoped

Ji

annoy, annoyed

, (:" . )1

betray, betrayed

Cl\.>.

play , plllyed

~

stay, stayed

dance - danced hate - hated separate-separated receive - received EXUltll!./es:

(ED)

spray, spmyed

j}

.,

of)

. 61 .

" li.

.:.S... . , J"I ,J>-I ~

delay, delayed

~


EXlllllp/('.\·:

( / ED)

_1..0

cry. cned supply. suppliee!

:J:J

envy. cnvied dassify.

da~ si lled

Natify, Notified

..

L

~

.;

;

Yy.<.~

r i-

»-1

~ - j>-I

occupy.occupied

Jû;.L.

muhiply. mulliplied copy, copied

c-'

apply. applied

-",1

certify. certified

Jf

,~

Strong verbs (lrregu lar verbs)

.6i

IThese verbs should be lcarn! by heart:l

Ji

~ JW'l1 ,.i."

-,..!iRJ

E.Wll1lp//!S: Dig Build Bring Bleed Flee Forelell

Dug

Dug Buill Broughl Bled Fied Foretold

..i'

,"'" J; ~/

Li

Buill Brought Bled FIed Foretold

cf'll ~

Nega tive (o rm : Subject

+

Did

n OI

+

+

+

Infinitive

J.w11

EXfll11p/es:

1 did not sec him. Wc did not believe him. They did not discliss the matter. He did not get up early. Sile did not catch the bus

.•) r.l . ... ..c.a; r.l ../!1 1""':';L, r.l 1';'" Jo.B r.l .wlJ-1 J>-li r.l r4,.i;....~1 ~

Interrogative (orm:

Interrogntive Pronoun + Did + Subject + Infiniti ve + (rest of sen tence) +?

- 62 -


Examples:

1

~

Oid you mect the Minister?

. 1\ ..:....L\i ..J..JY .

1~ ..r

~ ~~L.. ~

Oid he help yo u?

~ '-:""'\~ ":J\

Oid the workers go on st rike? (~~JL;...~

Did she win Ihe prize?

J

\~)

Y.

JU\ &G

y.

~"-;--"'UI ...:..J}I

Oid they arnve on time?

..:..jI'; jA)

Did 1 say something wrong?

jA ~\.6..,:.. ~ ..:..Ji jA

y.

~C)L;l.... \ .:/ ~ .)\J:..

Did your brother retllrn from abroad?

The main usages of the

~~JL;...I ~J

,,-,",,1l1

.J')J <,...,l)1 .:;,>jl.A:.....>j1

past simple tcnse [ - Tocxpress pasi repcaled actions

.,....,III .) i

).J.:... J Wi ,y- .,.,.,.dl - 1

(Y-

J5' ?I -,...Ji G.S

Examples: Last year. 1 pla yed tennis every day.

. ,-,""Ill (WI .o..lp.-- uJLa; J~ Wb .)lS'

He always did his best. She never spcnl her money fooli shly. He often set his face

(0

o pposit io n.

J.;

t... t)t&.

.4..;:.J\......,jj LS...I.....a-::.:

~

..)~

. - r.l

.l..o r~ ~ l.,kil>- .ci!

They kept thei r failh with us.

.

.1-,,1 J.,.<JI ~..LA;

You never la id me Ihe truth. He a lways went to cxtremcs.

.~ !A.)yii ...j~

.0'\11 .) ,-pL..:,) j).;, Wb jl>

They always paid him in the sa ille coin. Wc loo k a bit o f wa lk, cve ry morning.

.<L.WI

.CL."

~

J5'

)\,li

Wb

~ 15

.,I.\Al1 .M; )\,li

After lunch, he slcpt a while.

(~.1

- 63 -

(c,

.;..~

(c, jl>

,IMI .M;)


i ~ J~ .:...JJ

2 - To express ac,ions ,h .. 'ook

place du ring a pcriod of lime in the past

I)L~~.)l5" Las!

...,....i ~lll t"... ~I

Yeslerday

LaSI week

~U.\ ï.:...J1

Las! ye<lf

I~' 199'

1991 (1.

.~Ul

j")'

J

~

~ ~ j .JI} ~

uscd will! time indicato rs such as: (ft./

.:r ...",.,u -2

;~\s. ~I ~LI.' ~

T he l)a51 simple tense is usually

lronce UpOIl atlllle (~~I J

Jwi

J

-?~I ft-'JI"

Monlh

~ll\~\

Las! night

~ll\~\

Las! friday

0J. W1

Long aga

:;t..}}\

J

~o.J...b~

Ago

Examplt·s: ~~U,

Why did the trame stop las! night?

Our tcum won the match yeslc rday.

U)J\ )))\

,

. ~ 1f.1v ...\..il

He rcceivcd a letter from his falher

a wcck ago. We enj oycd our holiday very much. l lived in London fo r ri ve ycars. 10

-G

.,..ut)..:.r .;JL.,) ~ ..w , . ~ t.r.-'"

. L:.; jl:.:-I.,. \~ ~\ J..i\

''':''\.f-'"...r->- o.:ll J.\:J

the wcdding party la SI Frida y.

J

...:.......:.s-

..w

.~ I1\ ~ \ jlj)l :ü..i..,I.. lyA)..l.iJ

The fururesimp/c tense

h, ...JI , ~.ë·; .ll

Formatioll alll/lisage.

.J~'il) ~#, ~ W>'I '"-

AffirmatÎve fonn: A

..:.....0i bU

....r" ';~ il)J\ 4) C:!J

They cul her out.

They went

~.T

~

~~I~I-i

Pure future:

'JJ '-?-) t>-

Jo lyoJ\ ~ Js- J.i:-l.1 ..;, -'>- ...."." \."'" ..,aJ t>-\ J.i:-I. \ j.o.o;--, .";'~I ~\ '" Ji i,')~ ;;~ .ù 0fo

Pure future is uscd whcn the future action dcpcnds upon sOllle external factors and not on any person's will or intention.

-64-


+ Sha ll/will

+ Infinitiv~

+ Shall/will

+ Infinitive

Vou

+ Will

+ Infinitive

He

+ Will

+ Infi nitive

She

+ Will

+ Infinitive

Il

+ Will

+ Infinitive

They

+ Will

+ Infinitiv:;

1/ We

I\,

Examples:

.~

We shaU have dinner at my house.

She will Iravel abroad nexi week.

J

·Î.')\i.!\ ~\

They will gel what they are Jooking for .

The president wi ll give an important

Js-

J! )~ j""

~

0~

I.,.~ ~\.b.:. ~)I ~

speech thi s evcning.

,s:Ll\ Lk

v UJ.~ .:.)11) .:.fol J,.a;-ll -y

B - Coloured future fllturity mixed with sOllle other

feelillgs nlc" as ~I ,(.rJ1 ~}t

Promise

uJl 1':" J..."-' .:..rAI1J,.a;-ll .:r ..."dJ J!.o cS/Î .r~ <.?)I ,..,.)1 Willingness Threat 0,-4'1 1 Jw, '1'1 Obligation J,.a;-ll

We lise ,,,;s type to falk abolll

Commnnd

J.!.)I

. 4!,j~ L..

!.lI}...

s:L!.J\ J)\..:.:.:......

.J,.il.1 /:..."...-'JI UlJ-1

He will be of age next month.

Determination

.I...\S:.

1 shall see you tomorrow.

~I '/"1\

,J'

! Li

E:camples: .l,I~

You will pay dearly fo r that.

.!JJ, ,;rS

.CL.al1 1':" ..!..U,\;Î

1 will meet you Ihis morning.

- 65 -

c!~ J

Y


.J}Î I..S'

You sha ll do as 1 say.

·rlJ! \.,.

All shall be weil. 1 will save

yO Ll

,js- j ~

J.>-

jr-

- , J5' .,

,..;.

..:.J.#.

.~ l::.I..\

the trouble.

We will never forget that as

JU'

Ji)L..

J

L.~ L. ..:1l~ ~

..l.J

ô~\

long as wc a re living. You shall have this over my dead body.

.?

~

He shall tell the truth.

:Jl

-!.).b

.'-.i,.i.J-1

Jt:.; J

J-",

J ./~\ J

j

r-

~

It shaH be donc immed iately.

.JY-\

C - Immediate futu«

(<$)-,,"1) -,..;.;AII J:.i'-ll

To express immediate futurc, wc use the present continuous tcnsc

Examples:

.y}

He is buying a new car soon.

;;...l.:!~ ;;J~ I.$~

. Y} [ J ?

She is getting married soon.

'c.~\ \.k ~J'4.J.

He is coming to sec me this morning. They are leaving at six o'c1ock.

.~LJ\ ~U\

FU/II1'e ;11 tire past

ShOUld }

Js- jJ);'~ ~U\ Js- Cr:---

,4...,..;.U\ 4s-U\

Wc are go ing out at seven.

Would

ifr

+

J A.J\ ;'L.:J.\ ~\

Infinitive

Examples: He said that he would be faithful to me

Shc told him that she wo uld tuke

J l..aJ.:;......

J ~ 4.i~

Jti .ûJ ~ ~~ ...;r ..J ..vJ

"-r ~

care of every lhi ng. She thought he would fo rgive her ofTence.

- 66 -

4ï,L.l J' j)~ 4.iÎ 0~\


1 wantcd to know if you would

. L...

come with us. She sa id that she would be my lady.

. . r )j

J~ ~l .::J.

,El ....,...,

Negative forro :

V

.j1:-.

+ Not (sha n' t

+ Infinitive'

+ Not (shouldn't)

+ Infinitive

+ Not (won't)

+ Infinitive

Shall Should Will

+ Not (wouldn't)

'-.. Would

+ Infiniti ve,../ j

Examples:

'" Qi

V,.". Jo--' J

He will not send a n answe r.

J ..!J;r' Ij,<, J .U.• Js- 1.01.1' J ."'C .jl;

Yo u will not sec me again . They wo uldn 't accept your invitation. They shaH not agree on th is.

.ê.l4'

We will not congra tulate you .

J

Interrogative form

(lnterrogatiw pronou n)

Shall Should Will

+ Subject + Infinitive + (rest of sentence) + ? J'Lill

+ (J-'ll) J.w11 + (<1..).1y,) + ~

Would

E:wmples:

Jo ~ <l,lJI ,.i. Cr ....li Ji -.,.....i.e- Jo ~J'J I J..JI L,i Jo ~i.l;e- C!"' .!.lJ; ~ Jo ~lÂ>- .j~

Will you miss me indeed? Shall wc go to the thea tre tonight? Sh,d l 1 begin work now? Will this bring about good results?

- 67 -


~ ~ ~)j

Will you take this wornan as a wire? Shall ! keep waiting for ages?

~,,4-i '1

l,.

Going ro'

oi)1 o~ J:Zi JI ) lk.:i'11 J J> '1l,;1 ,1 Il~

""i

lt is used to express futurity coloured with intention or a feeling of cerlainly or probability

) ",,1......-'1 1

yi

~

tr.all J,i:;-ll

.r ~

(Going To) ~AA:...J

.Jl.:.>- '11 ) i .:r.,A,l ~ It must nol be used to express simple or pure fulure. •

~•

.r .,.".:lJ ~ '11 "'"'" J

."-":lI ) 1 .k,...,I1 J,.<:-ll

1

Examp{es:

..u...;

1 understand what you are going to do.

~;

,

L. ~\

.o~..l=o:- 0).::-..... t..?~

He is going ta buy a new car.

~ ~\

ls she going to walk home

Ji ~l;:..,.

~

~o?i o),-=- ~L ~i

or take a taxi?

"J....J\ \~

When are you going to fini sh this work?

It is going la rain. She is going la have a baby. What are yOll gaing la have for dinner?

~"L:..J\

~

t?

."L.....J\

~

.b}.,....

~

J JS'"\;

0i ~; bL.

They are going ta hold anothcr meeting tomorrow.

.\..\..C:..ri "W ..J)~

He is going ta start work right now .

.1)";

J-JI J t.A--

. ~t. " JL..,,;'11 -'<J 4-i1 ;,..;;..J.I <:.,. î:l l

She is going to ring him up.

The continuous tenses

",#1

Formation:

.•':A,l'11 ..,..,

Affirmative form.

.iJ};pc <J' 0 ~ yS.J" <J'j Y' ~I <J')I

- 68 -


~" .......) (";:"') :..U , J-.AI'

1 - The auxiliary (TO BE)

-,

J ,} .!.ll.iJ) ri .:..)-'>- .::..;) â&#x20AC;˘ .JF-l1 J )1 ".-"lll J ,t) ..dl

in lhe appropriale tense

2 - The mai n verb

':"-"'-1 j

Y.

ri - 2

'4') :."....,:)1

.j~)

.J>-\; r- I ..". J

(VERB + ING)

<il;

t,t.:...

..... ".

~

Am

W"

Were

shall be } will be + Verb + ing

r'--'

r'--'

He was playing

He will he playing

-,...1,JIS'

-,...1, Jh--

ls Ace

r'--' He is playing

.

......L . - .il

Negative form Be

+

Ilot

+

+

Verb

ing

. -,...1, 'J "'!

He is not playing. He was not playing. He will not be playing.

.c,-JJI

+

r-l

1"...,...... J~

J

rW;..::l1

Interrogative form : Be

J

.-,...1, ~

Subjcct

+

Verb

+

ing ...

+ ?

~

:J ~-,...1, Y'

j> ~ -,...1, J IS' j>

Is he playing? Was he playing?

~ -,...111

Will he be playing?

- 69 -

J

1"...,...... J h--

j>


Usage: The continuous tenses are lIsed when the attention is foclIsscd on the action itself as a primary whercas timc indication comes in objecth'c thc second place .

......., ..;.,J.l.. 1Jo- ~ ~l..:> ~I ,,\5' I;! \.. <JI>- .} i r=-ll ""J'JI ~ ..,.;\:JI

~I.ill

.}

.,.;iJ .;)~ ;;..;~ "t"

\..Î '.,.-t...Î ~\

The present continuous tense

.»Jo>

t 1L..a.ll

Jl..o:....~1

Usage

1 - This lensc is lIscd to express an action that is happcning at the moment of speaking. ~I ;;..;) ";")J.l.. 1 .} r"-' ..;.,~ ""' ~ .:r'JI loU -1

.rU

Examples: .(";"-l>.;

Il is raining.

)dl J)} ,J'II) ~ 4'!

""'

.J>~I

You are asking for tro uble.

~ .!.1)

~I

You arc hid ing the truth.

••

.J)U.~I

1 a m not blaming yo u a l ail. Your ea r is bleeding .

.

... "·1

~.;.N,

, & }I 'J \;1

Jo-

. t.,..)

j? ..:J.;~i .:>1

Jo)

~jh;i t;Ï

Am 1 intfuding?

(~~) t;Ï

1 hope 1 am nOI disturbing you.

.~ C~j! ) .\...4.0 .)'pi ~i y ) ...;Iii

She is gctting worried.

~.J'iJl J.4-l.1

2 - To express the neUf future

",iJ.,

Jo .li!

if .,.,.;dl - 2 j

Examples: 1 am not coming here uny mo re. Evcrything is going 10 be a il righl.

- 70 -

.<.Sf'i

i f G>

J! .,.;i J

·rl..; l.o Jo- .)~ '</- J>


Y

~

." Certain "crbs are not gcncrally used

.:11 J--1'i ~ JwÎ !lia ,

in the continuous tcnscs. Thcy are:

:<l') .,...=-.lI .J')I J

You are spo iling the whole effort.

lib*",

(!lI),~I)

A - Ycrbs of perception:

"";-1 Jwi -i

Hear

e::--

Smell

Touch

cr1

Taste

Fee l

B - Ve,.bs of fe(! lùIgs amI

r

s""

cS)

WI

ri

.r irll Jw~1 -..,.,

.f..iil .:"-; \,.)

S1u/es of mimI

Love

.:..,..1

Hale

,j'

Forget

~

? • .>1)

Notice

.b-'i

Mean

Believe

~!

Wan!

Know

-.Jf

Forgive

Care Like Oislike Recognize Think Understand

.fj;

Remember

-:-p ! 'r i ..;..:.-i

Recoileci

,j' .!l).>1 ,.y.;.

r-+'

t"'"

Su ppose

.J'.r'!

.si

,~)

Refuse

..,a;J

Observe

.b- ~

C - Verbs dcnoting rcla tionships: Belong 10

Appear

Seem, appea r

ConsiSl of

- 71 -

,j'j;

Galher

Wish

, s::; Jj...47- - r'

c..w

e;L:


Con tain Suit

'-:-" l.! 'rl~

Own

é..L4

é..L4

Ha ve, possess

<?~

./'1 r-"

Matter

r!':!.,

Fit

,~

tJ L:oli J.4.i .:..,">i':I1 .:,,'i\>.1 •.\0 J

ln thcse three cases the present

U.4l1 .:r 'J ~ .l:,....,J1 V Lall

simple instead of the present

.r-J.I

continuous EXQmpfes:

We hear the roar of aeroplanes everyday Î ~

§

We smell fumes come out

~\ ~I))I )~I.: ~

.,:..,\)lb.l\ ~ ~

.~L...J.\ 0'"

of the facto ries.

.:"t>'.,.

We sec heaps of rubbish everhwhere.

y J 4.,.L....i!\ il.!i )~4 ...voL:.; . .)~ ~~ ~\

1 feel a very sharp pain

..}5W -!,l.l. (0\5' JJI)

This shop belongs to my famil y.

j\.J.-1 1.\0

.~ .))..I.:!.;:! ~t

1 suppose they want to sel! it. They hate singing but love music

ü

~}\.:"~

..wi

JJ) j:W\ l>y:.~ ~1 J ~ j:-? ~\) r--=-i

1 smell something burning. She tastes the quant ity of sa lt in the food . il...bJ\

J eU l ~ . L.IJ

That suits me very weIl.

4-il 0""l.! ..!.lJ~ 01 J)..i;

However, these "crbs can be used in the present continuous whcn they have special mcanings

4l0h. 1.0= ~I U.4l1J 4l~1 ~ Jw~1 ,.\o.:>li , .!lJ.~) ..... \>- 01.0.0 Examples: 1 am seeÎng her off at the aÎrport.

.).6.1.1

J

~')L..

.I~ !l1)L

1 am seeing you tomorrow.

- 72 -


.

He is feeling his way in the darkness.

·i)I.kJ1

ci '-'<Jo ~ .01 ~ ~~ J <f'l;:;Î

Are you forgetting your promise?

* Usage of the

,...:....11

past continuous

,,..p 1.\1 J1...0;...1

1 - To express an action which was going on during a certain time in the past

...... \11

J

iJ;A'

.;JJ

J')I.:. .;,J~ 1 J

I r - ' "IS" .;,.\>-

.:r p,& _1

Examples:

l'i

They were studying ail this morning.

.1

'c.~\ LiA ~ JYJ~ IiI.$"

.~

1 was hoping against hope.

J-Î 'Y

J J-i J

~~

~~ ~

Were yo u spying on them?

.ûJ ~

J

.)~ IjlS J.il

They were plundering. She was busy doing her homework.

.J)I ~\}I ~b~ ;j~ ..:...ilS' ..ûJ

2 - To indicate that an action was going on at a time wben anotber action took place:

f i Jd .w.; ~jJl .;J.,II

J I r - ' "IS" (~.\>-) ~ "i ~.P - 2

Examples: While we were studying English,

.::.1" ".r.li. '1' 1cf)-" \5 L,; )ai ,\...JI

it bega n to rain. She \Vas relu rning home, when

\..= -:..,JI

Ji i.llt? -:...;IS" ..Li! .cT' ~I

the thieves kidnapped her. While 1 was sleepi ng, the telephone rang.

.....Ai4Jl J'f.

,

;c....'1'1

While the teacher was

J;,

Wli

4Al=' 1

..:...5

,

JIS" L,; 4.,t? ~I ..Li!

.I.f.v

talking 10 her, she fainted o ut.

When they arrived, we were watching T.V. '\~J \...~ jW;J\ .lAl.!..;

i..Li!1

While he was playi ng football

i.f

- 73 -

~

l:S' ..ûJ

~ JIS" L,;

. .u;.\),

he fell and broke his arm.

~

.r-S'J

..k.i....


~\ ! }...i:;..J\ ! I~\

Usage of tlle future eontinuous:

1 - To express a (uture action

I~ i.;~ ~ 0'" ~ _1

that wiU bc going on at a gh'en lime.

,~I

J ~ ..:.jJ J ..!JJ»I J •

Examples:

~u. r..I ~ \....J..:s..

..)"s-L

When you ca li me up. 1 will be

.~\)

lying in Illy bed.

~\...l? .J...A;

What will you be doing tOlllorrow?

~..u.

They will be working for two more

j

J

~

.,

\...L:l

~ -$ll\ L.

J-ll J

J)~

.. ".t~\· ",:, J""" i • V~

weeks,

.~,~

0)11) .IS'jll J,A:-li .:r ...,,& -

2 ' To express definite future:

2

jj

Examples:

1 will be seci ng yau in a fcw minutes . . (.,. ,'Jli.) We will be Leavin g in a few days.

J')\:.:.

.,j:!).'ltA". j

T he bus will be moving in a few minutes.

~ j çL..) ~6- ..!.ll:oliL.

~ Î~i ~ J)\>..

.Jm.) ~

J')\:.:. ili1j.1 !J~ 4.,...\;.l\ 4.,.:....)'1\

The Perlee' Tenses: Formatiol/:

",#1

Affirmative

.:..t,:'Y1 ~ ::.rJ? if J~ tl;)l if)!

l ,The auxiliary (TO HAVE) in the appropria" tense

(.!,.I.l.Î) ... WI J.-'ll _ 1

.j~ .!.lI.\J) .!J.!.>-I e}) .;,-'j e;-PY- r) J,i::-ll } ..,..,UI } O...J.I J

2 - Thc main \'crb (past participle)

J !J~J ~)I ~\ _ 2 ....,r:J1)

J.,...u1 1'""" 1 jJ ~

.(,,1; .!J.!.>-I . W ~

" .. - v ' )

, 74 ..

-:.J\':JI


l)L,;...

"",L.

~

Hos

Had

Shalt haVe }

Have

Jyil'

Will have

t'"

+ PllS( Participle

They have come

They had come

They will have come Negative form : to Have + not + Past participle of the main verb

,)~

They have not come They had

Ilo t

come

I)r"->- .û

They will nol have come

,.-1 If.,s:, ,.-1

J

I)r"->- .û If.,s:,

..

e~':; ·:)1 ~

Interrogative form

to Have + $ubject + Past participle of the main vel'b? ~ \)~ ~

Have they come?

~I)r"->- .û IflS'

Had .hey come'

~\).......:=-

Will they have come?

* Usage of the present pcrfcct (ense

J.j

rl:.JI t)1..4l1

J

Il is used in the

.Y>

J~1

Q

~

: 481 .,:..:ILl!

follo wing cases:

al to express an

If ~

J>

~..r! .l.:..a

action which

f

~

r:r ~ li

(ÔF)

is just finishcd

0~

~ ..:..J \ .. ~L.. J ~ ~ ~)cr.

J have J' lIst received yo ur letter

:JI.>-

She has just fini shed her work

- 75 .

4L>- \'.:..;.;1 .til


~ ""Li .li!

You have misunderstood me He has just phoned me

, -"

.li!

y"", ,..;- <$ i "'--"-"

J>

, " . ' ; I:.A;\,.

.r-- "" "

Have you heard anything about him?

<$ ..r-

b/lo express an action that bcgan in the past and is still going on at present

..,.:-1>-' ci}'? 'r--- J'j~J .....11' J

Î.., (.:-.... ) J.i,y-

""dI!y

Examples: • He has lived in Algeria for

•.:...1..,.:-- ~

nine years (He still li ves in Algeria).

)I.J.' J J~ .J...ij {) ·UI.J.' J ~ JI}.,,)

o..u

• He lived in Algeria for nine yea rs.. ..:...'f- ~ o-U (Now. he is no longer living in Aigeria).

Wc have

.:}-j\ U'.J.\ ~

learnt Spanish for two

) I}-'

d

J-~ ..û! "

J w~

o..u 4l:--'.lI

...loo.:!

~)

L..J.,.; J.il

.(~

years (still learning).

1 have never secn sllch a wOllderful film.

.;,y)} o~

t.....Y

LIj'1) LI.) ..v.L:J ~

. ..l.oo.? ~

They havcn't finished yet. 1 haven' , galle over Iheir answers yet.

He has always becn dear 10 me. 1 have never heard of that.

\*

~

.~ ~~~I ~,) ~ .Js- 'fi/' Wb j\) ..tA} W

I~i .!.lI~

c:---Î

~

. ..l.oo.? .J~ ~

We haven't decided yet

cl to refcr to the present result of an

41J..\

~\

J!

0)L.;..J'J Ir::.. ~

action Examples:

.dl)" " ~ .J...ij

He has ruined his career.

~Ij -y5 ,y

1 have read many English

Pl

...:..Î} J.il

.~#.'11 ;.JJ\

grammar books. Shehaswrittenmanyshortstories. . ~~I

" 76 "

~\.J r.SJI (~) ..:...Jl-Lil


They have enjoyed their stay in Constantine very much .~li).1 ~ ~? ~I) ..lÂl

We have revised nearly half of the programme. He has given up smoking.

.0»'...;)1

. L....= ..

1 have ha d a rough time.

.:.r tli i ..Li!

\,i).::......;...i..Li! .

J..JIi f ,,~I ..,. le

You have done enough work

"---" ..Li! ·r..,lI

for the day .

1 have missed yo u

.!J;J...Â;;ÎI .J.Âl

4-.:.-

He has broken his engagement with her

dl

ciJ

for actions that took place al an

J

t-'

~"b>-

.J.Âl

..:.J...\.>- ~I J~~I Il l..b...t ~

indetinite time Extllllp les

'cP i f Je-)I

1 have see n Ihis man before. Have you seen the film at

I.e. ..:..,ij ..Li!

YL.:.,...JI

.j J').,.11 ~I ..:..,i Jo-

..!.J);

.....Ah!, 4l-- t.." J IS" \.. I.,I~ J}.ri< cr L:J 1 ..:......- \.. Ir.>

j

the cinema? He has often treated her nicely. 1 have often heard people

saylllg

50.

'cP i f tr"}1 I.e. L.. ..Li! .cP i f .!.Il; If.r." i ..Li!

We have a lready sludied Ihis subjecl.

j ,

You have told me that before.

- For actions that took place at a definite time , the simple pas! must he used

..b,-,JI .".:-111 J\.wo;...I ~ , ....... ci) J .;.l.... ..rI JW',ij ;.,...J4 ,~lI.\

1 heard this news las! sunday.

..L- 'YI

.~UI ~UI

He met his friend a t seven o'dock.

- The present perCeee lense is usually used with the Collowing lime indicators:

·77·

~I 1.lA ...:.....-.-...

Js-

~...l.,.::o

JI,;

..!..Al

r\;;11 Û\..:I:Ù I ~ 4iWI ~)I J"'jJJI ~

Ol\&.


5incc

-w

Ever

Wb (\~i

Never

J,ü .G ,<b.JJ1 ,'16-

Latcly

Just

j'il cr

50 far

j'i'

Up to now

Ji

\?Y 1\~1

C~\ Li..:.

Often

tr-'11 li>

Always

li>

'-'"""'

.Cv.

...s>

?]J..l .:...i ,li

Today

T his week

..<-'!'

J,i ;r . \~\

Up to the present

This morning

This month

(t.i, l..)

Not yet

j'YI

Now

Already

jl,>-';,

pi

J

r.J1

,U~ Wb

;.:...JI o..iA.

This year

.. Present Perrect and Past Simple can be round in one sentence \Vith S INCE

.(SINeE)

c: ,-,>-1) lJ..." J .!:,-,II ".., ~I c: ~I.f< ,) fo ~I:J I U.Al.1 -

Examples:

cP W 1 Cr" ?JI ,;-,>-i -Cil

.. Si nce they arrived here, they have

.LA ~r"') b

made a lot o f pro blems. .. We haven ' t received a nything

-lc<

r+"

,,,r. cfi Jl:; ,J -

fro m [hem sÎnce they lefl.

.1yL--J

Ji

.. They havell't come here since they

b

from a fix ed lime in

...; .:....G-.....o ...:...j) :.A.:,.o

the past up till now.

* For:

Ji

Ji 'A ,J -J....J1 '..".3

LA

fini shed the work.

* Since:

-

JJI c.? ""Ill --:...i)1 Cr" ~ i? :,.Il •

for a length of lime up to now

.J'>I

.~L.

1 haven', caten for lïfteen hours.

He hasn't \Vritten to me since his departure. She has lived in Oran for seven years.

.:>

..

-<oh-'

Vou haven't spoken to me for more tha n

15

i.u

\..l..b J)L:;Î

...L.. J b

c:- iJ..

. 78 .

J

,J

~ . . . r-'1

JI.T..).,· c:...,;.~ .li! '-' -lc<

~

.

th ree duys.

c.?

,J -!.Li

-ri'; ;;)\;


He has visited me cvcry day for the last fonnight. He has telephoned me every week since the beginning of the yea r.

* Usage olt/te past pel'{ect tellSe

:J.,i ." J-.i ~ ~

To express an action that was complctcd bcforc:

A - Ano ther past action

J'" -

.r'i "'" \.. "",11\

B - A particular past lime

J .:-

wc have in mind

.:-ô) - .."

J y\..

.j"-Û\

Examples:

~lQj i f

- He lold me that he had met

.P J.i

..;~

! Jo

oi

J j..J - .\..r.>-Î

her at las1. - He had studied an English course

~#. ':JI 4iû~ ~I.i /. v J:) .J.iJ C::'

before he started working with

.

,

.J-..ç. I..l::! 01

J:i

~#.I ~

an English Company. - After wc had finished dinner wc lalked a bit - She thanked him for what he had done fo r her. - 1 gave my son the present which

W)w 0\ ..l..oo-;> .~ uJ.:i .J...i L.. Js- ~~ .J.iJ .4J.:.:-Î i f ~~I ~I ~Î -

if'

~.r-\ .li

- After Ihey had gODe away, he feliionesom cness. .~) ~ ô.k>-.,.t~ As soon as they had a rrived, they

;:,.

"L;.J\

.J

1 had bough l for him .

d

,r::. .ûJ -

\)J~ \~) 0i :)~ .oJ:)WI

decided to leave

- 79 -

Î


The past Prefec! tense is used with

C;'

rl:l l Ii"lI.l ~

:<,;"JI .",.yi Jl'i.lll

the following time indicators:

Defore

Already

After

Until

As soon as

When

J' if

Example:,.: He said that he had

al~eady visitcd Algeria.

.y.y JI)-I )j ~

1 knew that tbey had gone ta the

1..r.A-> J.i

~~ Jli • ~~ ..:....J; ..li! -

Ji

. L..;,...JI

cinema. ACter wc had had tea, wc relaxed . They cOllld not arrive on time because they had missed the train. They d id not know the truth until they had found the cvidcnce. When he had finî shed his work he went ouI. • Usage of the future perfecllense p

To express an action that will bc

.C? ~ ~i \...~ rt;J\ ! h·qp JI ( 1Jr;.:1

r Jd ,y-

:~ ~ ...j

*

~

complcted before: A

p

.r' ï J,.i:--

Another future action

J,.i:;-ll

B - A particular future moment wc have in mind.

J-.i -

i

J iJ:!U cJJ -y ."".\JI J JlLo

Examples:

Urtl

They will have fin ished the

if 1.*1

.(i

If~

·t,WI ~I

project before next summer.

- 80 -


- He will have telephoned us befo re ..... >UI ~UI

6o'clock.

c...,5

- By nexl yeur, 1 shaH have

..li

e\.iJ1 ~WI

J;-L

J ',F- Y

- We shall have done everythi ng

in an hour.

- 1 hope yO ll will nol have forgotten

..li

J~ .~L.. jj; J~ 'J JI y)

u....

..li

.-".11 Jl,l~ ~~ J

yOuf promise by tomorrow,

w./i\

~ ~\ ~t;j\

The Perlect Conlinuous Tenses

Formation 1'0

Jp,.,

..;..,\,,>-r-" ~

written five plays.

C

J,i

:, '!:!

have (in the appropria te tense) + been + verb

T

~

ing

:if:!f" ;r ~I ~WI ;r)1 } "'-pUI JÎ é:}~1 (BEEN) ~WI ;r)1

J

tf.!1 iJfo;.

.j4J (BE) ~UI J<.ill .~I -.,.-.- ~I ~"'I

Usage

* The perfeet eontinuous tenses arc used

ofo-LI ~WI :i.:,..j~1 ~ .. :~ /,~I ~ ,~

to eXI>ress the duration of an action:

:?lj..\ ~yl? -1

J - Up,o ,Ire p,.esellf:

~

- Prese"t pel/ect COl/tÙl/lOUS

F

- He has been talking sincc

JI).. Y'J J.'-"J .L.

he arrived, - They have been working for

J~

rb Cl l.,;:..o

rJ

.(t.\6;i;1 0J» i-'<_\.Ç .;..,~L..

.L. -

.(t.\6;i;1 0;» :"'"" .,.-"" ciJ ? - 2

many hours, 2 - Up to a certain past time:

.r'--' ~ li

- Past perfect continuous

- 81 -

.,.-pt..


· When the te lephone ran g 1 had been

i ? i..u t.,JI .j

..c-t.L..

sleeping for len hours. · He had been listeni ng IO music

~

rU e-'-'

~}<:--I

Jly.'J Jl5" -

1.o..J.:s. ..:...\s. L..

for severa l ho urs when

.,.ul)

his falher returned home . 3 - Up 10 a certain future time:

iJ:'-'

· Futu re perfeet con tinuous At the end o f this year, 1 shal l

.l.i

j

J..<;--o .::.JJ .?

. çL..

-3

.r'-" t~ j,i:-- -

.

'tWI 1.Loo <,1.;; .} -

Wli

<,# 'JI

have been teaching English for

o..w J..»

..r-).J;;

~

. ~ 15 o:Ü

fifteen years. By the end of this month, he will have becn play ing football for seve n yems.

- 82 -

j

c:

~ ft-'-ll <,1.;; t-CiJ 1 i.? ..,....J .l.i . .c-I.f--" é'-" i:Ù


CHAPTEDS The interrogative or Questioning The Interrogative form of the vcrbs can be made as follows: ln case of the

simple present and the simple past wc introduce the auxiliary verb "To Do" before the subjcct.

.k,...JI

tJ W:lI

Al 1>-

J :.}.

W- JW:,u .,.~ 'il AA,..oJI

~ \.il 1 J.,i (J-.i;) ~ WI JMlI

J-.-'

fo

.k,...J 1 -F"I1IJ

r. \..,;v{ Does (it-she-he (j

iJ

"""

Do hi,. + ee-}+ Subj"" + Infin"'" + (Ros'of "n:onool + ?

, ,,,,C D,d('.I"'+ee-l + J-WI

+ ).c..ll + (<W- 1~l + ~

Do you believe me? Do

yOll

~)W

fee l weil enough?

Docs he make himself clear? Docs she agree to work with him? Does he know the motive?

Did

yOll

visit Oran?

Did he want to see me alone? D id they come by train? ln case there is an auxiliary:

t ~ J" ~,.LAi ~) J" ~ "'" J-.JI Js- wlr if J" ~c'I:UI j f i J" ~ .)If') ""~j J" ~ ,1';;1 Js- li'j~ ,,) J" ~~ \k.iJ l, 1) j \,,- J" ,~L.. .y..; 'y.J AlI>- .j , tif. L.

Js-

,!.l;

"1, ~ loLilI "路U

There will be a subject inversion

1/"

..Li Auxiliary + subject + (verb

- 83 "

+

ing) ... ?

.

-...Li,

茅"")."

..\?WI J-ill

:J


Presen t Perreet l,

Past Perreet Was

+ s + v + ing?

Me

Were

Present Perreet

Past Perreet

Has

+s+ verb +ed? H ave

Would

Will

Mighl

Had + S + verb + ed . . ?

Should

+ , + verb?

Can

+ S + V + ing ... ?

Must

Could

Shall } May

Ought

Need

+ S+ (verb) ... ?

Dare

J

<,]....Î )1WÎ ~\S" , Ir- i-",WI JWSIJ <,.....JI,

J..-;-J

~I .i.) .i-"'w )1WÎ ) <W-I

- ln ail thcse cases, the answers

.,:.,t~b:- 'il !J~ .,:.,t'i1J.1

".lA ~

J-

"'i Ji ~" ;.y !Ji ~

must begin with "Yes or No"

Examples:

J

.!Lul)

Is her mother angry wit h her?

~4.:.. ;.,..;,~

\;'..ul)

Is the teacher absent today?

~t.r.ll ..,.;~ ;~ ~I

k ...,,)1

Is your rather al home?

J> J> J> J>

~;.;-"" ~ ~tJo..'.lI J yJ, I}lj LoÎ

Are they ail traitors? Are they still playi ng chess? Have you anything rurther to say? Has she hea rd abou t that?

- 84 -

~<.S.r'Î JljÎ .!.l,..u k.lJ.i, ~

J> J>


Y.!.I~ ~ ~

Have you been there?

Y~\ ~ fi jl ..l> 1 ~ ~

Ca n one comma nd love? Need yo u leave

50

Dare they spea k

50

Y~.;-ll o~ ;.J.>1;....ll ~

soo n?

Y\.:s.. lfu ~..lJ-I

about us?

G-i'• ~

Js- 'j/,:! ~

Y;~\ ~

Sha H we ha ve sa me coITee?

y'.!..~J.,. ~ -' ~ ~

ea n you describe yo ur home- town? Might they come this afternoon?

J)L:.ii

Y~\ ~ \j"~ jl ~ ~

Y~) ..:.A~\ ~i

Can you prove it? Would it surpri se you to discover the truth?

y~\ ~

~~i

Ji

Question words

Yrs- \.. U). \..

Who?

j>WJ Y./

How old?

Whom?

Jyuill Y./

How taH?

Whose?

.!lJWJ Y./ (.}) ,l;.. SI.! Ybt..

How long?

Yt lii) \.. (if )!) YJ). \..

Wh îch?

JI.::>:-Al ~~i

How wide?

YJ>.r \..

When?

.)L.)J d-'

How deep?

Wherc?

.:>l5:...U ~Ji

How large?

YJ.->- \.. YtL.il \.. Y~ \.. •

What?

Why? How?

Ho w hîgh?

Jo )JI Ji ~ YI;~ JI.l-I } y,..<.u y..;..,>

How fn r? How henvy?

,.s-

How fast?

(.r"') Y}""",

L.

How orte n?

<..SJI -

Ji

How many?

1,-"

How much?

Who?

YJZ )1

Jj) \..

y~ j " \..

Y'/

r5

Subjccl

It is uscd for pcrsons

J'I,;,.;..~~

to ask about the subjcct

Jo""1 ,;r JIJ-ll Jo""1 -,Ji J)-'!

without subject inversion

- 85 -


Exumples:

~..,} .!.l.t,t; :/'

Who met yo u first? Who a llo wed him ta get in?

~ Jy' _>Ji,

Who told her thi s nonsense?

~,I...oli

Who can la y me a hand'? Who wish to drive him to Blida? Who put off the light?

c--- :/'

4J

li"

J\i :/'

~ô~LJ.1 J.; J -'-€ Ji ~ :/' ~ô )l,..-J~ ô.yJI J! .i>.i J ~.1- :/' ~(CL.dI ) ).,.01 w,i ",..\JI .:.r ~ ..:..~u-\ i f ON! ~ if

Who cou Id survive the accident? Wh om?

.J

"J.,...

Object

1f'1.>-:..)u

It is used:

to ask abolit persons (complemen t) or objeet.

·)Jftl

.:.r J'J--ll

Ji J.,.....J.'

!"

~ ~ .o.S .:.r

• WhOIn \Vere you talking \Vith?

.-;.llll

1 was lalking with the landlady. · Wh oIn did they invite to the pany? They in vited most of thei r friends.

;w.. t...

c: ~-""i .o.S

.'J... ~ I

.

~;j,.) 1

jo urney?

.)0-->'->1 ....... i

~",jJ

· Whom wo uld yO ll like 10 sec?

1 would like ta sec the head lllaster

c: -

\}J-I J! Ir' .:.r . ~\i .....i ~ Ir' J..iJ

· Wholll did yO ll aecompany in yo ur

1 aœompa nied Illy yO llnger brothe r.

.:.r ..;.

~I J..iJ

J 0; ",..\JI .:.r J..J..,.

~j) J~) .4.....)..ll\

of thi s school.

Js- .ft Ji

· Who1l1 could yO lL ge t in touch

Qi

~I

",..\JI

o~

.:.r

~ ..... JL.a;1

with?

- 86 -


Whosc?

1t is used for perSOIlS to ask about the possessor

".rJ1,?L.o, ~ ~I ~ Jlj-lI

..,.,I,;.;.'>I!

Examp/es:

~

il ~ o~ i f ~J.:,-

· Whose gardell is this ?

.«U 1·'1. ..,...

lt is ours.

Lâ,..\.>. 1· '1 • '"ë-'.

«oC.>- L.o Cf" ~ cJS:J1 Ij",

· Whose is this dog?

J. -

"JI} ~

lt is mine.

-

'-'1

~..:.r" Jj:J -

- Whose Illfl1 is it?

.•4J.

It is hers.

Lo.JY

~ J,J-I .::..dl Ij",

- Whose is this beautiful house?

'-'1

J. -

...

.~L.....:..,..., ~\ .

It is Samia 's.

~..:.. ~\ i f '-:""t:S' -

· Whose book did yO li borrow?

.J,,; ,,",15 "".;"....1 .li!

1 borrowed Nabil 's book.

· Whose poem did you learn by heart? ~ -,...Ij

R

y -:..JID- Cf' i.J.,..ci • ~ 1 i.J.,..a.i

It is El Moutanabi's poem . - Whose hOllse did the thieves rob? They robbed ou r teacher's hOll se.

~..,.,.rdJ 1

Jj"""

4'1

Cf' ~ -

. ~;l:....1 ~ I}j""" .li!

Whal?

A - It is used to ask about things in gcneral IIS u bject or Object ll

."~ J.,.... )1 ,yli" \..~ .\,.)~\.:.f" Jlj-U J..-:-s-I Examples: What is wro ng with your wateh ?

~~u

.fli,

Il loses five minutes.

'-'? •

~ i;'-b

b\..

4'1

..fü,~

It is live minutes fa st.

- 87 -


- \Vhat places did

yO ll

sec?

1 saw the citadel and the old royal palaces. - What wo uld he say about

~L<

liS?

.

i,.

Jyi,-.

I;\.. -

l;t. J ~ .

He wou Id say we are not polile.

. J)i,..,.

They are intending 10 occupy the building.

.~I J~I J)Y. ~1

- What so rt of men is he?

yOll

~Y' Jl,-)i J ti ",Î t..f.h:- ~ 001 ~~ J ~ bL. -

. " Î Jl.,.o, "" ~\.:.:. "

He is a serious onc. - What do

/.

hide under yo m overcoat?

J>. '<? "

. J)I.k 'lI

Nothi ng at aiL - \Vhal do Ihey want?

~ J )--4..1- bL. -

They want not hing.

. ~ Cl )-\!,,< "

B - to ask about a pcrson's profession

~

4.0 .r Jlj-U -y ~ "'+'

\..

'J'-4'

"1 "1

\Vhat is he? H e is a n cnginee r.

.~

H e is a dOCIOr.

~l

C - What ... like?

.:r Jlj-ll ''" ~.JS:.::.

- What is he like? He is la ll wi th broad shoulders and

. <'.1 1 ·

~

v"'-"

\.. -

1. "

·1

J'y " •

. ~ .)r...Î .."..::. ) ~)

curt Y black hair.

J-<":' \.. ....r.l l ~ "1

~)\kJI li.>

- Wha! is (his bird like ? Il is like the owi.

.~';"Î\..• u-~)

- What is his work like? It is no t good enough.

." l6jl ..,;

. 88 .

l<

I.l,e-

~


Which?

~

1$1

ft is used to ask about a limited

choie.

4.J" Jlj-lI ~ 0 ~ Ji ,t,.:..i "-' .:J' ,~ 0" JI)..J), ~JJ$I )~~,

•..,.l>...\.i "-' .:J'

,

Examples:

éJ, j,.

· Whieh o r these singers is

"".,111 ,'! Y.

.:J' <? i ~~I

yo ur favollrite? · Whieh one do you ehoose?

~)~ o...l-I)

· Whieh priee does suit you?

kl.,...l,

· Whieh hand do yo u use in writing? - Whieh sllbjeel do you prerer? · Whieh o r thcse girls is your sister?

j'-'

I.?' <.Si

~;,,1.:5:J1 = ~ ~ "i ~J.'W t.r"y <?i ~ ~i ..:..L::..JI o..k <.SI "

"

When?

* Jt is used to ask about the lime

4f Jlj-U

0

~Î~)rl o..k ~ ~ -

· \Vhen will these da ys fini sh?

js:J

lin

\...l- ~ ~ ~"--",,W.\

end to ail these troubles? · Whcn did yOll see him ror the last time? Where?

~

~LA\j 0Î ~ r..? -

· When eould you see her?

- When are yOli going to put

.~)I

o..k

~o/ ? ~ "-=:!i) d-" -

~..J.!1

* It is uscd 10 ask about the place

.IJ~I 4f Jlj-U ~

• •

0

~~I JI

- Where are you? From where shaH we start lhis year?

~ÎW\

\..k

\~ JI i f

~ ~IS'

· Where ha s she been?

~~\.) ..::...:S

- Where were yOll gOÎng?

" 89 "

Ji

Ji Ji


Where ca n 1 find such ac reature? Whe re d id you waste ail Ihis lime? Why?

~Jfol L~ J!-o ~Î,,:,i ~ Ji ~...:...i}' L~ J5' ~i Ji

~\JU

If is used to ask about the reason or purpose

..f'j H J1

~\

.:.f' J'j-U ~ ~4-:Jl ~ ~

Why didn'I you listen 10 her? Why cou Id you not come earl ier?

~\~ .J..,...aJ-I ~ ~ \.)U

~~...L..,.::. ~ <.#~ ...:..,.;i bU

Why ' Ire yO ll bored rriend?

~bU ~)

But why? Wh y do you prerer ro ma ntic poet ry ? How?

bU

\s-,jl,..))\ ~\ ~ \.:oU

,...;..) -

It is uscd Co ask about the manner

;yi$J1

.r

Jlj-JJ

J.-::-i

.lJl.>-l }

or stafe

...:..? ~.!-Il ; I} f ...:..? J> ~.J'JI .!-Ill>- ...:..? .j

~.w.

- H ow is he gelling on? - H ow did Ihey know Ihal? - How arc yo u now? D o yO LL rcel

~

.r.-'

~~

bette l"?

J!

~.!lu.

- How d id yOLL get thcrc?

"'~

- How cO llld 1 k now that he

j

...:..? J ...:..? -

..:.L)

fi .Ji

~.?\.. ~-

is a cunning person?

Examples:

~ <$i - L - .? -

.? -

~

-

l 'i

Qi

~

r

~.!l

- How o ld are yO ll?

rS -

..!..LJS' r5 k.lh .JI) ........ ..y <$i L :':""<0 .;,i -!J.:.. -:..J1 iy ~ ~~.:o

- How much d id Ihal cOsI yo u? - H ow lon g ago was Iha l? - H ow orten have 1 asked yO li

~$)~.r

10 stop wasting yom lime?

- 90 -


- How long must we go on waiting? - How far is it from Consta ntine

~)\k~ 1 "'

JA--

'.6' â&#x20AC;˘ i f

to Annaba?

<.? ? ~WI

rS

~;.,~

J!

k U). \..

- How tall are you?

rS J.lli ,1i_,.,,'1'1 ,~ rS ~~l.i.- :.Jj)

- How heavy are my bags? - How many friends are yOll

~I"""y-'"-'

going 10 in vite?

k JJ ._-'-"... s:,

- How much does he owe yOll?

~-

- 91 -

.T

r¡


CHAPTER6

("..,.J .... lJ ~'

Active and Passive

c.r.J'. .

cJ~.JJ

Voice A - Active Voice

* The "crb is in the actÏ\'c voiee ,,.hen the subject is the docr of the action .

.J..ill

~\i JA i~1

iJp., \.-'" r~ .,r.ll ..,... J J..ill iJh • -....,..; l......>-" '. ." J ".

~.lL

Wc ail love our country

,l~

B - Passive Voice

..;JI .""

T he vcrb Îs in the passive \'oiec when the subjcct undcrgocs the action.

th ;?.ill JA LI:.,J.I iJfo \.= J~ .r.ll ;;.;.,.... J J-Ali iJfo • .J-Al1 ...); t...,...". \;...

Our counlry is loved by us

l'OieC

F'"" ~-lI,

" l.."..u, \Ml' .i-< ..;,..5

How to for," the passh'c voiec:

The passive

y

is formcd by using the approprialc tense of the verb "to

ben with the past participlc of the ,'crb

1'"""1 t''' to b," J-.ill..,....,L\1 ..:r')1 rl.l.%:.....~ J~

.r.ll ;;.;.,.... iJfo • .J-Ali

J"....

Examples: Sile si ngs Hice songs . • Nice so ngs arc sung by her.

,

.;,,;j,J .

She sa ng nicc songs.

<!"t?1

~

. '-.L 1 ~ .. ';,,;j,J ~t?Î • ~y .

.. Nice Songs \Vere sung by 11er.

. 92 .


. i..iJ:J J\.i.Î ~

She wîU sing nice songs.

. 4-=k--1):' ~ ~ 0\.i.Î

Nice so ngs will be sung by he r.

J\S.Î ~

.4A.J=J

She is singing nice songs. Nice songs are being sung by her. She has sung Ilice songs. Nice songs ha\'c been sung by her.

J.N ~

,4-=k-- I):'

'+il J\.i.i

,~ J\S.\ ~ J.AJ . ~IJ'I ~ ~ 0\S.Î

"By + Agent" is always omitted,

"~WI

+ ~I)!" o)L:;..jj).

where the doer is either c1ear from

l,.l

I.Jh ~

or unknown to us

1 - Simple present, past simple and future: Present

'?

~

WI~

~i I.$~ ~ , ~I ,;r ~IJ ' ~J;A-- ~ Ji I.:J

the meaning, of no interest

,

j&-WI

.6.:-:3 1~\J ~1l1 ,t)l.41\ -1 Pasl

Future

Is

Shall Will be

A"

Will be

Was Were

J

+ ( PaSI

Parliciplc) ~

jj

Examples: The shock dazed him

1"

01

-,

.......\..."lI 0"' ~;

• He was dazed by the shock.

, >'< .;1 ,\.i; <iJt,...

'-.p \;1..1 <iJ t,...

He drives his own car

.-.:h....ly

• His own car is driven by him.

~I~"";r''''';y

We shaH know the result.

."...,..l,

• The result will be known.

"";'.B "";Y ,;.,...01 J,, ,

PJ C'-' 'Y

Rights are never granted but

JyiJ-1

ôA i>.y

taken by force

.. 93 ..


~L,

j..,.; L.J

-,..Jl.hll

......W\ ,lw":lI-2

2 - Dcfccth'c Vcrbs

""p:;;.I \

Formatioll: 1

+ B,

D.v

+ pp

Op..,

"'-';UI j...J1

Jr<il,-'

Exumples:

1

d

They should arrange everything. - Eve rything should be arrunged. - The mystcry muy be c1eared up

500n.

What can not be cured 11H151

be cndu red.

.~ Ji

This system must be changed

•- ,....:;..J 1 ;;;...,":II

Il uous cnscs 3 - The Co nfi

...-"\..

t)-""

,.;-

l,

W'IS W

Ac,

~

~ rLI2.JI \.k

'"

} + being + P.P

Examplcs:

Jlyi

Someonc is black mailing him

?

He is being blackma ilcd He \Vas rcading an English book An English book was being rcad

Ilot

.Jlyl ~l

I,~I ,~ ifi ~\5' ifi .;,\5' I,~I ,~ ~ 'J

lel ~ /.:.êl

Wc are not being neglect ing you You are

?, \.. ..l>-i

being neglected

- 94 -


4- The Pcrfect tcnses: Formation: ...... l-

C)L;,..

Had

Ha>

+

Been + P.P

Have

Itell

i

Examples:

l>-~

lyi-i>- ..Li!

........ .û

~é.~

L..,J;.o

They have made a grea l success A greal success has been made

~..\.>-

..Li! ~.;; ..Li!

He has double - crossed us We have been double - crossed

or.-. Î \..

Saille body has told him thal

.•

~

.!..U.i, J"'Î ..Li!

He has been lold thal He had already broken hi s promise

of'")

...;J.;. Î .û

His promise had already been broken

...;J.;.Î ..Li! JI) oJ,s.) ,

~ .5

5- The Imperath'c + Object + Be

"J.,..<l'" Take aU thiogs iota consideration - Let aU lhîngs be ta ken into considera tion. - or: Ali things should be taken into considera tion.

il...:;;:.':1\ i f

Give your work more interest - Let you r work be given more interest.

k\

'i~ 'Y! if !~f ~ dl..s- t)

or: Vour work must be given more interesl.

- 95 -

\..\,!)- ~


"'.ri liA> Jdl ."'.ri .!.U; J..;,I

Do this qu ick ly Let this be done quickly. or : This sho uld be done qllickly.

" ~~"JI"

6- Question"

.?.i.l\ wl.. ..u:. \yAJ\ ~

Apply the fo rement ioned rules and

.~W\

notice the subject inversion [

Be

ili..."JI -6

J-..> J 1 JJ-'"

Do

t!'J 0

J-..>

..12- ':J J

] ,

Examples:

1"

QI

Did they sec you?

\' ~JĂ&#x17D;)

~

We re you seen?

\'~..5 ~ ~~Li.;J\ ~ JG

jA ~~\.w\ JJ; jA

Have yo u had lunch? Has lunch been had?

"

Have any questions becn asked about me?

~~ ~I ~I

~\~\

How have 1hey been received?

,

...:....>-):0 jA

J.?

t..~ ':JI ~ d-"

When will the next meeting be held?

~i.)l.iJI

* N.B: Sentences conta ining twa abjects:

:~ ~

Js- ~~\ J.J-I <>

Either of those objects may bccome the subject of the passive voice.

.~ Il ~ ,) ~ .;,:J.,..u1.ft~ '-" <.fi Usually, the personal object is made the subjcct of the passive .

.~WJ L,lU Exampl(!!>': 1 bought her a nice present She was bOllght a nice present

- 96 -

~I

J.,..ul ~ \. i,~


.''<'., c:.--.r' -' 1 l.A...6J ;".co -

A nice present was bought for her.

\.. \.0,.:. ~ j r' , \.. \.0,.:. ~ L,

He will give me something 1 will be given something

-J ~\..i~

Something will be given to me .

"I~ ,_,;.JI

7 - Passive Infinitive

FOl"matioll:

C

.=J

To Be (in the infinitive) + P.P

,

' .J~ J\ ~ 0:,-i\ji ~l:A , ' .;.,il:>- ..i.4.:; J\ ~

There are laws ta be issued Hi s life is to be saved There is nothing

to

,.....a.ll -7 :.:r-#I

be worried about

Jl,J1

Jo.-" \..

~""

crJ

....j)'JI JW'l1 -8

8- Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs that can be made transitive by the addition of a preposition, can be used in the passive voice.

~ .r. .j.r. ;ijw.~ '-l-'""" Jwi Ji ~~ ~ .jl ...j'>\ll JW~I -J~ ,r.il AA,..# Examples: She was laughed at by everybody This matter must be looked into He was looked upon as a great hero

- 97 -

J 4-1~1


C

]

The Imperative Form

1/ The second Derson Im/Jerative Positive Form: ",I".,I ;u....• M'

'Ir

c::.....P~ L jJ\ ~

II

Roth singular and plural second person imperative (orms are formed with the infinitive without "to",

.~ .

J Î 1~.;A-o

.., IS'

<1>-, ..,..., l>..JJ .!'~ 1 AA,...> ..,

fo •

. "To" "'J.l.! )J..o1I ~I~I; ~ Sil down!

I..,..J>.-I

Stand up!

Clean il!

~\

Go 8ack!

Negative Form: " is used with "do not" (don't) .j:J 1 ;;.,J 1...> ;u...,.. without "to"

(..,.#' ,y)

IJ>.<'I

, c:-)1

~IJI'

+ the infinitive

, rrTd ' .j)~ JMlI J..\...a...o + :'do not" ~\ ~b\ Î\~~ ~_ ,",J$:; 'i Don't smoke! I.}--" 'i Don't lie!

(0

Don't write on walls! JI).c!-1

Js- -,-5.; ''1

IIJ The (lrstand the third persan imperative

(l, He, She) Positive Corm: a:...~1 a.l.o,;.M'

.~ .

Don't go Dear the faire ):JI J' ..."

fo'1

.I.,)ùl.t? ......jll ~ I II (~ 'J") ..,...:WI

is used with "let" + subject or pronoun + the infinitive wi thout "to",

)~ + ~I } j<LilI + "let" tl..L>.:....l, ,"to" Let me go out

C.r'Î <.j'"

J.""-'

0)~ ~\

let him 1her do as he 1she Knows

(J.1") J fi W'

(~) j..;, (~') "',

Let them practise what sports they prefer.

·JA

- 98 -

.}JI WoUI Jr-.Jl.ç ~'


Negative form:

V) 4.:JL...

~

is used with "let" + Subject or Pronoun + not + the infini tive without "to".

~I + ~I } j<-WI + "let" rl..G.:..,.1, ~ . "To" 0)~ ~l

)...1...,.:2..-

+ "'.}"

Negative Form: - Let

me n ot out.

Let's not go (nlet us golf is usually contracted to: let's go).

c: I;Jlio 0

:ih.iI JI?,I

Let us ~j; ''1 ~; -

.(Le!'s go :Jèl y.:J1 , Let them no' drink a' ail :J)(l,)'1

J;. pi)

Js-

Iy..r'; '1

j.T"

r-I'" -

Remark: This form is Jess used, and we prefer to say:

:J yill j.;.;; '-'"

w.J"J J

::u..-~ C.f"i 0i J>- ~ ~ -

l....;..,. )' 1

- 1 mustn', go out

J,li

.h..!I1 l.i.o

y~..ul l:.);:. ~ '.} -

- We mustn' t go. - They mus'n', drink a' ail

il~!

y l).!1

~

..,...,.,

'J -

Usage: The imperative is used to tell or, ask somebody (usually a cmld) to do or not to do something in a very direct and familiar way.

J"-' r~ }

j..A, (\;,..0

I;Jlio) \..

~

cJl,

Ji )y.)' ./'1 ~ ~ .~"li..J i';'t,. <A,j>, ,.;-

The imperative is used also for formai public notices. I{' ":.1 ~ â&#x20AC;˘ .........-JI ~I .:,,1; .:"Ci')U1 J;. .!Jj.i5' .7"'lI ~ ~ Or for asking permission or ordering a permission with ficst or tmrd person .

.r--" } ,Pl

F I .r--" c: u:""'.? ".i }

0;1 ..,.JJJ ~ } . y'WI

,99,


Examples

, - - - - - - - - [~}~J ;r~ • Come and si t dawn! . Don't go near the electric power!

. . . '-'Î_J-----------, !~!) JW !J~.:PJ! J\.iJ! fl;;Î ..;...;l; 'ï

-

c::::.::>L::..l'>tJi) - Oon'( walk on the grass!

.....)JJ

':J

!~\

- Dan't smoke!

J.>- J.l '1 r ,-

!J~\ o.-iü4JI

- Dan't use your mobile phone!

!.,:r=-JJ '1 -

J-.=-7 ~'l

-

<,?"" <lb- ~, jJ- !l-lo1..,3 ci'"

-

~';;Ji0)l ~~ - Let her Come with me ta revîse together. - Let me help you ta solve your problems . •1;...

L..)~,

e-- I)

.-!lli' w...

- 100-

-


[

The GERUNDS

(ING)..,

~..JI ~WI \,",",,1

J

Definition: A gerund is a verb used as a noun, it is called verbal noun.

r- I ~ ~) r-I' ~ .Y' (ING) ~ Ji)1 ",,\.ill r- I :,-,,'pl .•.;.; r-I.

:c.P\ -Î

A· Form:

Gerunds are formed exactly like the present participle by adding "ing l1 to the infinitive without "to".

"'.J. LiA) l:1..i Jyuill } - Infinitive: - Gerunds:

",,\.ill r- I J'-

(ing)

-!

Ji)1 JAAlI r-I Cl~

."To" Cl)"" JAAlI J.i..d (ing)

To run, to work, to tell, to write, to be, to read , to fish, to teach, to film , .. Running, Working, Telling, WrÎting. being, rcading, fishing, Teaching, filming. ~

~

,(.fy,/J.,;

. '<??

~

,~ ~

}

... "r')l.!')f \

.

:(ING) ~ w)1 JAAlI ,L.....I

.

.

~~ .~ h!..l-J\ ~ 'ô~\} ,ri#

cJy..:....J,.>\

B· USE

~

-c:.J

as the subject of the sentence. A Gerund can be used: _ ACter prepositions. --+ AfteT certain verbs. --+ ln compound nouns. --+

<L,JJ

""L.;5" <-

)-~ J)?

<--"(',,, .n",g),-,~,,-. ..:J"'y"'),...I....JAAl=,...lr"::;-1 .JW>'I ~ 1..; <,JI....;;...I

.;j)1

,L..... ':il

..Vu

=

h

<-

1- As a subjecl of a sentence:

- We use the gerund as a subject of a sentence, when the action is being considered in a general sense, this implies that the speaker has had a personal experience of it .

. JO 1 .


Js. ~ J--ill

j\5' 1;1 '.L,..lI

-ylA> (ing)

ri ~ I.e.) 'r WI ....

~ Ji)1 J--ill

*"

.J--ill I~ '"" l>- ;,fi ",.Il .:- J....,ll 5i ci"< eg * Speaking English is easier than speaking-French .

.<,....;...-JI ~ Cr' ~i ;,;,l.f)'1 ~ :JI!.. - Or when the action is being considered as a habit one . . ;,1..5" :rl J--ill j\5' 1;1 } eg * Fishing is my favorite pastime . .",.u ~I ~I cl' .!J...-jl i,- :JI!.. 2· A{ter prepositions: - Wc use the gerund Corm when the verb is placed immediately aCter a preposition.

"')r-

J..;

\1..,.:0Y J--ill j ~ \..= (ing) ~ Ji)1 J--ill

ri ~ .;.;.1.,. }-I

," ,li;...

.j .,s::;i d .)kl d .!.Js:") J...-ï d • .;~I

'" J am thînking of emigrating. '" 1 am sorry for keeping yOll waiting.

- 4-:;jj

'" He insisted on seeing her.

Js. (:li -

'" cao yOll touch yOUf toes wÎthout bending your knees?

.~~ <-f

.!JJ.".~ ë--"!

JY

3- A[ter certain verbs:

'1

;r F

\W~\

!

Jo •

~ ..uu -3

These are common verbs which

~ ~}L-' ~,:,\s. Jwi oh ,

could be followed by gerunds:

:(ing)

-i

Ji/' j..J

r~

es jl.

"admit, anticipate, avoid, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, dread, enjoy, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, hate, imagine, involve, keep (continue), like, mind (object) miss, pardon, prevent, postpolle, Recollect, Resent, Resist, Risk, save (save oneself the trouble 00, stop, suggest, understand,"

- 102 -


",1> '(Jk;) }-1 ,y1 ,fol ,..;. f~ ,(~l) ..;.,.- ,(Jy-..ù4) e--i j?; 'Oii.) ~ ,(~jj;) E-'--l ,(f) ~ '(''?) ..;:.;;1 J:;i) J.;.I) ,(1)) ) ~ 'J) '~ ; ',("- ;') .j ,vJ.) w. ,~1 ,(~Ji) ,.' . E' 'o.t?) Wc ,(""';1) IW-I ,(,l,..:.'J4 ?l) J-j ,& 1 , ~l) ~,

~

,

",1-,;._._

,(:,kt;.) '-'j li- ,(J....;.) f)ti 'Cr' i~ 'On):?.li ,(li-!I) y..1 ,(JI» ,

_,

.• ~ 'cp) ego * she hates getting up early.

.. .I~~

• 1 like reading before sleeping.

.~jOl

,

_'0 <

f,

,-».)1 ,(~) .i.iol "

.

..f>~I ô~ :JI;..

J;i

-

!

iil~1 ~I

* IF we buy plenty of food DOW, it will save shopping again this week. 1.1> J~ ~I Cr' ~ ,,,'JI ~~'11 .;J"' ~I ~r j • • ·t...,....~1

:A..S J I f.k'91

4- ln Compound IIOU" S:

~ ~111 ~

- NounsConsislingofaCombination

~

1.$# ~I..-I pi}

;jL::Jl 4...a.>j - ~~l

• A driving lesson - A driving

- A Swimming pool. - A Living Room. - A bird wa tching. - A washing machine. - A dry d eaning. - A pu.blic speaking.

, 103 -

J

r..fJ) -

J~ ~\ ~.f - ~~j ~.J. -

j.:-.J\ ~i - ~..,;.ll · }l.k ,4,. ~1 ~ - j~1 ~I

-


CHAPTEDB ~ 1Adjectives 1 . ~_/.~, ,j....., j ~

An adjecth'e is a word used to qualify a noun.

4IS' 4i.AII

,-L...1.,.J\ J~)I \~i ~

Ex: Wc ncver forgel great men

':} :J:.-

Adjectives add to the mcaning of oouos but limit their application .

. ~ ,J'

~ ~J

<I....}~I

<?"

,J'

"<.J

Ex: The pen.

The

IlCW

.:"Li....oJI

, ..\.ill

....\,!JJ.- \

pen.

:cP

r-W' -

.-,<-,-*-I J Jj'il r-lill -

The new blue pen.

.~' -'<-'-*-, JJ}"

The small new blue pen.

" j l..J5' ..;:,li...> ,J'

The more adject ives we add

-'<~ ,J' r-)l1

the morc limitations wc impose

r-lil' -

~Î l..J5'

JI- "';'.1" \..

Adjectives arc invariable for numbcr, gcndcr, person or case.

aJ~1

~I ,~I " .WJ I.i.,l> .:"I..i..<>ll ;:i<J 'i •

.r"-'" yi . <'r"-" J J."...;.Î .r"-"Î ~ ,Ir"-" t)liÎ

A green dress. Green trces. Green ink . Green pens

r"-'"

Green grass How 10 lise adjectioes

",,\.i...aJ \

Attributively Belore the noun

Happy drcams

A Beautiful nower

1

~

I~' ~

Predicatively As a complement to the verb

i~

r)6..i

Thal sounds good

~ &,J)J Vou seem happy

• 104 •

~)~Lu

1..L..oo.... ) .J...>-.:...;Î .


He did useless efforts i,iJ.:o:v ~ .;..b ~ Thal is 3 grcal idca

r\j

~~;:.:. o.l...t. ~ ~

Poor fellow

His thoughts are quick

Jl~ .j\i.c..i

His friends are few

u.- .

She looks preHy

Kinds o[Adjectives:

~~~)~i

û\i..aJ1

) .J.,,; .

E9

1 - Proper Adjectives

~.;:..L<.,.

2 - Descriptive Adjectives

c...; ..,:..I...L,.,

3 - Quantitative Adjectives

<,S.;:..L<.,. ~.:l~":"'~

4 - N umeral Adjectives

;;).:.. l..,:..~

5 - Demonstrative Adjectives 6 .. Interroga tive Adjectives

..,..~I

7 - Distributive Adjectives

~..:...~

~ .;:..L<.,.

8 .. Possessive Adjectives

~ .;:..Li...>- 1

1 .. Propcr Adjecthes

.<.,>JI.f.- 1 ..,......:J 1

The Aigerian people.

.<.".rJ1 w~1

The Arab league.

.<,; 11,.)1 i }":..JI

The British embassy .

. <';l..))1 )U'JI

The Roman an tiquities .

.~)I

The Turkish delight.

<S}>-

«~""JI ~ ":"'~-2

2 - Descriptive Adjectives

;;J~I )i Cyll ~.fI

... To explain the quality or the state:

C

.;:..L<.,.

~\ + ~~

Adj + NOim

;.,;.:;,JI cr 1i r'.\II ~J-'.. s:, <.,..f"-II

W11, .

~)J' 1 -"" .

"::i

.b-)\,.

C? "';';y «~..\;>o.» ;;.À:!~ j~i • tWI <.,>1)1

An awkward situation Fresh news The Pllplic opinion

- 105 -


;,}.,JI y.J-1

The cold war

~I cSyi\1 <l.o. i <Ak;..

Big powers

,,15:..J,

A populated area Mutual understanding

J, G r-" li;

Peaceful co-existence

~cr<

.1.

..:...ü-::u.

6..!~)

Peaceful relations

'W

~) ,'-~I

A brutal aggression F aise allega tions

~~IS' 0\'"t?~\

Fair means

~)r-- yl.)

Decisive decisiol1s

~l>.

..,:...\)}

c?)~

A republic decree

)}

Ir" 1...,J,.ùl .!.lUI

The diplomatic corps

c?,L,.,:;1 )l.a>-

Economie blockade

Jlii J,t,;

Cultural Exchange

-

Legislative authority

,- i.bL

~~

~t?~

A general assembly

,,~ j)\,..Î

Military alliances Special occasions

~ l>-

Modern concepts

~

..:...1.:---\..:...

-"- ,.,.1.;.. <

<

~' JI.. <fI) .;k) CliS"

Foreign capital National struggle

h..}11 JrJl -,<.), uP/"

The middle East Postal exhibition

<...L 01}

Armed forces

"Le'>'1

Human rights

Jyi>-

Jl<o (;}...

International peace

- 106 -


.1.#1 e:1\i J,I'

~.rll

The broad tines Conerete proof

~}lI~1

The red cross

~}I

The national spirit

O}

~::,IS' :JYJ

False promises Armed intervention

d-' J>-X

Internai affairs

Uocb J )y .' -

Il",, 1 ,\,>-

Positive neutrality

<.f,WI .b,k;..;

Economie planning

</,IJj C")lpl

Agrarian reform

....,.- ":;'\A.p

3 ~ Quantitative Adjectives Much

/

Little

j.,J;

Ali

Adj

.J-;

Sorne

Half

+ Noun

JI5"

Enough

.j\~

Sufficient

~

__1""""\ + ll..o

-3

.,si

Any

'i

No

~

C

J

Much work

pJ->

Sorne water

Much food

/rW. ..$ J ) r

Sorne food

rw.J1 .J-;

M uch pleasure

Sorne rnoney

,.,;.JI .J-;

Little money

j.,J; JI..

-

Little hope

j.,J;

Any work

J->

• <.fI

Any lime

~

(.$\

No smoking Ali the money

"-R'-,"I

U'"

.

)

'.J,;

~

'yiJl

,UI .J-;

.

'i

J'

SufficÎent rest

~IS'

Half solution

J>-J...;

;",..\)

J-Î

Liltle knowledge

U)j4j."...

Ali the tÎme

"'-'}IJ'

The whole book HalftÎme

- 107 -

y~lJ'

"'-'.,II"';"";


.l>.1 ,,) 'J) ~

Much cry little wool.

e:-i

1"r--' <.fi ~Lo

Ts there any diffic ulty?

J.-

." ,i <.fi -.:,_ r.I 1,.,;.; <.fi .;J.... J;; J..~ <.fi 1-4J cr-l

There is no harm done. Have you gO! any money? That does not make any sense.

4 - Numeral Adjectives

For countable nouns OJ~ ~JJS. ~1.A.,p

A - Dcfinite numeral adjectiws

,

~J ~ \...Is-I

Cardinals

-1

~;~\...Is-i

Ordinals

Zero

./'-"

Firs!

J}!I

000

-'>-1)

Second

<.1

Two

.:>lOl

Third

-'.J\:II

Three

~)I.;

Fourth

c,l)!

Etc ...

'.r'ï Ji

Etc ...

'.r'ï Ji

·\:11

B - lndefinite Itumeral adjectives

cl'

Ali

Sorne

""" 'i

No

p.)

Many

Many of

Several

F,w

",,,"

t..>..wh J.=l.i --.ilS"

Enough A lot of

ifp.)

Plenty of

if.;?, if <.fI ,

Any of

<.fI

Any

ifJ";

Sorne of

ifp.) l

Examples:

. .G-I}I ,If. '! L. Jlé'!l

Four eyes see more than two.

"f.

.J).rAJ1 J>.Î ?,I

Of two evils, choose the least.

.Jo ~ if

Ali people afe mortal.

cl'

. ..,...; J)-'-' Cl>.' 'J

No success withou t tiredness.

- 108 -


.'"~ If~ 0i 0~ dU! ~ .J6- Js- ~..ù! .;::...-; "Y .,"\.b.:.\r\ if ~ ~) .J.Aj

Some people like to be great. Life has many ups and downs. He has made few mistakes.

. W~ ~ ;-\!js;. ...:..\s.."....,.r

Several subjects must he tackled. We have enough troubles.

.~I.:l\ if ~ ~ ~JJ

They have bought a lot of things.

.i.r.S ' L,.!.i 1)';':'1 .cil J.,ll .!lIA.! .r.S J\.. ..,.0

He ha s much money and little sense

~

• A few (means a small numher)

Ji cfJ)

Few (means a sma ll numher

\)js;.

~

~ A few

b.l<- <.j'Ü Few

but less than (a few)

(a Few) i f

.Cl},li ,~-w>i \;,.0 t'-~ ~I i f ~ .c-i) .cil .

We have a few friends. 1 have read few books though

r am

0-

;

'é.:P JI

free.

ln comparison with the free time

\é.iJ1

t/AlI

c: ~~I.:il.~

~I '"": :,~

in my possession, The number of books 1 have read is small .

.#'11 i f

Many cooks and fe w eaters.

..:..i}1

,';jY"

.I.e.,.

J.,ll

.cA)

.}I

J.,ll)

i4kJ1 i f

.r.S

• 1

A few of my friends Iike footbaH.

.r.cill i.? iJY" Iim....... i f J,Lil1

A lot of my frieods Iike foot baH.

.r.cill i.? iJY" lim .......i i f ~\

Many of my friends Iike football.

·r.cill i.? iJY" J~

Many

=

..r-$'

a great number

A great deal

=

much

A large quantity

=

"a large grea t"

~

,:,js;.

.......i i f ~I ~ ' Many.

;..r-$'

~ ~

Ji ~ ,:,js;. ~ lA 10 l of) <J..;..I J 4Jt......:...\ ..,..... ir-?

. 109 .


5 - Demonstrative ad'jett'/\les

!

W

.,...,;.0

'J..

This

That

c::""

These

Those

Such

The other

The same

Another

Examples:

~iJ

Js- .r--" ;fi

1 saw a cow walking on the other

-"";C!-I

side of the street.

·tJl.:J1 if J"-'\II ~I v"~:,rl ,'Yy. J• . ~ \.,>-1 .!.1 frli,

Such crazy persons sometimes surprise you.

.I~ "t5:.l1 .!.li;

1 know tha t place very weil. He has won a prize and is looking for another one.

fi

.

..) ~) ;)k- r;<J -Cil .<5J"-1 Js- J~I . ~I Li..

Do not talk with such a fool. Those flowers are for you. 1 do not like the other one. .1 will meel you at the same place. 1 hope you will come al the same time

t: ":"..I.>..:i 'Y ..!.li ..... J1')I .!.lli .<5J"-:,rl .,.....i 'Y ."t5:.l1 ..,-i' ,j .!.lWL .~}I ..,-i' ,j ..JI; ,,1 Joi

..

.... 1fA:..o1 .:..\A.;> -6

6 - Interrogative adjectives What

Which

What towns have you seen? Whic~

j

.

book are you going to buy?

- 110 -

~"I';'

• • ~~IJ "..\lI ,,1

.

-"<J y\5 ,,1


~'-'""" .b- if J ~

Whal an illluck?

~J.,;,.i; ..... IJ

What do you prefer?

",i

kj~ t;, ..:...iJ '" 1

Which time suits you?

;;, .,.,:;.; .:.,,\.Q..,p

7 - Distributive adjectives

Each

Every

Either

Neither

......IJ

1 ga ve a pen 10 each one. Each one has rus own hobby .

ci

j5J

-7

Wi ~i

....... \.;1..1 ""1..........IJ

j5J

~ Ji ..,.."., .....IJ

J>

Evcryone should stay at his place.

. "lS:,.

Neither bail appeals to him.

.J ,jJ) .:r,;.fjl if ; .....IJ 'iJ ..;.....IJ J""L. \..Jo1 ..... l ~*--

Eithcr one will suit me.

J> .... 1.;--1 Js. J y.........

Pupils have a rest every two hours.

.0>"'L..

<.s:.t. . .;.. u;",.,

8 - Possessive adjectives Subject

..\,.o)\:)1

Possessive adj

Adj + Noun

My

My umbrella

We

Our

Our dreams

you

Your

Your activities

He

His

His son

She

Her

Her daughter

1.

los <j;WI .r-"!l

Its hair

They

Their

Their will

~\

\pl

o""":"'}1.A~ t"i',IJl ~

Examples:

Il is your desire.

'i*")o

Old people always lose their ways. Malice drinks its poison.

-8

'~J 4'1 J ~ ;,\;0 .;,-II JLf

.•.......;; J:.i< . III .

Ito\

.ûJ.1. ,,,..... .... IJ 'i


t:.."i .f.i:.....;

. ylll

Let us cali up our old days.

..p... J , CJj .cil ...!.J..')1.5" J t:"'" 1.;' '1

We vîsited him at his offi ce. Don't eat yOUf words.

.j

His heart was in his mou th.

yL 1 .l,!.L:. .) 15'

",,\.<..aS .k~1 , 11&-=11<

• Nouns used as adJectives

....u} 1'"""1 JI..A:....I ~

A noun may he uscd to qualify

-.1"ï 1'""" 1

another noun

Examples:

i.!:-- r~i

Dog days

,JWI )I.,>-i

World news Gold ring

~,

~.iJI d

(\..:.

Jts::.....

J~l

Population explosion

Constan tine bridge

~r""

Security counei l

,:r';1 ~

~4' '-"".t"i (..\.iI1 ôj" JI..!..

Social diseases Football fan s

T he nouos uscd as an adjective precede the qualified noun and any change of position changes the meaniog in return.

,:r

.fi ~). ~ ,,1) ,jJ4'}.1 1'"""'1 1 ..;,...;

.;;,\.i..,oS' '1.." 11 ,'-'~I

.~I .r-'< ,.,;!l.'-'~I :$

~

l:-oJ.i

Cornfield

c--<J1jA>-

School boy

Field eorn

Boy school

.i.:-- ')1.;

Race horse

Ji'-I~ Jl,.- .)i...=-

Love righ ts

JI

Horse race

j,J-1 Jl,.-

Rights love

J#-I _

~~t5 ;i\ ....

• Adjectives used as f10uns

;..,.. J.J.,o

p

;..,.. J.M

J....,.

11 ""Li...all 1<

The poor

The wise

,,,,'11 ,w:J-1

The happy

t.I...u..!J\

The blind

.)L,...JI

The sick

,-,",,)1

The brave

,:,t..,...:.J1

The old

':'pl

The rich

- 11 2 -

,lj..iIl


js.W\ 1':""'\

Using the present particlple

J~\

.6.i..a5 (verb + ing)

as an adjective

,.J\.J..I ~I

The dreaming boy.

.W\.i d l t:l

Let sleeping dogs lie.

-~~ ~ J:!jJI

A drowning man will catch a straw.

~ ...:...~~ l:J J~ 0Î :lb.1

He used to tell us amusing stories

.~I ôl:.AJI

The smiling girl. Uslng the past participfe as an

le-Ü 1 1"="'\

!

!

l~\

:ü..a5

adjecli,.

-if.,..JII

Opened doors encourage the thieves.

~ ~. ,:.il.! ~IJ"! ~I

Married men respect their wives.

.~\.:.:-)j 0.r ~ 0 y.- J;ll

Satisfied people accept what

. ~..I.:!Î

J

Jl:.:-)I

4" J ~

0 yUl;.1\ c.J"I.:JI

.J':~J

,j~\

they have. The kidnapped boy was found. My friend is a gifted person.

.y

rr

\~i C:""L..;

Broken hearts will never forgive

..l.Ï

J

..u}\

~ ~J...,:;

ôJJ-'s:'U y}ill .:l~ ./""""

A fixed priee.

~ ..h..ü 0 ~\ if~ "il

Only registered persons are

.Jy:-..u4

allowed to enter. Comparisoll or adjectives

~

ùli..a.l\ ~)\.i.. ;,;)Lt....U ..:..L.:-):. .!..o'j.; ~f

There are three degrees of comparison

4k.-:Jl ~,)W\ ii,,;

1 - The positive degree

,.u\ - 1

The positive degree denotes the simple quality and it is thus the simple form of the adjective

.l..i..& ïJ......JI ."" .!lJj". </,J ïJ......JI _. i J.r-' _. - 11 3 -

~I ~ .- -

..-,\.JI ....J .Ill


Happy

~

Rich

,?

Lucky

J;,~

Nice

~

Strong

9}

Weak

~

.J;~ ..J.!~

1 have a lucky friend.

J

1 will be a rich man.

.~ k) ~L

He gave me a nice story.

.~ ~ J~i ~AA::...:; ~, W1 ;;",.):il 1 •

• The positive degree is uscd

As

.j ôlJWI 4r .",dl

~I

to express equality in quality

+

Adjective

+

as

, He is as strong as a lion.

. .c..)l1S'

." )}IS' a,...". ~l .)4-J1 ,~ e-P 1) "1 , ...AlIS' , yi ~)

She is as beaut iful as a fl ower. It is as plain as daylight.

His face is as black as coal.

."'"ts- ~ "1

He is as stupid as his brother.

.cBlS' """i

As white as snow.

~I~

Negative (orm:

C ____

<?.; "1

Not as

+

Adjective

Today is not ascold as yesterday. You are not as happy as the others.

+

as _ _ ~

,

.<f"')l1S' I,)~

'J..? ':JlS"" !~ ...:.-J ...:.. ..iÎ

,

..lf:..>lS""

She is not as polite as her sister.

crd r."ll

4.:4- ...:-..-:J ,"\.?~i

~1

!.r--:l

~1 ,?':J\ ~lS""

They are not as clever as the other class.

~W.I ;;",. >'

2 .. The comparative degrec

-

2

~)~.:J:.:i J.l.j,\Â\.1 ~)~ •

• The comparative degree denotes a higher or /ower degree of the quality

-114 -

ï..i..A1J u',i Ji .;.i


Il is rormed as rollows: A - By adding 11er" to the positive adjective ifit ends in a consonant

JL.. ..,)r-; ~ ..:...lI$' I;'! ;u",..,J1 u...J1 J! "er" Posithe Adjectives "~I ..:..\i...a.lt"

~w.~-I

Comparative Adjectives "-.w.W,\ ,.;...I.i...."

~

Greater

, ~I,

c:-"IJ

Clearer

e-"J 1

TaU

JÂť

Taller

JÂťI,

Sweet

}>-

Sweeter

Great Clear

Old

.:r-'

Thin

~

~I

L.

OIder

.",1

~i

Thinner

B - By adding "r" to the positive adjective cnding in "e" .

. "e" ..,)r-; ~ ..:...ll$',,! ;u",..,J 1 u...J 1 J! "r" ~w. ~

-.." ,

Brave

t~

Braver

Simple

.h,...,

Simpler

Ripe

~

Fine

'0

Riper

Y-'/~

Finer

c:-'1

pi pi 1.......... pi/.:,-->i <bL, t.,...;.;

C - By changing lIy" into "i" and adding lIer ll when the positive adjective ends in "y" preceded by a consonant

~;u",..,J1 u...J1 ..:...lI$' I;'! 'erl~W.!J IiI

.JL.. ..,)f Happy

-r

J! Iyl ..,)f

JW"'! ~ Iyl ..,)r-; ,

..,.....

Happier

-,-,-1

,

Dirty

) .ii

Dirtier

J.iil

Ea,y

J<-

Easier

J+.-I,

Ugly

C:'"

Uglier

1::""\

Early

.f,..

Earlier

- 115 -

,

;:'1


If the lIyll is preceded by a vowel, the "y" remains as it is

...... W- ~ 4J~ "& .j.r-" :J-""'"" .j.T". Gay

;ijJ:--'

"y" ..:..ilS" I,!

Gayer

D - By using "more" with a positil'e adjecth'c in case of adjectives of more than two syllables

,;r iJfo

.;J 1..:;., \A..all ;U 1>- J

l.b.,....,Il l.A..aJ 1(:: "more" ~ 1AA;;.., ~

-,

.~,;r jS"Î Beautiful Interesting

J,->c

J--/.;0

More interesting

cll)

Splendid

..$Î li,r" ..$i '-<)) ..$Î 'lk,-

More beautifu!

More sp!endid

E - By using "lcss'! to express ,a lower degree.

:.},~I "")J.l1

Intelligent

J~

.:r p

"Iess' J'-"-'~ -.A

yi lép/I.r-- yi )1;.. Jil ,lS";

Less intelligent

Charming

Less charming

Carefu!

Less careful

* The comparativc degree expresses

~ ;J.;.\A1I ;"'J'

.iJ \.;.) 1

superiority or inferiority

m)Î J.P \.i::ll .:r J.P \.i::ll

1 - Supe";oritv She is more intelligent than her husband

-1

~)j .y ,15"; ..$i ~l

..."..i .y c?Î, "1 <i' J}>I "1

He is richer than his brother He is taller than me 2 - In{erioritv

Her husband is Jess intelligent than her.

"";,~I" iJ\.;.)1 ill -2 , .~ ,15"; Jil ~)j .y ;Jo.;, JiÎ "! , , .\pl .y i,1...,. Jil ~!

.'-'<..l.p

He is less careful than his friend. She is Jess happy than her sister.

- 116 -


"l'han" is usually used with Ihe comparative degree, howe\'er il may nOI be used .

.J--l ':1

J--l "Th. n"

.Ii .!.Il; t;') l.i) 1.AI.1 ;.".) ' t;' i,~

~,)':ll

Are you better now?

')fb.

~

~~i ~J .:..r ~ ~ ' i..,J1 ,.e. ;).". pi -.;1

Are yOlI lookîng for a betler job? It is hotter lhis day.

.~ .!.8.Co

Keep your town clean.

" ~I ....:...il

J-e-l ..!.8.Co

;,; \k;

~ j;; l,..

, ..!.dl ..... ) ' -3

3 - The superlative degree

* The superlative degree denotes the highcst degree of the quality. .ll..oJ 1 .;:,b,.) ' ,j' ;.".) ' ~ i ~ J.u ..... 81 ;.".) ' •

J-:--' • -S.t"'J l ,t,:.. 'J 1 J5:.,

1:,.-" ,,;Ii.;

* It ;s IIset! when we compaJ'e one ,IIit'g w;,11 ail otJœl' tJrillgs of the sam e

,j'

.,.=l'l

\.o~

·uJl ..,...;; ...---<JI J .uJ J}>i Y' J'-

kiml.

Ali is the tallest boy in the class.

"

;'}J"".

• The superlative degree îs formed by using: :JL....o.:.....~

ë""

~

J}>I

,j'

,)fo ifl:dl ~J~.

"est'" "st", "iest!! or "most" in accordancc with the same rules applicd to the comparative degree . . U,.;:,\lI.1 ~),)

4lb-

Posi tive degree Fol

Small Simple Empty Ugly Expensive

J~

.J"'-'

J U:hll ~ 1.".aJ1 ~ t,a;J IImost Comparati ve degree Falier Sm aller

~I"" ?i

yi lIiest", "st '\ lIest

Simpler

- 11 7 -

ll

Superlalive degree The falles t

~i The smallest

.L.,i . ü Emptier 1<1) ?i é,J -i ~ Uglier ~ .;u.\/J" More expensive cFi .J..,...,

ll

The simples!

~I""

?'II ~'JI

i1L., ?'JI

,

1<1) ?'II , ''11 The ugliest ~, The mosi expensive cF'Il

The empt iest


Irregular compar;son Adjective

Comparat ive

Superlative

~;.:l

....81 ;,...J,

"-"II

u.,;"Wl

Bad

"r.?.:l;

Worse

III

JoV

Worse

Good Little

~

J,li

More

Many

,..\JI p.>

More

fne

""'"

;>i

The worst

.:ly.-Î

The best

cYi Il> ;>i 1,-,- ;>i l... ;>i

The least

L.;,.,.

Less

~Ip.>

• • .:r-'

b) The worst

Setter

Much

Old

Older/Elder

The most The most

- 11 8 -

o"b;

?~,

L.;,.,.

;>'11 •

.:ly.- ~,

• cY'jl Il> ;>'11 b-,- ;>'11

The oldest/Eldest l... ;>~I

~Î The farchest

Farther

'\

.J.A}il


IAdverbsl An adverb is a word which describes or a prODoun.

aDy

part of speech other than a

..,..,...:.:JI JI l'''''''~I I~ l.,l ~~I ~ .7-

DOUD

<$1 ..;.....J'. ~.;; WS" J~I

Thcrefore, the adverb may describe verbs, adjectives, adverbs, participles, prepositions, conjunctions, phrases, and sentences.

,~ I..ill .t......1 ,J I.r~1 ,..;..\A..aJ1 ,J W~I ~ <JI JWJ .;.., ~J .J...*-IJ ..;..I},.JI , ~IJ)I ,';'-1 .jJ.r ,Jr'il Jly ~I

...:.;\l;, :JW~I "-'-") - 1 , . cr''11; t,:l? .::.-5 -

fURetions of adverbs

1 - To describe verbs:

- 1 was absen t yesterday.

. I.e,. ~ 1.iJ. -

- That deeply concerns me. - Let us speak frankly.

.;"'1"..."

.,)-4l1 t)l

- Keep quiet. - 1 sincerely wish you good luck.

~ "'" -

.I~ iJ;.,.. .!..ll ",,1 c.J")\.>.1 ~ ..;..\UJI "-'-") - 2

2 - To describe adjectives:

. ~ .!,l.

Thal is very kind of you.

t.?

1.iJ.,

'C~I 1.iJ. ~ cr""'! r'-I

1 feel much better (his morning.

~trll .j \;~ Jlj '11

Is he still fast asleep?

~~Ii .\5"b d

Are you quĂ&#x17D;tc sure? He is strong enough to challenge a bear.

Jo> y' <$..c,.,J "u>J1 .,; I.e ~>' "1 :Jly~I~ - 3 .\.Ii .;.". -.....J; .:11, ..

3 - To describc adverbs:

- You play perfectly weil . - He drives too fa st.

. 119 .


J5:, Jo.-< .c! .I~ .!lJ 1;:":' -

- He works very hard.

,.l.>,-

- Thank you sa much. A

,fl":'"<' ,L>......,. ~ -"-.!.J.;I< -

You spend tao lavishly.

:J"..<ll) J&LiII ,l.,..,Î ...u) - 4

4 To describe participles: A

, I.l.>,-, tS:.;, f )J...:i.!.J.; 1• ,

- You look rather confused. A

. L~o~~lo~ -

This result is very promising.

.

~,j,jl. \..l>' .

- He is tired out. - 1 am mostly honoured to mect you. .~L;Jj

- He lold us an exceedingly amusingstory.

Y--- ~ LI Jü -

';'-1 ..j

5 To describe prepositions: A

.J):-

- He arrived long before the rime.

...:..j.J"!

J-r ....A..;J -

..J..?"ll

. ;)~\ ...:..j}1

- They came just in time . - The bullet passed exactly over his head.

~

J

j..PJ

-

\)~

-

.0\..,.01.; ~ vL,.,:.)1 ~./'

- Your ability is certainly above the average . . .k.....pl

5

J....oij -

J} 4W4 ~).û JI~IJ)I ....A..;J - 6

6 To desctibe conjunctions: A

.~.r- ~I ~ ",;Î ;)ft oU.fi - 1 feel happy only when 1 work hard. .~ ~I \.,...J...:.? o;)~ r:-Î - They respect him merely because he is rich .. ~ ,j,jÎ ;)ft .;.".~ ~l - He ca me to himself shortly artel' ~ ~ o..t,;.) Ji ;)U:. J..A.l - 1hale him simply because he is not hones!.

a fcw minutes.

.JJÜ;)

- 1 will tell you precisely \Vhat to do.

.4ui; J\ ~ \...s.

J.:i..t:.l4

~.r.=-L..

-

:"':"'I)~I ....A..;J - 7

7 - 1'0 dcscribe phrases:

Let us gct right to the point.

.0';"1.:--

~)\j

They live exactly at the corner

tr""ll J J>-..l.i

J

~l:o J ~ ~1 .~)I

of the main st reet.

.~

You are not right with me.

- 120 -

\,.:s.;)

t)L:J\

b...!.r'" ...:.....J


: ~I J..;) - 8

8 - To dcscribe scntcnces:

'J..r'L I)jle- r-t'i YI

Luckdy. they came la te. Fortunately, we have not missed much.

..r.SJ1 ~

r.I d ..b:l\ .:..r-> ..:.r

.

· .!..t}·!.l ~)

Indeed. 1 <lm a t your disposaI.

Js-

Obviously, they were not in the

m_.

.;r-!-

1.,,;J-~

,~

dl

-

r.I ~I L""'I}\ ..:.r .~~

J I ". 'il 1

• TI.. kÙ,ds of ad""bs

t"i 1< •

1 - Simple adverb,:

<k,-.,JI Jly'Jl _ 1

2 - Interrogative adverbs

~~ ":JI

Jly- ~I _ 2

3 - Conjunctive adverb,

•....okJI Jlyi. <.6,1)1 Jly:Y1 _ 3

~I J 'F~I - 1

t - Simple advcrbs

A - Adverb, oftime and frequency.

,';:'1.;'

>"'"

".;ll) ';'I.oJI Jly; .

(i)

W_

Before

.P

Ago

Since

b

Now

J~I

Theil

~~

ACter

.Nu,

Early

1;:"

Soon

'Jl>-

Immediately Late

I)j • I.r'l:.o

~

Presemly

l,Il>-

Instantly

Oaîly

. u-'I

Today

r."JI

Always

Wb

Already

J'if

\'-JI

Yesterday Ever Recently Next ACterwards Shortly

~/

..:..1) - Wb

1.:;-1>-

JlJ-I.j

..!.1b -lA:

Never

~l...;.t

Lately

1-" • 1->,1 • 1~'1

Still

Jlj'J

\..,-

.-.1

Tomorrow

- 121 -


Frequently Tonight

~Wl1h

Seldom

lJ.:Ili

Hardly

rl)..ul

Rare ly

-"i

, • Repealedly " cS.r'i -"i 0/ 1jl "

".fi

l,l\i.

Onen

}r:-~

Conlinuously Conslanlly

Vot

Lor" ,IS' Lo

Generally

' / ..:...1.)

Once

lJ/"

,

Sometimes

~l,>-I

Occasionally

~l,>-I

J--

Scarcely

lJ.:Ili

Regula rly

IJ.:Ili

r\k;~

Qi • ~ JÎ .!.J.#. 1"

ExolIIl!Jes:

. "Y\.;...

Vou have 10 finish Ihis work right now.

J-JI

They always make fun of him .

."Woo

. (I:f~) lM ~;:

He ,eldo m gelS up early.

01.S:.1I

b - Ad\'crbs of place

8ack 8elow DownSlairs Hence

lil:>-Î

,uL:..;

.~~ ~ J:!.) I)$..L.,..

They hard ly paid their debts.

Ashore

~1

\... j..,-; .]A .\..I..:>Î ~ J ~1

Vou wi ll never unders1and me.

Anywhere

Wb

~~.1.b ~ ~

Do you know what will happen next?

Afar

(j)~

. o~1 ~

Sometimes we watch the la te film.

Abroad

if ~)I 1.1.A ) ~

.j.:i

1 haven't seen this man before.

L.lA

!

Lo IJ'~

<il

J 1.ri - ~

J

Above

J;

-"id"

Across

<,St

:ft.

Along

Ul!!-I JI.(.

J.,k

~

'.)oL!J1

=

Around

,IJJIi

J!

Away

1...,.,

8ehind

....Al>-

Ji-i .)'-JI J)..u~

Down

W,if

F"

122 -

Jy

y--i/J

1...,.,


Loo

Hithcr Nca r

0", Pas!

0"

Loo

Hcre

~)

ln

0""

Nowhere

",.,.il"

.P

On

Thithcr

!iL.

Somewhere

There

!.lL.

Together

Under

J

Through

Upslairs

",}.JI

JJ-"4

Wilhout

te) '>"

0)..l..!

Il

",4 ~

JI>:..

\.. Jt5:.<

'r'

.J:>l>-. J

J}

Up

J>'b J

Within

;

Examl!Jes:

~ ~

- Our troops gathered behind

Itoi

;;,,}:-.JI

li-c>-) -

.JJ-I

the mountain .

J~

.l:.AI

- You will und me here.

Jf

. JLS:...

- There are roses everywhere.

. Go . head.

.j.PI) -

- She will travel abroad with her family. - The train went out leaving me behind .

.4Jr . \.Q.L;...,;:,.

, i

~ J~ j ~ j ~I

rJ..i; -;

-

c: C.J~ )L...:.....

.;S j)

}.6Â.JI ~

.~ i f y

- Please, come nearer.

~..uJ1

C - Ad\'erbs of number: Always

Again

Once

Never

Sometimes

Seldom

Twice

Thrice

Jlyi

A fau!t once denied is twice commi tted .

- 123 -

--:?;

, cS? 1 •.;" , 1...,1 I),~

c:A.;"

l

Examples:

pl

~~

It 01


.l.iI..bo J)}\ ~Î "Y -

- 1 never play cards.

- They always find the right answers .. ~I~.r. 'JI - He somelimes goes to the shore.

.~~l.!J\

- Let us say lhis again. d-Adverbsofquantity,extentordegree:

Ji ~~ -\..;~i 4..il

-

r

:~)",\,H )ÎI..5.û\ ,~\ J\yÎ -~

1.J.e-

\..li

Quite

~l5' ~J~

L, ..

Very

..T' 1.J.e-

AlmOSI

\.. l> y .

Rather

-

'i l}-\ Wb 4..il .iS?! 0/ ..:D~ Ji.:.! -

- He always lega lizes the sin .

Enough

...sS.? 'j

.L~i ~\j

- Do not leave me ever again.

Too

J)~ Wb ~I-

Little

':>\,li

A linle

')lJ;

Partly

\;.r-

Much

1-""

\.. l> y .

. Jil

Somewhal

Loss

Wholly

more

;s-i

Hardly

Scarcely

IJ':'\..;

Least

\..,

~

Half

..

(\}5")

<,l5"

,\5' \.. •

Ji'll 1.J.e-

"WJ

..T'

So

Ail

<,JS"

Abundantly

o\~ ) .

Really

lb-

Completely

\..li

Enlirely

lli'

Nearly

Distinctly

CY"'Y \..li

Exactly Enormously

<1:"

~~I

Absolulely

~J~

Greatly

~ ~J..l:> .L;,J~

Extremely

1.J.e-

Just

Slighlly

':>\,li

Equally

Perfectly

\..li

Practically

\"l..<

Utterly

<,JS"

Dceply

~

- 124 -

")~

~)..l:>


Sumciently

~l5' ~)..lt

Constantly

r l).ul ~

t..Lë

Thoroughly

1

L....r"'""

Especially

• u,.... ...,...,J

Examples:

- This work is not so bad.

.1-","

- Are yO ll quite sure?

J>

.\,;,;; rY- J5' ~üÎ jl .(..,..,u.I) .:JJI 0" Ir.> ~A

- He did not drink much milk.

C~I

· We have nearly finished

J5'

r-l

4iÎ ..Li!

l,,';;

.(C"~ )1)

ail the programme.

J

- We drink coffee especially

r .:r'" ·C\.,..4J1 ..,....d, "...:.Î

L....r"'"" i"..<J1 ~

in the morning.

.t.. ~ j

· 1 feel rather tired.

- 1 will give yOll a very good piece oC advice .. L~ ô~ ~ ·1 am ab~olutely sure that he is the thief. .(J)UI) ~I

r

..!.U (..ûL

~~ t..Lë •

.~

· Think deeply of the matter

.r'YI

.IS"\;. ~i.

J~

.~ )1 ~ ~

- We really don't understand you.

~..rH

E - Advcrbs of orderlsequencers

Jlyt

-~

-;)

Firs(

Then

.:..,;Î

.0~ ~..;1

- 1 mect him almost everyday.

Next

J.-JI Il,.

.t5'l:..

Yt..Lë

· He is halC mad .

Firstly

1t Qi

}

1.r-> Î

1'"

Js- ...,...). "", 'J} -

- First, let us do this exercise.

..;r-"..,}I Il,.

- Lastly, 1 must remind yOll

.ri;, .A ~,;>;Î "i ~ I.r-"i-

of an important matter.

- 125 -


~I.r.>'i ~ ",.ill 0' - Last but not least. . '.r:-ï ~) Ip>-i . Firstly, we are going to solve this prob lem. .4.lS:..!J.\ ok ~ 'Y} - Who spoke last?

F- Adverbsof Affirmation and Negation:

4;

Perhaps

4hJL

Certainly Proba bly

Sm' } Surely

,

Jd'-10'

.J.S"Ji 1 if"

ObvÎously

Quite

'.;.1:"/Cr"Ji \..li

May he

4;

Entirely

l.\i - <,15"

Precisely

Lol..ë -

Li.-

Really

);-,-,

Truly

~IJ ~~'J\ J1ri - J

y"

r-'"

Indeed

Li.-

Obviously

.:,i e:-"I}I if"

Naturally

\...,1

'i

No

~10'

Possibly

'-1-'1'"'"1•

No. Never

~~

W illingly

j. \.>. -,...,k cr ï

Examples:

~.~ . 1)

. Are you satisfied?

-'i v1. ..........

_

...s'Wc - . ~wly J> -

Certainly. - Do you agree with him?

·.!Sr

Sure.

~!lr-f'

- Could they gel you?

Yeso

J> 'r-'"

JZ Jo . (;).r') yI..-; .;.s:, . .!.lb é yi r-l ~..; y'

- Do you accept my invitation? Most wiUingly.

- 1 did not expect that.

- 126 -


Are you indeed in love with her? Perhaps they will ring me up at six o'dock. G - Adverbs or manner Badly Wisely

(0,1,fi)

L:,...

~

Carefully

~~

Foolishly

;;~

Slowly

,.k"

Weil

1..",.

Ju~

Care1essly

~~

Boldly

sadly

0~

Cleverly

;)4-<

Lightly

~

Heavily

';;1.::,

~ "';"

Weakly

~

o~

Clearly

Cr-Y-

Correctly Strongly Polilely noisily Proudly Decently Simply Secretly

~~y~~

Severely

, .r-'i

~ ,~w.~

Sharply

o~

,~~

Silently

;;~

Wickedly

;J.;,\; "';"

<J,L.;

Finnly

(".ri) I r

Calmly

Rapidly

~r.

Urgently

;.l.-t.",;"

oj:!j-!. ",j>, t?'i ,)-41 • o~

Suddenly

o~

Strongly

I.J";

Promptly

.\!,- \5'.,L .!..ll.-; 'J ;;1 ~

You should not behave badly.

)d lti!

It is raining hard.

.o)~

He did it cleverly.

.o.J4-ç 1A\~i

We solve our problems wisely.

.(J-.iJ~) ~~

un.:'" j,..;

...w

~

The number of the inhabitants is increasing rapidly. . 4&-r. ~\?- ~lS:...J\ .)Js:.

. 127 .


" .o~

He answered me sharply.

..,F·\...Î.lil .

They behaved proudly.

.ç.~~ 'j ~ ..L4J

They answered ail the cxercises clearly. 'CrP J'! ~JL...:.U

§ ~ ''y~i J.4.l

1 will gladly accepl

~ ~f j.:.iL

oiTer.

yOU f

.J)r

Vou will not find yOuf way easily.

.;j.ri--<

Weil done. H - Sentence

~4 a.." 0)1

Theo

Howevcr Nevertheless Moreover

.!-Il;

li>

.!-Il..iJ

I.u -,..; 1..,- J!

Besides

c:) J' c:) .!-Il; c:)

Perhaps

l<J

Olherwise

>'lJ

.:r

COllsequently

.!-Il;

Yet

-.JO

Therefore

..!JJ~)

So

.rI Jlyt;1

Indeed

1"• .y)

Hellee

J! r

,

~I , ~ ~

. 1, " adn~rbs:

J

.!JA,}> ~

.:.U~)

Thus

'j..,;ù

.!-Il..iJ

~.lb ~

Accordingly

. ~~

In addition to this.

Ji

..!.U~

Added to this.

.~

Therefore, 1 do n't agree with you. Perhaps. he docs not descrvc Ihis trcalment.

~ ç. ~

~w,)I~

,

Ji ~\

J.iji ':J

~..u

.~WI"..lA ~ )1 ~J

Hence, 1 considcr him as a bad persan Ç-t.?' ~

41 }.d t.f~ ~ d

However, this can't la st very long. . '>\!.,1I.:i) ~

J

Thus, he drew dust in Iheir cyes. Then, drop the mask.

. I~J.>. '

. <el.;;J1

, 128 '

Li,A

J~ ..:J.l~

J

r::)

r+r. .j ~\...)! j) ..w ~-4J eyl) .!.l.:.i,.i..

J<- RI,);!


Com pllrison w ith adve rbs:

Il

l.f< L..:.o

.. The compar;sOl. with adverbs is simital' to ,/lat of adjectb'es:

t.,.,..

c:'r

~I ~)\i...

Il e

~ 1 ;.;J La. • :.:" LUlI ;';}.il J IY

Fast

Fas ter

Fastest

"'~

Loud

Louder

Loudest

~~

Rapidly

More rapid ly

Most rapidly

Weil

Betler

Best

Much

More

Most

( "'"") .:r'"

'r.>'

_JI,..')1JJr:;.-1

Ho w ro use Adverbs:

4."i,5

~ >1)1 ws:J4 or\'- J~I J~4

A - Attributivelv:

~I.AU J~ <\.il

He is ext remely intelligent

~\

Better be silent than speak ill

J...i1l

B . Predicat ively:

-i

~ J~I iJh) i.t.:,l.l

\..r:>-

}

r= e

Ji

- y

~

Do not be long

:>\,)0

Yo u are not ou t yet

I~ ..:Jj \.: <,.ill

The game is over

'J

~I ..\.il

: ;Y~I ...;,J}-I

Ad\'erbial Parlides:

They are like prepositions in form but not in function .

......,.,JI .} About Across

'+il\;.; ~J 4'J-"'" .} )-1 ...;,JY

.!ll.» l.>

.;>-'1

,j Y.

~I..:- .:/ •

,:;s-

Around

J,..

On

Away

\~

Out

Behind

JI>.

Over

- 129 -

J>-I.ul

In Off

rl.,.'YI

Forw::ud

Ji \....û

Along

4'! r\...'JI Ji 4,-!J

J

1",,",

,J,,; ,L...û t",. JI.>- 'OI.;!..I J W\i

J,,; ".{.


Between

Past

By

Round

Down

Through

r\..Î

JyJ>-b,j

.jji ,~Î

Up

jl

* Most of the adverbial particles have the same form as their corresponding prepositions.

..rl ..jJ~ '" 4l<~ \.. i Jr" ..,...<; 4l J~I ..jJ~ ~ •

- However, the following criterion helps .l?~ JL::.II )~I J~ .!JJ~

lbW) ~.;:! «)--1 ~j.r- » "y~ 4 } r" 'i~ li})

- A preposition is closely attached to the no un it modifies

.k.,;.1- Il J\.J..I cJ.rI,

- An adverb particle is c10sely

.....".<.,? ..\JI <.1"'" '-" l,.LW • ) \1.L.; .)1

attached to the verb il modifies. They are sitting in the room.

.II? cJ? "')JI

1get up early in the morning.

*

J~ ~l

.II?" cJ? ",}JI J";';.;-~)

.«Jl>-

He put on his jacket. 1 followed him up the hill.

J

.IIJl> cJ? ~ i f J>-,I

Come in , please. He put hisjacket on the chair.

J.>-

~ ~\

a great deal to distinguish between them.

t:) 1.r.=5'

...j.r- D IÜ;:--- lSJ.j) .ûJ

.'? cJ?, J'lI ~Î

.'Jl> cJ? , Cl,.-all J :..}. W-

An Adrerbial pal·tiele is placed as follows: =

JI

"",1 .\.il

l.fl, ~Î

J~I ..j}-I

C="Y-

A - Immcdiately anef the verb, when the sentence contains no direct object:

.? l,-

J.,.... .;s. ~ 1 <.,?~ ':1

ego They got in at once.

B· After apronoun ,grect object:

\...(:; i? l,-

.J\.J..I ..fol,.

J

J-Ali

,}>-,.\.il : $

'JyJ.o dlyl ~I ;.., ~1

eg: Take il off

~.>i

Bring them in

• 130 .

~ _Î

i;-"'. Y :$


C - After the verb or after the direct object if it is a noun.

J-Ali ~ -i:

01..-01 il\S" I;! -,",,\.,lI J yuil.1 ~ } ~')4...

eg: Ta ke off yo ur clo thes

&\

o

:$

Take your c10thes off D - ACter the verb, when the direct object is long.

'J.i.y. -,",,\.,lI J yuil.1 il \S" I;! J-Ali ~ - ~ eg: Look up ail the difficult J ~I ..:.,..L.J.5.JI ..:.r ~I :$ o

rJ' -",Lill

words in the dictionary . J"-,,"Lill

Look the word up in the dictionary

J ~I Y

l)))?I , .J~ r~

• A preposition precedes its object

C.)I

Look up the tower

r. 1 j.r .

J.>Î J! p

l .~Î p l

Loo k up it

.y1J-1 J ))-1)

• Prepositions and Adverbial particles

r.1

.j).r •

JW~I J..~ 4--\J. ~..\ J..f

may be used to fo rm compound

y)1 ,

verb,. Verb + Adverbial particles

verb + Preposition

.r; + Jl.-

.r; + ?Jj" Come up Give in

~fo..

J j"

Blow up

r-'-'-<

Cryouc

Go in

J>-o,

Go away

Keep on

.r'-<

Go on

Lock up Pay back Play about

~I

'--""'" o

-

J>-JI .r'--<

J.i.i,

Leave off

.:r~

'JI

Make out

-*'

Pick up

r+" 1.i;Ï! /~ .o.:,i ~ ,\";""I

- I3 1 -


I~'-'..J\I

IConjunctionsl Conjunctlons are used to join: Phrdses

Words

Sentences

Clauses

.

• Conjunctions are subdivided

ioto

tWQ

' .0>--'"JI.61 • .))1

~.J

r-="."

0

main classes:

w}1 .hel))! " 1 ..,WI .hel))! "2

1 - Coordinaling conjunctions 2 - Subordinating conjunctions

:<.ai}1 .hel))!' 1

t - Coordinating conjunctions:

Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases ôr sentences of co-ordinale or cqual rank (of similar functional value) .

...,.).111

J l,:;\S:;. J-. } ~IN ,~ws- .hef. :<.ai}1 .he1))1 ~;; .(c.i,l;) .Jbi J ..... ~I ,J' "'"'" \p JS' ~ <,fi) 0

* ln tbis case, none of the sentences is dependent on the othee. nor cnters inta its construction.

J-'oIJ 'JJ

<>.r'i ~ .... ~ ~I ,J' <,fi

i.Jfo 'J

~~I •.l.o JJ ."_.J' <'"

An eye ror an eye and a IOOlh ror a IOOlh.

<1. \i~1

..:r-J~ .:r-JI) ~~ ~I

. ~ .J.;...o

Fiee is a good servant but

0

4-SJ.J

~ i.)\">' )UI

a bad master. Neither a borrower nor a lender he.

The book is nol worlh rcading,

50,

. Wb ':/.) ~J.,.. ~

':/

.~p 'J 1-4J ,i,I.;J~ fi~ .r-i' ",~I

don't buy il.

" 132 "


Coo rdinélfin~

a

~

conjunctions con tain four mail) eroups:

The "ANOu group:

T he conjunctions of this group suggest addition:

4l W,~ 1 J Î

~ ~ l ,,:,.,. ..b., 1J)

...AbJ 1 .l,oil

Not only .. . But also

w.,i J.IJ And .. a tso

L..::.!Î • . J

80th .. and

w.)IS' .. J

As weil as Moreover

.!.lI;

Fu rlhermore Besides

w.,ÎJ J'S

Likewise

Ji "L.;,~,

Again

... ~

..,..,1

.'JJ; J-.'JJ; ,y-

i) ':J.>~

J't'),

,

JI l.S L,a,1)

i\...Î ~I.,...... ,-WI) J~)I ~.l.."o J--) ~ ~ r}ll -

Men and wornen arc equal in front ofGod.Jn

80th you and your

. L.5')1.5'

friend are to blame.

Js-

He is a poli te perso n, furthermore he is of a noble famil y.

J

She as weil as her husband

O)"':N-

'-:""-4---

~

<\.i l -

."4...f llil.&- i f ~ -!..U.> \~ )1.$' L...a.!Î 4t.)j) ~ -

are very old

(JJ"'--').:rJ1 ,t~)1

Thal is out o f question, mo reover. il mea ns nOlhing to us.

0} -

.,-.? J ~ "Y 4.i~ ,.!.m Ji 4j'-" "Y4 ~) ....:2.iÎ) 0 ~).::l\ o.)W\

Hi slorical leaders and their

.j:.-:-J.\

followers did the impossible. b ~ The "BUT" group

.:.r C).~· Li..t.

\~

"~L:i\" .!l1)'.I.:,.,,~1 ~\J) :\s.~ -~

The conjunctions of Ihis group suggesl contrasl .

BUI

Yot

.l...alUI J Î .!ll)",,-, ~ 1 .l,oil ~ ~ l ,,:,.,. ..b., 1J) J.lJ However JI> 4)/J> t:) ,.!•.lb ~J

NeverlheJess

- 133 -


Still

~I ,}>-

On the contrary

Whereas

L.c." / 0 Î Cr.>-

While

only

cf!)

- He has done his best,

,*

J-i, J..iJ . <.il t..., r! C.t..J1

but it did Ilot work.

<.5Jkü

J

,~I

- 1 am not bored, on the

J

contrary, 1 am very pleased.

,l.i;~ .:......J

.I.e.,.

J).r-'

.J~

r-"..c)\.i; ,}>- .l;L;,L1 0)""".r- ,~'II

- Fathers want ta keep up

I~ 01 0)""".r- ,\':' 'JI

their traditions. whereas sons, waot to live the modern lire ..

.!.lJ;

- He gave her everything,

c:) "<?

sti ll she docsll't love him.

JI 0:>-

- He is a wicked persan ,

J

L.c." .,,~ I ilf-I Y -t..~Î J..iJ

....,i. 'J 4'~ '.l-r- ~ .!"jl

.~I ~ ~

white his brother is good hearted.

J Ji ~..kM ,,-~..J._.. L...L ~L;- 0.r"-f J'WI J' .r.>

- 1 will forgive you, only, tell me the truth . . ~I

Many people ' pend their

'J .!.lJ;

life gathering money,

c:)

'.,.;JI ~

.41

nevertheless, they don 't enjoy il.

)~"l l ~IJ) ;is.~

c - The 1Ior1l group

J

J~

-c.

The conjunctions of this group suggest choice (alternative) .

.)\,?-~I Or

ii ~ Ji

.y;

~.,...fl

"j) - "j

Neither ... Nor

Either ... Or

Or

• .:u. .1:,1))

else

Otherwise Enemy o r fr iend ?

-

~J!-'-" t Î )~

.

I)...a>' ,:.kJI 'J) , 'J) 'JI 'J

Neither boys nor girls

. i~

gOI good marks.

- 134 -

.l.li; ,}>-


'lU ~I.r'll r~ "i ...,..".. . "i5:.l1 l.i.o J J""" .!-IJ e-< 'J

- You must respect the laws, otherwise, you will no t be_ a Uowed to ente r this place

• • • ..,.J.I y';'l 'J) .:r',1 'J Cl

- 1 neit her smoke nor drink.

I..L 1..1 ~ ~I

Either peace or war wi ll solve Ihis problem . .I,.r- }

~I

d - The "50" group

,.u

.1:,1)) ~.,..... ->

T he conjunctions of Ihis group suggest consequence .

. ~I .;".ii ~ ~I • ~\ ~lt

So

,.!Jj.i!

.u. .1:,1)) •

Hence

Thus

1-41)

Accordîngly

Then. Thcrefore

.!.ll.iJ

Consequently

~.u ~.J

.w .!-IJ.iJ û UI J5' rr-< -.;1

- He respects ail people.

·r"Y--

ci

.i.r.> lblZ '-'.r->-

J..ij

accord ingly, he lives in peace. You have done a 101 or mistakes, Ihererore,

"Ib-:;I if Pl

yo u have lost many marks. - She d oes not like you, so,

if

do n' t disturb her a nymo rc.

~ ~) .>.il

.!.ll.iJ , ~J :>Ii ,~ 'J 4-'1 .L>?i

, .. \f'P \~l..ü ,t,b:. 0 } r-'~! ,'

- 1 did nOlhing wrong, hence why blaming me?

~I.::JI ~'J)I _ 2

2 - 5 ubordinating conjunctions:

Subordinate conjunctions are used 10 introduce noun and adverbial clauses.

' . r""'" ~l:ll .1:,1))1 ~ .

).,)1.>-1) ;;".....~I ~I 'l,:.ol a - wilh oouo clau$Cs:

Whet her

Th" b - \Vilh adverbial clauses of place Where (as)

~lSll 4~1 ~I Wherever

- 135 -

ol:-!li e

-y


e - \Vi th adverbial cla uses of lime

.,..)1

t.=

When

Afler

,\.CI

As

J

d.~

j.,;

Berore

Since

""" ...-

Until

c?-

As saon as

As long as

~lk

Now

Once

L$

Whenever

t.."

While

;y 1>-1 J..!-I •t,;. i (;:' - ""

"W - c?-

lill

;if ,,:A,;, 1°f

, .r.-'

~'YI

c?- - .D:,~

No sooner tha n

d - \Vith adl'erbial clauses of cause

~:;~ ~ Il ~~ I ~, o~l ~ _ ...:J

Because

Since

As

;y 1>-1

e - \Vith adverbial clauses of

./J-c?-

ln order Iha t

~i..»c"

For fea r Iha t

01 d ij~

f - \Vith adverbial clauses

Sa .. thal Such . thal

lJ l.!ll

u..r .i ,- "

Sa Ihal

'J

Lest

' /~i ~ ..r-

\<.,li

In case

lJ l.!l 1 ;y 1>-1 J..!-I • t,;. i

c.

(;:' -

~1Js.

of result

Thal

(;:' _ .:-

Js.

purpose Thal

J..!-I • t,;. i .)>.,oJ 1

.!.U.iJ 01 "-:o:-)..u .)i "-:o:-)..u

..»c~ ..»c~

Sa Iha t Sa as 10

~

The wa ter was so cold

d

<.-).!l b), ,lll ~I> ,--LJI

tha t we cou ldn' l swim

d'-'-'

J..!-I • t,;. i (;:' - t .,Wdl. :w.lW,1 lJl.!l1

;y 1>-1

g - With adverbial clauses

of contrast Although

Tho ugh

Even though

Even i fJthough

- 136-

Js.

~i cr

r')"

(b!)})

c?-


. A,

Whoever

Whalever

H owever

Wheneve r

Whether. or not

No matler whethcr . Or nol

~ ri .. bJ ~I"....

'1 ii .. 1'>1~ Ir

4 ~\)-" ;y 1>-1 J.o.>-I '1.,.'> i t' - ,

No matter how

h - With ad\'crbial clauses

;.,.;,sJ 1 Js-

of manner

;U I.IJ 1

A,

As ;[

}W'

A s though

How

~

in Ihat

;Yl>-I J.o.>-I ,w.i t' ~ l.l)\.ill Js- ;UI.IJI

i - With ad"crbial clauses of comparison

J!-o

Not as .. as

, ~~ .• ' .

Th'n

Such as

~

Not '0 .. As

...w.lLJJ.,J!

j - \Vith ad"crbial clauses of condition If

0~ 1.$ ~pi .,.,ri 1 ;y 1>-1 J.o.>-I '1.,.'> i t' - '

pi

,J

Unless

r . L!\.

Provided thal

.Ji J,.A

SupposÎng Ihat

HJÎ \...p}

On condition Ihal

b! '

(.Ji ~.r-

, yS .) i .l.ri CJ)-I .!.-L \5:,. ~

• You may go OUI 011 condition Ihat

are back by tcn o'clock.

yOuf

r-! 1;1 I!,.:.

j;i J.,cÎ; J

1;\\ ,~

.!.-Li \\\1.

.ifi-WI ..!J:.$ r~

- You will have nothing

unless you keep

Js u.u..

As l o~g as

yOll

,J }

bj , }

'J )i

Whclher

WS' . . \..J.S"

~i 1.$

arc

yOll

J'S ..,..,1

The .. the

- The more you forgive. the grealer

J:.-

~

As .. As

word.

As long as

yOll

are in love \Vith her

why don't

yOll

ask ror her hand?

- 137 -

r= '1

~t".""

.,.JhJ


Use of sorne clauses with exarnples

- 138 -


[ IAsl

]

Time clal/ses

al used with "just" to express an interrupted action

.J-i t \l:.i;1 ..,.. pd "\.1<" ~ J--Î li examples:

*1 / Just as 1 was watching the match on TV set, the light came off.

.;,:. 81

J>-

<L WI ..v. L:. i .::..c.5' \...u L: 1< '"} ) JlI

.w

*2/ Ju st , as she. was rcading the paper the phone rang.

"""411

. 0)

bl

,o-,<}-I

e::'-"" u\5" 1...:",

L:li ./2 used to express two actions that accnT at the same rime .

.,...<; J

J..o:.-l

~ .!.»J.>. ..,.. pd 1y *1 / She eut her finger, as she was preparing lunch .

. .;..i}1

examples:

.,I..wl ~ u\5" \...u ~l

G->-?

Il

. . -:..E) \...u JJk " b; .1/2

"'2/ 1 dropped my gla sses, as 1 stood uP.:

,

-,

IWhonl

al used to express (wo act;olts when -olle follows the othe,..

f"J l tfi examplc:

J.>.ljl \fi J:"!\:::o ~ ..,.. ~

J..o:.-l li

.. when he pressed the button , the machine stopped. ,

.(<J'JI) <S'lIl -:..Ef )jJl

J>-

~ .u •

hl used to express Iwo actions that occu,. together . •1Â.o UJ.>. ~ ..,.. ~

examples:

J..o:.-l 1y

• when 1 came home, shc was having a bath .

.r " u\5"

~I .:...L.) \...u • '" she was an intelligent girl, when she was fifteen .

ci u\5" \...u '-?;, ~ u\5" • cl lIsed ;11 future clauses .J:A:-ll J J..o:.-l 1(. . O? ....... i:l-I 0'"'

* 1'11 do my bed, when l've fini shed reading the book. dl eg:

* 1 \Vas

,.

, ,.....!

~)L. ,"",1;.>,)1 0,1) 0' csPl \...u • IIsed to express an ùtferl'Ilpted action. -

·<f.l-r

(..JJ' \fi) J.i t \l:.i;1 ..,.. ~ J..o:.-l l' watching the film, when the light came off.

• 139 -


IWhilel

al used to express an interrupted action . .(..;Îj ",i) J...i t \k.ill ~ cg:

.,."..w

J-.J li

... While 1 was watching the film, the light came off. •,

'.11

. , ,. ,1 ,"

"..-.. JY ~ ~

.l>L:.Î

~

w-.

hl used to express two actions tha. Geeor together . .,;..i} 1 ..,...;.; J .;:.,W .;.,) """ ~ .,."..w J-.J 1"" cg:

... While 1 \Vas watering thë flowers. he \Vas repairing his car .

.ô).,:..]1 ~ y J\5' 'Jy}ll .j--Î ~ ~ .Je.. cl "while cali IUcan "but" l "",hereas" to emplaize contrast. (an opposing clause). • L.:; 1< ... .I..!3J"· ." l " . CI" ." i . C - "W i~" 1__ .:1-. c r · ~ cs' ..r'..r" '" '""" .) .. . ll

.;;;}" }

. .

cg:

'" 1 wo rk eight hO,ufs a duy, while she works only six .

.~ )/1

J-.-i <./' .:fJ "'" \? L.. J L..:

j.-? Î l; Î .J e..

'" While our country has plenty of oil, others have none .

."? ~I JI.uJ1J IBetorel ..1'':/1

cg:

..c,. Ji

'1 ,.6J1 J

ôh Js. l;.u, '"J"". 0»- J .Je..

as a conjunction used to join twc actions \Vhen olle happened berGre the second .

Jj ~

""FTERI

oC> , . ; -

~I) .;.,)~

J§.,. 1,."," .;:.,W J.,) J..:.-' ~ ,jA

-

as a conjunction, used to join two succeeded actions . ..;,)b .;:.,W J.,) ,~ ,j.rS -

J--'

... Aner he had left. 1 arrived .

. i l i j 'J;\? J!I,. •

Il

oéJ,t;.,.

-"'!

~j

.Je..

'" He examined him. aftef he had taken the temperatu re .

. ~ ~)? ~)~

..l>.i Ji

L.

Il

~J~ 4.:.:-J~

..L.:.\ L..~ ~

... 110st my watch. aner 1 had left the meeting.

'tke- ~I

"'" J,l?

J) \.. // t ke-{\l

JJ't;.,.

-"'!

<tJl:.o

_

\f"'L..

-:"""';'Î .J~

'\f"'L.. ~I

- 140 .


trill LUntill

means: "up to", used to join rime clauses. (here are used as conjunctions)

;u..- • ;U~I •.:u. Jl ."",]1 J..!-I J.,}

J.--J ,'-< t.~! ~I -i'" •

.(~ J.r-S" cg:

>1<

l'm Ilot going till j untill get my money.

>1<

'u-"IJ> .i>-ÏI He won't came till j uutil he -is invited. ~

. iy~1 >1<

?

..,....;1 J .J~

'" .J .J,. f JI

-. JI Cs'l, J .J~

1 won't go out till j until the rain stops

---

J>-

ISincel

.lA! eg:

:-i'" >1<

.).ll .fir. as a conjunction, used in general with perCect tenses. It means: After a past rime . <i') (......111 Jl ~Sl Jo<ill &; C;' .. \0 J.--J ,~ J .r-S" .~ci) Since being in Aigiers, we've visited "MAKAM. ECHAHID" .

rLi... "J)

.'.......,WI )1)-4 "-"clf -'-'"' .~I cg:

>1<

, c.r'i J .J~

.J~

Since you can't answer the question, 1 shall ask sorne one else. •

...",...".,""".....,.;~/ J>- J1J-l1 C»1.....

M "

''-! l,,-)' 1 e:k'-' 'J ~ 1 l< .J \.\0

lAS SOON Asi - used for time clauses. (l,,;jyll "",)1 cg: 1 shall see hirn as soon as he comes.

J.."Jl J.--J -

>1<

A~L >1<

J-"<

Il\.,...

IJ-"<

Il\.,... •.WL .J~

1'11 inforrn you as soon as 1 have a sign.

.(i).:'!)

J), J>-

~ JI

1

l,.

~L .J~

Iwheneverl

- used (or rime clauses. It means: At any time. eg:

>1<

Phone me whenever yOll want.

>1<

.ù» c::..j) <,>1 d ~\,o. .J~ This is rny car, you can use it whenever you like. - -

...:.."..-i

c::..j)

<,>1

J

,

,

4lt.....:...,.1 ~ ,jJ~

- \4\ -

.:u.

.J~


Place ciaust!!~_(.:J~L~i1I~1 ~

[

IWh_r_v_rI

• used to express place clauses, il means: at

(~i) "IS:. ~i cg:

J

:.rJ <l.,;1S:. ~

BOy

place at ail.

.r ~

~

-

... wherever he goes, he faces the problems .

.j>l.!ll .".1-" ..,...,.; ~Î • :JI:.. ... Sit wherever you like.

("",) ..:...".. Î ,,\5:.. <? i

J

..,..te.1 • :JI:..

... He will be Beneficiai wherever he works .

.J.--< R_~Q~on] Callse c/a'!.....ses

[

L..:,Î

1...,... ,,~ • :JI:..

,,,.:.11 _..

1

JI

~

]

IB.eaus.1 Sine.1 Asi - used in the same ",ay to express causes! Reasons cg:

... 1 can't help you because 1 Sincel As l'm late. ' - ~, : " .!J;~L.... ..r'1:..

.

FI' ", :JI:.. •

• She stayed at home becausel Sincel As it nined a lot.

d " ,i, :JI:.. ... Because/ Sincel As it raind a lot, she stayed at home. - -

.op., .kil...; )01.1 :,~ .~I

J

~

~I

.' <op., .kil...; )01.1 "..,

IB"eause ofl Froml

W)I cg:

~\.ill

- (Tllese are prepositions, used onlv ",;th nouns, pronouns or gerunds to express causesl Reasom') The same as "Because" . ,l...-i) ) w.J 1 "l...-~I ~ ~! ~ J" ..:JJ? • .i.o) ."[/'1" ~ .,.Ai J.N (yl,..o 'il ,:r .,.,....;u (lNG) - !

... He died from smoking .

. 142 .


'" She rerurns back because of the snow.

'CfiJl ~ ~ ~ ~J :JI;.. . '" From his aCtÎvity, we wouldn't think he was aged .

.(:;,..... .;i JI." W~ 'il ..:,...; .Ji .f.;,; 'i J.~ ~ :JI;.. •

J

[

rn -used to express condition clauses.

~I .;r It means: supposing that 1 on condition that.

.'Jo)JI

r<

l "i J>?J :",ro -

.,\ll ~ ~I)! ;J\.,..

ci "",,)JI yi.b, .JI;..

&i eg:

J-:--l -

p

j,

'" If yOll poor oil on water, it floats . If 1 were yOll, 1 wOllld accept.

..!.1l5:.. J.{i "i

-

--

,l,.r- ~L / ..:.J.,AJ .!.1l5:.. Ji w.pl }

.JI;..

'" If yOll heat ice, lt melts. .~

~I

y).i, :JI;.. •

- It means: nIf.....or not" "sed to show a choice between possibilities.

IWHETHERI

..:"~ I..>! i~ eg:

<k,';'

.J:>! .ft) ~l "I.,,::l

J-:--l "(~)

1

~ ri " ..}" :",ro -

'" He asked me wherher she was coming .

..."i ..:..;\5" .)1 .}L :JI;.. • eg:

'" 1 do ,n ot know whether is true.

'(l:"""")

IUNLEssl

- It meaRS

nIf not",

?

Y'

bl j.ri ~ •

"except if'

.,

.

."I;! ~r "~ &1 ,~l." ",ro eg:

'" He will do nothîng unless you ask him .

-

."'-'

cg:

~ bl 'il,";' '" Oon't leave the building unless 1 tell yop to. J • ..!.JJ.i, ~ 1 ~ l,. '" 1 shall go to the party unless she phones. ~

eg:

J..i< J :JI;.. •

.\;iil. ~ ~ 01 <W.I - 143 .

~

cr.l1 J> \;.; 'i • • Jl -,...;1...•


t [

l

CHAPTED;,8

~)JI

/F- COND/T/ONAL

]

}

iF clause

t "F"IF"~}~ Jl4>~1

* Condition:.1 sentences have '\Va parts

Rcsult clause. (main clause)

(i,-))llW-I)

lW-1 t li

jJ.-I r-"i

. ...-k j.fJ\ ,

, ),)1\

The Fi,st conditional

te

(IF clause) "}" "IF" u.." (Result clause) 'a.J..I IF + Present simple + shall/will + infinitive (simple future). } + .?l!-I ;;.,.... + "shall! will " + ).L.o11 (.k,-,)I J.,.i:-ll)

- IF it Rains )dl .hA......, jl

r shall get wet

- JF

yOll

j,;L

will catch , the train. ~.,..Î ~ ) 11.iI1,, ~ . The first conditional is used for a direct or immediate possibilitv a yOll

hurry.

.

probable condition.

" Jo';' :,;.\.,.0 JL..:"..I Joel i f ~ Li.• J) 'JI J-".!JI variations of the tClIses rules JW~' 6-'" ,.I$I..t'l ~, ..:.t'~1 IF + simple present + simple present

.~ Possible

IF

yOll

It floats (Natural 10\\'5)

pour oil on water

. yik;

+

.?l!-I ;;.,.... '1' ( <....k .. ' 0>'".)

,

IF yOll heat ice

• (y."k ""I}) ,\... ~ 'J - IF [ say "yes" .;,,~! ~

;) ,'J , J-",

It

tUfilS

+} • ,UI J;. .:."jJI " :: " } • .?l!-I ;;.,....

water (Natural Laws)

~I~} He says "No" (Habitua i Reaction)

'r ' ~ } , 144 .


.

uscd for Natural laws and habituai Reactions.

,

,<;>~! JL.;I »») ~I ';";I?J ~ IF

+ Simple present + IMPERATIVE TENSE/MUST/SHOUlD/ OUGH TO • • ,())I1 / ......y)1 /..,.."., /,/'11 + ,...;,Ll-I ~ + }

- IF you see him

Tell him to return back

""i) } - IF he comes again

you must prevent him I)W,~ ~- IF she phones you you ought toI should inform her -!.b;l> } ,l»Y') ~ I}I.y \,0, )L>.) ~ I}I .y

,-!.b;l> } uscd for gh'ing ad\'ice or command

IF + Sim ple present

;y \5:...)'1

Ji

i.,I L.,.. )' 1

0

.,..."i Ji ~\.a; .\ks.~ J .. '; ,,; + Mayor can + ,...;,Ll-I ~ + (1;) }

- IF you hurry

you may catch the train.

~.r'i }

.\kiJ~ J.

.!.Li li'..J

:-1 J}i you will catch ,the train

Co mpare with - IF you !lUrry

d:;.i ~

)

\kiJ~,

.!.L.!.'..;. -

- IF you are out of cash

you c;m gh'e me a cheque

r"'1).01 -!.L. ~l.;:; (1;1) }

1,(., J\W) ~

used to lalk, about something to happen or to ask for permission

P

IF

,C#; } .);) c,JkJ } 0-'>- ,..;:. ~ J...:..J + Present Perfeel 1 Present Continions + Simple fnture ,.h,-.,JI J,.i:-ll ~ + r-=--JI ,...;,Ll-I ~ / (!:JI ,...;,Ll-I + }

- lF you have finished your meal

1 shall give you some desserl

~) ~i } - IF you are still learning english

~I ~

.!.t,w.L:.

1 shall show you Illy new grammar book,

- 145 -


"fl)'1 ~ ~jl,. yi

j

, .,.;,JI) y.3l ...,.c!-I "",\5 ,j>- ~L

used for direct, immediate, certain possibility.

-

·.JS"YJ <$)}

,

Jl.=-'J ~ ..;~\ <.;.-1~\

,';'y

The second conditional

lF clause --+ (j~) (~, ~)_ Result clause IF + simple past (past subjunctire) + would + Infinith'e (present conditional) " J>;WI ...... ~I + (J>;WI ...... ~I) ..6.,-,J1 "...~I ...,.., + yi J"-"-' + ,1)'1

-

.(J>).ll ?~I) J-.ill - IF it rained

1 would get wct

- IF you hurried

.).6.iJ~ .!.l-l - IF 1 \Vere rich

you would catch the train j

r

~

GJj-!-i yi 1 would buy a s peed car

t..r'

i )."... ",-<pl GS j.,....J \?The second conditional is used for a less likelv possibilitv .

GS yi

..:f.l Jl.:.>-I j;~ .,.;WI J>j-ÎJI

J--l

* Note that the tcuse used in the "IF clause" ius't the simple past but it's the past subjunctive, that's why in the third example wc say (1 \Vere) and Dot (1 \Vas). But, as bath tellses han the sante Carm, It doesn't matter to use the simple past, except \Vith "Ta Be", we use (were) instead of (was) .

..6.,-,J1 I?"'\ll

J

.:-.,J .""rDl 4

,

.1 •• - li J-.ill ...,..,

Ji .b-'Y •

" , ."1 was" ..,..,JJ "Iwere" J.,;; .!.JWI Jl:tl J) 1.i.,J ,,,,,:,.'JI ..,...,lil d

J..""-' Ji ~l,.

'J J v"~ 'Y .(was) JtS:.. J (were)

j

,Pl ~

4<-" JW\t1 ~ Ji lr~ , P

J..""-'

Possible variatiolls of ,Ile tellse ru/es

(I?'" \lI J)

,"Tobe" ,c=...~ ..6.,-,J1.,,-"~I

JW~I

IF + Simple past IF you hurried

~J

+ .." ~)'1Ji ;.,J 1..;.-)' 1+

&""

JS.\ ~ 4L.:$:1 ..;.J1.z:A:l1

Might 1 Could

J.,-,ll

I?'" ~1+ yi

yOD might catch the train

- 146 -


)

\kAlI,.

.::...C..i ..:..5 lé) .

Compare \Vith: IF you hurried

IJ)W you would catch the train -!

\kAlI,. .!.Li ..:..5 j r-' . 1 IF it stopped snowing

)

yOll

U}-I .!.1 LS:..~ JlSJ

..::..<-.r'i } could go out.

~I j,y<.-

JiJi )

uscd about possible rcsult and about abilitv or permission . .~~ JÎ J1~ , ;)J.QJ ,iJ...:>,..

.

...:J\.:J\

THE THIRD CONDlTlNAL

} u..". (IF Clause) IF + Past Perreet

Juill IF

~"""" + .c.UI it had rained

,:,J:;..FJ\

...... ' ;",..,:; (Result clause)

Juill +

+ Would + Have + Past Participle Y' + r~1I .".-"111 + jl

j

1 would have stayed

.-::..,J, ~ ..:..5

j

ri

0

IF you had hurried

.) \kAlI,. ~i

~ J--Î ,

ho~me

j.:i jÎ

You would have got the tr:Jin.

..:...s

..::..<-.r'i jÎ '* The third conditional is used for a past possibilitv, ",hich didn't j .r-. 1

happe": impossible condition .

.~ j,';' :..:."""

r.l JI..".-'J

..:JWI Jo)J1 ~

Possible variations of the tcuse rules .

.Jw~1 ~ ~1.;iJ u..:,:1 .:,,1.-*1 1 lF + past perfeet IF you had listened my ad vice

.J'Yi ...... V-I .} ..:..5

j

+

would + infinitive yo u would be at university now .

ri

~ ~! }

'* used wlle" the action in "IF clause" is a past acÏion, and the action in "Result clause" is a present one . .} Juill) ,1;..;>1.. )W "<,).,;.JI }" u..". J Juill j ~ 1..= ~ • -

-

- 147 -

. i.J,.1

'.1""

<1.

"a.J-I ·

.

.!'

~


IDirect and Indirect speech l

l'' ':' I:JI ~... "":"I:JI <:'..YI1l11 .rWI (,,~I _i

A - Direct speech:

The very words used by the speaker are quoted without any change .

.J..w <?Î i.»

• .;,obdl ~I <?.\JI ~~I ..,.;.;

.fJ.;

r ".cJ0 • . JoW ci> 'l'WoI L..J \;;1 Jo. "r-"JI

• She said "1 am tired todaylt • He said "We are not

Il. <.p ~

"<.i,pl

kids 10 be treated like that" Direct words arc always

"" Wb

t:"'J'

•.i;,

;.rt,l.l -:..W5JI • .

!.~

. ~.~

..:F>"'"' 0l--.i'

put between brackets

.rWI.d' ()\~I

Indirect speech:

-Y '

- The words of the speaker are reported with sorne changes in construction .

.-.,..f.rl l .j .:..I~I

,;.., ';'I.I>-!

• She said that she was lired that day.

t' .;..obdl .:..WS' .fj.;

.r.r.ll .:J,I.> ~ ...:,.j\5' 4-i~ ...:.JI,; •

ci> 'l'WoI 1"....,1

• He sa id that they are not

r-i'~

0

Jo •

.~....,6J\ ~ \j.-~

kids to be treated like that. forms of Indirect Speech

1 . Indirect statements

2 - Indirect questions 3 - Indirect commands or requests 4 - Indirect exclamations

pWI ;;f r~1 J\S:..!.i r-w,\ ~ ~\ . 1 .rt,l.l .ri- JIJ-l1 - 2 • • ;;.w,\ ~ ,,1...:-)l)I./'':J\. 3 .;.w,\ ~ ~\ - 4 ,;.W\ cf J-I. 1

1 - Indirect statements:

.... \s. Js..\,i

General Rules:

To change from direct to indirect speech, we must apply the following general rules:

- 148 -


~I..tAI'

J"ki

~

..,.."., pl,-

~

(J.S'

J!

pt,.

tJ.S' .:J' ,.\1."& :4,I\:J1 ;"'WI

A - Change of pronouns:

- Change tlle prOIlOll"S and possessÏJ'e adjectitJes QccOl'ding to ('0''''''011 sense lise the prOIlOllllS and possessive adjectives wl,ic/t correspond to the speaker and to ,lte pel'son to w!tom ,lte speech is llddressed. .:,,\.i..p) }UI Jwo:--I rWI ~ Lii) ;,s:ul .:,,\.i..p) }UI ~ • .• .,....\;01, ""' .... 1 .,J! ",)., ~I) ~I J!1i .;JI ;,s:ul ,'r' ~I t;;N

B - Change of (cuses:

I~

Do nOl change the tenses of the verbs if the principal verb is in the:

:J"""':)I JMlI ,JI> I,! JW~I l.;..jÎ

.r.N 'J

Present Simple

~I

Present Continuous

",.::....L I tJ L.<.ll ~ Uli tJ L.<.ll

Prescnt Perrcel

~I

Future j

EXQmples:

says: Ho

is saying: has said: will say:

say: They

are saying: have said:

will say:

tJL.<.l1

"They are beilutifu l flowers"

"<J.,..e.

'J)J 4'( J-",

Ihal Ihey are beau tiful flowers

a..... " .

r-y .r-'-

'··L J' ~

::IJ)J ~.

"We have ail the necessary things"

'\)J.r"l' ,L,;.'y,

J'

l<.lJ"

Ihat Ihey have ail the necessary things

~)J"..;,J' ,L,;.~'

J'

,...,.lJ

~L

'l.,. .r" .

J)-'" ":'1.,-

'"}

-'"

- If t!Je maill Irerh is ;11 tire plut. we make the folloJllil'g cha liges:

:4,1 \:JI ':"1.,."d" r".a; ,,,...:- \lI J - 149 -

~)1 JMlI ,J IS" I,! -


Î

Direct speech

• L..

Indirect speech

r- t.,.. .r-'- r'%'

.'%'

.r' - \ Present simple

.b.,.-, t)-'"-'

Past simple

Present conl illuous

~t..jL:...

Past contÎnuous

r~ t..jL:...

Past perreet

- - ..r'- l.o .b.,.-, J,i'-'

Past perfect

Present perreet

.L..,

Past simple F uture simple Future perCee!

r~

Conditio nal

Jo.r- ,;rj

.L.,

.r"-" ,,-" \..

rli cF"-\.. r" ,,-"\..

r"

..}>r..}>r-

il;

..}>r-

Conditional

J,i'-'

Conditio nal perree!

Conditio nal perreet

-\..

- - cF"

</j </ j </ j

Examplel': Plays

Played

Is playing

Was playing

Has played

Had played

Played

Had played

Shall "will" play

Should "would" pl:ly

Shall "wi ll" have played

Should "would" have played

Should "would" play

Should "would" have played Mi ght play

May play Can play

Could play

Could play

Could have played Might have played

Might play

Examples:

!"

. He said. "1 am quite wclP' . He said lhat he \Vas quite weil. - The man sa id

II I

have secn the thief.

He said that he had seen the thier. - The manager said, "1 am

- 150 -


going to tire you ail", - The manager said that he was going to tire them ail, - She said, "1 waited for you for six ho urs" ,

.::.- i.u ".,k' .û t,.;~

- She said that she had

.;.lU

,..:...t&.L

waited for him for six hours. - He said "If 1 had moncy, 1 would buy a new car".

.ji5J1 JUI ~.J ;,\5' } ,;i JU

He said that if he had had money, he would have bought a new car ..

,éJ..!..1.:>:- é;l::-

tSr' J.i 0lS:J

- She said "1 wish 1 could do that".

4'Î } Lo ')! ;,\5' ~I

- She said that she wished

,.!..U~

she could have done that..

.;.lU

J.,s. ..:..s.lk...\

She sa id "1 do Ilot bclieve what he sayslt, She said that she did not believe what he said. He said "1 shall sec you at my office". He said that he should see him at his office. The present tense may he used to the reported speech, when the sentence expresses a unh'ersal or a habit fact.

If ~I .r." l.o~ .f'L,11 .r-< ~~I

<i t)L..4i1 .....)1 ~'~' jy..; .;,~

Ji ... ~

~

:~\; ~\iJ

General FuelS: Ali naturallaws and eternal fact.

.o..ùl;l\ ~W.I) ~I ~\yAJl

- 151 -

J5'


He said. "the earth is round lt . He said that the earth is round. They said. "Angels and Devils can not be round in one place".

':J .:J..I,.!JI) ~)lJ.1 J~ I}~

They sa id that Angels and Devils can not be round in one place.

,-'>- 1)

Jl5:..

J

~

:.,1::.,. ci\! ,

Habituai Faels: He said. "We get up carly every mornillg"

c.~

He sa id tha l they gel up carly every morning

JS'

\?~ ,)~ ~~ J\.i

She sa id. "After dinner. wc sit and la lk or watch tclevision programmes lt J ~ ,LcJI "'"

She sa id Ihat <l ftcr dinner, Ihey si l and talk or walch television programmes.

ô.;.w\

.;.JIJ

~\.I J)..v.~ } Jy~) ",}II

C • Change of nearncss indicators:

1""~

Jli ;:1" -.,;;.,

Whcn tenses arc ehangcd , words indieating nearness must be ehangcd into eorresponding words illdicatillg remotcncss.

",}JI ~

J.I; .;JI

.,;;.,w.s::J1

J-;;

~

Direct

This These

J

.i~1 ydü .,:.,1.1.>-1 ,-IA,II .j; J.I; ..:;, WS"

, ....

Indirect

Il>

,'iJ>

Tha t

~

J.;.;

J! ""'\

-

-!..U~

Those

.!-W)

there

.!ll:..

Here

l.>

Thus

I~

Now

J'JI

Theo

Today

(-""

Iha l duy

So

- 152 -

.!.\liS'


-ri

Yesterday

The Iusi duy or : the previous day = the day before yesterday

,-"

Tomorrow

The next duy or : the following day = Ihe day after tommorow

Tomorrow morning...LJ\ C~

J\.:1i C!.,..JI

The following morning

Las! Ilight

The previous night

Ago

Before

Go

Come

j

Examples:

He said, "l watched the late !ihn la st night"

i.;rJ1

He said tha t he had

,..t,;

.U> L:.

J.i ,,~

Jli

. "-" III a,1J1

watched the late Iilm the previo lls night. She said. "I met my c1ass-mate in this place yesterday"

.} 4-:J.,..j ..:.J, li

She said that she had met

J.i

4' ~

c:..! li

•i."J1 .!.I.b .J 15:.1.1 .!JJ;

her class-mate in that place the previolls day. She said, "this is the Jast straw, 1 am completely ou't of pat ience with you l1

.Ji) ~I

She said that was the 1ast straw and she

e.ib .cil c:..!li

•\..11 .i.i; J.i

WOlS

completely out o f patience with him .

- 153 -

~ lo.r-"


Notice that in indir«t speech it is not always necessary to replace words indicating nearness as the past tense of the introducing verb is often quitc sufficient.

.;;, ~ 1 ..)ai.)'Ü Wb .,,))yol2ll 4J' ..,..,J ...,:.l,lI .r-< ~~ 1 J '" i Ji:..."i .lot< !,ilS" iJ~ lo U~ ..... I.;;i"il J-All ..,..,lI.l 4J'}1 iJi ;! ..."fil ~ 1.I1JJI

He sa id to her, "yo u arc court ing danger now"

, )U~ ~ 4-i~ lot..r.>-i

he told her that she was courting danger.

~ &1: 1 JI ti':l~ ~\::I..I

Special Rules For Indirect S tatements:

i - Use tlte l'erbs "SllY

...u.\ tAJl

:0 r?l:ll 01'

".r.'""Î

leU'

Say

J.,..

Tell

Sa;d

."i

J Ij"

r!-

Jd ~1. 1 JIi

Told

...... l,;i~ 1 l:.o~ oJ' "i J., - 2 " iJ i" ;ws- J-.-I

2 - Instead of the quotation

marks, use the word "THAT" He sa id , "1 am deeply sorry" He sa id tha t he was deeply sorry. He sa id 10 me, "1 highly appreciate your hospita lity" He told me that he high ly appreciated my hospitality. He said te his rrjeod, "1 cao not see yOll loday as lIsual" He told his fr icnd that he could not see him that day as usual. She sa id nIt is time for me to go home"

- 154 -


Shc said that il was time

...,......i;

Ji

41 JI -Ii

...;~ ..:J\i

. ..::...,JI Ji

for her ta go ho me. He sa id , "1 will do my best ta help my friendl!.

,*

He said that he would do his best ta help his friend.

J.i."...

...;L J\i

.~J...,.,:t

o.JsU

LSJL.ü

He said, "We advised him not ta \Vaste his time"

~""" ,~

He SJ id that they had

-Ii

r+~ J\i

..a) ... 1..,;.1

advised him not ta \Vaste his lime o r: They advised him not ta waste lime.

.ci) 4,.ç.L;,\ i~ o~ ) ~l;J.1

2 - Indirect Questions:

..r.:'-

Jlj-JI - 2:

: .... WI ~I".<ll

General Ru les:

~\..;LI ~W\

Apply the general rules of

indire,,, speech

.JsI..,il\

.r-'-

';'LlI

~'

~)\.Çjt,

: ~L;l l .JsI.tJ1

Special mies:

1 - Use the verbs ask or inquire

JL

Ask

inquire

j'

LI - ii"-'

Wonder Wanl 10 know

2 - Link the introducing l'crb with the rcporlcd question using:

~.J..i;

A - the saille question ward

.}'

~~)l1

ibi '-"""" j

JIJ-l1

which introduces the question

, 155 -


B - the word III Fil or IIWH ETHERII

"W H ETH ER'

Js.

when the q uestÎon has

" JI' IF ~ - ~

'-?J'>-< 'J Jlj-ll JI> 1;1, r4-'-'-"1 ibl

no question word

3 - Replace the interrogath'e construction by a statement construction, changing the question inta a subardinatc clause,

Jlj-ll

..4-",,",

.!.Il;) '-?) y;.1 ...,.,?? .... ~ 'JI ...,.,?)I J "",",I -3

."-! ~

:u.-. ..,.:.. J I ,

Examples: - He sa id. IIA re yOll still cross with me?1I He asked if 1 was st ill cross

.'-"

with him. - He sa id lit s this the ma n yO ll are 100 king for ?"

He w.. nted to know if that

Y' .!lI; JI> JI

was the man 1 was tooking for.

. "'" .:..,., Î .:..S '-? 1)1 Je-)I

j fi

JÎ ,1)

- He said, 11 00 you know the right answer ?II He asked if 1 kncw the

yl)-I

j

fÎ .:..S 1;1 ~

JL

. ~I

right answer. - He said. "H ave yOli invcnted all y mea ns of communication ?I!

1;1 ~ JL JI....) .J' ;u,....)

,-?Î Wc?,1 J.i lS

He asked if we had

.Jl...a;'!1

in vcnted any means of

cOl1ullunicat ion.

- 156 -


- He said I1Where is the ncarest post office?11 He inquired where Ihe !learest post office was. - She said ItHow sha ll we get there1"

~ 4-:JL ..!lLo J.,...}I

She asked how they would gel there. - She said "Who called while 1 was out ? did he leave a message 1"

4-

She asked who called while

.

.

J.ail ",-'lI i f

-:JL..

JI5" bl W) 4-~ ,l;;I l;.i;lA

she was oui and whelher he

.;JL..J .!lJ

had left a message.

J.i

- He said "When will you finish Ihe programme of this year 1"

~~.I ~ ..?

He wanled to know when

j fi

Ji

,1)

.UI .!..lJ;

we would fini sh the programme of Ihat year. - He said "What is the matter 111

../"1 '-i,.i>- j f i Ji ,1) r 1.,11 .r-'- ,I.:-}1Ji ./., 1• 3 .r-'- t ~ ;... WI -'" l.,-il 1 .;,J,

He asked what the matter was. 3 -Indirect conunands or requests:

Apply the general rules of

r 'UI ' .

indirect speech ,",,~I

Special rules

..1,Al1

Use a suitablc introducing verb according to the kind of the imperative .

J'~I

t.rl

- 157 -

1..,; W'l\,. 1.,>-81 ';Ml J-.-I


) )

Command Order

<,;)1 ..,-" Ask

Request

Beg Pra y

cJkJL b-J I~'_

Advise

b.:.i

<Jl.-

JJ-

~' <Jb-

d-

J---,"1

IJ-y

c:-=

""yi ~ f~1 ..,.., jy

. Cha nge the (orm of the

:.;'J I

imperative as follows: /' ~\

The imperat ive

~

~\ ~

The negative imperative

)~ \

To infinitive

~j\ ~

"Go"

Don't go

i f <J"

,1.,)1 <Jl.-

tS~! l.-J

d _

Cl>! ..JkJ 1 <J l.-

-,.l1

Tell

~-4

.. To go

.)i

Ta negati ve infinitive ~\ )~\

...,.....,...i; ") ~

-

.-; ~-4 ~ J\

. , Not 10 go

EXQmp/es:

He sa id to his friend, "Write ail this information"

J>

He told his friend 10 wrile

~

â&#x20AC;˘

-,-lj, _"-'L.}-1I.!JJ;

jl ""-,--,, i f

ail that informati on. The officer sa id , tlFire"

lA JI,

The officer commanded his soldiers to fire. He sa id to his friend, Don't spend aIl your money, save sorne for the future.

- 158 -

ri

"r'c J.,I.;.)I _):11


He advised his friend nOl to

"yi'

J5' ~ ''J j t '"" -'-" ~

.Ji'

spend ail his money and to

. 11

lr- w,..., .,;",

Ji)

sa ve some for the future 4 - Direct Exclamation: Apply the rules or indirect stalemenls and rcflecl the spirit of the exclamation .

J:1>

.~I CJ) III ~ r-l,I.l ~ "';-1 ~Ij

;.,.. \;... ;",- b 1 Jwi

Su itable introducing verbs

,

.li.... \;... J-",

Say with sorry.

.li....i C7'" . .. . (L».c..c;) w.,.-l:,. C7'"

Exclaim (with regret). Exclaim (wi th surprise). Exc1aim (bitterly).

.ô) ./ C7'" L..:.......::.. •.

Remark.

'

.'

~

.~~\ l$~

Admire.

.l>-) C7'"

Shout (with joy) . He said "What a charming actress 1"

i.l:..11 " ~ Le "c,...I <S -'1 i

H e remarked what

.Jk,.

a charming actress she was.

if

She said "Oh dear ! 1 have 10st my neck1ace" She excla imed bitterly tha t

J.i

she had lost her necklace.

, 159 '

4i! <.l:\i ô)./ ..:,.,.L.,., .\A..w:. ...:.."w


IPrep ositionsl A Preposition is a word uscd for showillg the relation betwccn Iwo things.

.<J.':' ~ ~')I.l1

"l"l J--l W> /.-1

.j~

Prepositions arc uscd \Vith nouns or pronouns to show the relationship bctwccn the lIoun or pronouo and anothcr word "or words".

Ji l'""'~I ~ ~')I.l1 .:r.-;:I }l...:d l Ji ,t-.~I ~ J--l /.-1 .jJ~ . ~f i ..:..WS' Ji W> ~J .,.,....:.>JI Prepositions arc closcly lied to the Douns or pronouns which Ihey control.

. ~ .jl }l...:dl Ji ,t-.~~ \.i.,iJ I,bLi) .k.,lj /.-1 .jJ~ Ex amples:

.lfiLf) ~' J..iJ

He gave \Vay to her \Vishes. He entercd upon a new li re. D on', p ut me in

yO uf

J J>--" 'J

.~\.i:ll

0 011' ( cntc r inlO details.

..;~ J

,by-ll

black li Sl

i-4 ~ ~ Î--'-! ..ûJ ~I.i

You are hard on me.

J

~ 'J

10

. . , '-1 y-AJ .,;...u •

.~

J

.,Ipall) , I:,-JI

For better, fo r \Varse.

~

"",

.;,;~ 4J..lto

J..iJ

.~ h

Let hint stay beside me. He hand led her witho ui gloves.

". J

.t \..;, \.. .j>- ,l5:J1

It is no use crying ovec spih mil k.

~.#

DOll '[ d o tha t bchind Illy back

From the bo tt om o f Illy hemt 1 will not look a l you r face

. 160 .

,1))

0" i.\J\i 'J

0" -!JJ;

J'"" 'J

,}i Jwi

0"

.!.-l,ls- ...;,....,Î

J


AI

Kinds of prepositions:

=

At

;J..,.IJI

With

;J..,.IJI

tyl

~.r ..)Jr - 1

1 • Simple prepositions:

By

..JJY

-c: -

~

Js-

0"

.;r-o.,.,

orr From

J::I->-

Through After

J' J'

...,

ln

.j

Up

Js-I

or

J'

Under

Over

Jj

Round

JJy

Since

.L.

Till (until)

.r

Except

I.,.L.

During

~ L:.."\

Against

.)j

Among

.;", Vl J...)

Like

- J!• Je'! J!-

Near

~}

To

J'"

For

2 - Double prepositions: From behind

From within

Into

Onto

:l.;r.r ..)Jr -3

3 . Compound prepositions: Across

~

Along

Behind

...Al>-

About

Above

Jj

Before

J-'" Js-

.;r

J'

.;",

Beside

...,....ob.. ..

J>'b-.j

Below

J'--Î

Between Within

J>'I' .:r, Js-

Wilhout

~J..lt

Beyond

~\)J

L...:'

i)\:o:- .;;..I)~ -4

4 - Prepositional phrases: On account of

Instead of

lnspite of

By means of

ln front of

Owing to

- 161 -

.:.r- '1..lt ~\JI


~\;J

At the back of

Ji

Wilh

Reference Nex( to

<Il.-';,

}~

-

~~

-

.ri .y

For the sake of

JI tJ"JI

10

JlOlJ

In accordance with \Vith regard

~

.)~

10

~ \ -4 - (;t.:.

Out of

i;l~.1

S - Participle prepositions: Conccrning

Jr41 Ji J'WI

.L.....i -5

Regarding Considering

Supposing

Assuming

: dl'" oi

Examples: 1 know nothing conceming his behaviour. What did they say

regarding my proposais?

,,-U

The television broadcast

Js- J y..A-:J1

.:..,JI

i.e"

.....<..a;)1) <..,1)1

starts at half past four He ran past the door

...,.,\,JI

rloi cS.r.

The prepositions may come at the end of tbe scntence or arter the l'erb in the roUowing cases:

J JoAlI ~ Ji ~Il;~ J lA .Ji }-I .j}- .;.., With interrogatives: :rlt4::'l1 t.:JIJ.lt e :;;,1\:11 Jly~1

Y~J..i r.J"

Whom did you talk with?

y~

What are you looking for? Which target are you pointing at?

~...,.,~

e

l.s.

.......... ",i Js-

J.-jl;w. t'

With re.sthe pronouns:

..;.,... ",.ill -.:..."lI ..,....., 'J

He does not Iike the bouse

.;!

.....

which he lives in.

r ..... ..:....JS:; ",.ill ...,.,L.:JI

The young man whom you

....') ,

spoke to is my brother.

- 162 -


The preposition must come at the end of the sentence or aCter the verb iD the following cases:

:./'JI .:..~~I ..) JoAlI "'-! } ~I ~4J

..) }-I

""".r ,j~

J-oyll ~ J~I

- When the relative pronoun "l'HA 1'" is uscd:

=-

This is the kind of life Ihat

he is used to. It is the opportuni ty thal

he has drcamed of. - Whcn the relative proooun is ornittcd: This is the present J promised you of.

.::..5 ,,"1 <,.i,-}I ;.,J,.iJ1

It is the piece of music 1 was listcning to.

.1+.11 ~i,

-

- Whcn "WHAT" intToduccs

"WHA T"

4JS' ).J....a:;j

t.~ -

:H

. aJ.â&#x20AC;˘.

a clause. . .tJ

Thal is what you were looking fo r.

.~ ~ ~

.~

L. I..i,..

.!.I\.iJ..i- L. Li..

J~ ~I ~ -

- With the passive voice:

l'le is not

~

~i L. ~~ , I..i.~

This is exactly what 1 am thfnking of.

That is what we warned yOll of.

~1

J-c. .".iJ1 ~I ~ "'1

the pers"" that

. .....h:. )~ 'il

cao bc relied on. It is a promise that cao be relied on.

.~ )~ ~I ~ J.&.J ~1

- When the object is understood aCter the Ă&#x203A;lfinitivc .

.)~I "'-! I~ J"..oll - 163 -

i.Jfo.

\.0= -


Hcrc is ano.her focal point to talk about .

. ~ ..!Jwl ~ cSfi ~.J"" Y. &il ..;' lA ~\ ~_l""" J~\

The use of prepositions

cS'~ J~I

Common use:

.,.-)l.h..pl J~I "~ ~-? j.?" J.f.,."

Idiomatic use:

~

"Î..!., - ,y-

About .. conce rning

."""

They were talking abou t him .

"Y~ Iyl>

.J:k' ,y- ,..;- JS'

You know eyerything

j.J" .!J;1

about my plans.

,i U · - J,... •..., .....1 Jy-..r,

·<.!.IU

About - Around "here or there"

He wa lked abo ut the garden. He has many friends about him .

.Jy- J).r-> ,\;.c...1

Let us go about the town.

."".ùl

Jy•

~.i; l, t,.

-(1

..•

<Z' r " . <ff

Aboye:

,,~I

Above = higher in place

.:J. ,. '"

~i ~ ci)

. ..,..,...JI j .:...il..- -:..1)lkJl Jc" J~i ......... .:r )S"i ~ ..\.il . c:..t~!J1 J j .;1

The planes flew above the c1ouds. Il cost me aboye 5000 dinars He is ubove suspicion.

,

Above - more than

:1 ' - ( · \ .>.t; l:.>=' c.=..

..h...pl Jj rlJ'--' "1 '!.Dr .d . .e9 "";1.,. <Z' .

Their level is above average. Across:

The telephone post feU

"..u

lS:...J1

Jo:J "yi,W1 , r

down across the railway line.

.b.<..,.

.,,"'.....1

i.;.J1

You may draw a line

~ \Jo>.

.J. "i ~ .i!kCl-1

across the wrong paragraph.

- 164 -


·W,_~ _ ~ .

Ailer:

'I.$~ ~i <l.il . .'.l,WI ....., !lI)...

He is coming aftef me. 1 will see yOll after the match ..

.4s.L.. ......i..a.i ~..u.

He ran after me for half an hour.

r

~J

.~..u\-, r"~

She is named after her mother.

.J J).;!

He is a man after my li king.

J..il

..:...-;:.-..

~) <I.i!

.~ ~ ~.

Against:

~Iy"

Against = opposite to

J -

~I.Q.. =

,

J.,.,p

- ./JL... - ~

..!l...l...;?

1 have nothing against you. We are swimming againsl the

.J} i.ls. L 1.r.J ".? I.$i I.$..u ~

.~;

They playcd against many strong teams..

1..:..;(

stream..

~I ->..r-" ~ ~ ~ , .., •"<...0. J)r"'. 1.5~. ~ Between

Among: is uscd in case of referring to more than two persollS or things .

•i.t:.:..,:. } ~

.;r'

jS'i

J! i}.;"'~1

;;JI>-

J

"AmoDg"

J--l'

Between: is used in case of referrÎllg to two persons or thillgs.

.~ )i ~

J! i)';'~1

;;JI>-

J

"Betw.. n"

J--l

Examples:

.~\.i~t

- He likes to stay among his friends.

<J.:.1 s:.L.'WI

. She prefers ta ,il amang the pupil, .. .i,.-)WI .;", cf

#,

.)y.AJ\

• Don't sleep among the graves. - Our schoollies between the

)

~ <l.il -

~

4'1 -

<J.:.1 ~

'Y -

b) ~\ ~~ :ou ~ ,..z \:.::......) J..,.

-

. ~\J..JI

museum and the court of justice. - There is nothing between me and her - they are always between my eyes.

~) ~ ~~ ~ y. 'Y .~

0::1 Wb ~ -

~ 0'::! i,;:, )}\ ~-' -

- She put the Rose between.

.~#.'Y\

two pages of the English book.

165 .

W\

yl:5'" 0'"


. J\..JJI '-'"

There is a wide gap belween

ï...t....IJ i

the Soulh and lhe Norlh. • <:.>='

..",.il\, - yU - M- - .) .

J! i ;I..;.~ • .~I J .!.Ll,~L ,

"lS:.l1

= Referring to a place

1 shall mcel you al the statioll.

."...,JI <.sk L:.

l'II wa il for you al lhe sea·sidc. At school

.J..>;-i

.yy!-I)

At:

* At

r

~J..u~

At the door

'"':""'W~

.J.;s.

!l.,k L.. .:.."IL

At home

...rii~

At the same

0l5:l1

Place

At the foot of the mounlain Al the front of the gate

JJ-I e-'-

.J.;s.

;" I",JI ....",1)

.J.;s.

Near at hand

.yI J)b

At the end of the party

<W-I ;"4'

II-

J J

.z;.!1 ,,.Ji;.);;)IJ • ....... 1;.11 ~\...JI Js- .:.II)... 'r"U-1 .:..ô}1 d .<1.>..1J1 •..v. :; . .:..ô}l '--'""" J -

At .. Referring to time

1 will sec you at nine o'dock. - At present. • At the moment. - At the sa me time.

.;~I .J.;s. -

• At nooo.

.JiII~d -

- At midnight. • At the first attempt.

.;.l)l>...

J;Î :; -

J.;"4;J1 J -

.~I.:r-

• At the age of fift y. - At the end. · At sunset.

.'-c' )~I .J.;s.

- At suorise.

.J).rJ1

-

.J.;s. -

, .UI .:r' j -

• At peace.

- 166 -


. At war.

.y.J-I 0" j -

. At last.

.1.",..Î ,'l} ~

- At firse At :: Referrino f! to directions

• ,.....' .

\ -""\

Have a look at this page

~I • .iJ,

She is laughing at hÎm

(~~)

At = Referring

[0

Js-

i.;b ..;l! .ys. ~ 19..il

• ~\ . ~I

priees

You can have it at 100 dinars.

.)~~

4St....

.~ '-$~ ~ ~\ \..l.A J!.Ç o~\..,.;. ~i 'j

1 cao not buy il at such a

high priee.. ::::z

.t'")1 cr-"I JWl c>~ rU. J~\

General adverbial use:

ijl~

At least

At full speed

At a lime

J -,,'v

pleased al

J~r

Quick at

0)\

Bad at

?J.:.; <../ "o,f"

Siow at

J"~

..:.r"

~

Before:

Before

~

JI .} .,.,..~I

Pdo";tyoftime:

(Ji) ..::.j

- You may find me at my

~U\ .}.i ~

J JJ.J-

Jj

....... Wl

office before nine o'clock .. - They may arrive before next week .. ~

J

-! J)~

ASlonished al

(~\>-).:/Yr.r

J~

Good at

JI.".. l$i .)s-

At uny raie

~r~~

Clevcr al Frightcllcd at

p'Jl ~

At most

J.wl 1...,

At this rate

()1 ô}~,~

J\.i... ~ J~\ ~t5:..~

Gel il at any priee.

At

\1 o.;\.I.U~ • 1,.. ..11 ,,:.

CI'~..1

Thi s film will end before

·r,L<lI Cr-' 'JI JiIJ..a< .Ij Ji ~ ~11.iJ,

..Jl!1 ~

midnight

• 167 .


Before

=

.J 1...:7~1 •

Priority of choice

...• ,J, i

.JWI 'J) ';')1

Death before dîshonour. In front of:

,(\..1

He stood berore me.

(Jljl) .. ifL.Î ....ü)

Before

=

JI .s:.:L:.

The question before us Îs

c.:L.Î '-")~I <lUI . L.

somewhat thoroy.

...:...l7

Behind:

Behilld

-'>-

=

...,u;.

At the back of:

He sat behind me. Never say anything behind

u,.;.

'J

. ~~ -'>- Î ,IJ) ,J' -1-" Î Ji' 'J .~).j ..jj~

a person's back that you wou ldn', say to his face.

, è lJi - ...:.J.;.;JI '

Behind ,. Refening to lateness

(dl ô 1l;;.;iJ

r

,y .r'"' }k.ill .j ,;.,.; ..::JIjL. ..,.,y--'JI ~

The train is behind time.

. ,Js.

Sorne nations are still

. ....;.1>.; .JJ.;.:.

living behind times. Bchind the times.

. ,.,.6

Bchind time.

Behind ooc's back.

.~I ,IJ),J'

Behind the scenes.

.}".JI ....;.l>- ,J'

~ Below

=

.~ <>~ JÎ ;.kA; ,J' ...\.i....Î

Lower than a

gillen point or place.'

The operaling costs are below the average .. In box ing, don't hit below the belt. ·rl}-I

- 168 -

J-i--Î ..,.,.rA" 'J

,<.S)t.l.I

.j


"ç>,.) - ~ - JL...) "

Beneath:

Put this pillow beneath your head .. He is beneath his brother in intelligence.

..!.L-ÎJ J ;>L..)I oi" c:."' .,\5".il1 J "",i j;> ,,;1

Beside:

Beside

..,...;1.,.;

..... DI;. . =

~I.:,.:

By tl,e side of

He refused ta sit beside me.

.)1

Beside .. Apart from:

""" DI;.

Ut;. Ii"

That is quite beside the question .

. \..Ii t.r"}1 J"

Beside oneself.

..."I.,....JI .AÔ\; (~)

.r-' J)

.t.r"}1 J" U t;.

Beside the mark (point) (question).

J~ - ),~ - ~i - J\.Jj I..-.i

Beyond:

We can't drive beyond this place.

J>i J

,J\5J.\ \ok 0'" ~i ~W\ ~ 'j . ~I ~

Beyond a person.

<>>'-'

'"'Y'< 1 1 ,~\1 Jyi.! "

Beyond one's means. ,W y

Beyo nd expectations. •

JLS"" \..0 J~

,4.it:1.II) "-="~ ~\ ~ J-l>- j)~

Beyo nd the pale. Beyond comparison.

,J}Â:! ~

Beyond one's reaeh.

,Jl:.1! ~ \..1..::":' .Jb..:J\ '\JJ

Beyond sea.

W

.» ..... 1 j)l,.,

Beyond measure.

.où -

Beyond control. During:

• 1 will vÎsit yo u during the holiday. - It did not stop raining

during the night. Priees were sore during the war.

- 169 -

<"- -II .Jk ' r---

,!)I.>: - .\:li .;j l.e- '1'1 J)i>. rS"J )jL .J.lli J)i>. .;hll Jlr. ~


~ - ;J:,......IJ:! -

By,

r\...\ - 0:..;.

("":-'A

By - Nearness of place:

• We like lO si l by the fire in win ter.

.~l::..!J\

J

~ - """," - J.",>

- y

-

;!.f")J)

}J\ '-:"} ~ 0i ~

.o..ul) )~ ~ Wb

- He al ways sils by his [al 11er.

if:'-!

By - Passing in front of:

. ~\ )~

- They like to walk by the river. - 1 go by

yO Uf

J15J.I ~"al'

'i.)!.

h ouse everyday.

By = Neamm of 'im"

(JJ)

- 1 ca n'I fi nish Ihis work by tomorrow .. MI

~

\rLtÎ (Ijl.t) .j~

y r-<:":

(JE

J.....JI

ri ~)

..,;!

~1

)~ yi

iiI,.JI

y)ll

\~ '"4-'\ ~f "1 . ë~\ ~ ::'.Y"-:'"

- He will rcturn by nooo

Br ~ Agen'r

(l.h....ly)

Jr\.il

. ~\y. j>- ..û J.r=JI l..iA

- Thi s exercisc is donc by me.

l.h....1J' ~ J5"w.11 J5"

- Ali the problems will be

.~ L.....l:S- <$...ul)

solved by my fathe r wher1 he cornes.

<ll:--.i') ~I

Br = Manfler (means):

_ Yo u ean pay him by inswlm cllts.

~ .lI ~ ii-Il:.;J l!JJ ,:.S ..:.L~

.ô..l8.t,.

_ Yo u ea n succeed by perseverance. . b.

.(ô)l6J\ ~\)1)

- H e will travel by air.

'r-:-

)~

e' d' ;:t:U

Br = E){ pressing oaths:

. JJ~ r--'I 0yU 01101 J~ r--'I

- l 'wear by God.

- By my life. 1 will obey the

.~\..:S:J\

scout's law. _ He s\\'o re by his honour 10 tclilhe trllth.

- 170 -

.~\ J~ JÎ .uA ~t


BV :::: According to:

- What is the lime by

yOU f

~~L.

watch?

...,......,.

Down:

u )1 L. -

J,i...'il ,)!

Referring to movement towards a lower position .

.Ji--Î ."...,) .~I J - He fell down the stairs.

.~I

- They wenl down town.

.~ ..ul

lS"? .;r ;ij~ .uJ

JD-Î Jl .k...,.) JI

k.... 1.t:A~ -

.~I

- Sit down.

\~\.,

Except: - He invited ail his frie nds except Sami. - Women are I1ice except for

J5'

\J.ç.l,.. ~li..l,..pi

'1:f"L.

~)} IJ.ç. ~

jÂj -

~LJI -

..:fi'ff)

- ~\..,J - ~ - .J t,.lb - j,.l;., - , ,J! t-.;., - J-r ~ "r'

• Fo" For the sake of - It is beller for

l,ç.~

ûlAJJ

their gossip and jealollsy. For:

-

yO li

to have

'!-"-! . ;';L...oJ

. cr'

J::~ ,. lk.......i ,1,.:..1; ,)\ ..!JJ

a little rest.

vI;

- J::Î .:r' ,

J-Ai')l\ ,j'" -

.Â.:>-\)1 .:..r"

p

.~

- A U for one and one for ail.

~\) ~ ~).ll ( ul!~)

For = To be given 10: ~

- Are a il thcsc cl Olhcs for me? - 1 will bring more for

.

yOll.

J -

....,.-1)U\ o..i..t. •

......r'"';~ ,)J.:J

- She left for London yesterday.

~

-

..!JJ ~)\ ~L -

o~,lajjoJ\ ~1

For:::: Referring to destination

Y

.. j

vl! o)~~'jj Ji G.l>- J -

- They will set for Oran this morning. .c~\ Il:. jl./') Y.r" 0 ~ -

. 171 .


J,.\u

For"" In exchange for:

.1.;'"

· 1 won't pay one dinar for Ihat.

J<tA.o

-

kJ);~~­

· For how much do you sel! that?

(~ ;.$)

- Don 't Iran slate word for word

e,i '1

1...... 1) 1),<'

t,;.r r.i' '1 .. .J WJ,

For'" In quest of

...,.."w l;1k ~ "i

· We have to send for a doctor.

u "< '1 -

)·>W~.L

- Let us go for a swim.

y. -

(..,.., "'.') . . j

For = Because of:

.~t.....oJ 'J~ J..il .l,I~ .!.lb ~

- He was rewarded for bravery.

eJ:... -

- You will pay dearly for that. For = In spite of:

(y)

- For ail his merry, he is 110 1 so hrtppy.

J5' 0" r1-)~ -

.\~ ~";~.o..>- / if J \..

- For ail hi s friends he feels

ri' j,

e' ~.JI;

i ...... } '

A

"'! ."li~i

lonesome.

ô.>.oJ .:.s::..L -

(~,J\ J~\)

For - Ouration of time:

_rl,i <-...>-

- 1 will stay there for five days.

i.ll !lLo

.L)IJ

For the lime being

Forever

for the present

Forever and never

\~i) Wb

e' ':10.;

For = Instead of:

_ l j~1

- 1 will act for you.

JI ~

yjL-

cY - e'

From: From '"" Indicating starting point.

_. ( ;;"I..L.l\

~

.r'i

From one place to anothcr

_,,4;)1

From the beginning to the end.

- 172 -

. U) if . ..,..

J! "l5:.. if J! "I..yl if


., UI ?

From morning to night. From top

10

Ct,...J1 i f

.Ji..-Î J! J>-Î i f

bottom.

J!

From hand to mouth .

, •.Ali

From door to door

...,., \,Il

From day to day.

From time to time .

From

...y -'<

if

..r''J ..,...; t.,. ..r''J j tS:..r''J ..:..;)

if

= By reason of:

if

if if

('. ': ".11) "'"' . ~.)lJ-\ ~

He died [rom the accident.

Ü\....

.JL•...,'1 i f .,il.., "!

He is suffering [rom neglect..

From

\.,lI i f if

From hand to hand.

From place to place.

y

·ryJ rY..r''J J?

From house to house. From side to side.

..yI i f

= lndicating prevention:

( ~I

1 cou ldn't stop her [rom doing that.

u-I! o) .z,)ll) 0-!

. .!.\b ~ i f

4-'"

~I

r!

. u ).1 i f • ..\.i;i ..\.il

He saved him [rom death.

From" out of (after):

~

.if." .f ~i .,i!

1 am speaki ng from experience.

./,lfoJ~ ~ '}

Don 't judge [rom appearancc. In:

~ :0 ~ '} 1) ,,1S:l.1 "\,,l

ln = Indicating place and direction:

A bird in hand is wo rth ten

P

if ~

r.; ..yI 1. J &

J~ &

i~ J>- )1 (~') ~I ln: is gcnerally used for large places, cities, towns, and centres . in the bush.

...s;,s:J1 jS1}I) ".Ill ,i~1 ';'>\.o~ '-,-J4 i,~ - 173 -

"IN"

J

J-.-l


Eg: Shc lives in Co nstantine AI: is more generally uscd for smallcr or less important places (suburbs, stations, small villages etc).

'.rr"il) .....i J~I

Ji i~1

J"'SU

;;"...J~ i,~ "AT"

J--l

.( . ... i ~I ",}JI ,..:;,u",:1

gg; He lives at EI-Kouba in Algiers. .......,Wl )1)-, ,'-,.iI1 J J.-< ~! In front of

(~1Y') rL.l

l n the way

J Jl..lJ1 J

ln my way

.h.....)

In the midd le ln the North

For years

For Illonths

In February In April In March

l' • -' -'" ft-"

J,!)J\

.

ln 1982

J if)\" k- J

ln 1971

Il

JjÏ k-

ln 1992

J

J y"';-I J .j<J>

In the South

In = Indicating lime:

: J~

. ~,JI t:J \o.,J ' .) ,,,,Ip 1982 rI. J 1971 rI. J 1992 rI. .}

l''nll .. !d~

For parts of the day: ln the morning

ln the evening

ln aU my life

1n the afternoon

J .ra-J\ J "U\

.."WI .i'"

ln an hour 's time.

J

In three days' time. In the night.

In a week. In: Indicating state:

We were in great danger. Are yo u in good health? He is in love with another woman ..

- 174 -

• •

.(.$?\ 01/1 ~ ~l


]n

"-.I\...~

= ]ndicating reference:

.~}~~L....l

- We are not interestcd in music. - ln reply to your lettc r, 1

,:,Î

have the pleasurc of communicating

Jr- ,~lh.>- ~ b.j ~"'foll -:A..}.il ~Î

to you the rcquired information.

..:.r- rlk .j

- In good order - In such a ease.

•;.)\,1.1 • .i.A

J'- .j

.c:

;.;~W~

- ln comparison with.

......rJ1},hll ~ .r1;.;1.1 .j

- In Arabie style. - In conclusion.

.)..='-~

- In short.

.~ ".r.b!-'j~ ~

- Speak in English In public.

J;-b -..}

]nto:

Jod

Wc use it instead of "]N"

"IN" ~ 'J~

J--'

..s'.}-I ,)sr

to denotc motion.

.j l;yü . .........\.,a11 .j J,~y .y; JI Jy' ., 1I.1

- We jumped into the waler. - He has got in ta difficulties. - He bas turoed into a wolf.

.cil .cil .cil

..,....,. -J4. J4.

Likc: as (such) (resembIing)

. \..LC- .}- .:..;1'

- You are just like me.

'j . cf 1:.11 ~.r.> J'.IA..

- Don't talk like that. - Like a lot of people.

~

...,..s;.. .,a. - ":')1;.,.

Unlike:

:"")1.;.., , J.,.s "'1 ~ 'PAi 'ri JI ..r" "'1 ..."..Î

- Unlike his brother, he is lazy. - Unlike his friend, he

.";'-'-" ~

belongs to a poar family.

- 175 -


Neac: To express proximity: · We had lunch in a restaurant near the university. • 1 live near the school. · 1 don't sit near him.

Of:

& - e' Of = Ind icating origin or cause: (..,..,..JI Ji).I..o1 1 il \"l) if • · Many Africans die of hunger every year. ."-- J> t.y- J yir. ijFil <.1'

.~

• That is very kind of you.

III

fjJ

.r'" if P

· He is ashamed of his son 's behaviour. Of

r.>

• ",,1 0\;

Indicating possession or relationship (~':lUtJ\

';1 .lil

,i ~\ C)~) !.:J-'

- The power of the law.

.wilaJ1o}

- The beloved ofyouth.

.y~1 ~.r..~~I

• The queen of the country.

J.W\ j ô~WI C)~) t:>-' (1,;);I"s:;J\ ,i

Of = Indicating material, creation

or constitution - My watch is made of stainless steel. Î...l...<a.:! - Many humall artificial

o::.L.

'l w..loo...e i f ~~ ?L... ~l:.b...,.:, 'lI ~17-~I i f P

.~~I i f ~~ JL..if'J

parts are made of plastic.

.~ \,. j~ ôt;..~ ~I

Make the best of your life.

.~I)\ 4...-.> ,y W~

A fam ily of five.

(",U;.,.) ~

Of - About (conceming) Have you heard of such a thing? 1 don'l know anything of it. 1 am certain of that.

- 176 -

~1-45'" ~~ d' .....:...-.....i .~..l.b d' ,~ ($Î J.ri 'l .~~ ,y ~b liÎ


â&#x20AC;˘(;;.,.l;..JI -';:JL,JI c>~) cr

Of - Indicating partitive relation

. <,.i,-y

w,;

.<h:l- 1 0"

':r

A piece of music.

A part of the plan.

'0" <,.S

A quantity of.

A lot o f.

'0" / ...:f .::.~

A number of.

" . ~ J.,.;.ll

Of = Indicating apposition:

c>~

The city o f Annaba.

.~\..:s. ~..l,.o

The continent o f Arriea.

.\,.i,)1 i}i

Of = Forming adjective equivalent:

-.......u ,"i$... <Z'~ ,

A man of silence is a man of sense.

. .,;U .lW- 0" jiWI

.c}' 4J~i

Birds o f a feathe r nock toget her.

,o:l~

Off - Away from:

. ~I

Keep off the grass.

.;J)uJl

Get off the table. Switch off the li ght.

.(JI.c,l1

~

-

J

luggage on the balance, please.

The passengers went on board the ship.

- 177 -

.~ 0"

Js-

Js-

C'~I ~l .JyJI .:1-'>1.;/)1

",,1kI-1

letter in the right upper hand corner.

&1

\. '-1'. . <..e

( J l5:.l1 J l"l)

On = Indicating place:

Stick the stamp on the

Jjr

, . .J"JI ,.rI CJ\.>.) y.:..; :r.liJ1 i.f J

.'"e<:;' . - '

On:

yOU f

0"

.~)\..

Take off your clothes.

Put

Js-

.:r """,1

Js- o)l.W\ ~

The plane will take oITat seven o'clock. ).~U\ ~U\ Off side .

Js- J".,kll

Js- ~i ~ . y..JI R J- ",,\5')1 .J..o...> JI,;,l1


On land

ci'}il .)<ci'J '-;1 .)<-

On right

~I.)<-

On earth

r-ill.)<.;-JI.)<JL..!JI .)<-

On the moon On sea On left

6th·?I, ,.\/il ",t,.,J 'c./'"l,. ft"- J} J • ......... 1 ~j! J i""JJ..1 '-:...JI <fi" -V J .~".)I ..'JJ; J

On = Indicating days and dates! · On the Ist of March. · On Friday. · On new year's day · On that day.

,";'.,.Ali ,1 ;;JWI ",t,.,J

On"" Indicating state and condition

.~

· He is here on business.

lA

<il

J .<1..-" J • .(~) ""yl,. J .,,~I R Js. ... JJ..I

· On duty. · On a journey. · On an errand. · On horseback.

.ijH .} .:Jjl,.

·1 am still on holiday.

"'~ - ..,...

ON - Concerning: · 1 have read a book on

J

~ç <1..-"

cr ~l6'

",i;

.li!

.LS:,) Jl ".rJ1

· Columbus' voyage to America.

On = As soon as!

.)~

· On receiving his letter, 1

,.,)L,."

if*--I '.r:--(

.ë,.- 'pl J .:JL..) .<,5"~ '"~I ";i,, "i '.r:--(

sent him the money at once. · On seeing him, she hurst into tea rs. Onto:

J.0

Instead 01 liON' to denote motion:

- 178 -

"ON" if

~ J"" .J.-;-.s :<S"';'1 Js-


- The box feU o nto the ground . - The plane feU onto the

'../J'11 y } cc..,.,JI

J>- .hi.... J)~I ..?

-

c.:. 6, • ; ;lhJI .)1.11

houses near the airport.

yy V

Out of:

- ~\-'-! - VI.;.

Outside of - From

.01..L,l1 Ul>- <s?

He ran out of the field.

Jk;

.;.\;\JI i f

Do not look out of the window.

J..i

'1

He did it out of kindness.

.w.:.JI t'I-,! .!.Il;

Out of sight, out of mind .

.~I;ll ,J- I~ •.;,.JI ,J- I~

..I.AI

Out of danger.

.)J-I ,J- I.e,..,

Ou t of pity.

.w.:.JI y~ if

...,-LV

Out of money .

'-""'Ai -..;,; ..,... -..;,;

Over:

.Ji

Over = Above:

.l...)jJ J}

The sky is over our heads. He is going to hover over Oover. Over

=

On the other side of:

",..... J} ..;.,WI <s-'" "1 .".;.;lll.i'" ..? ;";\k,J. ", ....." ))> <:.t' "";''Y\ -"";I.,J\

Over: More than:

It is no use crying over spilt milk. He will get over his troubles.

..,Jl - .Ji V

.l... )jJ J} i f jAl ..I.AI

He jumped over our heads.

He is over twenty years now.

,L....J\

,

.(1.1.c.;) L

vAi -

0'r-JI J} 0'11

"1

...,.,u-I JIA if p i ,15:,11if ,,) .10,- '1 .....,..b J>- ...,..J;.:, j Y'

~

Round (Around) The earth moves round the sun. News around the world.

- 179 -


.r-<ll

Spacemen went round the

Jy-

Ijlk ,l.a.ill

. ..,:...1/ o~

maon several times.

' .. :w .. -,;.tJ:

Through:

.",.!ll:ft 1)/

They passed through the town . He go t through his examination.

...;\,.,..1

- J-- ..:..)0>,

. L.J..,; -,..,...

We lea rn through crrars.

,\h.>. ':II

~! - ~

To: =

J~J

Indicating point of arrivai

We came ta a turn in the road ..

To "" As far as: He can cou nt fram one ta ten.

op

Ji ..1.>-1) 0'"

1 read this book from beginning ta end . . ~4J1

,

-loo.:! 01 ~

Be kind to yo ur parents.

_

..)! - ~ J}>JI

.)1 ,p; J5" y.c L,... J ) ~L-.-1 0'..ùI}~) rl,.oJl ni- J,.4JI CIl.,.,.! . \..))

.(.!.l,..\JI)

= Marking indirect object:

.~)

Don 't say that ta me.

~

Will yau listen ta me?

. •"

1 will write ta you.

1 want something superior to that.

4J

~)

ç..)

" ' ) " o,;:...v • H~ . _.,",1...00 rJ'---"

4,jJ~\

To .,. Expressing comparison

J JZ '1

J! ~ jA

Leave that ta her.

She bUlOt his letters to ashes.

4il

~ ~\.J.JI if yt:.ÇJl l.k ut}

To "" Towards:

Ali road, lead to Rome.

JI _,r:,-

;;.kA;

....... L!-I J1 '"""P ';1 .J<}>JI.j ~ J1 lLo) ..)! - t.é

1 am gai ng ta the University.

To

j~1

. i.l? i.f.; J ~

A goad idea came through my mind .

To

JI".)

c..t" J ~ :9 -; \ \

..!JJ;' ,i f ~i ~ -'1),

.b\..) ~I ? ..JJL..) ~/"1

- 180 -


To

= expressing degree:

. It is accurate 10 a hai r.

- My wa lch is right to a minu te. ~

To '" In accordance \Vith . .

1.Q.9,

'il...iUSU \..if) .)~",è \ilS -

- They were da ncin g to the tune. - According to the papers..

. . ..;:....\).. • Il W) -

Li.:1 -

- According to plan..

·.JiliU ..As."...,)1 ~

Under:

~ · ,)~1 J~ .

- Accord ing to law..

.~I

- There is a grave under the dame.

J

- He was livi ng under a ralse name.

·U···.;·_)

).)f

J

I~ ~

r""'\ J

- Under a nns.

...1...:0:- ~ -

,r.i

.~

- They sa I under an umbrella.

Lü.) -

'C')l...J\

.:>IS' -

J

.~p ~

- Under ou r law.

. ~\

- Under d iscussion.

. (.,,a.~.Q.H

- Under co nsideration.

J J

-

Until: Preferable a t the beginning of sentences:

.,w.-I ~I",

J

cr> 4J~1

J4 -

Till:

~

, L,.... ';1

Preferable bcfore nouns

Ji 4J1...o::...1 J.<:.i<

i .r-'''1 <J"< L.LI

and short clauses

·tr--';1 '-4'

- 1 will not wait liU next week. - Until then, he laId me

-

. ~ 1 y-

nothi ng about the prablem.

- 181 -

I!,:.

?"

Ji< r-'

.w.i . J

~t J -

~ 'JI

J>- -


.

~

..).:1 :~Î

J! ~i ~

Js'i J!

~ \,> -

From a lowcr to a highcr place: - Let us walk up the hil!.

.J:l1

10

,

.JjL...

- He is up a tree. - Are you going

..,.l!

d . . ;1 -

ri ~I )L,; c: r~ J- -

swim

~oL

down or up the river ? With,

, _ ~ _ ~~ _ ~ _ ~

u J

",.ill,: III compally -Togetlle.. - lit cOlltact:

~ -

- He lives with his stepfathcr.

.~i ,

I ~

C)j

.~\ ~)j

- She lives \Vith her stepmother.

~

_

~ :~

\AoO -

e::

~ ol,j! -

c: ~ 4-il ...!..Lv

- T ake me \Vith you.

~~

.L:...... ,-L:..J\ J,,,l::l

- Come and have dinner with us.

.0.:l~

- He met with a n accident.

.J

-

J\..V -

c!) .ûJ

-

With '" Having .~

- D o Ilo t sleep \Vith the windows open . - She is 100 king for a husba nd

..r.'J

p.o

.ii1.,.J1) ~ ":J -

Jt.. <l CJj J'

~

4'! -

. . ;~I/

c: -

with plenty of money .

- With an cye ta

., Jl..:, t..,; -

- With relation to

With ". In respect ta - In (oollection with - 1 wallt to talk with

yOli.

c:

- Thi s lic does not go \Vith yOUf

oU;.,. - & ..!.1v ":"'..l>d\ --4) ~')\:J 'Y oh ~\ ~j .;-\!~\ ~-4

new su it..

,

- Compare the copies wi th the origi nal.

- 182 -

. ~)!~ J..raJI J).; -


. .., ~ -:....J,; .cil -

- 1 have done with him .

. . C::' .J, J I.J, . . C::' """} lp.-) C::' ~ JI ~ . . C::' r~) ~ C::' i l)WI r.li ~ -

· Hand in hand witb .. · Face to face with .. oSide by side with . - On friendly terms with .. On equal terms with ..

o

,;w.....\.';' ...

With = By means of - by:

. L,.

She fiUed my heart with love .

o

.

~ ,,",)L. .cil

-

.... ~~ "'.?\....

He always begins his

o

-!

I..I.,! Wb

"'1

· lecture with a smile.

.JJI 0-",

· With God's help. - With

=

;JW\ ,i ',;,0\ ",I.,.,J -

Indicating manner:

" '-!..o" ~ <l, ij

- This machine is fragile, it

.J i...,

should be handled with care. o

...,J.i, .c) ...,J.i, -

· With a light heart.

·Cy)

- With ail my heart.

With .. lnspite of: la;...:.

J5:, -

'cr ""~4 - J5 1'1 ..,..,l "1' ,,1) JI" C::' . I~

not a happy pcrson. With ail her bcauty ,

,*'"' -

.J?

· With a heavy heurt.

o

.}~ 01 ..,...".,

..r.f

With great effort.

· With ail hi s money. he is

4---

<J'i'i ,.;.. -

r""'" f.l 414 JI" i f ~)~, .lr.Y-

nobody usked for her hand.

- 183 -

.l.>-I


Within

>, >->

People shou ld live within

.j - J\l,; ~b Âť-'>-

their means.

- ..,......, - ~b

J

I~ .;,i ,-",UI ~ ..,.".,

.

.r-"~~I J~!

...yl J)b

It is within easy reach.

J)

.~L CÂť-'>-

Within an hour.

.j

J~

J

."j)l J\k yi;

Within sight.

lV~ - CJ,-'-!

Without: No t having - free from - out of - beyond .~

- She wen t o ut without his knowledge..

. He asked her

1l0l lO

do

.;,)-';

i!,..;.

JW

J)..Lt ~ /- 'il

4.:..

..Jl, -

.~\y

anything with out hi s conse nt.

."",\:14

- 1 will go with you without fail.

~

____ L -

.. , rL- )

- That gocs without saying .

Il. -

. ~.Y'-'-" .J)..Lt -

- Witholll difficulty.

.).L\ .J)..Lt -

- Wilhout wu rning. - Wilhout notice.

.)\",,;,1 J)-'; .~b

- Without trouble.

J)..Lt -

- Without fear.

.Jy>- J)..Lt -

- Without end.

.,,~ .;,)-';

-

.~L:.:.....\ .J)~

-

- Without an exception.

.~

- Withollt rcsult.

- 184 -

.J)..Lt -


...... ~)I\J~)l1

Idi omatic use of

."..,.JI ':',.el

prepositions ItCommon combinations" Accom pa nicd by . . (A person)

(~ ) . . -!

Y Y'-"-'

Accomp:mied with (sornething)

(,,;.) -!

Y Y'-"-'

..,..,.... - yL....-

On account of

... -!

• Accuse "someone" or ..

''L..

Js-

L..z..;.....!." ~ ~

· Advantageolls 10 .. "someone l1

· Take adVanl<lge or ..

"\..~" ~ v ) ~ ­ (.J..?'-"

· Affected by ..

~~)

-!

;6

~

. (,.,;.) (~) J' ...A!l;. -

· Arraid o r ..

(~)

• Agree \Vith .. · Aim at ..

c::

c:: ~ . . JI j-", -

.jly. -

(~) J' -,...;,~ -

· Angry \Vith. • Ambit io us o r ..

J>- <>ü JI ci"-'-- -

• Anxiolls abo ut .. · Anxious ror ..

J)~-

· ApologÎse 10 .

.

· Apologisc ror ..

..&. ..t;,uCT ) •

JI J---'" -

· Appeal to .. · Appeal against .

J

).JI ;'"'1 ~ - ....o;L., -

Ji ..Jl"

· Apply 10 ..

. .J

· Appropriate to .

- 185 -

1"')1,.. r~


. . J." .jl)/ - fi . Cr.'-- ~\5:...) J! J..o< . ~ 0\5:...) J! J..o< . .0" Je..> -

- Approve of .. - A rrive at .. - Arrive in .. - Ashamed o f .

. û,:. .,J....,

- Ask for . .

0i

JL., -

lA>...:.

.. (~) J." ~ (Jo>- J) .. C' !I.;-'--

- Ask about . . - Associated with ..

­

-

('-'-" \..) J .;.>-"-' -

· Astonished at .. - Aware of . .

!IJ o-

. J."

· Bascd on .. - Belicve in . .

..

J

r;' -

. .

J." .r-"r -

t.1)

~,yJ;

,-< r-I~

-

J~

-

('->....all) . . J ...,... -

· Beneficia i to ..

. (c,J» 0-") 0"

- Beware o f . .

i fr

i-

. . J." r}, (i,~) . . .:r ~ • -< <lAJ1 &'< -

- Blame for . . - Break of .. · Break with . - Burst into tears ..

. . \,5"4

- Borrow from .

.. 0"

- Cali on ..

~

J'A -

. (lA>...:.) (~)

· Cali to ..

-

J)j! -

.. J." ,pL,

-

. (\.. lA>...:.) y-" -

- Cali for . .

. J." J,li J." i JJ.A..

- Capable of . . · Capacity for . .

- 186 -

-


.. JJ-+- -

· Ca relcss o f .. · Cautio us of ..

.:/ <..!'.?"-" - .:/

· Certa in of . .

JS'h. -

· . if

· Certificate of ..

(i.".-JI 0-"")

)J..>. -

i>4-!- -

-i

. J! Jy., -

· Change in to .. - Characterised by . · Charge against .. · Take cha rge of .

(~) J...;.

<..;; -

. (......) YJJ-o

Ji'< -

(u,.;. )

· Come across ..

~)

..... ,1...>,

-

· Come iUlQ fo rce . .

J.,Ml1 ~)L.. C7"" -

- Come to pieces ..

. .

-

...:..;.i.:.. -

· In com pari so n with . .

· t:::

~)i1,

-

· Co mpensate with ..

· .~

~r.

-

,

- Co mpe te with ..

· . t:::

- Complain of . .

· . i f ~­

· Composed of ..

. . if

..,-iIz, -,S J'

-

· Concentrate o n ..

· . J&- ;?; -

· COllcerned with ..

. r<' Ji ..;--- L.~

- Confess to ..

.....r<

-

. . -i~ ­

- Co nnected with . . ~

· Conse nt to ..

-

-i

cs-"..< -

· . J 1)\,:>1 -

· Considerat ion for . .

(~)

· Co nsult with ..

- 187 -

t:::

)J~ -


.. ., Jb1 ~­

- ln contact \Vith . .

. c::

- Correspond \Vith.

~

- Jiu., -

- Cou nt for nothing ..

l!,.:. <f) L, 'i -

- Deal with ..

· . c:: J-k, "~llj~. .J J -

- Decide on .

'-'

- Depan from ..

.. -J'.Y-.t..~~­

- Depend on upon . - Deprive of . .

. -J' (~)

r.r< -

- Desire for . .

.. J

~J-

· . ~ rj1>- -

- Determined in .. - Devote . . ta

.J-~-.f.f.,-

- Die from ..

· .

- Differ from ..

.J'~­

-J'~"­

.J'~­

- Different from .

.

- Difference of opinion . .

. <fÎ)I

- Disappoinled of .

(~ ~ r')

j)8.1 -

J ,1.,-)1

-,.lI.,- -

- Disapprovc of ..

(t.. l!,.:.) ~ -

- Dismiss .. from ..

..-J' .. ';"-

- Displeased \Vith . .

(~)-J"L.. -

- Distinguish .. from ..

. . J'

~-

. (t.. ,,;-) J é.J..:. -

- Doubt about . . - Due ta ..

(t.. ,,;-)

- 188 -

Ji ~Ij

-


- Emerge from . .

. . .:r .h<

- Employed at ..

.J ,.

- Engaged in ..

-

-..iJ;y -

~ J~ -

.bN ,..... l..

- Envio lls of . .

(~)

- Equal in ..

. . J '" JL.... - J,l..o . .:r

· Escape from ..

J

y ft' -

.:r J'>'<

-

-

. c: L. t.:,.:. J,,, -

- Exchange .. with ..

· J J.!-i< .,/'" J ":J.-? t3< . • ", .. Î J t3< . } ....:"il J j,r." -

- Fail in , ' - Fall in battle . . - Fall into the hands of. · Fall in priees . .

"""' p.o / (L.

· Familiar with , .

~) J ..;,"'-" .

.

. . J .....}L. ,

- Familiar to ' .

(L.~)dU -

· ln favour of , .

. . .:r JI>.,

· Fear of ..

-

- Fear for . .

. ~ JI>., -

· Feed on ,' ,

.

~

cG';';'" -

. Je-Î.:r e~

- Fight for. ,

. .J..;, YJ~

· Fight against . ,

· .

- Filled with .. 10

- Fife inta upon , ,

' ~J

J

· Set fire to . .

~

-

,j.(-

UI .,L -

)UI

~

J-'; -

· . J JI'! -

- Fit for . ,

- 189 -


· . r./"" -

- Fond of .

~

C?J') .}<- ~ -

- Gel over .. - Get on wi th .

· pL, -

- Get throllgh ..

· j~-

. J .:J.l - J }'L;, -

- Grateful to ..

.

(~)

.}<- J Ï'"

-

- Hesitate at ..

· !./

-

- Identical with . .

· J Li,u,.. -

- Ignoran t of ..

· ., joie- -

- Grieve fo r. - Guilty of . .

(ci'J')

- Immune against ..

.i.-;, ~ -

..}<-

- Impatient for . . - Increase in .

~~..?

(>.wl) ..

J

"'..> -

· . cr Ji'-.- -

- Independent of .. - lnferio r to .

· if

· yi 11t:.

. . i f ';.J.; -

- Instead of .. - Innocen t of . .

(<....;;) if 'tf p . J,'

- Involved in ..

· ."

JY-

. cr }iJ1 J"o<

- Irrespective of . .

-

- Jealo us of ..

. . i f JY- -

- kin with ..

· . J! r"'< . . J Cl;.;.. -

-Keyto.

- 190-


- Kind to ..

J.,.a..:. -

· • -!

- Lack of . .

. . J!}.i';! -

- Liable to ..

· . J ;";'.f' -

. Js.

- Limited to ..

(,:i....) ')-'--- -

. .ri if ~ -

- Live for . .

. . J! J"-'., -

- Long for . . - Look for . . - Look after ..

· . . "'" . .. J I .. -

~

- Look al ..

~

- Loyal to .. - LOSl

. ~

.J

J~­

.. (~)

in ..

.. .j

- Made in ..

("15:..) .;

- Made of . .

(• .,;.) i f

J}~ -

t.."...... t.."...... -

. . r+".' (i}_>-) '/Y" -

- Make o ul . . - Make up for . . - Makc a fool of ..

• • -!

- Martyr to ..

(<.)-1) J

I..,i+.! -

"'*' -

(\.. '..?) . . '))r- -

- Necessity of . . - Neglect of ..

(..,...".I}I)

- Obedient to ..

.

- Object to .. - Occupied with .. - Occur to ..

.

- 191 -

Jl.A! -

.J~­

. Js.

J'r< -

~).,

Jy..:..-

(~)

J ;..;.., -


(~)

· Of great use 10

,J,st; ); -

('..r-)

· Parallel 10 .. ~ith

'r.?

(J&.) J ..".1... -

· Opposi te to ..

· Participate

J

('..r- J

..

~)

J jI... -

c: !l? -

. , (J&.) i f ~ -

- Pass from .. - Pass for . .

( J .,."...) ..,. WI ..,....., -

- Patient with ..

"C:

- Pleased with .

(~) i f J).r-' -

· Pleased at .. · Prejudice against ..

('..r-) i f

J).r-' -

..c;, ..,....,.,

)i!:rJ ~

, . J -""--< -

- Prepare for . .

J_ -

. i f I!,:- (~)

- Prevcnt from ..

. . .:.r-

· Profit by ..

-

0 -

~

-

- Protect from .. - Proud of ..

.

.

-!)~

-

· Providc \Vith . .

.-:1 • • )).).-

- Recover from .

"if~-

.. J I

• -

· Refer to ..

.

· Regard for.

, , J IJ\,:<I (~)J

- A relation of . .

~

y)-

, J Jil... )i ..,.....\:.. -

- Relevant to ..

" J>- -'---"" -

· Rely on ..

- 192 -


- Rcmarkablc for . .

.J

· Rcmedy for . . · Rcmolc · Repent

1..,., -

·y

from .

C~-

r-'" -

· . .)s-

of ..

• . -!

· Replace by ..

J~­

· . .)s- '';1 -

· Rcpl y lO ..

. .'

· Rcspond to ..

.J~-

- Rcsult from ..

· .y

- Rcvcngc on .

.. if~­

- RUIl

,

into ..

r~/ J .1).f< -

. if ifL..

from .

..y~­

for . .

· . J!

- Seek aCter ..

c<"-' -

. y . . J.o.i, -

- Separate .. from ..

. . (t....>..:.)

- Set upon ..

.)s-

· Shoot at ..

1'"""4< -

)81 ~ -

· . J! p. -

- Short of ..

- Sick of ..

J-

. . y .....I)-

- Satisfied wÎth . · Search

r-""< -

. . (1,.,.0;) '-" -

· Run throllgh .. · Safe

.

" ···if jL;.;.1 - if

r- - r? . J "Le.. -

- Similar lO ..

- Smile al ..

- 193 -


. (ik>.) J ......... i

· Sorry for . . · Speak o f .. - Speak on behalf of .. - Stand by ..

(IL

--») -

· Stand against .

1..

-

·J'F.J'WF ~ -.,...;l". J! --») · . J cS -'-"" -

ci}..J1

- Stare at ..

"1.. ~" ..".)

- Stare in the face of "someone"

J~ -

ci J1.>.,

-

J...., i-'! -

· To starl by doing .

(1.. ,.;-)

- Strugglc for.

. . ~i cr ~l5:, (ü~JÂ") .. ~

- Subjcct ta ..

J>;'" -

· . Il C:"" (J>h j jl> -

- Succeed in .. - Sufficicnt for . .

..j~)l. -

- Suitable for . . · Sure of . .

· . cr .l5'L -

· Suspect of ..

·.

j

~

• ••

~

-

- Suspected of .

c?

- Sympath ize with ..

<iL!. l'';'w. -

- Take after .

(;."... i,~)

- Take to .. · Take up ..

J)..., -

(i;:;

ci ~ -

..;=1 i<t}l> ~l5 .i.>.Î ...,~

· Take upon oneself . .

l.h.i:Il -

Js- lA -

- Take advantage of ..

· '-"-" .iP- -

· Take heed to .

· . J! ...,., - 194 -


- Take hold o f ..

'-J"'-> -

~

(L. ~)

- Talk over ..

J'

é

~ I.j"f­ ..J~ ­

- Thirst o f . .

. J! r--?- -

- Trans late into ..

- Unjust to .

. .J

. J tJ'

- Vcrsed in .

(~)

- Wa it on .. - Withdraw from ..

)Î -

... .l.>

~lb -

cf." -

J>- t -'"

-

'if~-

- Worth of . . - Yield to . .

~

/(<LG) u"c, -

J

- Think over ..

.' --

~

..~.f.~-

(.;:,10, -'i')

J

,...t--'-'

i(L. ~) J

i::".JI -

(;JI.wI) J ~ -

- Zealous for . .

- 195 -


J- Jnterjectiolls and exclamations:

CO

,...:JI.>

~W\ c:,~\

1

c.JW-\'\ -2 ,.;0\ c.J1.:.J>\ -3

2- Contractions 3- Irregular verbs

The interjection is merely a word or sound used to express a sudden feeling or emotion, and does not enter into the construction of a sentence.

} )~ if .",& ~ v J-" Ji

;ws- , ft" Ji' ~WI ~I

.l..l...f- 1 ...,..? j ~

l' ~ 'JI if

To express ;or.

Hurra 1 Hurra. ~

ci J.>- J; 'JJ ;;.:".W ;w,~ c?/ 'c?/

ii}- 1 if

To expl'ess gl'ief.

;w..JJI if

- To express surprise.

J.,! Î:;J 1 if

T0 express approval.

~

..,....:l \ if

To express weariness. ~

""...u

! ..:....:.-.>Î

Bravo!

Heigh

""..u ,1

Ah! Oh!

~

""..u o}

Oh!

~

""..u

""..u

,i - ,I} ,t,:;)l1 -,Jkl

Ho !

.I.,:;'J 1 ..,.Jhl

To l'equire attention.

Lo! Rush!

.

'•- " ''1

Hark ! Hist 1 ~

.....;,..al Ji r}ll if ""..u

To express repl'oo{.

! ..r'I - l,;

Fie!

- 196 -


- Ta exp,.esl' colltempt or ridicule, Tush ! 1 Pshaw 1 Pooh - T0 alll'act attentioll,

Hey! Hi 1

.,.,,&

..,.."..;1\ ..,.

! \,>-/

Hello!

')\>\

,.".,..:11 MI

Excla matorv sentences:

- How!

-

Whal!

!..,.J U) \,. -

- How wen he plays !

~ .JÎ .!.-L- ....;.,kI Y' ~ -

- How nice of you 10 come

!W)~)

to sec us !

!4J-Î \,. -

- How beautiful she is 1

!!l}5:;Î ~Î \,. -

- What grand ideas you have!

!o~Î \,. -

- What a fool he is !

!."..

- There she is !

!~ J]\,

- ln yo u get !

1..> -

y,Î -

!.r---< ..,s)l Y' 1..> -

- Thcrc goes the drive! - Away went ail his we:tlth ! - Herc cOllles Mohamcd !

- \97 -


[ Contractions] ln English there are a number of contractions of words which are used in speech, and in wriring which reproduces spoken language, for ex ample drama, direct speech in navels and short stories, personal letters. It is important that the Icarner should Icarn and make use of these contracted forms if he n'auts his cnglish ta sound lIarural. When contractions are writren, the t\Va words are shortened by omitting onc or tn'a Ictters and joining the words together. The letters rhat are omitted are represented by an apostrophe (') when contractions arc spoken, the tn'a words are shortened by omitting sante sounds and pronouucing the t\l'a words as one.

- 198 -


• [Contractions] IPersonal Pronouns + verb

l 'm l'\'C

l'II l'd

---+__

----+

__

JMlI+;~\I

lam 1 have 1 will 1 ",ould , 1 had

you've ----+- you ha,'c you' lI ----+ you will you' d - - you would, you had

shc's shc'II shc'd

ifs it'Il ~' c'rc

wc'"c we' lI wc'd

----+- he is, he has

__ he will ---+- he would, he had

---

she is, she has she will she would, she bad

they're ---+thcy' ,·c ----+ they'lI ---+thcy'd ----+-

can Dot

Couldn' t daren't didn't - doesn' t don't hasn't hal'cn't hadn' t mightn' t - mustn't nccdn't - oughtn't - -

could not dare not

must Dot need not ought not

shan't - -

shall not

shouldn't - ",asn't wcren't - won't - ",ouldn't - -

should not was not were not will not would Dot

did not

does not do Ilot has not have Dot had not tnight Ilot

".". 11. ". 11 _". ".11. ". hrr common conlrarlio/U .sr! r-l5'

- - it is - - il will

---

Can',

- -- -----

you're ---+- you arc

hc's he'lI he'd

l''V";"e-r"Ob---'+-'-IO-t--,,.i:!-: ·-::·,:-+'--J.<iI:-:·::I'1

wc are wc ha\'(~ wc will wc would, wc had Ihey Ihey chey Ihey

arc ha\'c will ",ould, Ihey had

herc's how's that'd that'II th:lt'S there's what' Il - ",ha Cs ",hen's wherc's who'd who' lI

who's

- 199 -

";"";/Ip'i

here is how is that would that will that is there is ",hat will? what is? when is? where is? who would? who will? who is?


Qrregular verbSJ IThe

11l00't! WU!

infinithc

).l..Al 1 ~

paste simple ~1~UI

B,

was

Bear

r-I~-~-.-,="=-\-~-.---,-,-\-t)-'\..:.J-'-\-J-w-·C'' '\I

f/l/ ol/eJI

1 \Yerc

past participle

J-AJI

~."...,I.o

present par[ici~

J-o'II

1

~?

t~WIJ J....,a'

Been

Bcing

Bore

Borne

Seaming

Beat

Beat

Bealcn/Beat

Sealing

Become

Recame

Decome

Becoming

Bll'cd

Bled

Bled

Dlccding

Bless

BlcsscdfBlcst DlcsscdfBlcst

Blessing

Blow

Bic\\'

810\\'11

B10wing

Break

Broke

Broken

Brcaking

Dring

Broughl

Broughl

Bringing

Broadcasl

Broadcasling

BuHl

Building

Broadcast

Broadcast

~I

1)

C7"'Î I~J

I<J'S' j\i. I:r-- 1;':' I:J), 1j;J. (A')~ /py;'

\~ /,) I.:P /-~ " \ ~! I~) /;,r )

...il\ &-

/oJ'jj j!J)4

4 /UJ~ ,..

~ /J.:.l lrS ~î I~ 1~~1i; ~ /;J It11\ ~L!.. 1J4 Irijj I~ , ' \ 1j11(" v'~I• (" <Jr_ -.J?i

8uild

Built

Burn

Bumt/Burncd Burnt/Burncd

Buy

80ught

80ught

Buying

Cast

Cast

Cast

Casting

Catch

Caught

Caught

Catching

tt;;! IJoS! 1~:J.l:-! .,,-JI .) t) l2>jj IJiI .:.;i 1.. ~ 1..., <.wl

Choosc

Chosc

Choscil

Choosing

..:..J,.;.;! ,~' !I {-~I . ..r-,) -

Come

CllIliC

COIIIC

Coming

~~

C",,'

Cost

Cost

Costing

Ji?

Co,

Co,

Col

Cutting

Dare

Darcd

Darcd

Daring

Dcal

Dcalt

Dcalt

Dcaling

&" I~ IOl

Dig

Oog

Dug

Digging

~/);-

Di\"{'

Dh'cd/Dm'c

Dh'cd

Divillg

Duming

- 200 -

-.»

,. ..;.l /~ ii~ 1.s'.JJ. I:;:..!). !j~

j,ill 1".,. 1..-" 1.rSJ


j.;i I~

Donc

Doiog

Drew

Drawn

Drawing

Drc-lun

Dremllt

DrcamtfDreamed Drcllming

Drink

Orank

Dru"k

Drinking

Drin'

Drol'c

DrÎl'cn

Driving

Dwt'll

Dwelt j Dwelled DweltfDwellcd Dwclling

E"

Ale

Eatcn

Eating

I<"all

Feil

rallcl!

Falling

F,ro

F,d

F,d

Fecding

"\Ok jj6 /jii 1..<,. Ii!j 11L '.Ill, t-";i 1..<'" 1~i

Feel

FeU

Feil

Feeling

.;-:1 1,:,-:.l 1~i

Fight

Fought

F'ought

Fighting

Find

round

round

Finding

;) 1ft I~j

Flee

Fied

Fied

F'lccÎng

~I !~f' l'}

Fl~'

Flew

F'lowIJ

Flyillg

Forbid

~"or bad /Forbade

ForbiddcnjForbid Forbidding

"J' j .. lé:' IJo?

Forget

Forgot

Forgotten

forgctting

'<- I:r' ,

Forgiw

Forgal'c

ForgÎl'cn

Forgivillg

~ l'pil~

Forsake

Forsook

Forsa kcn

Forsakillg

J>.; I:J} IJii

Forswear

Forswore

Forsworn

Forswca ring

Frcezc

Froze

FrnzclI

F'r('czing

Got

Go!

Go!

GClling

Gin

Ga\'c

Ch'cn

Ch-jug

(~ ~r l .;r) ..:.Jj I:w.. • ,.w I;?' 1";' .}A'-'->j Ij.<i

G.

Went

GOlle

Going

..r-- 1...,..;.1

GrOIl

Grew

Crowl!

G rowing

é...,j I~i 1.).) ,)

Hallg

Hung

HUlIg

Hanging

J" I~ 1»

Ha\'e

Hod

Ho'

Bayillg

Hear

Hcard

Hcard

Hcaring

Hide

Hid

HiddclI/ Hid

Hidillg

Do

Oid

Drill\'

- 20 1 -

J~~ Ir- î I~ I~~ (Id) ~i) I~

U

l'-!p

.)1ë~ I~.,j

{.JI,;.

y. lilii l j j I:f..:.

",,!

J.'>é 1i:!'S Iyû •

:P U" •

&' Il;...j .f;i 1_

" .:)Ji

.wi . .,lJi 1"" r1:'-"' I~ 1';';'\

r-


Hil

Hil

Hit

Hilling

Hold

Held

Hcld

Holding

Hutl

Hurt

Hurt

Hurting

.,,'

KepI

Kept

Keeping

Knell

knelt/KnecJcd Knclt/Knceled

Knceling

Knil

Knit/ Knitted

Knit/ Knitted

Knitling

Know

Knew

Kllown

Kllowillg

L.y

Laid

Laid

Layillg

L"d

Led

Led

Leading

Lean

Leallt/Leallcd Lcant/Lcallcd

Leallillg

Le.,

Lcapt/Leapcd Leapt/Leapcd

Leaping

Lutn

Learnt/ Learned Learnt/ Learne Learning

Lea\'c

Lert

Lert

Leaving

1.<,d

Lent

Lellt

Lending

Lei

Let

Let

Letting

LI'

L.y

Lain

Lying

"":,,l..Pl/~ I~~ -< WI 1J'

J.;i l.iJ-.;j

~) l,Ji 11S~1 ~I...P 1':";1- l!/,lJ ~-J1 .=.

1"'-. li!-J

~! I~I li", d .. " ); Iil' {Jj • "-'>\ 1:'" 1t:'- j ... Jjl!.jl Ij~ I~J I~ti '- '1 Ij" - - -J' \50, l ","1; l')l j.:,ij

,

.,,>-, J' ~I l:r); l,k fo 1.j:.,:.:J' /j~'!j, .}>Ji / ,jÎ;. Ij~l

r::..:.

I~~j (:J) I~j

t'PIJL'I~'

.!.lill .:, I~}i _ ".f'_

Lie

lied

Lied

Lying

Lighl

Lit/Lighlcd

Lil/Lighted

Lighting

Le~

Lost

Le"

Losing

Make

Mnde

Made

Making

Mean

Meanl

Meanl

Meallillg

jj li} 1,,-;

M~I

Met

Met

Meeting

~! Ijd 1,)

Meil

Melted

Melted

Mclting

Misgh"c

Misgn\'e

Misgiven

Misgivillg

Misspend

Misspcllt

Misspcnt

Misspellding

MISlake

Mistook

Mistaken

Mistaking

,;.-; Ii-'j lii.;i

Ouldo

Outdid

Ouldone

Ouldoing

J' J)'i Ij~

Oulgroll"

Outgrew

Oulgrown

Outgrowillg

jjJ /jûl h~j

jL {i"J' 1;#1 1-r---t:.;i I~"" ~i It?

..

..:.J,.!..

~! Itl; 1~11

.

.

ôJI?- jlS.JJ

,

.;

~.f.\âJ1JIJI

.j;:.l Ij~ ItJW'jl J ~\Jl

(li;I);f Il) .~ J~ ~'"}.;.~..:..iI:'J

- 202 -


-. •" 1'·1i )J , 1.:.Ji ,

On'rlK'ar

O"crborc

Ovcrborne

O,'erbearing

On'rcalllC

On~'rcame

Overcome

O\'crcoming

On'rôa

Overdid

O"crdollc

Overdoing

On~ rh('ar

Oycrheard

Overhen rd

On~ rh cnrdi n g

Q,'crrull

Ol'errnn

Ol'errun

O"crrunning

On!rscc

O,'crsaw

Oversecn

Overseeing

"'" . ,:... ),.J",' It::d'. J- .).r:j l.;.i,. )

OH'rlake

Overlook

Overtakcn

Ol'ertaking

.;i~ l(i;'~) ~JLf

Ol'erlhrown

Orcrthrowing

O"('fChrow OYerlhrew Po'

Po.

Po.

Pulling

Rl'UÔ

Rend/Red

Rend/ Red

Read ing

Ridc

Rode

Ridden

Riding

Ring

Rang

Rung

Ringing

Rise

Rose

Riscn

Rising

Run

Ran

Ron

Running

Sawed

Sawn

Sawing

S'Y

Sa id

Said

Saying

So<

Saw

Seen

Secing

Sel!

Sold

Sold

Selling

'"

Senl

Seut

Sending

Sot

Set

Set

SectLng

Sc\\'

Sewed

Sewn/Sewed

Sewing

Shake

Shook

Shaken

Shaking

Sha"e

Shal'cd

Sha ved/Shal'Cll Sha "ing

,rnI

1J~

;.il 1J- .;.i;i .)r'/J~ I~, ~lj?! /Ui

c.-U;i 1.:.Ji . l é,."

• ~ I.;J; It'-;

'" 18U; li) 'p' 1,,",,' l.:,.s; ~j '.~

l " .,

tt~

1~1~ : I /t? 1

).

Shone

Shone

Shining

Shul

Shul

Shut

Shulting

Sing

Sa ng

Sung

Singing

Sink

Sank/Sunk

Sunk/Sunkcn

Si nking

Sic

Sa.

Sa'

Sitting

- 203 -

).

"'ft 1,,-,. 1j5; ;!J

.J'i I,k; IJoJ,

A I).J 1,,1; t, , .. 1J;.·i) ...... ..•. /o,:;. /~j .

K

J);)

,1';'

t) 1';

ji;. 0:::

Shine

It) !j~

••

.)lU It: I~

:w.ji l jii l;foi

4

l:..\li l,fi

('N.. ,j"jI') :Ji

"""


.üJ Irti

Siccp

S icpt

Sicpt

S leeping

Siide

S Iid

Siid

S iiding

Smell

S Olcll

Smell

S melling

50.

Sowed

Sown/Sowed

Sowing

Speak

Spokc

Spoken

S pcll king

~ /",rl /~

Spced

S pcd

Spcd

S pccding

j;.t Itr i

Spcll

S pclt

Spelt

S pclling

Spcnd

Spellt

Spent

Spendillg

Split

Split

Split

S plitting

SpoU

Spoilcd/Spoill Spoiled/Spoih

Spread

S prcad

Sprclld

Spreading

Spring

Spnmg/Sprung Sprung

S pringing

';' 1.»' /)) • Jo; là. ) 1-;'

Stand

S tood

Stood

St:lIuling

rit I":

Sicai

S tole

Stolen

StcaJing

Stick

S tuck

St uck

S tieki ng

Sirike

Struek

St ruek

St rikillg

~~" u.:Jt 1: ;(,i·l/~j./~~ J. "

S lrÎl"t'

Slro\'c

St rh'clI

Strivi ng

~~ ';Jl.d J~ /Ù.,lo:- J)~

Sunburn

Sunburncd

S Ullburncd

Su nburning

Sl\"eilr

Sworc

Sworn

Swearing

;-Ji I~

Sl\"cep

Swepl

Swepf

Swccping

::'"ft 1;,-5

S"-im

5wam

SWllm

Swimnling

S\\-ing

5wulig

Swung

Swinging

Took

Tllken

Taking

Teach

Taught

Taught

Tcach ing

) 1",;; 1';'

Tear

Tore

Torn

Tearing

Jl' 1;':' If:!.l

Tell

Told

Told

Telling

Thfnk

Thoughl

Thought

Thinking

j~ 1j:.; lfJ

Throl\"

Threw

Thrown

Throwing

(~~) /~J /..jjj

llke

,/'1 :1- 1(#') ~tjlt ~

~ I..jPJ~t

J ~yt J~

J;W~I " " "'" l.fo G) ..... 1::';:' l';<i ·- -·~t ..,....,-

1:;;_ (-. !.r'

~j- I..:.illl/~l

.-

Spoiling

- 204 -

..:..;..It I~

:.~l! I.jjJ

~! /j:?

.;,.iJ If) 1))

..,...;. '-'" .(.,..-\JI)

f>.:-

(~~) ..:..JJJ)! I~

.;.i; IcJ 16 J> (-) .Al I• .iwi I~i

(I.jJf-)

.s)J I~~ (;;\


Tread

Trod

Trod/Trodden

Treadillg

Undergo

Uliderwent

Undergone

Undergoing

Undersland UlII.lerstood

Understood

Undcrstanding

Undcrtake Undcrtook

Undertaken

Undcrtaldng

Undo

Undid

Undone

Undoing

Uphold

Uphcld

Upheld

Upholding

Upsct

Upset

U"",.

UpscUing

Wake

Woke/Waked Woken/Woked Waking

Wur

Wore

Wed

(~)- ;j..1(' ,j;) - 1~ J,JJ - ..,.

p

fj:J fJ~ f"':-~

F' f~ • (J-lI) fJ'Y f~ - • -"i f,r

.

~i IJJo,,;.

jili fU j f.;.ii (loaj.J")

ft

14i~ 'J

Wearing

,,:';-1 J _ f~ ;

Wed/Wcdded Wedded/ Wed

Wedding

Weep

Wcpt

Wept

Weeping

t)J ft)j f~)

Wei

Wetted/ Wet

Wet/WcUed

\Vetting

Win

Won

Won

Winning

)

Wincl

Winded

Winded

Winding

~ - l.~ .. i~l.C:.' - - ~ C;

Writc

\Vrote

\Vritten

Writing

Wom

- 205 -

(.:..;.j

.Jo. ..<Jl;!)Jli -.

,~

f.:..d -

J? IfJj~ l':;s


Proverbs

* The appetite COIlles ",;,Ir elltillg. * To

g"ellf evils great remedies

,Ij' :1, ~

",U; i..,1S! i.l..1 r~)U

* The,"e is /lever profit j;oOlIl ill-gottell gains

•• • 1.;:;1.~ ' - 'J

* Good accounls make good !demls ,!,j.,I.;}jl ~ Ü.lJ.JI .:..~~I ,... ~ : ,,,,'l';u, -'1'1 " '1'1 * Great minds think alike (JJ

_

.

-r

* Il's hy working at the forge ,hat yOIl become a blackmitlt 1511> i;.o.Jl'C:;"'-! . , ;,IWL . • ; •

~Ij \.jÎ.;

* Two heads are better rlrall olle

Ù""

~ ~~i.J

* Tel/me who your [demis a~e, 1 will tell )'011 what yOIl are ., " " ' " ., ';';1 ~ .;U J.".; 1 ~~ ~ .,..! Ji

;~WI :J~ 1LlJI , , , ...

* The exception p"oves the r"le

ll.... "1 f,r.J ' •• - ..._WI _ ... .Y

* The end justifies the ",ean * rhe,.e is /la smoke wil/lOut a fire

*

J\:' ~ .:.~, ~ •

You mllst strike while the iron is hot

,

"",

L:>L:.. - . 1. . . ',-1, LA ",,;;'1 -. '-'.-. - 206-

. .

......

~

-


* II is only Ille firSI Siep Ihal is diffeull ". .

.,

I,

..J-' ~ 1 j.,.b.:l.1 ...; ;J.,.b.:l.1 fr5J * Dog doesn'( eat dog * An eyefor an eye, a 100tll[0l' a footl, ! <Il, ! "- 1-' ,0vJl, V - . V ,_ . ~I _

*

YOli

l'ecogllise

,

the ("ee

,

:;

,

by ifS fruits L.~~ ~ o~ 1 u':;;

* Who lives by the sword shall die by tire sword U:..!Jl,..:;, '" ù...!Jl, -• .,....,.. __ • o..,4!J~

': ' Ü""

~

..:;,...., .....il,-!JI -

* Who sows the wùtd, Reaps the storm

;';""WI L..;.; " 1 <-.J.J< ~,. , Ü"" :' , , - (;!.J'

..

'

"

.

.-

..,...:. ~I .!lI:' ~ J;..!JI .!lI:' ,

* Like falher, like son

,

"

* Where there's a will, there is a wuy ~51.J)'1 o~.J 4S.~)'1

.

,

,IJoUI

* Who ",ishes Ihe end ",ishes Ihe mealls

* Birds of fealher j/ock logelher

- 207 '

"'"

.... :

,

~ J!L:..:;J~ ,, "

~ 1.f.1~1 ~

t

.:,...;.6.11


-


Pupil's

E GLISH Gral11l11ar English - Arabie Explanation of the English Grammar Rules Rectified and Reviewed by: MR. Dammene D. Fayรงal m

A New Print

.~

- ."

قواعد اللغة الإنجليزية  
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