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P O P - U P F R O ST // F O G P A V I L I O N A L ! A L a b o r a t o r y | C l a u d i a M. | Y a s m i n e V. these 3:

material properties weather conditions | fog, frost surroundings | space contents

have an influence on :

visibility | density, transparency flexibility

influences working them in our advantage by : making them stronger reducing them

[1] Diagram explaining the field of investigation

When analysing the characteristics of fog and frost, we encounter two main defining aspects. Fog is bound to its capacity to change density and influence visibility//translucency. Frost is able to transform s­ urfaces by shifting its appearance and density//texture//flexibility. By choosing ­different materials, weather conditions and spaces, we can i­nfluence these two main parameters; visibility and flexibility. By working them in our advantage (making them s­tronger, r­educing them) at the same time the material, weather conditions and s­ urroundings are influenced. [1] Prestressed-membranes; This structural form allows the use of d ­ ifferent materials to create its tense/stressed shape. The interest lays in testing the layering, translucency and flexibility of the membrane, and how ­changing one or more aspects can influence the space and appearance of the construction. How can we figurally produce fog and frost?

The intention is to create fog and frost by an analogy with choice and use of material. The first purpose is to show the light ­diffusing ­properties of fog by layering the translucent material, like as frost also layers up. By adding layers the d ­ ensity of the membrane changes through the incidence of light and so does the t­ ransparency; a new space/atmosphere is created. The second purpose is to refer to frost as a rigid, vast phenomenon, by choosing a rigid, non flexible material and refer to fog as a floating, changing phenomenon, by choosing a soft, flexible material. With the knowledge of the previous experiments the third and forth probe will use these different materials to create a space/atmosphere/ environment. A no-time-speed lapse was chosen. There is not any connection to the actual presence of fog and frost, i.e. early in the morning or when the sun is setting again in the evening. An analogy of frost and fog is created, so at any time fog and frost are figurally present. [2]

[2] Diagram explaining time and situation

Some places tend to contain more favourable conditions for the ­formation of fog and frost than others. Fog and frost appear in places with little wind, like valleys, away from the ocean where the ­temperature differences between night and day are bigger, and of course in colder environments. The purpose is to create a pop-up pavilion that can be put anywhere in the world and lets you experience fog and frost, even in a desert where it is hot and dry all the time. [2]

PROBE MATERIALS | VISIBILITY A L ! A L a b o r a t o r y | C l a u d i a M. | Y a s m i n e V. P L A S T I C M E S H // One Layer: The mesh fabric has a transparent appearance. The multiple holes ­forming the fabric’s structure allow for this material to proportion a wide range of vision. It’s strict hexagonal form resembles the structure of frost, and its transparent properties could be compared to fog and frost. Two Layers: When layered, the visibility decreases but not to a significant point. The transparency of the material gets slightly disturbed, however it is hardly noticeable.

T R A N S P A R E N T P L A S T I C B A G // One Layer: The plastic bag diffuses most of the light that comes through. Objects appear blurry and uncertain. It looks like objects behind it are trapped in a foggy/frosty situation, this material’s visual properties are appropriate to simulate such atmosphere. Two Layers: When layered the plastic bag nearly does not allow light to pass through. It becomes an almost opaque material, very dense. Objects placed ­behind this plastic layers do only appear as very vague shadows and are almost impossible to recognise. The layering properties of a plastic bag are very poor.

T R A N S P A R E N T P A P E R // One Layer: Transparent paper allows a limited amount of light to diffuse. Objects placed behind the thin layer of paper appear blurry and shadow-like. It acts as a very dense fog. The material does however resemble fog and frost very well, as it diffuses the passing light and creates a special atmosphere. Two Layers: When layered, sketch paper, does not allow any light or object to shine through. It acts as a completely opaque material, not appropriated to be used as an analogy to fog and frost.

N Y L O N // One Layer: The nylon fabric lets light go through in a very diffuse way; it dissolves the contours of the objects behind. Its appearance resembles the look of fog and frost and how the objects get dissolved when emerged into these weather conditions. Two Layers: When layered its diffusing properties appear to be stronger. It gets harder for light to shine through; it seems to increase its density. It acts like fog and frost when the weather conditions are favourable for their appearance.

H E S S I A N J U T E B A G // One Layer: Hessian has a visible grid structure, which allows light to go through. The light that shines through the small holes in the fabric lights objects behind it. The fabric does however not resemble the visible effect of fog and frost as it appears to be very heavy and dense. Two Layers: When layered, the thickness of the fabric i­nterrupts lights way. Only a very small amount of light s­ uccessfully trespasses the layer of fabric. Objects ­behind the layers are not easily recognizable.

S Y N T H E T I C F A B R I C // One Layer: This special nylon material has vertical fibres, they give the material a very natural effect, visually it looks like fog and frost. It also acts like fog and frost ­diffusing the light that comes through and showing density. Two Layers: When layered this material does not allow any light to pass. The objects placed behind two sheets of this ­nylon stay hidden, as only very vague contours are visible if looked closely.

PROBE MATERIALS | FLEXIBILITY A L ! A L a b o r a t o r y | C l a u d i a M. | Y a s m i n e V.

normal orthogonal

pulled orthogonal

normal diagonal

pulled diagonal

P L A S T I C M E S H // This layer is made of nylon wires creating a hexagonal plastic mesh. This mesh cannot form a border to cover from weather phenomena as it let enter everything, but it can be used as a guide for filling up the gaps and thus become a cover. The mesh is flexible in both orthogonal and diagonal directions. When pulling on one side the hexagonal form makes sure a wider span of the whole membrane is stretched as well. T R A N S P A R E N T P L A S T I C B A G // The plastic bag layer can cover from most of the weather phenomena and sunlight can still enter and show blurry contours of an object placed behind. The plastic bag membrane is flexible in both orthogonal and diagonal directions. However the flexibility is not present as strong as the plastic mesh.

T R A N S P A R E N T P A P E R // Similar to the transparent plastic bag, this material can cover from all of the weather phenomena except for sunshine. As thought from ahead, this material is not flexible at all. There is no movement/stretching noticible when pulling in either orthogonal or ­diagonal direction.

N Y L O N // This layer is made out of nylon. A nylon membrane can cover from most of the weather phenomena, but it can also easily absorb fluids. Nylon is the most flexible material of the ones tested. The ultimate ­border of possible stretching is really high. When pulling the nylon the capacity of stretching it is the same in any direction.

H E S S I A N J U T E B A G // A hessian layer is a very vast looking membrane. The dense fabric is made out of strings of the jute plant. Like any other fabric, several strings are weaved to a grid. Most of the time this grid is not visible with the eye, but hessian on the other hand shows the grid very clearly. When pulling the cloth orthogonal to the grid, the membrane doesn’t stretch. When pulling it diagonal to the grid, the cloth stretches along. This also clarifies why squares are not ideal for structural purpose. S Y N T H E T I C F A B R I C // This synthetic fabric covers from weather phenomena like most other fabrics do. It is made out of one-directional fibres. Pulling along the fibres, the fabric will stretch slightly. When pulling diagonal to the fibres, the fabric stretches more. When pulling orthogonal to the fibres the fabric stretches very much. This last one allows to pull and pull untill the fibre tears apart.

PROBE S H I FT I N G T RAN S PO R TAB LE M E M B RAN E A L ! A L a b o r a t o r y | C l a u d i a M. | Y a s m i n e V.

The material selected to create this pop-up pavilion in form of a s足 imple shifting transportable pre-stressed membrane is a very elastic nylon, which adapts to the structure changes of the Pavilion. Other materials that were less elastic, do not work as good in holding the shape and letting light shine through. The archetype of this pop-up Pavilion is a flat form (in this scenario an oval shape) it then can shift form, the Pavilion can form double curved structures and hold its form. This material and shape represent the main aspects that determine what we define as fog and frost. Its translucency and organic form remind us of a foggy and frosty environment. The pavilion mixes with the足足environment creating a new space that cooperates with the weather 足conditions of the place its put into. It is made to create fog and frost under every weather condition. The transportable pre-stressed membrane is conceived in a modular way. These modules can be easily combined and layered. When layering them, the atmosphere inside the Pavilion changes, as you are changing the way light comes in it. Light will appear more diffuse in places where lots of modules have been layered. The scale and situation of the Pavilion reacts to the surroundings. It is made to adapt to the landscape as well as planned visitors or space it should cover and shelter. In further investigation the focal point lays in finding a stable and simplified method of constructing the membrane in a way that is stable and portable when built in scale.

PR O B E M O D U LAR U M B R E LLA PE TALS A L ! A L a b o r a t o r y | C l a u d i a M. | Y a s m i n e V.

This modular umbrella shaped structure is made of a pre-stressed nylon membrane attached to a metal support foot that connects the umbrella head to the ground. As in every modular structure the umbrellas can be easily combined and form a multiple headed group. By combining the umbrellas an artificial forest-like space is created. Light will reflect and be absorbed in a way that simulates a foggy day 足inside a forest, with the sun shining in a diffuse way through the 足umbrella petals. The pre-stressed translucent material and the superposition and layering of different heights and sizes of umbrellas should simulate the way light passes through foggy/ frosty environments. It diffuses by the different layers, creating an indirect lightning. This pop-up Pavilion adapts to its surroundings, as it is not space or time bounded. It can be placed anywhere at any time of the day and under any weather conditions. It will react to the way the landscape is shaped and it will shelter or expose you to your environment. The umbrella head can be positioned heading into one direction allowing this way light to pass through one side, creating this way a light guide and a contrast to the dim light that diffuses through the nylon membrane.

Constructing Membranes: pop-up