Enter Ghost Exit Ghost Catalogue

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ENTER GHOST, EXIT GHOST Editor: Gordon Hon Curator: Gordon Hon Essays: Prof. Ryan Bishop, Prof. Jonathan Harris, Gordon Hon Project manager: Ray Yang Research and co-­ordination: Dr August Jordan Davis and Ray Yang Design: Ray Yang

All images are courtesy of the artist unless otherwise mentioned in captions. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the artists and authors. Printed by Shandong Aomeiya Printing Co. Ltd. China First Published in 2012, China © Bashir Makhoul and authors ISBN: 978-­981-­07-­1606-­6

Yang Gallery Tanglin Shopping Centre #02-­41, 19 Tanglin Road, Singapore 247909 Tel: +65 6721 8888 spore@yanggallery.com.sg 3rd Taoci Street, 798 Art District, No. 4 Jiuxianqiao Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100015 Tel: +86 10 5762 3020 beijing@yanggallery.info www.yanggallery.com.sg

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ENTER Â GHOST, Â Â EXIT Â GHOST

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GORDON Â HON

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, ÂżUVW PHW WKH DUWLVW %DVKLU 0DNKRXO WZHQW\ \HDUV ago  when  we  were  students  together  at  Liverpool,  and  we  have  been  colleagues  and  collaborators  HYHU VLQFH $OWKRXJK WKH LGHD IRU WKLV VSHFLÂżF VKRZ emerged  from  a  lengthy  interview  I  conducted  ZLWK KLP HQWLWOHG Âľ)RXQG LQ &RQĂ€LFW Âś WKH VHHGV IRU LW JR EDFN WR RXU HDUOLHVW FROODERUDWLRQ RQ KLV ÂżUVW national  exhibition  in  the  UK.  That  initial  show,  from  FDOOHG Âľ$O +LMDUDÂś UHIHUV WR WKH VWRQHV XVHG LQ the  Intifada  uprisings  of  the  late  1980s  and  early  1990s  against  Israeli  occupation.  This  protracted  XQUHVW OLWHUDOO\ D ÂľVKDNLQJ RIIÂś RI XQWHQDEOH SROLWLFDO conditions,  saw  a  great  deal  of  intra-­Palesenian  violence.  The  show  proved  to  be  critical  of  all  sides  RI WKH FRQĂ€LFW DQG GLG VR WKURXJK DEVWUDFWLRQ DQG oblique  imagery.  Just  as  Intifada  was  a  shaking  off  of  constraints,  so  Makhoul  was  shaking  off  his  status  as  a  local  artist,  becoming  gaining  national  and  international  attention  for  addressing  through  is  DUW LVVXHV RI JOREDO LPSRUW +HUH DUH WKH ÂżUVW VWRQHV RI WKH XSULVLQJ ZH ÂżQG LQ Âľ(QWHU *KRVW ([LW *KRVWÂś It  was  a  departure  for  Makhoul  along  a  two-­decade  journey  of  politically  active  artistic  production,  one  that  arrives  at  the  current  show:  an  installation  that  returns  again  to  very  similar  concerns  and  the  historical  arc  and  long  duration  of  current  political  VWUXJJOHV -XVW DV D VWRQH LQ Ă€LJKW KDV D SDUDEROLF DUF D WUDMHFWRU\ VR 0DNRXOÂśV WZHQW \HDUV RI DUWLVWLF engagement  has  a  trajectory,  but  it  is  one  that  covers  much  of  the  same  ground  again  and  again  from  different  angles.  His  work  is  always  a  return  that  looks  like  an  arrival. Â

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໨ ׂ á ‰ Ő˜ ॾ ÖĽ á Ł ŕś“ ŕĄŒ ĎŞ ŕž? ‍ ٠‏Ḩ ŕŞ˜ ༜ Ć“*I[PQZ 5ISPW]TĆ”ྼᄤ ୔ఴƗ଱ŕľ? ໨ŕŤ“๤á„¤ŕ§­ŕź…௟Ř‡ŕś‡Ć—Ő?ŕŹąá ˘â€ŤŢąâ€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕ¤ƒá ‰á†ˇŕľĽ ๤ൠ‍Ţ?ދ‏ቛᆇèᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ÖŹŕ˝&#x;ŮŒÔ˘áˆ¸ŕť¨â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕˇˇá‰š ÖŹá ‰۸ŕŹ‡ŕť€ĂľÔ‘ŕšłá‡–ÖŹâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˝ŠÜ֏٧ŕ¸’Ć—á €ŕĽ? á ˘ŕśąâ€ŤŮ†â€Źáƒžáƒ†ĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜á„¤á‚Žâ€Ť×‚ÖŹÝšâ€Źá ‰۸ŕ˛? â€ŤŕžŚÝšâ€Źá…ĄŕŚ˛Ć— !! ŕ­”ÖŹ Ăť)T 0QRIZIĂźĆ—á ° ᆞ ! ŕ­”Ö„ŕŹ“ŕ°€ç !! ŕ­”Ö„á„ąŕ°€Ů˜ŕĽ?á ˘ŕłŤ ਠá…¤ŕ¨źŕ°–á łá‡–֬଱ཻŕľ?๯èᆊÓ?Ô‚ࣚ֏ᆥؑྒྷ ŕĄ„á €ྼŕť€ŕ¨›ĎŹŕş‰ŕŹťá ˘ŕ˘şŕ¤ŹÖŹá†Śá‡”ŕž ŕľ›Ć—๤ŕľ?Ď&#x; ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ŕ­„Ň?á €â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şŕ¨›â€ŤŘŚŢšâ€ŹĐ™৶ൠࡸè๠‍Ý?‏ԕཧ ÖŹŕž ŕľ›â€Ťŕž ֏ࢍŕĄžŢ‹â€Źŕ˝§Ć—á…ĄŕŚ˛â€ŤŘšâ€ŹÔ‘๳֬ට١‍؂‏႟ ூௌèŕł‰â€ŤÝ›â€Źŕśąá†ŠཝÔ‘๳൥ŕť€ŕ¨›ĎŹŕş‰á†Śá‡”ŕ˝’á‡ŒĆ— ĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜֏á…ĄŕŚ˛á„źŕľĽŕˇˇĎŹŕş‰â€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄá Łŕś“ŕĄŒ ŕ´­â€Ťŕ­´ÖŹÚ â€Źŕ§śĆ—ࡡŕź—ŕşłŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źŕ¤•á‚źŕľžŕ˘żá °á łÖŹá Łŕś“ ॢ฼দŕ ?֍‍ݚ‏ୄçâ€ŤÜ¸ÖŹŕĄ„Ýšâ€Źáˆ†è໨ŕŤ“á„¤Ăľá‚°ŕ¨š ŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒÜ৥ŕĽ?á ˘ŕĽˆÖĽá‰’ÔĄŕ°–á łá‡–ÖŹŕľ?๯Ć— ଱൥Ϫŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜ ŕ­”ŕŚŚá ˘á Łŕś“Ń?՚ᆌᇔܝ ‍ؑن֏׋‏Ɨ෸দ֥ŕ¨›ŕŁ‰ŕš†ÖŹá…ĄŕŚ˛Ć—ਾ໨ŕŤ“ŕ˝&#x;ÖĽ ৒ࡂ֬໠฼Ć—á ˘ŕ ŞÖ™ŕ°´á†Śá‡”â€Ť×˝â€Źá†ĄÖŹŕ§Źŕľ•ŕŞ„ß´ ‍ދ‏એÓ?‍Ý?â€ŹÓ¸Ă¨á†Ľŕ˝Ľá ‰༽‍ŕľ?֬ྡྷ٭â€ŹŕšŻá‚źá ‰۸ŕŽ&#x;ŕź… ŕ˝“Ć—á ‰۸‍ŕ ?ÝŒâ€ŹĆ—ĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜â€ŤŮ„â€ŹŕľŒŕ­”ÖŹá Łŕś“ ŕ´şŕż´á €á‚źá ‰۸‍ŕ ?ÝŒâ€ŹĆ—á‡ ྼᆊ۸‍ؕ҉ŕ ?ÝŒâ€ŹŐ?҉๤ ŕ˘&#x;؎ทะ๤ည֏ᇽฟèࡡ֏ቛŕŻ?Ó?Ó?ŕ¤ƒོྼá ‰ ۸ Ů™ ß´ ÖŹ ‍ ֞‏՚ è

໨ŕť€ࡡ֏×‚á ‰Ő˜á…ĄŕŚ˛Ăť)T 0QRIZIßࡾŕž† ÖŹŕťšá…ŞÓľŕť€ŕ¨›໨ŕŤ“ĐťŐ•ÖŹŕ°–â€Ť×‹â€ŹĆĽŐ?ŕŹąá ˘â€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕˇˇÓľ ŕ¨›â€ŤÝšâ€Źŕ­„á†°ŕŹ‡ÖŹá Łŕś“ŕĄŒĆ—â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕť¨á„źÓľŕ¨›ࡡ֏‍Ţ?â€Źá‰›ŕ ‹

0\ HVVD\ IRU WKH FDWDORJXH WR Âľ$O +LMDUDÂś SURYHG to  be  a  departure  for  both  the  artist  and  myself:  IRU WKH DUWLVW DV D QDWLRQDO ÂżJXUH DQG IRU PH DV a  collaborator  commenting  on,  working  with  and  shaping  the  artwork.  The  dialogical  and  FROODERUDWLYH QDWXUH RI 0DNKRXOÂśV ZRUN KDV expanded  for  the  new  work,  leading  the  artist  and  myself  to  assemble  a  team  to  produce  this  large-­scale  piece  and  develop  along  the  lines  of  theoretical,  production  and  technical  perspectives.  The  technical  and  production  sides  of  the  operation  were  furthered  by  Ray  Yang  and  Summer  Lin,  working  closely  with  the  Yang  Gallery  in  Beijing,  while  the  theoretical  elements  are  supplemented  by  contributions  from  Professor  Ryan  Bishop  and  Professor  Jonathan  Harris.  Articles  by  Bishop  and  Harris  are  contained  in  this  catalogue.  The  team  members,  especially  those  that  pertain  to  production  and  technical  development,  played  DQ LQWHJUDO UROH LQ WKH UHDOL]DWLRQ RI 0DNKRXOÂśV vision  for  this  large-­scale  installation.  It  has  two  components:  a  full-­sized,  interior  maze  and  a  large  cardboard  model  of  an  Arab  town  or  refugee  camp.  The  walls  of  the  maze  are  2.4m  high  and  have  a  total  combined  length  of  over  100m.  They  are  clad  in  lenticular  micro-­lens  panels  depicting  walls,  windows,  doors  and  various  architectural  details.  The  images  appear  to  move,  changing  DQG Ă€XFWXDWLQJ DV WKH YLHZHU PRYHV WKURXJK WKH maze.  Images  are  repeated  on  different  panels  to  deliberately  add  to  the  disorientating  effect.  At  the  end  of  the  maze  there  is  a  large  open  space  (approx.  15m  x  7m)  revealing  a  model  consisting  of  hundreds  of  cardboard  boxes  apparently  stacked  randomly  against  the  gallery  walls  and  around  the  Ă€RRU :LQGRZV DQG GRRUV KDYH EHHQ FXW LQWR WKH boxes  to  create  rudimentary  model  houses.  The  lenticular  images  are  made  from  photographs  of Â

Ďť Ć— თ ࡡ á ‰ ŕ°– ‍ ŕŁ? ۆ‏ቛ ŕŻ? Ć— ௌ ॕ ቛ ŕŻ? è ĎŞ ŕž? ‍ ٠‏ ḨŕŞ˜༜ቛŕŻ?ࡾา႟֏‍Ţ?Ţ‹ßŒŘšâ€Źá‰›าá†&#x;ŕľ—֍ࡡ҉ Ř•ŕŚ›á…ĄĆ—á €ŕľ—ÖŤá Łŕś“ŕĄŒâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕť¨áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€Źá‰?Óľá ‰۸ ŕš˝â€ŤŘ™â€ŹŕŚŚÔžá„śÔ˘á†Šá€Šá ‰۸ս݆ŕŹ?ÖŹá…ĄŕŚ˛Ć—๤ŕľ?‍ن‏ नŕ°Šŕ§&#x;ઉçഺÓˆâ€Ťŕ śŢ‹â€Źŕś“ÖŹŕ˘&#x;ŘŽè๠‍Ý?â€Źáƒ—ĐĄŕŁ&#x;ÖŹ á€žá Łŕś“á‡–ŕž–Ć“AIVO /ITTMZa ֏‍Ţ?‏ቛƗႾသ ŕł’Ć“:Ia AIVO â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¨Śŕź¸Ć“;]UUMZ 4QV ᄤ ŕ śŕś“â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ´şÓˆ١૲฻‍֏܉‏ᆭԂƗ ŕ§&#x;ઉ١૲á‚źŕł’ ‍ ؽ‏Ḩ Đż ི ௝ Ć“ : a I V * Q [ P W X ࢤ ྸ ‍ ދ‏ ŕą‹ଳ೭Ḩâ€ŤÝžâ€Źŕ§ĄŕśľĆ“2WVI\PIV 0IZZQ[ ࢤྸ ÖŹ ᆭ Ô‚ Ć— ࡡ ŕŤ“ ÖŹ ŕťš á…Ş ‍ ؂‏ླ ŕł? ਛ ĐŽ ߉ ŇŻ è

ĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜֏ᆊ۸սŕž&#x;á…ĄŕŚ˛ŕ­†â€Ťŕž˘ŕŁ?ܛ‏Ɨ áƒ—ŕš˝â€ŤŘ™â€ŹÓľáƒťŕŤ“Ć—ŕ¸˛Ń ŕľĽŕŹąŕ˝ťáƒ—ŕ´şÓˆâ€Ťŕ śŢ‹â€Źŕś“á‚źÜ¸ ֏ಭáƒťŕŤ¨ŕą”ŕ˝”ܸèᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛á‚ľŕ¨?Ň?‍ٺ‏á‰?ӾƼá ‰ ۸ྼŕ˛?Ô‹ŐąÖŹŕ­„Ň?ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—á ‰۸ྼá‚ľŕ¤”Ő˝ÖŹá‡ƒ ϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ࢀᄜ֏δŕŚ&#x;ŃźÓłá†šŕ Ž଻૽á‚–èૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€Źŕą ŃŠá‚ź ૣۡĆ—ŕ˛?Ň?ÖŹÓ?ŘŽŕĄ?á„¤á ‰ŕ°–á‚ź ‍،‏ ૣè෷ŕŤ“ĐŤâ€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€Źá„¤ŕš°ŕŁŤáˆ˜֏ຸŕž&#x;๰࣫૲Ϸŕ´?Ć— ૴ŕ ‚Ԣ๠ŃŠçŕŤ‘Ôşâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŰšá‡œŕ˘€áˆ„༬ࢲè෢áˆŠÜťá‡ Ôłâ€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—á†Šཻྠཧ٦â€Ťß˝Ú”â€Źá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ§Ń”ß‹ çሎ ß—èŕť€ŕ¨›á…€ŕĄ?୏๞֏ཚâ€ŤÝ›â€ŹĆ—á ‰ཻྠཧ߽ᄤ҉๤ ֬૲Ϸŕ´?ᇞ‍ڜ‏Ԣཊèá„¤ŕŤ â€ŤŕŁ—ÖŹÜŒâ€ŹŕšŻá‚źá ‰۸սᄆ ૣ ` ૣ֬औս༊ŕĄžĆ—á„¤ŕŹąŕ§ĄŕĽ?á ˘ŕĽˆÖĽá ‰ ۸á‚ľŕś›ύ۸á‡ƒâ€ŤÜ™ŢŽâ€ŹÓľÖŹŕŹ?ŕž&#x;Ć—ࡸŕŤ“ŕ˝ˆŕ˛?ĐŤŕˇ˘á ° â€ŤŘ—×€â€ŹŮŠá„¤á…ĄŕŚ˛ŕľ°ÖŹŕą Ń?‍׀ދ‏ϡŕ´?èŕť€ŕ¨›á‡Œá„śá ‰ á‡œŕ •ĐŽÖŹŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ŮŁáˆˇÖŹŕ˝šâ€ŤÝ›â€ŹĆ—ŕŤ‘Ôşâ€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕĽ á„¤â€ŤŢŽâ€Źáˆˇŕ§Ą ૲ è๰࣫ŕ´?֬ྠཧâ€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽá Žá…˝á„¤â€Ť×ąâ€Źá€źŕŠĽŕł˜ŕ§–ç ŕź—Ѽদçá ‰ཝиࢧս֏ོ;P]Ă´NI\଱ည֏Ď&#x; ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“଻૽á‚–֏ࢎ֨ŕ´?ࡾŕŽŒŕ´ŁÖŹŕ˘€áˆ„ÖŹá…˝ŕŻ’â€ŤŘžâ€Ź á‡Œá‰›ÖŹĆ—ŕ°Šá‡–ŕĄžŇłáˆŠá ‰ཝᇃϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ŕ´?֬ྠཧè á‡ á‚źÖ™ŇœÜťá†‡Óľâ€ŤÜ†â€ŹÔłâ€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÖĽÜŒâ€ŹŐšá‡ƒϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ࡾᄤ ‍׀‏ƗಭŕŤ“Ň“ŕ­†â€ŤÖĽŕĽˆÜ›â€Źá†Šá ‰ŕą”èᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛á‡?á —ŕ¨› ଱ཻŐ?Ô‘ŕšłâ€Ť×€â€ŹŕąźÓˆഺ֏༊ŕĄžá ˘ŕ Şŕ˛?๜ߋ‍Ý?‏Ӹᇖ ӳྎᇖ֏Ń?áƒżâ€Ť×€â€ŹÖ‚èþŕ †ᡧ༊ŕĄžĂśá‰›ŕť€༊फ़ྼ ᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ÖŹâ€ŤŰ‡ŕž–Ţ‰â€Źŕ­˜Ć—á†Šཝ༊ŕĄžÓˆŕ´şáƒ†á†Žŕľ“áƒ—

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buildings  and  streets  in  East  Jerusalem,  Hebron  and  some  of  the  larger  Palestinian  refugee  FDPSV VXFK DV 6KXÂśIDW LQWHUVSHUVHG ZLWK LPDJHV of  the  cardboard  model.  This  does  not  become  apparent  until  the  viewer  successfully  makes  their  way  through  the  maze  to  the  model.  The  project  raises  questions  about  the  kinds  of  spaces  that  KDYH HPHUJHG LQ VLWHV RI FRQĂ€LFW DQG LQ WKH XUEDQ margins  of  globalization.  Central  to  the  project  LV WKH LGHD RI ÂľVSHFWUDO VSDFHÂś DV VSDFHV WKDW DUH created  between  the  virtual  and  the  real  such  as  mock  cities  built  for  training  in  urban  warfare,  the  spectral,  parallel  world  of  surveillance,  CAD  inspired  urban  developments  and  the  interactions  and  confusions  between  the  virtual  and  the  real  in  the  urbanization  of  global  capitalism  and  FRQĂ€LFW 7KH LQVWDOODWLRQ SOD\V ZLWK RXU DPELYDOHQW relationship  with  these  kinds  of  spaces  in  which  the  pleasures  and  thrill  of  the  maze  are  partly  depend  upon  disorientation  and  fear. :KLOH VHHGV RI WKH H[KLELWLRQ FDQ EH IRXQG LQ 0DNKRXOÂśV HDUOLHU ZRUNV LW ZDV WKH H[KLELWLRQ 5HWXUQ (2007)  at  the  Shenzhen  Museum  of  Art  China  that  provided  the  most  direct  catalyst.  For  this  show,  Makhoul  was  interested  in  the  idea  of  return  as  a  philosophical  and  political  problem  and  felt  that  the  lenticular,  with  its  strange,  indeterminate  status  within  the  regime  of  the  image  was  the  perfect  medium.  It  does  not  carry  the  historical  baggage  of  photography,  painting  or  cinema,  nor  has  it  ¿WWHG ZLWKLQ WKH WKHRUHWLFDO GHEDWHV RQ WKH LPDJH and  optical  technologies.  For  most  people  it  is  associated  with  advertising  rather  than  art.  More  VSHFLÂżFDOO\ LW DSSHDOHG WR 0DNKRXO EHFDXVH LW

ŕžťŕ­Œá†´ŕĄžĆ—иŕł‰ŕť€ӳྎᅼᆥ֏࿼ਇ‍֏ࢀ؞‏ŕŹ?ŕ­Œ ӳྎĆ—ß•á‚źŕŹąŕ˝ťá‚ŻŕŚŚŕĄš༏֏â€Ť×€â€ŹŕąźĆ—á ˘ŕ ŞŕĄ€ŕˇ&#x;ŕ – â€ŤÚŞâ€Źáˆ€֏ӳྎ‍ن‏ᅥçŕ˛?ŕąśáˆŽĐŽá‡˝á łÖŹÓłŕľŽß‹â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÔ‘ ŕšłá‡–ŕĄžÓˆŕ´şÖŹŕžťŕ­Œâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá†Žŕľ“ÖŹŕ˘“Őˇâ€ŤŕŞ€ŕ ˆŢ‹â€Źá†´â€Ť×€â€ŹĂ¨ ᆊ۸á…ĄŕŻ?á‚şŕźŤŕ¨›໨ŕŤ“áƒ—á†Šཝ༊फ़ᆴफ़֏સ‍ܸآ‏ ༩Ć— ఊᇖૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€Źáƒ?á„?â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŚ…༦Ň?â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ˛ƒएáƒ†ŕ­Źŕąž ‍ ދ‏༪ छ è

ࡠŕ˛?ᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ŕĽ?á ˘áˆ›ŕˇ™ÖĽĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜á„ą ఀ֏ቛŕŻ?ᇖƗ ŕ­”á„¤á‡–â€ŤÝšâ€Źŕ´ŽáŽąŕŤŒŕś“ܽ֏á…Ą লûߴÝ‰Ăźá†ˇŕ˘ŤŐŠŕ´şŕ¨›Ő•Ő˜á…ĄŕŚ˛Ă¨á„¤ŕŹąŰ¸á…ĄŕŚ˛ ᇖƗϪŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜ϣþߴÝ‰Ăśŕľąŕť€á ‰۸ᆄ࿗ ‍ދ‏ᆌᇔ໠฼দ԰ŕ§&#x;Ć—ࡡ‍ن‏ཊ๰࣫á„¤ŕž ཧອ‍֏ݚ‏ ŕ°Œܜ֏ç҉ಙ‍׀֏׎â€Źŕť‘ŕľ—ŕ°ŠÖŤá ˘Óľŕť€á‰’â€ŤÖŹŢ â€ŹŕŤ‰ ࣠èࡸŕŤ‡á‚źŕ´Łá‚œçŕ ‚ß‰ŕ Žá†‡á‚œŕŻ’֏৏ྕЎ‍ڌ‏Ɨ á €Ň‰Ńˆणŕł?á‚źÜ¸ŕž ཧâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕľąŕ¤Ťŕ śŕś“ÖŹŕ§&#x;ઉїᆥè â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†Ő˝Ň?â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ˛­ŕŚŚŕśąĆ—ࡸâ€Ť×€ŘŚŰžâ€Źáƒ—Ýƒۨâ€ŤŇ‰Řžâ€ŹŕľĽá Ł ŕś“á‚źÜ¸Ă¨â€ŤŘšâ€ŹĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜ॶদනĆ—â€ŤŰžâ€Źá‚źŕź’á‚‹ড় ÖŹâ€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄá„¤áƒ†ࡸ֏ಙŕŽ?ßŽá„¤ŕŁ¨á†żâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá ”â€Ťŕž ֏׾‏ཧᆴ फ़Ɨ๤ŕľ?ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕˇˇÖŹá‚’á‚ŻĆ—á„¤ŕž ཧᆴफ़ԞᄜԢᄧ ŕľ?֏ç༊फ़֏࣠ŕł?Ć—଱á†Ľâ€ŤŢ â€Źáƒ—Ăľß´Ý‰ĂśÖŹâ€ŤŰ‡â€Źŕ­˜ ቛ ŕť€ ৏ ŕľ• ‍ Öž Ţ‹â€ŹáƒĽ ÖŹ ‍ ۋ‏ഌ ß ŕť€ á ‰ ᇈ è

ᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛á‰’ਞಭᆘ࣠ᆴ԰ᄤ჆ࡸŕ­†എ༠á‚œ ŕ˝ Üťá‡ áƒ—༊फ़ܸ֬༩è á„¤ŕť¨ŕť€଱۸ŕŹ‡ŕť€Ăťß´ ݉ Ăź ÖŹ á…Ą ল ŕž† ቛ ௌ ઉ ÖŹ ‍ Ý?‏Ӹ ᇖ Ć— ໨ თ ĎŞ ŕž? ‍ ٠‏ ḨŕŞ˜༜ŕŁ?ྡྷŕ¨›â€ŤßŒŘšâ€ŹĂ¨ŕť¨ŕąŠÔŞâ€ŤÖĽŰ’â€ŹĆ—á„¤ŕ´şÓˆâ€ŤÝ?‏Ӹ ᇖࡡഎഎӭቑ჆ࡸ֏ŕľ?फ़าྦĆ—â€Ťŕą–Řžâ€Źá„¤Ď„áˆ”â€ŤÝ?‏ Ó¸á‡–áƒ‚Ň‰Ř•Ѝࡸ֏༊फ़ా୆ࡾŕ žâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨á‚ľŐ•ࡡŕ˝&#x; ּ႒‍ۅ‏ŕĽ?á ˘Ôžá„śá ‰۸ຢŕ˛?á ˘á†Šá‡œÜťá‡ ÖŹá ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źŕť€ ŕ •ÔŤÖŹŕ¸˛Ń ŕ˝šâ€ŤÖŹÝ›â€ŹĂľŕ †ᡧ༊फ़Üèá†Šá ‰ŕą”á„śŕ¤ƒ ਛཊᄤᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ĆĽĂťá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œßè

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hovered,  quite  literally,  between  the  still  and  moving  LPDJH DQG LQ WKH VSHFLÂżF XVH WR ZKLFK KH SXW LW created  temporal  and  spatial  interference  within  the  image  that  was  analogous  to  the  idea  of  return  as  a  form  of  historical  and  territorial  interference. :KDW ZDV SDUWLFXODUO\ VWULNLQJ DERXW WKDW H[KLELWLRQ was  the  extent  to  which  the  work  affected  WKH YLHZHUÂśV UHODWLRQVKLS WR WKH VSDFH 'XULQJ conversations  with  the  artist  while  I  was  working  on  a  catalogue  essay  for  the  Return  exhibition  it  became  apparent  that  Makhoul,  who  had  been  preoccupied  by  the  temporal  nature  of  the  work  during  its  production,  had  become  increasingly  excited  by  its  spatial  potential  during  its  installation.  It  occurred  to  him  that  it  would  be  possible  to  FRQVWUXFW D ÂľVSHFWUDO VSDFHÂś HQWLUHO\ EDVHG RQ WKLV peculiar  effect  created  by  the  movement  of  the  viewer.  This  has  lead  to  the  development  of  the  current  project;Íž  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost. 7KH WLWOH FRPHV IURP 6KDNHVSHDUHÂśV VWDJH GLUHFWLRQV IRU WKH JKRVWÂśV UHSHDWHG DSSHDUDQFHV and  disappearances  in  Hamlet.  It  was  these  stage  directions  that  Derrida  used  in  Spectres  of  Marx  to  demonstrate  the  necessity  of  repetition  and  return  in  the  indeterminate  ontology  of  the  ghost  and  in  which  it  is  always  a  â€œquestion  of  repetition:  a  spectre  is  always  a  revenant.  One  cannot  control  its  comings  and  goings  because  it  begins  by  coming  back.â€?  Derrida  creates  an  ontological  maze  or,  rather,  an  hauntological  maze  that  resonates  strongly  with  the  status  of  the  image  and  is  particularly  apparent  in  the  unstable  pictorial  space  of  the  lenticular.  At  the  same  time  the  stage  directions  draw  attention  to  the  ghost  as  a  technical  problem  which  is  necessarily  solved  by  technology  whether  it  is  the  ropes  and  trapdoors  of  renaissance  theatre  or  the  CGI  of  contemporary  cinema.  Theatre  is  a  technology  of  illusion  and  the Â

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ᆊ ۸ á…Ą ল ÖŹ ฟ ଩ Ô˘ ሸ ೯ ŕľ? и ࿡ ༫ ŕ¤? Ăťâ€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าßá‡–â€ŤÚśŮ˜ÖŹŕ †Ý?â€ŹÔ˘ŕ˝Šâ€Ťŕ˝ŻŢ‹â€Źŕľ…ÖŹŕťžŕ¸‚ ᆞ֤è֪৥՚ᄤÝછŕĽ&#x;ම֬á‚°ŕ¨šĂźá‡–á €á„•á‚Żŕ¨› ᆊཻ໾ŕ¸‚á†žÖ¤Ć—á‚ŻŕŚŚŃ?ŕľœá„¤Ň‰ŕ­†ŕ˛™â€Ťŕ †Ý?֏׎‏Ў ฿ŕŞ‰á‡–á‡žâ€ŤŢ‹Úśâ€ŹŮ™ß´ÖŹŃˆá€¸ŕžŚĆ—ŕ°Šá‡–á‰€ྼհᄤ á†Šá ‰۸þá‡žâ€ŤÖŹÚśâ€Źŕť ฟÜƼþâ€Ťŕ †Ý?‏ቀྼá ‰۸á‚° ਚĆ—໨ŕŤ“Ň‰ŕ­†༏ᇌ෸֬দັĆ— á‚€ŕť€෸൥๠‍Ý?‏ ٙߴ‍؞‏ञྚ֏Üè֪৥՚Ԟá„śŕ¨›á ‰۸Ў฿ઉ֏ ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—ŕ Žá†‡á ‰۸თྠཧ֬â€Ť×€â€Źŕť‘௪ŕť€á ‰á‡ˆÖŹŕ †ᡧ Ў฿ŕŞ‰Ć—ŕ°Šá„¤ŕš°ŕŁŤÖŹŇ‰ŕťžâ€ŤÖŹ×Žâ€Źŕš´ß‰༊ŕĄžá‚´ŕť€ŕŹƒ ŕ˝ˆè๤ŕľ?Ɨᆊ۸໾ขᆞ֤ྗ໨ŕŤ“áˆ†á °ÖĽá‰›ŕť€ŕ ś ŕś“໠฼֬â€Ťŕ †Ý?‏Ɨࡸ࣯ࣾྼഞࡳĆ—ß•ྼŕťšá Łâ€Ťŕž?ڜ‏ ŕťžŕ¸‚ÖŹŕ Šâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹĎˇŕŤ‘Ć—ß•ྼÖ™Ö„ŕ¤?á„„ÖŹ+/1Ɨᆊཝ Ńˆŕž˝á‚ľŕ śŕś“দࢺबèŕ¤?á„„ྼß&#x;ŕ¤ŤÖŹŕ śŕś“Ć—Ăťâ€ŤÝžâ€Ź ଡ৉าßá‡–ÖŹâ€Ťŕ †Ý?â€Źá €ྼŇ?â€ŤŮşâ€Źá‚ľŕ śŕś“â€ŤŘžâ€ŹÓˆഺ֏Ḋ ྼá‚€ŕť€ഞࡳâ€Ť×ľŕ ŠŢ‹â€ŹĎˇŕŤ‘â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŃ?ཊԢদ֬èáƒ—ŕ°Šࡡ ÖŹŕ¤?á„„á…¸ŕś›Ć—ŕł‰ŕ¤?ᇖŕ¤?á ‰á€ŠĆ—â€Ťŕ †Ý?â€Źá €ྼß&#x;ႜᇖ ÖŹß&#x;á‚œĆ—ŕĽ?á ˘ĎŁŕť¨ŕŤ“ÖŹáˆ†á °ŕ§śŕź’á‚‹ÖĽŕťžŕ¸‚ŕ´?Ć— ŕ¤ƒོá ‰ŕ¸‚ŕ´şÓˆß&#x;á‚œÖŹŕ –ŕ°?èࡢáˆŠÝ‚ŕż—ŕ śŕś“â€Ť×?ދ‏ áˆˇŕ śŕś“ÖŹâ€ŤŮ†â€Źá…ĄĆ—ß&#x;á‚œÖŹŕ śŕś“â€ŤŮ†â€Źá…ĄÖĽŕ¨›Ň‰๤֬ࢯ ؔƗᆊཝŕž”ÖŹŕ śŕś“ŕĽ?á ˘ŕ´şÓˆÔ˘Ň‰๤á‡œŕ§’ÖŹâ€Ťŕ †Ý?‏è á €ŕžżá‰’ŕť€á‡žá€¸ÖŹŕľĽĆ—áƒ—ŕ°Šá‡–á ”â€Ťŕ †֏׾â€Źáˇ§á ‰á€ŠĆ— ༊ŕĄžŃ”Óľŕ¨›Ő‰ŐŹŕžťß&#x;֏èࣗܟ‍×?â€Źá‚œá„„ŕĽ?á ˘á„¤Ő˝ ௧ଥŕ´?ԞᄜԢऔս༊फ़֏ß&#x;á‚œĆ—ࡸಜŕ˛?҉ŕĽ?ŕ­† ຉŕ§?ŕťžŕ¸‚দŕľ“ŕ˝Šá†Šá ‰ŕą”Ć—â€Ťŕą–Řžâ€Źŕ°ŠÓ?࣌á‚źŕľ?Ţ°ŕ¤ƒ ོཊྒྷϾऔսƗ೉๤á‚—ଥŕ´?ÖŹŕžťß&#x;ŕľžࢿè

ŕ¤?á„„ÖŹŕťžŕ¸‚ŕ Žá†‡â€Ť×?â€Źá‚œÖŹÓ?࣌â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŃˆâ€Ť×Žâ€ŹŕľĽŕť´ŮŒ ŕŁ?ŕł?֏༊फ़Ɨß&#x;ऍá‚€Ő•ÖŤá ˘Óˆഺèŕ˛?â€ŤŘžâ€ŹĆ—á Ł ŕś“ܽ৥֏ܝᇠ႟๛ഭŕŁ?ŕł?Ó?࣌֏‍ے‏ऍƗᆼོϪ ŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜á„¤Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá‡–ࡾŕľ—á‚Ż ֏èŇ‰Ő°á„¤Ôžá„śá ‰۸ᆎྒྷ༊फ़֏ß&#x;ऍƗྠྒྷᆼ ŕ˝”Ů˜Ć—ࡡྼá„¤ŕ˝Šŕľ“á‡–á‡Œá„śŕžťß&#x;֏༊फ़è๠ŃŠŕ´? ૲ß•á‚źáˆŠŕ°Šࡡ๠ŃŠ֬ྠཧĆ—ࡸŕŤ“ࡢáˆŠŕť¨ŕŤ“ÖŹŇ‹ áˆˇâ€ŤŘžâ€Źá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—Ő?â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕąƒâ€Ť×&#x;â€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕŁ?ŕł?֏ྼá ‰۸҉ŕĽ?༓ ֬ྠཧ֬ŕľžࢿƗఊᇖ༊ŕĄžâ€Ťŕ˘€Ţ‹â€Źáˆ„ÖŹâ€ŤŢ?â€Źá ‰á &#x;Ѝ௏

ghost  in  Hamlet  is  in  part  born  from  that  technology  â€“  was  written  because  of  the  ropes  and  trapdoors.  Like  that  other  theatrical  trick;Íž  the  play  within  the  play,  the  ghost  is  the  illusion  within  the  illusion  and  draws  our  attention  to  the  stage  as  a  machine  for  SURGXFLQJ LOOXVLRQV :LWK WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI RSWLFDO and  electronic  technologies  the  illusion  moved  into  a  different  register  and  these  new  machines  produced  different  kinds  of  ghosts.  Perhaps  most  VLJQLÂżFDQWO\ WKH VSDFH LWVHOI EHFDPH SXUHO\ LOOXVRU\ DORQJ ZLWK WKH VSHFWUDO ÂżJXUHV WKDW PRYH ZLWKLQ LW Although  the  cinema  could  create  the  illusion  of  YDVW VSDFHV RQ D Ă€DW VXUIDFH LW FRXOG VWLOO QRW GR without  the  stage,  and  the  sets  were  sometimes  as  huge  in  reality  as  the  illusory  world  on  the  screen. 7KH WKHDWULFDO VWDJH RU WKH ÂżOP VHW DUH QHFHVVDULO\ spaces  that  cannot  be  entered,  the  illusion  depends  upon  it.  However  a  gallery  is  sense  of  physically  entering  a  set  that  Makhoul  is  using  in  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost.  There  is  no  attempt  to  create  an  illusion  of  a  real  space,  in  fact  quite  the  opposite;Íž  he  is  creating  an  illusory  space  in  reality.  The  walls  are  clad  with  images  of  other  walls  that  are  constantly  shifting  as  we  move  through  it,  emphasising  the  fact  that  we  are  entering  the  unreliable  domain  of  the  image  and  in  which  spatial  and  architectural  integrity  is  undermined.  The  space  and  the  image  collaborate  to  disorientate  us;Íž  leading  us  back  on  ourselves  to  pass  through  the  same  space,  which,  approached  from  a  different  direction,  have  FRPSOHWHO\ FKDQJHG :H PD\ UHFRJQLVH VRPH spaces  and  architectural  details  but  because  they  are  repeated  throughout  the  installation  we  cannot  even  rely  upon  our  memories.

ß‘è༊ŕĄžâ€Ťŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕ˝§ŕ§şŕľ´ŕľ—໨ŕŤ“ŕľ…ŕ˛‡٥ཌ‍ے‏Ɨႋ֤ ໨ŕŤ“á ŽŕĽ“áˆ¸ŕ ´Ôłâ€ŤÝ?â€Źŕš¤á€ŠÖŹŕĽŠŕĄžĆ—ŕł‰â€ŤÝ›â€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“Ő?҉ ๤֬١སŕŁ?ŕł?ᆊ۸༊फ़Ɨ߽႟ຢŕ˛?҉๤֬‍ے‏ फè໨ŕŤ“ŕĽ?୆߽іಹԢá ‰ཝ༊ŕĄžâ€Ťŕ˘€Ţ‹â€Źáˆ„༬ࢲĆ— Ö“á‚ľáƒ†ࡸŕŤ“á„¤á†ŁŰ¸á…ĄŕŚ˛á‡–Ň‰Ř•ĐŤá‡žâ€ŤÚśâ€ŹĆ—໨ŕŤ“ŕ´ľ ᇇ ҉ ŕ­† ŕ˝” ŕž— ሸ ŕ ´ ÖŹ ŕĄ á ˛ è

á†Šá‡œŕ ˆŕŞ€ÖŹâ€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤ŤĆ—ŕĄ?ŕ´?ŕ´­Ô°á ‰۸༊फ़๴ཥ ֏༊फ़֏ཚâ€ŤÝ›â€ŹĆ—á ˘ŕ Şŕť¨ŕŤ“ĐŤá€ŤŕąŻŕ˝Ąá‚źÖŹÔłâ€ŤÝ?‏ ŕ°Šá‡–ÖŹŕ§ˆŕ˛†Ć—ŕť€໨ŕŤ“ŕ žâ€ŤŮ†â€ŹÔ˘á ‰á‡œŘ’á„§â€ŤÖŹŮľŕ˝ŻŢ‹â€Ź Ó˜ŕ˝ŠÖ„༊फ़Ḋиŕł‰ŕ –Ó?Ć—â€ŤÜšâ€Źŕź…á‡–ŕž–á ˘ŕ Şâ€ŤÜšâ€Źŕź…Ýƒ Ó?Ḋ֏â€ŤŕŁŁŕ ˆÝŞâ€Źá€™èᆊཝ༊फ़ᄤനी֏ŕľ?Ţ°ŕ¤ƒŕĽ? ੵ֥ਛಭ֏á ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źá¸Šá ˘Ń“á†žá‚‹٥ཌĆ—ŮĄŃ“ŕ Žá‰ŒÎż á ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—๤ŕľ?á‡Œá„śÔ˘á ‰á‡œá ”â€Ťŕ˘€֏׾â€Źáˆ„࣌ܝèࣨᆿ ֏࢚â€ŤÜ™â€Źá‚źŕ˝šâ€Ť×€â€ŹĐŤŕ˛­ÖŹá„•â€ŤÚľ×ľâ€Źáƒ”ŕ´şŕ –èѡŕź…ܽ֏ ŇŠŕ¤ŒĎ†á…˝Üťá‡ ÖŹá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹŕŚŚÔžá„śŕż‚ൠè๤ŕľ?Ć—ӳྎ ༊फ़ŕĽ?á ˘ŕ´şÓˆÔ˘Ň‰ŕ˛™â€ŤÖŹ×Žâ€Źŕľąŕ¤Ťŕż‚ŕľ ŕ Žá†‡á„¤ŕ˝&#x;ཧ ‍×?â€Źá‚œá‡–á‡˝ÜťÖŹŕľąŕ˘&#x;èá„¤ŕž”ŕ˘€áˆ„֏ञ‍ދن‏+), നी֏þ‍ܒ܋‏༊फ़ÜƗӳྎß“࣊á €á„‡দᄇ಼ಭ â€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤Ťâ€ŤŢ â€Źŕ˝Ľâ€Ť×?â€ŹŕŹžá‚şŕźŤá ‰á€ŠĂ¨ŕşĽŕ°€áˆŽĐŽá‡˝á łÖŹŕž” ӳྎ༊फ़ŕŹ?Ţťŕ¨›ŕžťŕ­Œâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá†Žŕľ“֏ࢿŕ˝’Ć— ଱ŕĽ?ŕ­† á € ྼ ŕ ž ‍ ׾‏ಭ ŕž– ç ಼ ಭ ŕ°Œ Üś ç ŕ Ž ᆇ ਞ ಭ ҉ Ď„ ÖŹ è ŕŁ?ŕł?á†Šá€ŠÖŹŕĽŠŕĄžŕ¤ƒྼ಼áˆ¸ŕ ´Óľŕť€ࡸ֏á ‰Ň?‍ٺ‏Ɨ ໨ŕŤ“ŕ †ᡧϾ֏པࡂྦЫâ€ŤŕŠ„ÜŹâ€Źáƒ†ࣥá‡ˆÖŹŕĄš६༩๫ ÖŹá‚žŕŽ”á†´ŕ´?èϪŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜৭Ⴏਛ໨ŕŤ“áƒ—༊ ŕĄžá†´ŕĄžÖŹá†Šá‡œâ€ŤÜ¸ŕ ˆÝŞâ€ŹŕźŠĆ—á†Šáƒ—ૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€Źŕ°ŒÜśÖŹŕŚ€ â€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ˝”ŕˇ‚Ć—á ‰á‡œদáˆ¸ŕŤ ੥֬४ŕ¤›ÖŹŕŚ€â€ŤŰ’â€ŹĂ¨á ‰Ö‘໨ ŕŤ“Ôłâ€ŤÝ?‏ਛᆊ۸ŕ †ᷧૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—໨ŕŤ“ŕ¤ƒß˝ŕŤ™ŕ˛?দ֥á ‰ ۸҉๤֬३ŕĄžĆ—á ‰۸ᇃϡŕ˝˜á‡Œá„śÖŹÎ´ŕŚ&#x;ŃźÓł ᆚŕŹ?ŕž&#x;èŐ•԰ಜŕ˛?ŕŤ‡á‚źŕ˝Šŕľ“á‡˝á łÖŹá °ŕš´Ć—໨ŕŤ“ ŕĽˆÖĽÖŹŕľĽŕˇ˘á °â€ŤÖŹŕ ™Ř—â€Źá‡ƒϡŕ˝˜áˆˇĆ—Ö“໨ŕŤ“á €Ň‰ŕĽ? ŕ­†ŕĽˆŇ‰Ԣ଱൥೽௨ŕ´?á‚Ąŕ ąÖŹÓłá†šŕ Ž଻૽á‚–èთ

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This  sense  of  confusion  combined  with  the  alienating  effects  of  being  in  a  space  which  is  also  a  picture  of  a  space  and  the  pleasure  we  are  also  being  invited  to  take  in  moving  through  it  invoke  the  ambivalent  experiences  of  the  hyper-­modern  spaces  of  transit  and  consumption  such  as  airports,  shopping  malls  and  corporate  plazas.  These  spaces  are  designed  with  the  movement  of  people  LQ PLQG Âą WR GLUHFW Ă€RZ DQG WR HDVH RU LQWHUUXSW movement  while  at  the  same  time  producing  a  shifting  architectural  spectacle.  Static  structures  are  effectively  animated  by  the  movement  of  people,  museum  exhibition  layouts  are  designed  to  produce  narratives  through  the  movement  of  the  viewers.  Meanwhile  urban  space  can  produce  indeterminate  visual  narratives  or  the  effect  of  subjective  point-­of-­view  camera  angles  in  imaginary  movies.  In  new  building  developments  and  â€˜public  UHDOPÂś GHVLJQHG ZLWK &$' WKH XUEDQ HQYLURQPHQW also  increasingly  feels  like  a  computer  game.  The  new  urban  spaces  of  late  capitalism  blur  the  virtual  and  the  real  that  can  in  turns  be  thrilling  or  alienating  and  disturbing.  To  enter  a  these  spaces  is  to  allow  oneself  to  become  a  part  of  them;Íž  our  spectral  likenesses  detained  on  the  hard  drives  of  elaborate  surveillance  systems.  Makhoul  is  using  our  ambivalent  relationships  to  these  spaces,  which  are  similar  to  the  strange  pleasures  of  a  maze  â€“  a  pleasure  touched  by  the  sense  of  panic  that  comes  with  being  lost.  Once  we  have  made  our  way  through  this  spectral  maze  we  arrive  at  an  abrubt  shift  of  scale  and  material  in  the  form  of  a  cardboard  model  of  an  Arab  town.  Again  there  is  no  attempt  at  realism;Íž  we  are  clearly  looking  at Â

14

á‡˝â€ŤÖŹ×ľâ€ŹĂ§á‚źáˆŠŕť´ÖżŃ?૲֬ૠâ€ŤŇ‰ÜŒâ€Źá ‰á€ŠÖŹŕľĽĆ—á†Š ཝᇃϡŕ˝˜â€ŤÝżâ€Źŕť´ŕ´şŕ –Ć—áƒ—ྠཧ֬ŕ †áˇ§ĎľŕŹťá ˘áˆĄŕŹŠ ҉๤Ć—ࡸ҉‍Ý?â€ŹŕľĽá ‰۸ٍŕľ“á‡?ÖŹŇ’ŕ¨&#x;ḩ໴ŕĄŒŕĽ?݉ ÖŹŇ’ŕ¨&#x;èᆊŕĽ?ŕ­†ྼ;P]Ă´NI\଻૽á‚–â€ŤÝżâ€Źŕť´Ý†੷ ÖŹŕ ˆŕŞ€ŕ˘€áˆ„Ć—ŕ Žá†‡ŕŚ&#x;છŕŚ&#x;ÖŹá ‰Ň?‍ٺ‏Ɨ֓ࡸá €ŕ­† ਾ໨ŕŤ“ŕ˝&#x;ÖĽĎ&#x;ŕź?ÖŹŕŻœ૽౼â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹĐŤŕŹ’ŕ˛‡ÖŹŕ˝—â€ŤŕŠŠࣝŰ?‏ ӳèᆊཝ‍׀‏٥á &#x;Óľŕť€ŕžżâ€Ť×?ŘŚâ€Źáˆˇá‚şŕźŤá‡–á şŕşˆĐ€ÖŹ ਚâ€ŤŰ’â€Źá ˘ŕ Şá‰’ਞಭ҉τ֏लྠ࿼ਇ֏ŕŹ?ŕž&#x;è á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ¤˛â€ŤŘ™â€Źá„¤ŕŹłŰłâ€Ťŕ˘€Ú–â€Źŕ´¨ŕ¨›á ‰۸ຢᆣ֏δ ŕŚ&#x;џӳᆚদ࿥ਇŕľ?ѨĆ—á‚Żŕťťŕ˘&#x;Ő˝ŕŠ“ÖŹßŒদනŕ¤ƒ ྼ57=<Ć“ӳྎâ€Ťŕž ×€â€Źŕ¤˛ŕľ ྡྷ‍׾‏ƔèŕŤŒâ€ŤÝšâ€Źá„¤ŕˇ¸ áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕłłŕŹ˜â€Ť×€â€ŹÖ‚á €ŕ˘€৲ਛ‍،ޚ‏ᆊည֏‍Ý?â€ŹÓłŕŚŚŕŹ? ŕ­Œá ?ŕŚ&#x;ŕĽ&#x;â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÎ´â€ŤÖŹÝˇÚ˝â€ŹÓłŕľŽß“ŕŁŠá ˘ŕ Şŕ°Šࡡ‍ن‏ᅥᇖ ‍ ÖŹ ŕĄŒ ݚ‏ŕ˝&#x; ཧ ÖŹ Ăľ ᇈ ŕŹˆ Ół ྎ Ăś Ć“ N M Z I T K Q \ Q M [ Ć” èྠŕľ“ŕ´?á†ĽŕľĽá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ĐŤÓ˛ŕť€Ăľá†ŤŕĄ?ŰŠĂśÖŹŕŹ?ŕž&#x; ӳྎâ€ŤŰşâ€Źáƒ—ŕ¨›ĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜ᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ÖŹá‰’ԥਚ ‍ ے‏è

ŕť´ŕŞ‰ŕĽˆŕ°–দâ€ŤŘŚâ€ŹŕŤ€Ăľá†Žŕľ“ĂśĆ—á†ŠཝŕŹ?ŕ­ŒÖŹÓł á†šá €á„€Ň‰ŕ­†áƒ—Ď‹á„ŞÖŹŕ˝Šŕľ“â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÓłŕľŽá…Ľá†ĄŕˇľÖ‚দ ÖŹŕŹťá ˘ŕ˝&#x;ཧ֬๬ॴŕ˝”иèá†ĽŕľĽŕžťŕ­Œâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝Šŕľ“á†´ŕĄž ֏ਥ‍Ú?‏ғྼá‰’ŕť€ŕ˝‰â€ŤŘˇâ€ŹĆ—ࡸŕŤ“á†´ŕĄžÖŹŕ¤–ŕ§?ᄇཱིŕ¤ƒ ᄇਞಭ҉τèÖ“ྼल٥ŕˇ‚Ţłá ‰â€Ť×Žâ€Źá€¸â€ŤÚ†â€ŹŃ…á†Š۸ਥ ‍Ú?‏ƗϪŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜á„źŕź—ŕşłĎŁŕˇ¸ŮŠŐ˝á¸Šá ˘Ń“ࢪ ŕľœलྠŕ˝&#x;ཧ֏â€ŤÚŒâ€ŹŕŚ…ŕŚ€â€ŤŰ’â€ŹĆ—ࡡŕŤ“ϣ࿼ŕ¨‡â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‚şŕźŤáƒ— ೱ੬ŕ ˆŕť€á ‰ŕ¸’è๠‍Ý?â€Źŕ˛ĽÜťá‡ Ó­ŕŁ–áƒ†ૠâ€ŤŢ‹ÜŒâ€ŹŕŹ? ŕž&#x;ÖŹáƒƒá‡?ŕŚ€â€ŤŰ’â€ŹĆ—ࡡá‰šÖĽŕ¨›á†Šá ‰â€Ť×‹â€ŹĆ—Ö“á†ˇÖĽá‰’â€ŤŢąâ€Ź Ö™ಭŕŤ“ŕĽˆ֥ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‡–ÖŹŕŹ?ŕž&#x;Ć—á†Žá†ĽÖŹŕ ˆŕŞ€Ň“Đ™੤ Ԣদèᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ŕ˛Ľŕť¨ŕŤ“මŕĽ?á„¤ŕžťŕ­Œŕľžࢿáƒ—á†Žŕľ“ ŕľžࢿ֏ಟ‍Ţ?‏ᇖּֿŕľ?ŕŤ€ಭçŕľ?ŕŤ€ŕź…ĐŤŕ´şÓˆŕ¨›Ô˘ দĆ—๤ŕľ?ಥ໨ŕŤ“මŕĽ?໨ŕŤ“á‡Œá„śŕ¨›â€ŤŢŒâ€Źá€ŠÖŹŕĽŠŕĄžç Ⴢ ೉ ‍ ŢŒâ€Źŕť€ ŕ°Š ࡾ ᇌ á„ś è

haphazardly  stacked  cardboard  boxes  but  it  is  also  impossible  not  to  see  it  as  a  town  or  refugee  camp  crowded  on  a  hillside.  Cardboard  unlike  the  active,  depthless  surface  of  the  maze  is  inert  and  rather  than  the  spectral  insubstantiality  of  the  image  it  is  simply  an  insubstantial  material  â€“  the  material  of  the  homeless.  This  could  be  the  unregulated  DUFKLWHFWXUDO FKDRV RI 6KXÂśIDW UHIXJHH FDPS RU parts  of  Ramallah  but  it  also  evokes  the  Favelas  of  Brazil  or  the  erased  Kowloon  walled  city  of  Hong  Kong.  These  places  are  also  the  inspiration  for  the  dystopias  of  many  video  games  and  most  disturbingly  the  models  for  military  training. In  the  Negev  the  Israeli  army  has  built  an  entire  Arab  town  in  which  to  train  its  soldiers  in  what  the  Pentagon  calls  MOUT  (Military  Operations  on  Urban  Terrain).  The  United  States  is  also  building  many  of  these  ghost  towns  in  its  own  deserts  to  simulate  the  urban  environments  of  Iraq  and  $IJKDQLVWDQ DV ZHOO DV RWKHU LPDJLQHG ÂľIHUDO FLWLHVÂś of  the  developing  world.  In  fact  it  was  the  Israeli  model,  which  is  known  as  â€œChicago,â€?  that  was  the  LQLWLDO LQVSLUDWLRQ EHKLQG 0DNKRXOÂśV LQVWDOODWLRQ

â€ŤŕŹťŢšâ€Źŕš â€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕťšЮ૴ŕś”দŕ ?֍‍ؚ‏ᆊ۸á…ĄŕŚ˛ÖŹâ€ŤŢ â€Ź â€ŤŰ’â€ŹĆ—ŕ´Łá‚œá €Ň‰ྡྷĆ—á‚€ŕť€ࡸ֏ཚâ€ŤÝ›â€Źá†ˇŕ˘Ťŕ˛ƒएáƒ†Üť á‡ á„¤á†ŠŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?á†´á‡–ÖŹá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨ŕš°ŕŁŤŃ?૲ĐŽâ€ŤÝŞâ€ŹáˆŠ ᄕ‍ࣨދ׾‏ᆿƗࡸŕŤ“Ńˆ྽ࣣ‍ܝÝ?‏ᇠ֏ᄕ‍׾‏ғ୆Ѝ ŕ žâ€ŤŮ†â€ŹÔ˘ŕŚŚĂ¨Ő?ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹÔ˘â€ŤŮ†â€ŹĆ—á‰’á‡›ÖĽŐšá‡ƒϡӳྎ֏ ੱӸĆ—ŕ¤ƒྼŮ™ߴּಡÓ?ŕ´şŕ ŠŕŤ‹á ‰۸ұ૲֬ŕ ž ‍֏ŕĽ?֞ދ׾‏ྞࢿè෠නŕťšЮ֬૴ŕž†ཚ‍ݛ‏႟དྷƗ â€ŤŕŤ˛Ţąâ€Źŕˇľâ€ŤÖŹÚżâ€ŹĐżŕ˝˛ŕŻťâ€ŤÝžŢ‹â€Źŕ§ĄŕśľÖŹŕťšá…Şß•ྼŕť€໨ŕŤ“ ฝ ‍ ܉‏ਛ ĐŽ দ ҉ ŕĽ? ŕ­† ᆎ ᆼ ĐŤ ‍ Ůşâ€ŹŕźŒ ÖŹ ‍ Ůşâ€ŹŕźŒ ‍ ދ‏ௌ ॕ è ᆊཝŕťšá…Şŕ˘ƒŕ­†â€ŤÜťÚ˝Ú…Ü›â€Źá‡ ֏฿မƗྼâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕˇˇŕŤ“Ôł ‍Ý?â€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÖĽÜŒâ€ŹŐšá‡ƒϡӳᆚࣣမ֏҇Ô?Ć—â€ŤŇ‰Řžâ€ŹŕľĽŕ˛ƒ Ö„èâ€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†଱ཻŕ´?ŕťŠŇœÜťá…ĄŕŚ˛ÖŹÜťá‡ দනƗᆊྼ á ‰۸ŕ°–â€Ť×‹â€ŹĆŚâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŹąŕ˝ťá &#x;ࣣŇœÜťÖŹÜťá‡ Ć—á†Šྼá ‰۸ â€ŤÖžâ€ŹŐšĆŚâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŹąŕ˝ťŮ˜මáˆ¸ŕ ´áƒ—á†Š۸á…ĄŕŚ˛á†´ŕĄžܸ༩֬ ಭ ‍ ؞‏င Ć— ᆊ á„ź ྼ á ‰ ۸ Ů™ ß´ è

7KHVH IDNH WRZQV QR PDWWHU KRZ ÂľUHDOLVWLFÂś DUH IDU removed  from  the  squalid  reality  and  unimaginable  suffering  produced  by  actual  urban  warfare.  It  is  the  gap  between  the  virtual  and  the  real  that  is  most  sinister  and  the  less  distance  there  appears  to  be  between  them  the  more  disturbing  it  becomes.  :KHUHDV WKH PLOLWDU\ VHHP LQWHQW RQ FORVLQJ WKLV gap,  Makhoul  wants  to  widen  it  â€“  to  reveal  the Â

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perverse pleasures of the military imagination where training and playing are merged with killing. He does this by indulging his and our childish pleasure in the maze and the model but it is not XQWLO ZH ¿QG WKH PRGHO LQ WKH PD]H WKDW WKH WUXH confusion is exposed. This installation raises the question of who and what is produced by the merging of virtual and real worlds;; of the kinds of spaces we are making and what these spaces are making of us. ,W LV GLI¿FXOW WR JHW D JRRG VHQVH RI WKH LQVWDOODWLRQ through textual description, or even through photographs of it, because its overall effect GHSHQGV VR YHU\ GLUHFWO\ RQ WKH YLVWRUV¶ PRYHPHQW through the artwork. The lenticular surfaces contain movement and stasis but require the observer to activate them through his or her mobility. The departure of the maze followed by the eventual arrival at the cardboard city turns out to be a return to a world of agonism and resistance at every level of daily life. Despite the limitations of textual consideration of the work, the articles by Bishop and Harris that follow nonetheless provide frames and critical engagements with that which cannot truly be framed: the installation ‘Enter Ghost, Exit *KRVW ¶ 7KHVH SLHFHV LQWHQG WR HQULFK WKH YLVLWRUV¶ experience, to supplement rather than supplant or substitute for moving bodily through the maze and arriving at the cardboard city. They are a departure for those who have not yet experienced the show, an arrival for those who have, and a return for those ZKR FRQVLGHU WKHP XSRQ UHÀHFWLRQ LQ UHODWLRQ WR WKH installation.

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‘VISIBLE BUT UNVERIFIABLE’1: SPECTACLES OF POWER AND PALESTINE IN ENTER GHOST, EXIT GHOST JONATHAN HARRIS “可见但不可证明”: “幽灵现,幽灵隐”中的权力景观及巴勒斯坦 乔纳森・哈里斯

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THE  SCENE,  SEEN Entering  the  maze  of  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  we  know  we  might  feel  lost,  but  we  know  we  are  not  really.  For  this  construction  is,  from  its  beginning  to  its  end,  an  artwork,  an  installation,  in  a  gallery  space  â€“  all  familiar  and  actually  quite  safe  things.2  But  the  work  is  asking  us  to  consider  the  possibility  of  entertaining  radical  doubt  regarding  RXU ÂľGLVSRVLWLRQ Âś DOWKRXJK WKDW GRXEW LV DOVR VXSSRVHG WR EH HQWHUWDLQLQJ Âą D IRUP RI ÂľGLYHUVLRQ Âś Consider  some  of  the  historical  and  current  meanings  of  disposition:  â€˜The  action  of  getting  rid  RI RU PDNLQJ RYHUœ ÂľSRZHU RI GLVSRVLQJ FRQWUROÂś ÂŤ Âľ7KH DFWLRQ RI RUGHULQJ RU UHJXODWLQJ E\ HVS GLYLQH ULJKW RU SRZHUÂś ÂŤ Âľ7KH VWDWLRQLQJ RI WURRSV UHDG\ IRU DWWDFN RU GHIHQFHÂś ÂŤ Âľ$ IUDPH RI PLQG D PRRGÂś ÂŤ Âľ7KH IDFW RI EHLQJ VHW LQ RUGHU VSDWLDO arrangement;Íž  relative  position,  esp.  of  constituent  SDUWVÂś WKLV DQG DOO VXEVHTXHQW GHÂżQLWLRQV DUH IURP the  New  Shorter  Oxford  English  Dictionary).  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  seeks  to  divert  us,  then,  but  not  only  for  the  purpose  of  entertainment.  It  wishes  us  to  consider  our  position.   The  term  maze  in  middle  English  usage  referred  to  a  mental  state  of  â€˜delirium,  delusion,  GLVDSSRLQWPHQWÂś Âą RQO\ ODWHU GLG LW FRPH WR PHDQ a  physical  structure  of  paths  and  passages  ¾DUUDQJHG LQ EHZLOGHULQJ FRPSOH[LW\ Âś $ ÂľPD]H RI VWUHHWV Âś WKHUHIRUH Âą VXFK DV DQ $UDE .DVEDK RU traditional  Japanese  machizukuri  warren  of  urban  passageways  â€“  might  be  an  unintended  outcome  of  human  construction  practices,  rather  than  one  conceived  from  the  outset  as  a  form  of  diversion.3  7KH SV\FKRORJLFDO FRQGLWLRQ RI ÂľDPD]HPHQWÂś PHDQW Âľ/RVV RI RQHÂśV ZLWV RU VHOI SRVVHVVLRQ PHQWDO VWXSHIDFWLRQ EHZLOGHUPHQW SHUSOH[LW\ Âś /DWHU LW accrued  the  exacerbated  senses  of  â€˜Overwhelming Â

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Ó?࣌Ɨܝ‍޹‏ ŕŁ?ŕł?Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œö֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—໨ŕŤ“á†° Ö¨áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕ Ž྿߽ૠ੥Ć—Ö“໨ŕŤ“ŕŹƒĎŠáˆ¸ŕ ´Ń°ŕťŠá†Žâ€Ť×€â€Ź ૠ੥ á‚€ŕť€áˆ¸ŕľšá‡‡á‡›á†Š۸ŕ˘€â€ŤŘ‚Ü™â€ŹŕľĽá ‰ŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?Ć— á ‰۸áˆ”á‡‰Ć—ŕť‘áƒ†á ‰۸ŕŤŒŕś“ܽ֏༊फ़ᆴୄḊá ‰ŕą” â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽŕśŠŕź˜Ń°ŕą–ŮŤÓ?Ď„ŕ˛?‍׹‏ŕź?è ֓ᆊॸቛŕŻ?á‚‹ ֤໨ŕŤ“Ő?áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹĂľŕžŚŕą­ĂśĆ“LQ[XW[Q\QWV ಇ මŕĽ?ĎŁŕ ĽŘ‘ß?á —áƒ•ŕ§ˆß‹ÖŹŕĽ?ŕ­†ྦƗܼࣗ଱۸ß? á —á €Ѝಹŕť€ྼáƒ•ŕ§ˆྦ֬ḩ൥á ‰á‡œþࢺŕŤ’ĂśÖŹ ŕž ŕľ›èྲŕ˝&#x;á ‰༶õྦ౭öá ‰Ő”֏৏ྕ‍֙ދ‏ఴႯ ŮŒƼþϏŕş‰ŕ ŽáˆŽá ”֬ྡྷŕť€ Üþ԰ᇉç༏á‡ŒÖŹ ಊড়Ü Ăľŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ƓႴఊ൥๠‍Ý?â€Źŕ´ąŕľƒÖŹŕ˛Š৭ŕ Žŕ˛Š ড়Ć”ŕŹˆਞŕ ŽÝ†Ůš֬ྡྷŕť€Ăś ĂľŇ?ථलâ€ŤŘ™â€Źá ˘Ů¤áƒĽ ŕ ŽŕŁ?‍܅‏Ü Ăľá ‰á‡œŕž–๭ç๭࿉Ü þφදŕż„ ŮŠá‡‰â€ŤŢ â€ŹĆŚŕĽŠŕĄžĎ„ŕŽ?ĆŚŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕť‘á‡‰Ć—ŕ¸˛Ń ŕľĽâ€ŤÜ™â€ŹÓľŇ? â€ŤÖŹŮşâ€Źŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕť‘á‡‰ĂśĆ“ࡾ႟ᆊཝࢺྍâ€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕŚŚáˆ¸Ăťŕž”ॏ ϸ୍ŕŁŠáˆşâ€Ť×Œâ€ŹĂźĆ”èþá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œö൲๴ሎ á ”໨ŕŤ“ÖŹáˆ†á °ŕ§śĆ—Ö“Ń°ŮŤŕŁŽŕŁŽྼŕť€ŕ¨›áƒ•ŕ§ˆ֬଩ ֏èࡸŕź—ຳ໨ŕŤ“ŕ­†මŕĽ?áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰è

ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá ‰Ő”á„¤á‡–â€ŤÜĽâ€Źá‚Žáƒ›৥Ń?ŕľœá ‰á‡œĂľá?—຾ç ß&#x;ૼ‍ދ‏྅ຳÜ֏ŕž–ŕ§&#x;áˆ˜ŕ¸†Ḋá†ˇÖĽâ€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚŕˇ¸Ň“á‚ź ਛŃ?ŕľœõਾಭૠŕ ?֏ç‍ڜ‏á„?֬ö๠֨ࢹ‍ݪ֏ܙ‏ á łĂ¨á‚€Ő•Ć—õ֨੥֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĂśá¸ŠĐ¸ŕł‰δŕŚ&#x;џ֏‍ܼ‏ Đ”ŕ ŽԵ๫֬ಷЮӳ൮ࢮ֨ḩŕĽ?ŕ­†ྼಭŕ§’ŕ˘€áˆ„â€ŤÜ„â€Ź Ó¸ ÖŹ ŕť´ ŕž– ‍ Ý› ޹‏Ɨ ‍ ҉ ؞‏ྼ ŕ°– ÔĄ ŕ¤ƒ ĐŤ ŕ´¨ ी ‍ ؞‏Ӿ ÖŹ è ĂľŕŁ á şĂśÖŹŕž–ŕ§&#x;áˆ˜ŕ¸†á °ŕťŒáˆŠĂľŕľ…ŕ˛‡ŕ¨›áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹ á‡?ߡŕ Žáˆ¸ŕť¨ŕĽŹá‡Œƌࣥഹŕ´?ÖŹâ€ŤŮ†â€ŹŐžĆŚŕť´ŕˇľŕľĽŐ?Ć— ૠયöèâ€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚŕˇ¸áƒ‚ŕ ?ÖŤŕ¨›Ăľŕ ĽŘ‘֏༪ŕ¤›ŕ Žá… â€ŤŢœâ€ŹĂśá†´á °Ć—á„Łâ€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚá‚źŕ¨›Ăľŕ¤”ս֏࣠ŕ°ŒĆ—ŕ ĽŘ‘ÖŹ ŕŁ ŕż¸ĂśÖŹá °ŕś¸Ă¨á„¤ŕ­?áˆ¸ŕ ´ŇœܝþႰਚཊƗႰਚ á‚ŒĂśÖŹâ€ŤÝ?‏ӸᇖƗ๯ྲŕ˝&#x;á ‰ŕźśá†Šཝŕ˝”ܸÖ“áƒ‚Ň‰๤ ÖŹŕž–á‡?áˆ˜ŕ¸†èß•๯áˆ†á °ŕˇˇŕŤ“ࡾĐŽâ€ŤÖŹÝŞâ€Źŕ˛­ŕ§’Ů˜á‚&#x; ÖŹŕ ĽŘ‘ŕžŚĆĽŕ ĽŘ‘֏࣠࿸Ć—Ô€࣠Ć—༪ŕ¤›â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá… â€ŤŢœâ€Źá¸Š á °ŕťŒáˆŠá ‰á‡œຢŕ˛?ĐŤâ€ŤÖŹÖĄ×‡â€Źá °ŕľ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¸†ŘŽè

IHDU RU DSSUHKHQVLRQÂś DQG ODWHU VWLOO Âľ2YHUZKHOPLQJ ZRQGHU H[WUHPH DVWRQLVKPHQW Âś ,Q \RXU RZQ journey  through  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  consider  HQWHUWDLQLQJ LQ \RXU KHDG WKLV FRQÂżJXUDWLRQ of  related  but  different  states.  Note,  too,  their  occupation  of  the  extremities  of  human  reactions:  overwhelming  wonder,  astonishment,  fear  and  apprehension  â€“  suggesting  a  consciousness,  a  position,  turned  upside  down.      Human  consciousness  and  self-­consciousness  is  inherently  situated,  or  seated,  in  material  existence.  7KRXJK VFLHQWLÂżF DQG SKLORVRSKLFDO GHEDWH RQ WKH TXHVWLRQ RI WKH GHÂżQLWLRQ DQG ORFDWLRQ RI ÂľPLQGÂś remains  intractable,  it  does  not  and  cannot  exist  outside  of  the  physical  body  and  brain.4 :LWKRXW the  organs  of  sight,  touch,  hearing,  taste  and  smell  consciousness  can  exist  â€“  sense-­deprived  or  sense-­bereft  patients  are  sometimes  kept  alive  through  intensive  care  procedures  â€“  but  individual  humans  could  not  survive  independently  in  the  world.  Perception  abilities  and  consciousness,  therefore,  are  bound  up  together  in  practical  life.  The  information  gained  through  these  senses  informs,  and  helps  to  form,  consciousness  and  self-­consciousness:  our  sense  of  who,  what,  where  and  why  we  are  in  the  world.  Practical  in  this  sense  GRHV QRW RQO\ PHDQ ÂľXVHIXO LQ HYHU\GD\ OLIH WDVNVÂś and  should  not  be  opposed  to  notions  of  theoretical  or  speculative  activity.  Our  senses  of  why  we  exist,  in  certain  places  at  certain  times  â€“  for  instance,  what  the  value  and  meaning  of  our  lives  are  â€“  are  inherently  bound  up  with  the  nature  of  those  SODFHV DQG WLPHV WKDW LV ZLWK WKHLU ÂľFRQMXQFWXUDOÂś VLJQLÂżFDQFH 5  Â

ಭŕ§’ÖŹá °ŕľ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕť¨á °ŕľ”ྼá “Ôľáƒ†ŕ Žá†‡ŕť‘áƒ† ŕź…á‡?֏հᄤᆴᇖ֏èŕŁ—Üźá†„ŕż—â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕĽšŕż—â€ŤŕŤ‡ß•Ř‚â€Ź á‚źâ€ŤŰşâ€ŹÔ˘Ü¸áƒ†Ăľŕž–á‡?ĂśÖŹŕť‘á‡‰â€Ť×ŽŢ‹â€Źá łĆ—Ö“ࡸऎ â€Ťß˝Ň‰Řšâ€ŹŐ°á„¤áƒ—ഭ฿â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŐ˝ŕŹžá†´ŕşšè ยŕł–ŕŤ‡á‚źŕľą ऍçŕš—ऍçԯऍçŕťŒफçླफŕ°?ÜšĆ—á °ŕľ”ŕĽ?á ˘ հᄤḊ྅ಇ‍֏ܚے‏ѯಭ႟ŕľ?á €ŕ­†á„¤ŕŁĄŕž–á…˝ŕ¨&#x; ŕźśŐ°ŕ ŠḊÖ“ಭ৒۸฿҉୆؆৲â€Ť×€â€ŹŐ°á„¤áƒ†á†Š۸ŕľž ࢿᆴᇖèá‚€Ő•â€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤Ťŕ­†ŕ§śá ˘ŕ Şá °ŕľ”áƒ—ಭŕŤ“ÖŹŕľ“ ŕĄ„ŕ´şŕ Š૨๔པܸè๠‍ےÝ?‏ऍŕ°?Üšŕ ?ÖŤÖŹŕž—ŕź–ŕ­† â€ŤÜ›â€ŹĐ áˆ€ಭŕŤ“ŕž Óľá °ŕľ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕť¨á °ŕľ”Ƽܸ჆໨ŕŤ“ྼ ඩç൥ŕľ?ŕŤ€çá„¤ŕŹŽŕ§Ąá ˘ŕ Şŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕť€ŕľ?ŕŤ€Ő°á„¤ÖŹâ€ŤŰ’â€Ź ऍèᆊ৥֏ þྒྷॄÜѰٍ࣎ᆞþᄤಡÓ?ᇖ႟ ႯÜƗ๤ŕľ?á €áƒ—ŕ§&#x;ŕŞ‰ÖŹŕ ŽŮ˜ම֬ྡྷŕť€Ń°Ň‰સ â€ŤŘ˘â€ŹĂ¨Đ¸ŕł‰Ć—â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†໨ŕŤ“ŕť€ŕľ?ŕŤ€Ő°á„¤áƒ†á ‰â€ŤÖŹ×Žâ€Źŕľ?फ़ ŕ Žâ€ŤŰ’ÖŹ×‹×€â€Źŕ¤ŤĆ—໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕĄ•á†ťÜťŕł‰â€ŤŢŒâ€Źá ˘ŕ Şŕ˛­ŕ´ş ÖŹá °á łŕł‰â€ŤŰ’ÖŹŢŒâ€Źŕ¤ŤĆ—â€ŤŘ‚â€Źáƒ—á†Šཝ‍ދ׋׀‏ŕľ?फ़֏า á†&#x;ŕŁŒ૨ŕ˝”ܸĆ—ŕ ŽŕľĽŕśąĆ—áƒ—ࡡŕŤ“֏þา‍֏׎‏Ü Ć“KWVR]VK\]ZIT á °á†žŕ˝”ܸè

â€ŤÜ™â€ŹÓľĂľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œö֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá†´ŕą ÖŹĂľ ๰࣫ö૲ϷŕŹƒŕ˝ˆÔžá„śŕ¨›á ‰á‡œþЍâ€ŤÖŹÚ´×‡â€Źá °ŕľ” â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕť‘á‡‰Ăśâ€ŤŰ’â€ŹĂ¨ŕŁ—ܼ໨ŕŤ“ŕ´Žá†°áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕ´­Ô°á ‰۸ࢀ‍ܙ‏ ŕź…á†´ŕ­„Ć—á ‰ŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?çá ‰۸߉঺ᆴᇖƗᆊཻ૲ ϡࡢáˆŠŕť¨ŕŤ“ÖŹŇ‹â€Ťß˝Ů‰â€ŹÓśŕ˝ŠÔ˘á ‰ཻ๴௒ྠཧĆ—Ő? â€ŤŘžâ€Źá…ĄŕľœÔ˘á ‰ཝŕľ?‍؞‏ཊഭçŕľ?‍཯؞‏྅çŕľ?â€ŤŘžâ€Źáƒ‚ თ໨ŕŤ“ÖŹâ€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤Ťâ€ŤÜ’â€ŹŐ°ÖŹŕž ཧèࡢáˆŠŕť¨ŕŤ“á‰ƒâ€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕŤ‹á ‰ ۸૲ϷƗᆊཻྠཧ߽â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şâ€ŤŰ†â€ŹŃ”Ć—á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“๊ ÔŞâ€Ť×€â€Źá °ŕľ”ÖĽáƒ—á†Šཝ‍ے‏ऍཔܸ֏á†°ŕ¤ŤĂ§á °ŕľ”ÖŹŕ Š â€Ť×ľâ€Źá ˘ŕ Şáˆ¸ŕť¨á °ŕľ”â€ŤŘ‚â€Źáƒ—໨ŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹáˆ¸ŕ˛?‍ދ‏ഭ฿ ֏าá†&#x;҉ŕĽ?â€ŤŮşâ€ŹŰ°Ă¨ĂľŕŁŤŕŤ˛Ăśá ‰Ő”á„¤â€ŤÜĽâ€Źá‚Žáƒ›৥֏ á °ŕś¸ŕľĽáƒ—࣫๯ŕ˝”ܸ֬ྠመèᆊ۸Ő”ÖŹŕŚ&#x;‍ק‏Ք ‍۝‏þTMV\QTĂśÖŹá °ŕś¸ŕľĽâ€Ť×€â€Źá‡–â€ŤŕĄŒÝšÝĄâ€Źá ‰á‡œá‚ŻŕŚŚá‡œ

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7KH VHTXHQFHV RI ÂľOHQWLFXODUÂś SDQHOV ZKLFK PDNH up  the  walls  of  the  maze  that  is  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  manifestly  create  the  sense  of  â€˜a  FRQVFLRXVQHVV D SRVLWLRQ WXUQHG XSVLGH GRZQ Âś Though  we  continue  to  know  we  remain  in  an  installation,  an  artwork,  in  a  gallery,  these  panels  â€“  projecting  a  series  of  photographic  images  as  we  walk  pass  them  â€“  exhibit  images  that  appear,  then  disappear,  and  sometimes  seem  eerily  to  co-­exist  in  our  perception  of  them.  Because  the  images  change  as  we  move  past  each  panel,  we  become  highly  aware  that  perception,  and  acts  of  consciousness  and  self-­consciousness  sequentially  related  to  these  perceptions,  are  inseparable  from  our  own  physical  and  bodily  disposition.  The  term  ¾OHQWLFXODUÂś DOVR KDV LWV RULJLQV LQ ODWH PLGGOH (QJOLVK usage,  where  it  referred  to  a  lens-­like  shape.  The  URRW RI WKLV WHUP OHQV OLHV LQ WKH /DWLQ IRU ÂľOHQWLOÂś –  a  small  rounded  seed  cultivated  for  food  in  Mediterranean  countries.  A  lens  was  a  transparent  substance,  such  as  a  piece  of  glass,  with  one  or  more  surfaces  â€˜curved  or  otherwise  shaped  to  cause  regular  convergence  or  divergence  of  light  SDVVLQJ WKURXJK LW Âś Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost,  even  before  we  begin  to  interrogate  the  kinds  of  imagery  projected  through  its  panels,  asks  us  to  consider,  then,  the  nature  DQG ÂľVLWXDWHGQHVVÂś RI KXPDQ SHUFHSWLRQ DQG LWV relation  to  consciousness  and  self-­consciousness.  How  do  we  see  the  world  and  why  do  we  see  it  that  way?  These  are  two  of  the  most  basic  questions  ever  to  have  been  asked  by  philosophers.  To  the  duality  and  dialectic  of  human  mind  â€˜perception-­ FRQVFLRXVQHVVÂś D WKLUG WHUP DQG SUREOHP PXVW be  added:  perspectival  understanding.  Having  D ÂľSHUVSHFWLYHÂś PHDQV WR VHH VRPHWKLQJ IURP D particular  place  or  position  and  implies  a  recognition  that,  from  that  place  or  position,  some  things  will  be/can  be  seen  and  other  things  will  not/cannot  be  seen.  Place  or  position  in  this  sense,  it  should  be  clear,  means  not  simply  a  physical  or  spatial Â

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á†¸ŕ¨ˆŕľ‘֏ཱིáƒźá‡œáˆˇĂ¨ŕŁŤŕšŻŕľĽŕš°ŕŹƒá†´ŕź…Ć—иŕł‰á ‰ ༽ѹৡĆ—á‚źá ‰۸ŕ Žŕ ˛Ű¸ŕŤ˛Óśŕąžŕ˝“áˆ˜ŕ Žŕ°Š෷֬ྠáˆ˜ŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€Źŕľ—ÖŤÝ‚ŕ˝“ŕ˘“ಟŕ ŽŮ˜๰è

ŕ´ľá‡‡á„¤ŕť¨ŕŤ“ß•ŕŤ‡á‚źŕ¤žŕľšŕ¸—ŕż á†Šཻ࣫૲෵๮ ത֬ྠཧá†´ŕ°´Ć—Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕ¤ƒá€ŤŕąŻŕť¨ ŕŤ“මŕĽ?႟ܸಭ৒‍֏ܚے‏าá†&#x;‍ދ‏þŕĽ?â€Ť×Žâ€Źŕť‘ྦöĆ— á ˘ŕ Şŕ°Šáƒ—á °ŕľ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕť¨á °ŕľ”ܸ֬༩è໨ŕŤ“ŕł‰â€ŤŢŒâ€Ź ŕĽˆÖ‡á†Š۸ŕľžࢿƪ໨ŕŤ“ŕť€â€ŤŢŒâ€Źá ˘Ő•ŮĄŕľ›ŕĽˆÖ‡á†Š۸ŕľž ࢿ ĆŞ ᆊ ྼ ᆄ ŕż— ŕĄŒ ŕŤ“ á ‰ ᆡ ማ ŕť ÖŹ ŕ¨? ۸ ŕ • ĐŽ ໠฼ è â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†ಭŕ§’ŕž–á‡?֏þ‍ ܚے‏ᆰऍÜ֏Ԃ࿊ྦ‍ދ‏ї á†ŞŮŒদනĆ—໨ŕŤ“Ńˆŕž˝ŕĄ?ŕ´?ׂŕł&#x;۸නŮŒĆ—ŕ Žá†‡໠฼Ć—á†Šŕ¤ƒྼŕ§&#x;ࢺ֏ŕ˘&#x;ŘŽèá‚Ąá‚źá ‰۸þŕ˘&#x;ŘŽĂśá ° ŕťŒáˆŠŐ?ŕŹ?۸ŕť‘á‡‰ŕ Žâ€Ť×‹×€â€Źŕ˛‡ŕĽˆÖ‡á ‰۸໠฼Ć—ࡸá € á °ŕťŒáˆŠá†Šá€Šá ‰۸ŕĄ“ŕ´¨Ć—ŕ ŽŐ?଱۸ŕť‘á‡‰ŕ Žŕ˘&#x;ŘŽá‚ź ཝ‍׹‏ŕź?ŕ­†ĐŤŕĽˆॾƗ႟ཝ‍׹‏ŕź?Ň‰ŕ­†ĐŤŕĽˆॾèâ€ŤŢšâ€Źŕ˝ˆ ŕ˛?Ć—â€Ťŕ Ž×‹×€â€Źá†‡ŕť‘á‡‰Ń°Ň‰ŕŁŽŕŁŽá °ŕťŒáˆŠá ‰۸୆‍ܛ‏ฝ â€ŤÜ‰â€Źŕľąŕ˝“ÖŹŕź…ŕ§&#x;֏ç༊ŕĄžÖŹŕť‘á‡‰Ć—á €ྼá ‰۸ŕĽ?á ˘ ࣜá†ĽÖŹŕĄ“ŕ´¨Ć—ŕ Žá†‡ß—á‡œŕśąŮŒĆ—á ‰á‡œŇ‰á†Şáˆ¸ŕŹƒÖŹ áƒˇá„źŕ Žŕž—á€ŚĆ—и೉Ɨþࡾá‚źŕ˛­â€ŤŘ‚â€Źá ‰á€Šá†Œâ€ŤÝ“â€ŹĂśĆ— ŕ Žá†‡Ăśá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹŕššâ€Ť×€â€Źá†´ŕˇľá ˘ŕś’áƒ†á‚¸ŕ¸…ಭྼá‚€ŕť€ ଱൥ŕ´?â€Ť×ƒâ€ŹŐ—â€ŤŰşâ€ŹŕˇˇŕŤ“ÖŹŕ •á ƒþè

ŕ˝”Ů˜Ć—๯ŕĽˆá ‰۸þŕĽ?ࣜᆼ֏॓നÜ֏৯ áˆˇĆĽŕł‰â€Ťŕ­?Ý›â€ŹáˆŽá ”ÖĽŕ˝Šá„¤ŕť‘á‡‰ÖŹá‰—Ń?Ć—ŕ­?ŕ˘ƒŕ­†ŕĽˆ ÖĽŕ˝Šá„¤ŕĽˆŇ‰ÖĽÖŹâ€Ť×ąâ€Źŕź?ĆŚá ¤ŕ Žŕž”༾ඪ֬ŕ˛“â€Ťß˝ŕ˘ƒŮŠâ€Ź ֤ᇈഺѯèᆊŕ¨?۸॓നྼá†„ŕż—ŕĄŒÓ˛á†´ŕť€Ăľŕ°šâ€ŤŮ†â€Ź ྛÜƓদáˆ¸ŕź—ঢáƒ›Ăľâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˝ŠĂśĆ”ÖŹŕĄ“ŕ´¨Ć—á °ŕťŒáˆŠ ೉‍ݛ‏႟ŕŁ?á ‰Ň‹ÖŹá†Şŕ¤“ÖŹßŒĆ—ࡡŕŤ“ÖŹÜťâ€Ť×‹â€ŹŕĽ?á ˘ĐŤ ौá€™Ć—ĐŤá†Şŕť‡Ć—â€ŤŘžâ€Źá†Šáƒ‚ß˝ŕŁ?á ‰Ň‹Ö¤á‡ˆŕľąŕ˘&#x;ÖŹŃ” ß‹è༚࿗ကࣾŕ •ĐŽŕ´?ྼĎ†á…˝á†Šá€ŠÖŹŕľ“á€™Ň‹á‡Žŕ Ž Ұ൲দŕŁ?ྡྷ֬èŕ˝”Ů˜Ć—ܸáƒ†ŕž—á€ŚÖŹÓŽŕś”á‚źŕľ?ĐŤ Ó˛ŕť€ĂľŇ‰ŕĽ?ငනö֬Ć—ŕŚ&#x;â€Ť×§â€Źáƒ›ŕ§ĄÖŹá °ŕś¸ŕ¤ƒྼþ ŕť†Ő˝ÖĽŕť´ŮŒá€„ԾÜè๯áˆ†á °Ć—á„¤ŕ˛­ÖŹá†°ŕ¤ŤĂ§ŕŁ€ áˆ€áƒ›á€„ÖŹŃ?՚ç‍ؚދ‏ྞࢿ֏â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˝Šá†´ŕĄžŐ°á„¤á ‰۸ ‍ے‏ऍ‍׾ދ‏ฆ֬৺༩ƥಭŕŤ“ŕĽ?á ˘ŕš â€ŤŘšÝ?â€Źáˆ¸ŕ ´á„¤ŕŹŽ

location  affording  a  view  (thought  it  necessarily  is  that),  but  also  a  correctible  hypothesis,  or,  alternatively,  a  principle  or  belief  that  is  held  to  be  D[LRPDWLFDOO\ RU ÂľVHOI HYLGHQWO\ Âś WUXH Âą VXFK DV WKDW IRU H[DPSOH ÂľDOO KXPDQV DUH HTXDOO\ SUHFLRXVÂś or  that  â€˜the  Land  of  Israel  belongs  to  the  Jews  EHFDXVH *RG JDYH LW WR WKHP IRU DOO HWHUQLW\ Âś ,Q FRQWUDVW DQ H[DPSOH RI D ÂľFRUUHFWLEOH K\SRWKHVLVÂś would  be  that  if  you  moved  to  the  left  of  your  current  position  you  would  see  something  that  is  currently  not  visible,  or  that  lack  of  fresh  water  creates  the  conditions  for  disease.  These  two  propositions  are  what  philosophers  have  called  heuristic IURP WKH *UHHN ÂľWR ÂżQGÂś PHDQLQJ WKHLU claims  are  subject  to  trial  and  error  revision  based  on  the  accumulation  of  further  evidence  which  FDQ OHDG WR D FKDQJH LQ SHUVSHFWLYH 6FLHQWLÂżF research  is  generally  thought  to  proceed  through  such  empirical  procedure  or  testing.   In  contrast,  statements  of  belief  are  sometimes  also  called  ineffable,  from  Latin,  meaning  â€˜too  great  to  be  H[SUHVVHG LQ ZRUGV Âś 1RWH WKDW WKHUH LV D VHQVH and  motor  link  between  human  consciousness,  expression  through  language  and  discovery  in  WKH ZRUOG RQH PLJKW EHJLQ WR ÂżQG D ZD\ WKURXJK the  maze  of  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  by  making  heuristic  claims  about  where  one  is  and  has  been  â€“  to  avoid,  for  instance,  endlessly  revisiting  the  same  place.  The  claims  can  be  tested  through  movement  and  then  further  reconsideration.  Of  course,  the  purpose  of  a  maze  built  to  confuse  is  precisely  to  confound  such  rational  and  heuristic  action  â€“  to  defeat  consciousness  and  self-­consciousness.  The  other  course  of  action,  however  â€“  moving  through  ineffable  principle  â€“  suggests  lack  of  communication  between  those  trapped  in  the  maze  and  a  belief  that  divine  will  is  guiding  them.

Seeing  images  mutate  in  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  as  we  move  through  the  maze,  correcting  or Â

ŕ§ĄĂ§á ˘ŕ Şá…‚ŕ˛‡ŕ¨›ମৡá†Šá‡œá‰’ŕ¤•ŕ°šâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕľ›ÖŹáƒ›á€„দ á„¤Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œö֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕ§Ąá…şÖĽá ‰ŕš?੥Ć— á ˘ŃŒ૮Ň‰Ř•â€Ť×€â€Źá„śŮ§ŕš¤á€ŠÖŹâ€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄĂ¨á†ŠཝმငŕĽ?á ˘ ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ᄕ‍ŕŁ?ŕ Ş×ľâ€Źá ‰Ň‹ÖŹŕĽ?ੵদᆪྒྷèÖ™ŕ˛?Ɨᇂᄤ ૠŕ ?ಭ֬ૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€ŹŕŹŠÖŹá†ĽŕľĽá€¸ŕ˛‡ಧ઀ᆊཝŕ§&#x;ྦŕ Ž చ‍ن‏ྛ֬ྡྷŕť€Ḋá€¸ŕ˛‡ŕ “ĎŽá °ŕľ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕť¨á °ŕľ”è҉ ‍Ý?‏Ɨྡྷâ€ŤÖŹ×ľâ€Źŕ¨˝á ‰ŕš?֨੥ḩφᅽ҉ŕĽ?á€„ŕśąÖŹáƒˇá„ź á ”â€ŤßŒ֏׾â€Źá¸Šá„źá °ŕťŒáˆŠá„¤ŕŹąŕ˝ťĐŤŕŚ™á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕ§ĄÖŹŕ˛­ á†´ŕĄžâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝”ŕž—ഹਚ߽ᆞႋࡡŕŤ“ÖŹŕž—á€Śá†´ŕĄžŕ˛“â€ŤÜ•ŮŠâ€Ź ๠è

Ö™໨ŕŤ“Ôłâ€ŤÝ?‏ᆊ۸ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—໨ŕŤ“ŕĽˆÖĽĂľá‚°ŕ¨š ŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá‡–֬۹۸ྠཧ҉ؕ‍ن‏ഺєߋƗ໨ ŕŤ“á €Ň‰Ř•ࣜá†Ľŕ Žŕ˛™â€Ť×Žâ€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕˇľÔ°ÖŹĂ§á…‚ ಇ‍֏Ý?â€ŹĂ§á ˘ŕ Şŕ˝&#x;á€¸ŕ°´ŕ˛‡ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰ÖŹŕĄ“ŕ´¨Ć—á„¤á†Š۸ ‍Ý?‏ӸᇖƗ໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕľąŕ˘&#x;Ň‰Ř•â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şáˆŠŃ”ß‹èּֿྼ â€ŤŰ…â€Źá‰—áˆŽß•ྼ႞ሎḊáƒ‚â€ŤŰťâ€Źŕ¤“ŕľ?ŕŤ€â€ŤÖŹ×ŽÜŹâ€Źŕť‘á‡‰দŕŽ˜ Ř•á‰—ŕ Žá‚žŕ­‚ƪõ֨੥๴ö߽҉߽Рሀቃས໨ŕŤ“ ŕź—ຳ֬١སƪ໨ŕŤ“ŕŁ?ŕł?֬൥ਾ໨ŕŤ“ŕ ĽŘ‘ૠŕ ?ÖŹ â€Ťŕž ×€â€ŹĂ¨ŕť¨ÖĽŕŹŠŕ°´ÖŹÖŹá†Šཝŕ˝&#x;ŮŒâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¤?â€Ť×ľâ€ŹŕľĽâ€ŤŕĽˆÚ•â€Źŕ°– দâ€ŤŢšâ€ŹáƒŠŐŠĆŞá„¤á†Šá€ŠÖŹá ‰۸ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá†´ŕ­„Ć—Ő?á ‰۸ս ჆! ŘŽཱི჆ ؇֏ŕ˘&#x;ŘŽ໨ŕŤ“ŕ­†â€ŤÖĽŕĽˆÜ›â€ŹĂ§ŕĄ áˆ… ཝŕľ?ŕŤ€ྠཧĆ—ŕ Žá†‡á ˘ŕť€໨ŕŤ“ŕ­†ॠ֍ॾ‍Ý?‏ŕľ?ŕŤ€ྠཧƪૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕ§ĄÖŹá†Šཝá‰ƒâ€ŤŢ‹׾â€ŹÔ˘ŕŠĽÖŹŕť ฟྼ҉ྼ‍ޚ‏ ŕ Śŕľ´ĆŞá ‰۸! ŘŽÖŹŕ˘&#x;ŕ Žá†‡ŕ´”ຸє‍׋‏٥ཌ߽ྼ۸ â€ŤŢ â€Źá‡˝á °ŕŞžƪྼ‍ۅ‏ཌ቗ߕྼཌá‚žĆŞŕž ཧ֏Ⴐਚྗ ໨ŕŤ“á °ŕľ”֥໨ŕŤ“ß´ÖĽŕ¨›á†´ŕ°´ŕ˛‡â€Ť×€ÖŹÝ?‏٥Ɨಖ҉ á†°Ö¨ŕ°´ŕž˘ÖŹŕŠĽá„¤ŕŹŽŕ§ĄĆĽŕŠĽŕ˝“â€ŤŢšâ€ŹŕŹ?ŢťĆ—ÖŽÝ‚â€Ťŕ „Ţšâ€Ź χƗࡠŕ˛?࣫૲૲ϷŮ˜ŕ´¤Ô˘â€Ťŕž ÖŹŘŚŰžâ€Źŕ˝§Ć—á„¤á†Š۸ ‍Ý?‏ӸᇖಖԢཊਛ‍Ý?֏،۞‏ಇçཊᄤാᇇྼ໩দ ֏Ⴐਚè

á‚źŃˆá€¸á€Śŕşłŕš†३দŕ˛™â€Ť×Žâ€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰ŕŞžĆŞĂľ á‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśáƒ—೯ŕľ?и࿡֏Ýâ€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าß á ˘ŕ Şŕ°Šá‡–â€Ťŕž ŕ †Ý?‏ཧ֏ቛႯ႟ܸƗࡸá €ŕľ—໨ŕŤ“

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FRQÂżUPLQJ RXU K\SRWKHVHV RI ZKHUH ZH WKLQN ZH are,  or  have  been,  or  want  to  be,  is  constantly  a  PDWWHU RI FKDQJLQJ SHUVSHFWLYH :KHWKHU WR WXUQ ÂľOHIWÂś RU ÂľULJKWÂś Âą EXW OHIW RU ULJKW LQ UHODWLRQ WR ZKDW Âż[HG RU DFKLHYHG SRVLWLRQ" :KHWKHU WR WXUQ RU WR UHWXUQ RU WR KROG WKLV SRVLWLRQ" :RXOG D ÂľURDG PDSÂś perhaps  help  with  the  direction  we  want  to  go  in?  :H HQWHU KHUH WKH JHRPHWU\ RI UDGLFDO GRXEW +DYH some  of  my  thinking  and  moves  so  far  seemed  obtuse?  In  this  maze  what  images  can  we  see,  or  remember,  or  think  we  remember  seeing,  from  a  plane  angle  greater  than  90  degrees  and  less  than  180  degrees?  Are  the  problems  of  movement  and  resolution  in  the  maze  bordering  on  the  acute?  :LOO D GHJUHHV RU OHVV FKDQJH LQ GLUHFWLRQ EH D JRRG LGHD" :RXOG WKDW EH WR WKH ULJKW RU WKH OHIW" The  ghost  of  an  image  suggests  we  have  returned,  unwittingly,  to  a  position  we  had  occupied  before,  with  no  sense  of  a  real  way  forward:  the  route  is  obscured,  the  light  bad,  although  the  lenticular  panels  project  more  images,  more  ghosts  of  a  past,  present  or  even  future  moment  in  movement.  Is  it  worth  reconsidering  our  position  by  looking  up  at  the  sky?  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  alludes  to  6KDNHVSHDUHÂśV Hamlet  and  the  dramatic-­symbolic  vehicle  the  spectral  image  in  the  play  constitutes,  but  it  also  brings  to  mind  another  of  the  metaphors  RI WKH HSRQ\PRXV FKDUDFWHUÂśV RZQ EHZLOGHUPHQW ,Q D FRQYHUVDWLRQ ZLWK 3RORQLXV 2SKHOLDÂśV IDWKHU and  servant  to  King  Claudius  â€“  the  man  who  Hamlet  suspects  has  killed  his  own  father  and  married  his  mother  â€“  Hamlet  facetiously  debates  the  shape  of  a  cloud,  which  seems  to  resemble,  they  agree,  a  camel,  then  perhaps  a  weasel,  and,  yet  again,  rather  a  whale.6  But  Hamlet  becomes  as  disoriented  by  this  exchange  as  he  had  hoped  Polonius  would  be;Íž  his  state  of  mind  is  fearful,  full Â

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ŕ˝&#x;֥๤ŕŹ‡á‡˝ŕ˛­â€ŤÜ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕŚ™࣊֏Ď‡áƒŁĂ¨á„¤áƒ—ŃśŕŞ“ ŕ­‹â€ŤŘ¸â€Źŕśľá¸Šá¸ŠĎ”٪৤ážŒÖŹâ€ŤÚşâ€Źŕą›ŕ ŞŕĽ&#x;িַඵອ֬௳ ಭĆ—â€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าß?á —ࡡ೹â€ŤÝ¤â€Źŕ¨›áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹâ€ŤÚşâ€Źŕą›çѰ಄ ŕ¨›áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕŹ˘ŕą›ŕť€ŕ°„Ḋ֏ŕ¸’ßŒá‡–Ć—â€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าŕĽˆŕˇ‚ â€Ť×€ŕ˝¸Ţ â€Źáƒ—á ‰ŕŻ’á„?â€Ťŕž˘ŕŁ?ت‏ᆥїƗࡡŕŤ“ऍ֍ᆊ௒ á„?ོྼá ‰۸ઔŕş?Ć—á €྿൥ߢŕś‘হĆ—ŕ Žá†‡á ‰๯ࣞ áƒ?è Ö“â€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าáˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕšŻŕŹžŃ”ÖŤáƒ—ŃśŕŞ“ŕ­‹â€ŤŘ¸â€Ź ŕśľá ‰á€Šŕ ˆŕŞ€ƌࡡŕž–á‡–Ô?નਛ༪छƗનྼá… â€ŤŢœâ€ŹĆ— ാᇇ႟ཝഹᇄ҉๊èŐ?ŕ°žཧŕż—ŕ´?দŕĽˆĆ—଱൥á ‰ á‡œŕĄŽáˆ˜á„?ĆĽŕ¤•á‚źŕš°ŕŁŤÖŹŕž áˆ˜Ć—ŕŽ„â€ŤŮ â€Źá‚źâ€ŤŢĽâ€ŹŇ˜Ć—ࡢ áˆŠÜťŇşá†‡ÖŹá ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źŕˇ¸ÖŹá€…್߽‍݂ن‏è

Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá‡–֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źáƒ—ĎŁá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“૽቉ಊড়ŕ –â€Ťŕ¨źÖŹÜ™â€Źŕššâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹŰśŕ¤žŕŚŚÖŹŕĄŚ ҡᅌ‍ࢿٺދ‏ན‍ޚ‏པࡂèá†Šá‡œŕ˘‘â€ŤÖŹ×‹â€ŹŃ”ß‹ྼá‚źá ° á łÖŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€á„¤á†ŠŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?ᇖєߗ֏ᅽ௒๴ཥĆ— ᄤᆊ۸ŕŤŒŕś“ܽ༊फ़ୄ֏‍ࢀܙ‏Ɨ૴ŕ ‚ŕ¨›Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ ૽቉ಊড়ŕ –â€ŤŢ‹Ü™â€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤÝšâ€Źŕ­„ÖŹÓłá†šá‡–â€ŤÝ?‏ಇ‍ދ‏ཊ á„¤ÖŹá ‰ཝŕľ?༠èࡸŕŤ“á„Łŕ˝Šŕ¨›á„¤á†Šཝá‡žâ€Ťŕ¨źÖŹ×Śâ€Źŕšš ᆴୄ਽á ‰۸૽቉֏ᄤÓ?Ć—ࡡŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕŤ˝á‰‰Ć— Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“á…‚ࣣհᄤƗ֓଱ཻྠཧ‍ދ‏ཧá†&#x;ཊᄤ‍؂‏ á &#x;ࣣЍá “ŕş´Ć—Óľŕť€ŕ¨›Ń”ß—ÖŹŕž áˆ˜çâ€Ť×‹×€â€ŹĂ§á ° á łĂ§ŕ˛­ŕŤ˝á ˘ŕ ŞŕĄ€ßŠè и೉ᄆ֑‍ޑ‏ŕź?ĎˆÓłá†šŕŚ&#x; છŕŚ&#x;â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá€źŕŠĽŕł˜ŕ§–á†´ŕĄžÖŹâ€ŤŰ‰â€ŹŕŚŽÖˇá€źŃ?ࢿƼህᄤᆊ ۸؆า֬ૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€Źŕ¨Šŕľ?उ૽းࣣ‍Ý?â€ŹŕťťŰ¸Ü¸ŕĽŽŇ“ŕ­† ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏èᆊཝá„•â€ŤŢ‘â€ŹĎŁŕš”á‡Œŕł?á…Šŕ –ç@Ý‚Űœŕ´šç‍۞‏ ‍ŕł?ÖŹŘŚâ€Źá…Šŕ –çौҡá…ŚĂ§á ˘ŕ ŞŕĄŚŇˇŕ˝˜ĐŽÖŹ@Ý‚ŕ´¨ Шয়ࢍŕ°–দèᇠ႟ࣣ‍Ý?‏ᆊཝܸ༎းࣣ‍Ý?â€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕť–Ѩçŕ°ŠࡡĎ„ŕ˛?ಭáƒťÖŹŕĄŚŇˇĆ—Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭŇ“ŕ­† ࣣ‍Ý?‏ᆊཝЍá€ąŕĽŹŕ¤žÜ¸ÖŹÜ¸ŕĽŽĂ¨á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ಭྒྷ྇ग़ ༏â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕš ܸá„•ྡྷ֬ѱ৷Ϸ٫Ó?ᆴޯƗĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭ â€ŤŰťâ€ŹĐŽŕĽˆŇ‰ࡵ଱ཻಥ෷ŕŤ“ŕš â€ŤŇ‰ŕ ŽÝ?â€Źŕ˛ĽŕˇˇŕŤ“ŕš â€ŤÖŹÝ?‏ ಭèá†Šá‡œŕ˘€áˆ„֏࢚‍ܙ‏എ༠฿ŕ˝Šŕ¨›á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á†Śâ€ŤÚ°â€Ź ᄤ‍ؚ‏ևĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“໠฼ŕ´?ࡾԞá„śĂ§ŕť‚Ô‚â€ŤŘ•Ň‰Ţ‹â€Źŕş˘ ŕ´†֏ܸ჆ŕĽ?ॾ‍҉ދ‏ŕĽ?ŕĄľÖŹŇąŕ °ŕ˘€áˆ„è þႰਚ ŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕĄ‚ྼâ€ŤŘšâ€Źá†Šá‡œ࢚â€ŤÜ™â€ŹĆ—ŕ Žá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹĂľ

of  apprehension,  and  possibly  delirious.  There  is,  in  meteorology,  the  genus  of  the  lenticular  cloud:  lens-­shaped,  occasionally  iridescent,  and  glittering  RU Ă€DVKLQJ ZLWK DQ DUUD\ RI FRORXUV ZKLFK FKDQJHV as  the  observer  moves.       The  maze  that  is  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  stands  some  comparison  with  the  architecture  of  checkpoints  and  border  crossings  that  both  link  together  and  divide  Israel  and  the  Palestinian  Authority  territories.  This  shift  in  focus  makes  sense  now  because  the  shifting  photographic  images  in  this  artwork,  this  installation  in  the  gallery  space,  depict  past  and  present  moments  in  the  cities  and  towns  of  the  Palestinian  Authority  and  in  the  nation-­state  of  Israel.  They  represent  the  presence,  within  these  imbricated  territories,  of  another  people  whose  own  nation,  Palestine,  once  existed,  but  whose  images  and  symbols  are  also  now  a  matter  of  ellipses,  shifting  shapes,  places,  meanings,  peoples  and  plans.7  Take  the  Qalandia  crossing  between  Jerusalem  and  Ramallah  in  the  :HVW %DQN 7KLV SDUWLFXODU PD]H RSHUDWHV ÂżYH stages  in  the  circulation  of  its  temporary  occupants.  These  channels  link  iron  turnstiles,  x-­ray  gates,  more  turnstiles,  inspection  booths,  and  then  x-­ray  machines  for  bags.  Palestinians  negotiating  this  structure  are  hailed  by  the  Israeli  guards  and  other  security  personnel  by  loudspeaker  and  move  through  its  locks  controlled  by  remote  controlled  gates.  The  glass  panels  enabling  Israeli  surveillance  and  operation  of  the  crossing  are  so  thick  that  they  prevent  the  Palestinians  seeing  the  humans  responsible  for  their  transit  through  or  detention  in  it.  The  architecture  of  this  structure  instructively  embodies  the  hieratic  architecture  of  visibilities  and  invisibilities  that  the  Israeli  state  has  FUHDWHG PDLQWDLQV DQG FRQVWDQWO\ UHÂżQHV LQ LWV dealings  with  the  Palestinians.8  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  is  both  a  meditation  upon,  and  a  simulation Â

ŕĽ?ॾŕŞ?ŕ §ĂśĂ§ŕ Şâ€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ˛Šড়â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáƒ—Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“֬৺༩֬ මŕĽ?Ć—á €ྼ‍ؚ‏ࡸ֏ŕŹ?ٌè

δ৥ξেḨೳ੩ )ZQMT ;PIZWV á…‚ྼ ! ŕ­”á…Ľá†Ąá‡–ÖŹá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕľ?Ѩá‚Žŕž­Ć—â€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚŕ˛°ŕž” ֏‍׎‏उ‍֏׋‏Ň?Ó?Ć—á„Łâ€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚŕľĽŕ§­ŕĽśÖŞá‰€ŕ§&#x;Ć—ࡡá…‚ ࣣฝԢ႒‍ۅ‏ГԂŕĽ?ࡵྦáƒ—á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ˛Šড়ᆴफ़֏ܸ ༩èá„¤ŕˇˇŕĽˆদĆ—þδŕŚ&#x;џಭá‚’â€ŤŰ…â€ŹŕŤ‹ŕš†ຼŕ´?‍؂‏୆ ᄤ ૣŕşšŕĽˆÖĽá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹÖŽÝ‚èÜ ࡡࡾŕź—ŕşłâ€ŤŢ‹â€Ź ŕ´¨ŕĄ€ÖŹŕ¤‰áˆ…â€Ť×€â€Źŕ˝ˆŕľœÔ˘â€ŤŘšâ€ŹĂľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á†´â€Ť×€â€ŹĂśÖŹŕŹƒŕ˝ˆ ֬๫ᇔḊࡸŕŤ“á‚’â€ŤŰ…â€ŹÓľŕť€á‚¸ŕ¸…ಭ֬ఴ๫ᇔ‍ދ‏ဋொ ÖżŕźśĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ÖŹÓ¨â€ŤÖŹÚ˘â€Źá‚ŹŕŁšŕžŚŃšá‡„Ă¨á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤÝšâ€Ź ÖŹá†Šá‡œŕ˘€áˆ„Ć—Ň‰ŕŞ‰ྼྒྷॄ֏ߕྼŮŒ੷֬ࢹ‍ܙ‏Ɨ Ő?‍۝‏Ўŕ´?‍؂‏ྼ҉‍ؚ‏Ӳ֏Ƽи೉Ɨ ୔ֿ‍ؚ‏ áˆˆâ€Ť×€â€ŹŇ?‍ؙ‏ࡾϜ‍׎݆֏ن‏Ɨ଱൥á„¤×‚â€ŤŮ„â€ŹŐ˜á…¤ŕ¨źá„• â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ“ŕ°–á łĆ”â€ŤŢąâ€ŹĆ—â€ŤÜ¤â€Źŕ§Şŕľ?Ѩâ€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ˛°â€ŤŢŒâ€Źá‚Żŕşłá„€࣍ŕ Žŕ°Š ࡡþŕĽ?á —ŕľ´Ř”ÜܝҺŕ¤‰áˆ…ŕąźÖŹĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭŕŁ?ྡྷ ŕ°˝ŕ “èܝŕĽˆÖŹâ€Ť×ľâ€Źá‰›Ć—á‚€ŕ°ŠŕĽ?ŕ­†߽Ѝ਽á ‰۸ಭŕ Ž ŕ˛œ฿ŕĽˆÖĽâ€ŤŘžâ€ŹĐŤŇŤŕŠ¸ŕśźŕžžŕľąŕť€Ö™ĐŤÓšâ€ŤÖŹŮ‡â€Źá‰“ྡྷè

ܝҺçŕĽˆॾáƒ—á„Łŕ˝ŠŕľĽß ŕ˝”á‰›á‚ŻÖŹâ€ŤÝ?â€ŹÓ¸á¸Šŕť´ ઉྼá„¤ŮŒ੷çá†Śá‡”ß•ŕľĽá Łŕś“ŕľ“ॳᇖèá‰›ŕť€á ‰ ŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?Ć—ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źŕˇ¸ÖŹŕźŠŕ¨ ࣫૲๮തâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕˇ¸ŕ¨žŕ˛­ŕŤ ŕ ?֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĎľÖŹÖ¨ŕŠĽĆ—á†Šཻ֨੥ᆞཌࣗ๯֬ᇃϡ ӳ൮֬๰ŕŹƒྦĆ—ŕ ¨Ő•Ć—Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá…Ą ŕľœŕ¨›ࡾ႟ᆊཝ‍Ý?‏Ӹèŕľ?ŕŤ€ŕ­†ĐŤŕĽˆॾĆ—ŕľ?ŕŤ€Ň‰ŕ­† ĐŤŕĽˆॾĆ—ຢŕ˛?ŕ˛ƒए჆ŕ­?ࡾá…Śŕ§˛ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰Ć—á €ŕ˛ƒए თŕ­?ÖŹŕ´­â€ŤÚ â€ŹĆ—á ˘ŕ Şŕ­?ÖŹŕľąŕ˘&#x;ྼŕł‰â€Ťŕž ŢŒâ€ŹÓľÖŹĂ¨ á Łŕś“ŕľ•ŕ´?_á‚źâ€ŤŘŚŢšâ€Źá†Šá€ŠÖŹŕźźŕ§ŻĂ¨á„†â€ŤÝ°â€Źá¸¨ŕĽ‰ŕśľŕ¸“ Ҋ‍٠‏Ɠ2WPV +WV[\IJTMĆ”Ć—á ‰۸ႎ‍࣌ڋݚ‏ ß‰ŕĄŒĆ—á„¤ŕˇˇÖŹŕˇłâ€ŤÚĽâ€ŹŕĽ&#x;༩ਠ߉ቛ৥Ń?ŕ˝Šŕ¨›â€Ť×ąâ€Źá‚Žŕ ¤ ৭֬িâ€Ť×ľâ€Źŕ˛­ŕŤ˝ÖŹŃ?áƒżâ€Ť×€â€Źŕť‘ḩ๠‍Ý?â€ŹŕˇˇŕŤ“ĐŤá„Łŕ˝Š ÖŹ Ô‹ Őą Ć— и ೉ ᄤ Ăť ŕźž ‍ ÖŹ ܨ‏ᄹ ÓŤ Ăź Ć“ , M L P I U >ITM ᇖ଱ŕť‘á†Ľá„¤â€ŤÝ Űşâ€Źáˆˇŕť?ଶ֬ଢŕą› ŕ¤ƒŃ?՚ਛࡡࡾâ€ŤŰ’â€ŹŕľşÖĽÖŹá„¤ŕˇˇŕˇľŕ˛ŞĎ€Ń°á‚Ąá‚źÖŹŕšš ‍׀‏ŕ´?࡚֏Ѝ޴ં֏çРຸ֏â€Ť×€â€Źŕť‘è ŕĽ?ࡵྦ൥ ŕš°ŕŹƒྦᆊ۸â€ŤŰ‡â€Źŕ­˜ྼŇ?â€ŤÖŹŮşâ€Źŕš¤á łŐ”Ć—Ń?ŕľœá„¤á†Śá‡” â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ´§ß˝ŕ´şŕ Šá‡–áƒ—â€ŤÜ‹â€Źá†Ľŕ˝”ܸ֏๊ŕź?ྦèϪਦ‍߽ݚ‏

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RI WKLV VWUXFWXUH RU ÂľORJLF RI WKH YLVLEOHÂś LQ ,VUDHO DQG its  connections  to  power  and  Palestine.  Ariel  Sharon,  Israeli  soldier-­hero  from  the  1967  war,  later  minister  for  new  settlements  and  then  Likud  prime  minister,  once  indicated  the  conditions  and  relations  that  should  pertain,  he  believed,  EHWZHHQ YLVLELOLW\ DQG ,VUDHOL SRZHU Âľ$UDEV Âś KH declared,  â€˜should  see  Jewish  lights  every  night  IURP PHWUHV Âś  9  The  settlements  he  conceived  and  planned  were  designed  to  institute  a  visual  GRPLQDQFH RI DQG RYHU WKH Âľ/DQG RI ,VUDHOÂś Âą WKH\ were  to  be  an  inveterate  reminder  of  Jewish  preGRPLQDQFH ÂľGRPLQDQFH RYHUÂś DQG 3DOHVWLQLDQ subRUGLQDWLRQ ÂľXQGHU WKH JD]HÂś RI WKHLU UXOHUV 7KLV architecture  of  the  Israeli  state,  its  physical  and  legal  structures,  is  essentially  asymmetrical:  rules  of  engagement  issued  to  the  occupying  forces  at  the  end  of  2003,  for  instance,  in  the  wake  of  the  Second  Intifada,  or  uprising,  stipulate  that  soldiers  may  shoot  to  kill  any  Palestinian  caught  observing  settlements  with  binoculars  or  in  any  RWKHU ÂľVXVSLFLRXV PDQQHU Âś10  The  act  of  looking,  with  the  implication  of  the  licit  or  illicitness  of  what  can  or  might  be  seen  by  a  particular  individual  or  group,  has  thus  itself  been  deemed  a  crime  punishable  by  summary  death.  Looking,  seeing  and  representing  are  interactive  processes  â€“  in  legal,  political  and  artistic  practices.  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  as  an  artefact  itself  articulates  all  these  processes  through  its  serial  lenticular  imagery  and  its  bewildering  maze  of  paths  leading  to  the  seeming  opacities  of  the  cardboard  FLW\ DW LWV WHUPLQDWLRQ :KDW FDQ EH VHHQ RU QRW seen  is  dependent  on  where  you  are,  but  also  on  who  you  are  and  how  your  own  perspective  has  EHHQ IRUPHG 7KHUH DUH PDQ\ DQWHFHGHQWV LQ DUWÂśV history.  John  Constable,  the  English  landscape  painter,  depicted  the  working  people  of  East  Anglia  as  only  marginally  visible  in  his  great  paintings  of  Suffolk  â€“  their  represented  size,  such  as  the  mother  nursing  a  baby  in  Dedham  Vale UHĂ€HFWHG KLV sense  of  their  background  relative  inVLJQLÂżFDQFH

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ս༷ৡїઉ๟֏ѹৡáƒźâ€Ť×Ťâ€Źŕťł !! ŕ­”á ˘â€ŤŢąâ€Źá„ŁŐ˜ Óľŕť€๫á ‰ÖŹÖŞâ€ŤÝšâ€Źá ˇß˝ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰Ć—ŕ¤ƒྼŕť€ŕ¨›฿ཊ૽ á‡˝ßŒáƒ›ÖŹŕš°ŕŹƒาá†&#x;Ḋŕ¤ƒâ€ŤŢ â€Źŕ˝ĽŕŤ˝á‡˝ŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€ŹĂ§á‚’â€ŤŰ…â€ŹĆ— á €ŕľ“ŕĄ„ŕ­†ĐŤŕĽˆÖĽâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şá ‰á€ŠĂ¨

਌á‚“Ć“5IaI AQVO 4QVĆ” ! ୔ࢀ৲ ᄤ߆ྀ‍֏Ř&#x;‏ᄇହá…Ľá†ĄŕĄ‡ŕ­˜ĐžĎŁŕĽ?ࡵྦ֬ྰՑ‍ׇ‏ ֥ਛ۸٥ཌèᆊ۸ŕĄ‡ŕ­˜Đžá‚ľâ€ŤŢ˜â€ŹŕłŤÖŹŐ˝ŕ§&#x;ŕľ?ŕą ŃŠ ‍ܙ‏ӾƗŕ´?૲ॠáˆŠŕˇľá‚źá„¤á„‡á…Ľá‡–೼ഺ֏ŕŤŒâ€ŤÝšâ€Źŕľ?Ѩ ÖŹŕŹ‡áˆşĂ¨Ö™ಭŕŤ“á„¤á†Š۸ŕĄ‡ŕ­˜Đžŕ´?ŕż á…şŕˇˇŕŤ“ŕľ…ŕ˛‡ ÖŹŕą›ಭ֏ŕŹ‡áˆşŕľ?Ɨᆊ۸ŕ˘€áˆ„ĎŁá†Šཝܝᆇ֬ྠཧ á €á‚&#x;ŕ´¤á„¤ŕˇˇŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕŤ˛ŕ°´Ă¨á†Š૲ౠŃŠŐ?â€ŤŘžâ€ŹÓľŕť€â€ŤŘšâ€Ź ᆊÓ? ! ŕ­”ŕľ…ĎŽÖŹŕąšŕŞ‚á…Ľá†ĄÖŹá ‰á‡œĂľŮ˜ े ŕ­˜Üèþá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕŁ—Üźŕ¤‘ŕ˘‘áƒ†á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“Ć—ŕ˛–áƒ—â€ŤŰžâ€ŹŐ˝ÖŹŕąźáƒžâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˛?ŕąśÔ‘๳֬৬ ŕľ•ḊĐŽŕŚšŕ§–á…Ľâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá„‡á…Ľá¸Šŕ˝”ܸèᆊཝয়ࢍâ€ŤÖŹ×‹â€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹŕľĽá†Śá‡”ÖŹâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá °ŕľ”ŕž ŕ¸†ÖŹĆ—๤ŕľ?á €ྼŕťšß‹ÖŹâ€ŤŢ‹â€Ź ŕŤŒŕż—֏è

Dome of the Reichstag Building, Berlin The air intake showing the ground floor at the Reichstag dome, German Parliament Building, Berlin, Germany Foster + Partners, 1990’s Glass cupola (Rodgers and Associates) Reichstag building in Berlin (1994) Š David Clapp/Oxford Scientific/Getty Images

within  the  countryside  he  both  loved  and  owned.11  Visibility  is  a  part-­synonym  for  the  notion  of  transparency:  the  clarity  associated  with  candour  in  social  and  democratic  political  life.  The  glass  cupola  built  above  and  into  the  debating  chamber  at  the  Reichstag  building  in  Berlin  after  it  once  again  EHFDPH WKH VHDW RI WKH XQLÂżHG *HUPDQ SDUOLDPHQW after  1994  was  designed  literally  to  embody  and  PHWDSKRULFDOO\ ÂżJXUH WKLV VXSSRVHG WUDQVSDUHQF\ to  democratic  discourse  â€“  as  if  democracy  could,  or  should,  actually  be  seen  to  be  happening.  0D\D <LQJ /LQÂśV Vietnam  Veterans  Memorial,  HUHFWHG LQ :DVKLQJWRQ ' & LQ WXUQHG WKH rhetoric  of  visibility  in  another  direction.  Consisting  of  a  long  rising  black  marble  wall  containing  the  names  of  all  the  American  soldiers  killed  in  that  FRQĂ€LFW WKLV VWUXFWXUH DFWXDOO\ WKURZV EDFN DW WKH viewer  the  visibility  of  their  own  image  looking  at  WKH :DOO DV PXFK DV WKH\ VLPXOWDQHRXVO\ WUDFH the  names  of  their  loved  ones  carved  in  the  stone  in  front  of  them.  The  wall  functions  as  a  kind  of  ¾DQWL PHPRULDOÂś WR D ZDU RI LQYDVLRQ DQG RFFXSDWLRQ that  was  lost  in  1975,  and  against  which  a  majority  in  the  USA  eventually  emerged.  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost,  though  focussed  on  Israel  and  the  Palestinians,  actually  connects  to  this  longer  and  EURDGHU KLVWRU\ RI UHJLRQDO DQG JOREDO FRQĂ€LFW ZLWKLQ ZKLFK WKH &ROG :DU DQG WKH 9LHWQDP :DU DUH ERWK implicated.  The  maze  of  these  interconnections  is  political  and  ideological,  but  also  cultural  and  aesthetic.

John Constable, The Vale of Dedham (1828) Oil on canvas 122.00 x 144.50 cm (framed: 163.20 x 184.80 x 14.00 cm) National Galleries of Scotland, Permanent Collection Purchased with the aid of The Cowan Smith Bequest and the Art Fund 1944 Reproduced Courtesy of the Scottish National Gallery. Purchased with the aid of The Cowan Smith Bequest and the Art Fund 1944

Maya Ying Lin, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington D.C. (1982) Wikipedia Creative Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_flag_reflexion_on_Vietnam_Veterans_Memorial_12_2011_000124.JPG Š Creative Commons/Mariordo (Mario Roberto Durån Ortizz)

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IN Â GIRUM Â IMUS Â NOCTE Â ET Â CONSUMIMUR Â IGNI Â / Â WE Â GO Â ROUND Â AND Â ROUND Â IN Â THE Â NIGHT Â AND Â ARE Â CONSUMED Â BY Â FIRE Â 12

1 V / Q Z ] U 1 U ] [ 6 W K \ M M \ + W V [ ] U Q U ] Z 1 O V Q ໨ŕŤ“á„¤á ‡ຼÝ„দÝ„ŕ˛‡ĐŤŕ Œŕ˛ž ŕ´•

This  palindromic  sentence  â€“  in  Latin  the  letters  from  both  beginning  to  end  and  from  end  to  beginning  spell  the  same  words  â€“  was  a  favourite  of  Guy  'HERUGÂśV WKH DXWKRU RI Society  of  the  Spectacle,  ¿UVW SXEOLVKHG LQ 13  This  book  sought  to  describe  and  explain  the  direction  society  had  taken  in  the  world  since  the  mid-­1920s,  when  forms  of  spectacular  diversion  (in  cinema  â€“  with  the  advent  of  synchronized  sound-­imagery  â€“  advertising,  urban  development,  and  in  culture  and  the  arts  generally)  began  to  become  integral  to  the  social  orders  of  both  the  western  democratic  capitalist  societies  and  the  Soviet  eastern  European  state-­communist  countries.  For  Debord,  the  stand-­off  between  these  two  power  blocs  had  in  fact,  by  the  1950s,  generated  a  form  of  deadly  coexistence  and  mutual  LQWHUGHSHQGHQF\ 7KRXJK FHUWDLQO\ LQ FRQĂ€LFW DQG competition  with  each  other  through  the  alliances  HVWDEOLVKHG E\ 1$72 DQG WKH :DUVDZ 3DFW VWDWHV these  two  power  blocs  had  effectively  carved  up Â

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á†Šŕ¤šß´ŕťšŕľ‰ḊᄤŕŚ&#x;â€Ť×§â€Źáƒ›৥á‰’â€ŤŢąâ€Źá ‰۸áˆşŕŹ˘ÖĽ×‚ á ‰۸áˆşŕŹ˘ÖŹŕŻšŕž†ຢŕ˛?á ‰á€Šá¸ŠŕľĽ ! ŕ­”ŕľľŐ˜Ԣϸ ÖŹ Ăť ࣌ Üť ŕ´§ ß˝ Ăź á ‰ ŕś‡ ÖŹ ቛ ᆇ उ á ? Ḩ ÖŞ Ńś Ć“ / ] a ,MJWZL ቒ༦ß’ÖŹá ‰ŕ¤šŕľ‰èá†ŠĐŽŕś‡૴ŕž†ŕ¨› ྞे ŕ­”Ö„á ˘ŕŚŚŕ´§ß˝ÖŹâ€ŤŮ†â€Źá…ĄŮĄŕ˝ŚĆ—á„¤Ő•ŕ°€ŕĄžĆ—࣌ܝვ ŕ§ˆÖŹŕž ŕľ›Ć“á„¤â€Ť×?â€Źá‚œá„„ḊϝࡢáˆŠŕš¤ŕľ?â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şÖŹŕ´šŕ˝Ľá¸ŠÝƒ ۨçӳྎ֏ŕŚ›á…­Ă§á ˘ŕ Şŕťšß‹á Łŕś“ÖŹâ€ŤŮ†â€Źá…ĄĆ”ञŕľšÓľŕť€ ŕź?١૽á‡˝áˆŽĐŽá‡˝á łŕ´§ß˝â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕˇ‘৺â€ŤÜ’ŕĄŒÝš୿׹â€ŹÓˆá‡˝á łâ€ŤÝšâ€Ź ŕĄŒÖŹá‡žá€¸á‰?ÓľŇ?â€ŤŮşâ€ŹĂ¨á„¤ÖŞŃśŕĽˆদƗᆊŕ¨?սྤড়֏ᆴ फ़֏ࢠÔ‚ÖĽ ྞे ŕ­”Ö„á &#x;ࣣá„śÓľŕ¨›á‡ˆŕŹˆÖŹâ€ŤÜ’â€ŹŐ° â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝”ß á†´ŕĄžÖŹá Žধèࣗܟ‍۝‏ओ߆ೳŕš?ᄆ‍ދ‏ХᄆƗᆊ ŕ¨?٥ྼ‍ؚ‏৲ࣰᆥ֏Ɨᆊŕ¨?սྤড়ß•ྼá‚źŕ˝šâ€Ť×€â€ŹĎŁŰšáˆ¸ ÖŹáˆŽáƒžĂ§ŕššâ€ŤŢ‹×€â€Źŕ˛­ŕŤ˝â€ŤŮşâ€ŹŰ°Óľŕ¨›ŕ˝”ß ŕŁ°á†Ąáƒ‚ŕ˝”ß á ŽŐ° ÖŹĂľŕ§­á ´ŮĄĂśĂ¨ĎŞŕ¨Śŕą ! ୔ࢀ৲Ć—Ö™ŕľ?ྼŕť€ŕ¨› á‰Œá†żâ€ŤÖŞ×ąâ€Źŕ¤‰૽ŕŁ?ŕł?á‚ľŕŤŒâ€ŤŢ‹Ýšâ€ŹŕˇˇŕŤ“ÖŹŕŤ—ल༏ᇌ֏ӳྎ ŕąźáƒžĆ—á†ŠŇ‰ŕŁŽ฿ŕ˝Šá €ŕĄ?ŕ´Žŕ¨›ŕś’áƒ†Ó˜ŕ °Ő˝â€ŤÝšâ€Źá†´ŕĄžÖŹá†Ą Ř‘ḊḊŇ?â€ŤÖŹŮşâ€ŹĎŞŕ¨Śâ€ŤÖŹÝšÖŞŢ‹â€Źŕ§–á…Ľâ€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ¨ĄĂ¨á ‰ŕ­”á ˘â€ŤŢąâ€ŹĆ— Đ“ŕĄ?ŕ§­ŕżˇá Łŕś“ŕĄŒŕĽ&#x;ৡඵŕşˆŕ ?ÖŤá†Śâ€ŤÚ°â€Źá„”ŕžżĆ—á„¤Ď&#x;৚֏ ŕť‚ŕśľŕĽ‰× ŕ˘Žŕ˘€৲ਛࡡáˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹĂľŕš”ଥḩá‚šŕš¨ŕą Üèᆊ

the  world  and  its  resources  of  people  and  land  into  FRPSHWLQJ DQG FR H[LVWLQJ ÂľVSKHUHV RI LQWHUHVW Âś 7KH %HUOLQ :DOO HUHFWHG LQ WR SUHYHQW FLWL]HQV from  East  Germany  crossing  into  the  zones  of  the  city  controlled  by  the  Americans  and  their  allies,  H[SUHVVHG DQG GHHSHQHG WKH &ROG :DU GLYLVLRQ of  Berlin  and  Germany  within  the  superpower  FRQĂ€LFW %XOJDULDQ DUWLVW &KULVWR DQG KLV ZLIH DQG collaborator  Jeanne-­Claude  erected  his  own  Iron  Curtain  â€“  Wall  of  Oil  Barrels ZLWKRXW RIÂżFLDO permission,  in  the  Rue  Visconti  in  Paris  a  year  later,  in  what  was  an  early  artistic  commentary  RQ WKH DHVWKHWLFV DQG SROLWLFV RI WKH %HUOLQ :DOO 6HHPLQJO\ DPELYDOHQW RU ÂľQHXWUDO Âś WKLV SUDFWLFDO temporary,  division  of  a  street  by  a  high  stack  of  oil  barrels  both  roughly  imitated  and  yet  might  be  WKRXJKW WR KDYH RIIHUHG D FULWLTXH RI WKH %HUOLQ :DOO itself  â€“  though  the  meaning  of  the  action  in  blocking  the  Paris  street  for  a  number  of  hours  overnight  still  resists  any  simple  or  singular  reading.  The  structure  the  artists  built,  however,  focused  upon  an  act  and  situation  elsewhere  â€“  the  construction  DQG PDLQWHQDQFH RI WKH %HUOLQ :DOO Âą ZKLFK KDG ERWK UHĂ€HFWHG DQG SURGXFHG H[WUHPHO\ SRZHUIXO practical,  ideological,  social  and  emotive  effects,  within  that  city  and  its  population,  divided  Germany,  :HVWHUQ (XURSH DQG WKH &ROG :DU ZRUOG EH\RQG &KULVWR DQG -HDQQH &ODXGHÂśV Iron  Curtain  worked  WKURXJK D ÂľGLVWDQFLQJÂś GHYLFH ZKLFK ERWK OLWHUDOO\ separated  â€“  physically  dividing  the  street  in  Paris  â€“  and  drew  attention,  metaphorically,  to  the  DFWLRQ RI WKH %HUOLQ :DOO XVLQJ LWV GLIIHUHQW IRUPDO PDWHULDOV ÂľSRHWLFDOO\ Âś YLD D verfremdungeffekt  ¾PDNLQJ VWUDQJHÂś GHYLFH 14  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  performs  a  congruent  action,  leading  us  to  reconsider  the  socio-­political  meanings  of  TXRWLGLDQ WHUPV DQG SUHFRQFHSWLRQV VXFK DV ÂľZDOOV Âś ÂľGRRUV Âś ÂľURDGV Âś ÂľEDUULHUV Âś ÂľSDUWLWLRQV Âś ÂľEHJLQQLQJVÂś

Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Wall of Oil Barrels – Iron Curtain – Rue Visconti, Paris (1961-62) Photo: Harry Shunk/Wolfgang Volz. Copyright: Christo 1961-2005

ྼá„ąŕ°€â€ŤŘšâ€ŹĎŞŕ¨Śŕą ÖŹá†Śá‡”â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŤŒŕż—á °á łÖŹá Łŕś“ௌ ॕèŕĽˆŕˇ‚Ăľá‡–৲Üŕ ŽŕŹ?ޝƗᆊ۸ྒྷॄ֏çᄧ ŕľ?֏ϣࢎ֨á‚ŻŰĄŰĄÖŹŕľĽá‚šŕš¨â€ŤŮşâ€ŹŰ°ŕ¤žŕŚŚÖŹŕ˝Šཧू ྼ‍ؚ‏Ϫ਌๠֏ŕŹ?ŮŚĆ—á €ྼ‍ؚ‏ࡸ֏ூௌḊࣗܟᄤ á ‡ຼϣĎ&#x;৚֏ࢎ֨â€ŤÚ†â€Źŕ°–ŕŚŚŕ ˛Ű¸ŕ˝łŕľ?ÖŹá °á łŕ¤ŽŇ‰ ྼÖ?á ‰֏èŕ˛?â€ŤŘžâ€ŹĆ—á Łŕś“ŕĄŒࡾࢀᄜ֏ᆊ۸࢚‍ܙ‏ऑ ŕ˘‘áƒ†Ń Ô°ÖŹŕž˘ŕť€ŕ Ž౭ྠḩḩϪਦౠ֬ŕ˘€á„śâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕť‚ ߀Ɨᆊৡ૲Ň‰ŕŁŽŮ˜á‚&#x;Ô˘Ć—á €á‡Œá„śŕ¨›ŮŤÓ?႟ড়֏ ŕľ“ŕĄ„ÖŹĂ§á °ŕľ”ŕž ŕ¸†֏çധ߽֏‍ދ‏๭‍ݛཚ֏ے‏Ɨ ࡸŕŤ“á„¤á†Š۸ӳྎâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˛­ŕŤ˝á‡–ŕĄžâ€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ¨Ąŕ¨›ÖŞâ€ŤÝšâ€ŹĂ§ŕź?ŕ­ż á ˘ŕ Şá„¤Ő•á†´ŕşšÖŹŕ§–á…Ľŕľžࢿè

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DQG ÂľHQGLQJVÂś ,W GRHV VR ERWK WR HQWHUWDLQ DQG WR prompt  critical  thought,  referencing  and  utilizing  â€“  OLNH WKH ÂľDIIHFWÂś VHQVH RU PRRG GHYLFHV RI PRYLH spectaculars  and  CGI  technologies  â€“  the  evolved  machinery  of  spectacle  to  achieve  its  own  effect.  7KH VR FDOOHG ÂľPDNLQJ VWUDQJHÂś GHYLFHV DVVRFLDWHG with  twentieth  century  avant-­garde  artistic  practice  included  juxtaposition  and  dissonance  in  compositional  (ordering)  strategies.  The  lenticular  panels  central  to  the  experience  of  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  materialize  this  principle,  combining  as  they  do  historically  disparate  and  opposed  images  â€“  pasts  and  presents  of  Palestinian  life  held  visually  together  within  acts  of  vision  which  themselves  mutate  as  the  spectator  moves  along  the  walls  that  channel  their  progression  through  the  maze.  The  ¾PD]HÂś KHUH KRZHYHU UHIHUV DV PXFK WR WKH IDWH RI WKH 0LGGOH (DVW ZLWKLQ WKH ORJLF RI WKH &ROG :DU and  to  the  history  of  the  Palestinians  since  their  own  1948  Nakbah,  as  it  does  to  the  actual  warrens  of  paths  in  their  towns  and  their  playful-­yet-­serious  VLPXODWLRQ LQ 0DNKRXOÂśV GLYHUWLQJ LQVWDOODWLRQ We  go  round  and  round  in  the  night  and  are  consumed  by  ¿UH.         At  its  most  basic  level,  the  modern  spectacle  was  that  of  what  Debord  calls  â€˜the  autocratic  reign  of  the  PDUNHW HFRQRP\ Âś DORQJ ZLWK WKH VWDWH SRZHUV WKDW guaranteed  this,  and  which  stripped  people  of  their  personal  autonomy  and  sovereignty.15  People  thus  EHFDPH DOLHQDWHG ÂľVHSDUDWHGÂś IURP ERWK WKHLU WUXH human  natures  and  abilities,  and  from  their  true  UHODWLRQ WR WKH QDWXUDO ZRUOG :KLOH FDSLWDOLVP DV D system  and  totality  of  exploitative  social  relations  enacts  this  real  alienation,  it  also  produces  what  Debord  called  a  life  â€˜presented  as  an  immense  accumulation  of  spectaclesÂś LWDOLFV LQ RULJLQDO $V a  totality,  then,  the  spectacle  is  not  â€˜a  mere  visual  GHFHSWLRQ SURGXFHG E\ PDVV PHGLD WHFKQRORJLHV Âś

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ŕĽ&#x;ৡඵŕşˆÖŹĂľŕš”ŕŹĽĂśá ˘á ‰á‡œĂľŕ¤–ŕ§?ß‹ĂśÖŹ ٥ྛ҉࣎ᄤྒྷॄŕ´?‍ٺ‏ŕ§?ਛĎ&#x;৚֏ࢎ֨Ć—ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕŹš ŕ´şß‹ÖŹŇ­ŕŞ‚â€ŤŇ‰Ţ‹â€Źŕš¤ÖŹŕľ‰ŕż—ŕž ŕľ›Ň’ŕ¨&#x;Ć—ࡸá €á„¤ŕž â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ´?ÖŹá °á łŕ´?ŕź’á‚‹ŕ¨›ಭŕŤ“â€ŤŘšâ€ŹĎŞŕ¨Śŕą ÖŹáˆ†á °Ă¨Ăľ á‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá€?ŕ¨‡ŕť€á ‰۸པ႒֬ྡྷŕť€Ć—á‚‹ ਼໨ŕŤ“á‡žŕž”මŕĽ?á ‰ཝಡÓ?Ő”áƒ›â€ŤÜťŢ‹â€Źŕ­˜֏ധ߽ á†Śá‡”â€ŤÝŞâ€Źá łĆ—и೉þ๠ъÜçþŕŤ‘öçõ֨੥ö çþᅡοÜçþ‍ٺ‏۰ÜçþఖྚÜç‍ދ‏þ࢚ ŕťˆÜèá†ŠŕŤ€á‰šŕĄ‚ྼŕť€ŕ¨›áƒ•ŕ§ˆĆ—á €ྼŕť€ŕ¨›ŕ žâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˛­ ŕŤ“ŕ˛‡ŕŻ‚ௌçá†žŕ´Śâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‚’á‚Żá¸Šŕ¤ƒâ€ŤŢ â€Źŕ˝Ľâ€Ť×?â€Źá‚œá‚œོ֏þ ŕą­â€ŤŰ’â€ŹĂśŕľ´Ř”á ˘ŕ Ş+/1ŕ śŕś“ḊŕŁ?ß‹֏࣌ܝŕ –ŕ°? á ˘Ń“ŕ ?֍ࡸáˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕ˝šâ€ŤÝ›â€ŹĂ¨ŕˇľŕť“ÖŹĂľŕŹšŕ´şß‹Üҭ ંƗ࢚‍ Ţ?â€ŹŕľžŕĄ‡ÖŹŕźźâ€ŤÚŠâ€Źá Łŕś“ŕľ“ॳĆ—ĐŽŕŚšŕ¨›á„¤ Ԟቛ‍Ý?‏Ӹᇖ֏Ѱᇉ‍҉ދ‏ཿ‍×&#x;‏èþႰਚཊƗႰ ਚá‚ŒĂśá‡–á‰’á‡žá€¸ÖŹŕŁŤŕŤ˛ŕšŽŕ´¤ŕľ“ŕ˝Šŕ¨›á†Š۸áƒˇá„źĆ— ϣ৏ŕľ•ŕ´?Ň‰â€ŤŘšâ€ŹÓ˛â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝”Ů˜֬ྠཧ৺༩á„¤á ‰ŕ°–ḊĎ&#x; ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ŕ´şŕ ŠÖŹâ€ŤÝ?â€Źŕ˛‡â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝Šá„¤ĐŤá ˘ŕľąŕ¤ŤÖŹŕž ŕľ›৺༩ á„¤á ‰ŕ°–Ć—á†Šཻྠཧ෢áˆŠÜťá‡ á‰ƒâ€ŤÝ?‏ᆊཝ๠ъ‍ن؞‏ ŕ´şáˆŠŃ”ß‹èᆊৡ֬õૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĂśĆ—Ň‰ŕŁŽŃ?ŕľœŕ§–á…ĽŕŞ? ŕ §á†´ŕ­„á‡–â€ŤÖŹ×ąâ€ŹŕŹˆá„•Ć— ! ୔‍ࢹބ‏ᆴ‍֏޹‏Ď&#x;ে ŕśľŕ¸“৏ŕľ•Ć—á €ĐŽŕŚšࡡŕŤ“ÖŹÓłá†š৥֏ဢӒཱི֨‍ދ‏ á„¤ŕŞ˜༜֏á‚źŕ˛†ÖŹáˆ”Шᇖ଱á‚şŕźŤáƒ‚ಹᆎ֏ŕŹ?ٌฆ ŘŽè໨ŕŤ“á„¤á ‡ຼÝ„দÝ„ŕ˛‡ĐŤŕ Œŕ˛žŕ´•è

Ő?á‰’ŕ •Ю֬ұ૲ŕ´?দනƗཊք࣌ܝᆼ೉֪ Ѷ෵න൥õ൮Ó?ŕŁŁŕ ˝ÖŹáˆŒá‡Œ๫á‡”ĂśĆ—á ˘ŕ Şŕť€ŕ°Š Đ“ŕĄ—ß€â€ŤŕĄŒÝšÖŹÝťâ€Źŕ˛Šড়Ć—ࡸŕŤ“Đ?‍ا‏ਛ۸ಭ֏áˆ¸á‡˝ ྦ‍ދ‏ಊড়èಭŕŤ“á‚€Ő•áƒ—ࡡŕŤ“á†Žá†ĽÖŹŕš†ྦ‍ދ‏୆ড় ‍ٺ‏ŕ§?ाদĆ—á €áƒ—ࡡŕŤ“â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕ˛?ࢿ֏ᆎྒྷܸ༩‍ٺ‏ŕ§? ाদèŕŁ—Üźá‰›ŕť€á ‰۸฿༩‍ދ‏ቀ฿ྦ֬ധ߽Đ?ཌྷ ܸ༩Ć—áˆŽĐŽá‡˝á łá„śÓľŕ¨›á†Šá‡œá şß‹Ć—ࡸá €á‡Œá„śÔ˘ á ‰۸֪Ѷ෵න֬õá‚œོâ€Ťŕ ™Ř—â€ŹĂśĆ“áˆŠá‡žâ€ŤŢƒâ€Źŕť€áƒˇŕťš ࡾá‚źĆ”ÖŹŕ´şŕ Šèá‚€Ő•Ć—á‰›ŕť€á ‰۸ᆣ฿Ɨ࣌ܝѰ ٍþ࣎࣎ྼá ‰۸սá‡ ŕŤ‰ŕŁ ŕ śŕś“á‡Œá„śÔ˘ŕŚŚÖŹŕľąŕ¤Ť ŕ° ŕŻ“ĂśĆ—á €Ň‰ŕľĽĂľŕž ŕ˝§ÖŹŕ Šâ€ŤŢ?â€ŹĂśĆ—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽĂľĐŤŕž ཧ෵സ๰֬ಭᆴफ़֬ധ߽ܸ༩öè ŕŁ—Üźŕť‘áƒ†

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QRU ÂľD FROOHFWLRQ RI LPDJHV Âś UDWKHU ÂľLW LV D VRFLDO relationship  between  people  that  is  mediated  E\ LPDJHV Âś16  Though  lodged  in  an  organization  of  actual  social  relations  of  production  and  consumption  between  people,  and  between  people  and  the  material  world,  the  created  spectacle  PDQXIDFWXUHV D ÂľZRUOG YLHZÂś Âą RQH WUDQVIRUPHG LQWR ZKDW 'HERUG FDOOHG DQ ÂľREMHFWLYHÂś IRUFH LQ WKH ZRUOG Debord  observed  that  â€˜reality  emerges  within  the  VSHFWDFOH DQG WKH VSHFWDFOH LV UHDO Âś 3HRSOH DUH alienated  both  in  relation  to  this  image  of  the  world  the  spectacle  creates  and  in  their  daily  life  activities  producing  and  consuming  the  commodities  which  comprise  the  spectacle.17  &RQVLGHU 'HERUGÂśV DFFRXQW LQ UHODWLRQ WR WKH OLYHV RI FRQWHPSRUDU\ 3DOHVWLQLDQV LQ ERWK ,VUDHO ÂľSURSHU Âś and  in  their  allotted  and  resisting  contiguous  territories  â€“  the  Palestinian  Authority  areas,  Gaza,  and  the  highly  fragmented  places  and  spaces  of  the  :HVW %DQN DQG (DVW -HUXVDOHP ZKHUH VWUDWHJLFDOO\ ORFDWHG ,VUDHOL ÂľVHWWOHPHQWVÂś superordinately  PRQLWRU Âą IURP ÂľDERYH Âś WKDW LV Âą WKH H[LVWHQFH RI WKH Palestinians  below.18 Âľ$OLHQDWLRQÂś KHUH LV D IDFW RI formalized  physical  and,  as  we  have  noted,  visual  and  visible  demarcation.  The  so-­called  â€˜separation  IHQFHÂś EXLOW LQ VHFWLRQV by  the  Israeli  government  since  2000  â€“  labour  undertaken  by  Palestinian  workers  in  the  main  â€“  is  only  the  most  obvious  symbolic  and  literal  trace  of  this  politico-­territorial  division.  At  the  Allenby  Bridge  (also  known  as  the  King  Hussein  Bridge)  crossing  between  Jordan  and  the  Palestinian  Authority  town  of  Jericho  in  the  :HVW %DQN Âą D FURVVLQJ UDUHO\ HYHU DFWXDOO\ RSHQ because  the  Israelis  have  overriding  control  over  its  use  â€“  Israeli  security  personnel  stand  hidden  behind  a  one-­way  mirror,  monitoring  both  the  Palestinian  border  police  before  them  and  those Â

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ಭთಭá†´ŕĄžÖŹŕ´şÓˆâ€ŤÖŹŮľŕ˝ŻŢ‹â€Źŕ´§ß˝Ü¸ŕźŠÖŹá‰?ᆾƗ ŕť‘áƒ†ಭáƒ—ŕź…á‡?ŕľžࢿá†´ŕĄžĆ—ĐŤá‡Œá„śÔ˘ÖŹŕŁŚÜťá‡Œá„ś Ô˘á ‰۸þŕľžࢿܝÜḊࡸЍŃ”ŕž ŕť€֪ќࡾŕť€ÖŹŕľž ࢿŕ´?֏þ༥ܝÜড়ŕ¨?è֪ќŕĽˆÖĽĆ—þᆎྒྷᄤ࣌ Üťá‡–ŕ˝ˆŕ˝ŠĆ—࣌ܝŕ¤ƒྼᆎྒྷèÜಭŕŤ“áƒ—á†Šཝ࣌ܝ á„¤ŕˇˇŕŤ“֏ಡÓ?ŕ Šâ€Ť×ľâ€Źá‡–ࡾá‡Œá„śÖŹŕž ཧ‍ٺ‏ŕ§?Ć—Ń°ŕą– ཯â€ŤŮľâ€ŹáˆŠâ€ŤÜ™â€ŹÓľá†Šཝ࣌ܝ֏ŕ´ŒŕŻ?è

Ő?֪Ѷ֬ࢺ൫দŕĽ?Ňşá ‰ŕźśÖ™Ö„Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭ á„¤á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹŕ´şŕ ŠĆ—á ˘ŕ ŞŕˇˇŕŤ“ŕ˝Šá„¤ĐŤâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹŕŽŹÖŹĂ§ ‍ਟ֏ŕĽ?Öžâ€Źŕššá¸ŠĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“á‡˝ŕ˛ŠŕąźáƒžçŕĄ?ೳçᄆ֑ ‍ޑ‏ŕź?Ďˆâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹĐ°ŕ§?ŕźŒÖŹâ€Ť×€â€Źŕąźâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕĽŠŕĄžĆ—á ˘ŕ Şâ€Ť×ąâ€Źá€źŕŠĽ ŕł˜ŕ§–Ć—á†Šཝâ€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄĐŤá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ áˆˆâ€Ť×€â€Źŕ¤‰ۡ਩༶‍ग़׀‏ ༏ ሊ Ḋ ŕĽ? á ˘ ŕĽˆ Ô˘ Ď&#x; ে ŕśľ ณ ÖŹ Ő° ᄤ ྼ ᄤ Öż Ňą ÖŹ è þ‍ٺ‏ŕ§?ĂśŐ•Ô°á†žÖŹŕľĽáˆ¸Ő? ŕ­”á ˘ŕŚŚá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á†Śâ€ŤÚ°â€Źá„¤á†Šཝ๟áƒžŕ˘€৲֏þ‍ٺ‏۰๠ÜḊá‚ľĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľ ณ‍܄‏ಭࡾࢀനƗࡸᆼྼᆊ۸ᆌᇔ ਼๹‍ٺ‏۰֏ á‰’ŕŹƒŕ˝ˆ֏ཧá†&#x;‍ދ‏฿ཊèᄤ༝ᄇᄆ֑‍ދޑ‏Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľ ณᄤᄆ֑‍ޑ‏ŕź?ĎˆÖŹĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“૽቉ಊড়ŕ –â€ŤÜ™â€Źŕˇľá„¤ ‍׀‏ဟ৭ۊӳ֏Ξઅиŕą‰Ć“á €Ó˛â€ŤÝšâ€Źŕş­ŕą‰Ć”ḊḊᆊ ۸๠֨‍ޚ‏ങञيĆ—á‚€ŕť€á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ˛­á ‰á†ˇá„¤á…ŽŕĽŹá¸Š á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹĎ„ŕ˛?ಭáƒťá‚ŒŇŚá„¤á ‰۸Ö?૲֬࣫áˆˇĐŁ ‍޹‏Ɨग़༏ሊĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ÖŹŃ?࣊ࣼҺâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŹąŕ˝ťŕ˝&#x;း ‍֏ܸÝ?â€Źŕ˛­Ă¨á†Šá‡œŐˇŕź‰ÖŹĆ—ŕ Žá†‡ŕł‰á ‰۸ௌઉᆇࡾ ŕśąĆ—ĂľŕŚ’ŕ§Žá‡˝ŕ˛ŠĂśĆ—ŕŻ“Ň‰ŕ¨›ŕ ˛Ű¸ŕ˛­Ć—Ő˝ŕĄŒá†°Ö¨ Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭᄤ࿡ŕź?‍٠‏ḨδŕŚ&#x;ŮŒา਼֤֬༶჆ !! ŕ­”ŕ°­ŕśŽÖŹĎ”ŕśľŕŠŤŕ˝żá ˇŕĽŁâ€Ť×Žâ€ŹŃ°ŕľ“ŕ˝Šŕ¨›á„¤ŕ¨ź ๹çâ€ŤŕŤ˝Ü‹â€Źŕ˛Šâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹáˆŽáƒžŕ´?â€ŤŘšâ€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹÓ¨â€ŤÚ˘â€ŹĂ¨

Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źŕąƒâ€Ť×&#x;‏ྐྵऍ‍ދ‏٥ཌ ྦḩḩ๤ŕľ?௏ß‘ŕ¨›Üťá‡ â€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕˇľŕĽˆá ˘ŕ ŞŕˇˇŕŤ“ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰ ‍ے‏ḊḊྗ໨ŕŤ“ŕ˝&#x;ּཊྒྷ‍ދ‏ŕ˝&#x;ཧᇖ֏‍ٺ‏ۜƗ଱֬ ŕ˛™â€ŤÜ™â€ŹÓľŕ¨›á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ áƒ—Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“֬৺༩â€ŤŮşŢ‹â€Źŕ¨ĄĆ—á ˘ ŕ Şá„¤á†ŠŰ¸ŕ ĽŘ‘â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ¨ĄÖŹŕ´§ß˝ŕĽŠŕĄž༩๫ŕ­„ࡡŕŤ“ÖŹâ€ŤÜ„â€Ź á‰›â€ŤŢ‹×‹×€â€Źŕ´şŕ Šèᄤᄆ֑‍ޑ‏ŕź?Ďˆâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ°Šࡡ‍׀‏٥֏ᆊ

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wishing  to  cross  through.  This  false  or  â€˜prosthetic  VRYHUHLJQW\ Âś DV RQH FRPPHQWDWRU KDV FDOOHG it,  fools  very  few  who  know  that  the  1993  Oslo  Accords  agreed  to  by  the  Palestinians  under  Yasser  $UDIDWÂśV OHDGHUVKLS FRQÂżUPHG DQG SHUIRUPHG WKHLU general  subordination  to  the  Israeli  state  in  terms  of  territory,  citizenship,  and  access  to  resources.19    Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  by  stressing  the  visual  and  the  directional  â€“  while  at  the  same  time  XQGHUPLQLQJ WKH YLHZHUÂśV VHQVH RI ZKDW DQG ZKHUH they  are  seeing  â€“  alludes  to  the  separations,  in  reality  and  in  its  imagery,  that  really  constitute  the  state  of  Israel  and  its  dis/connection  from/to  the  Palestinians  and  their  places  of  labour  and  living  within  this  radically  striated  socio-­spatial  order.  7KH VHWWOHPHQW VWUDWHJ\ LQ WKH :HVW %DQN DQG elsewhere  that  were  devised  by  Sharon  from  the  later  1970s  onwards  enacted  a  militarization  of  territory  and  social  life  designed  to  create  a  singular  form  of  security  for  the  Israeli  nation-­state.  This  strategy  had,  in  turn,  been  a  reaction  against  the  loss  of  territory  to  Egypt  following  the  1973  war  in  ZKLFK WKH ODWWHUÂśV DUP\ KDG VXFFHVVIXOO\ VWRUPHG the  twenty  metre  sand  wall  defence  of  the  Bar  Lev  line  erected  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Suez  Canal.  The  perceived  trauma  and  humiliation  of  this  defeat  by  Egypt  (a  country  at  the  time  armed  by  WKH 6RYLHW 8QLRQ DV D SUR[\ LQ LWV &ROG :DU ZLWK WKH US)  helped  bring  the  Likud  party  into  existence  and  then  to  power  in  Israel.  The  1973  war  also  led  to  WKH 23(& $UDE QDWLRQVÂś GHFLVLRQ WKHQ WR LQFUHDVH its  oil  prices  by  70%  with  the  demand  that  unless  Israel  withdrew  from  all  the  occupied  territories  QR UHGXFWLRQ ZRXOG RFFXU :KDW KDSSHQHG" $ worldwide  recession  lasting  ten  years  ensued.  7KH &ROG :DU FRQWLQXHG LQWR LWV ÂżIWK GHFDGH 7KH US  (following  its  defeat  in  Vietnam)  began  to  look Â

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ཝτउᅼંྼá‚ľ ྞे ŕ­”Ö„â€ŤŢąâ€Źŕ°€ŕłłŕŠŠࡾന ी֏Ɨྼâ€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ´§ß˝ŕ´şŕ Šâ€Ťŕ¨źŢ‹â€ŹŕššÖŹŕ¤˛ŕľ ß‹Üźŕ§&#x;Ć— ଩֬൥ŕť€ŕ¨›Ö?١૲ŕť‚ß€á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤÖŹÝšâ€ŹĎ„ŕ˛?èŕ˝” ႒‍׀‏Ɨᆊ۸ҭંྼ‍୔ ! ؚ‏ᅼᆥᇖ೼྅‍ۺ‏ξ ŕ ŞÖŹŕ¨źŕššÖŹá ‰á‡œŮ˜Ń´Ć—â€ŤŢąâ€Źá†‡֏ल‍ؙ‏Ӿ‍׀܆‏է ßľŕ¨›ŕś•৲á„¤ŕˇ‘ŕ§šŕľžá„•â€Ť×ąŢ‘â€ŹĎˆÖŹĎ&#x;ਠ‍ږ‏٤ནŕ´?ÖŹ ૣÓ?֏ೳ๠èá†ŠŐ˜ŕś‚â€ŤŰşâ€ŹÎľŕ ŞĆ“Ö™ŕľ?Îľŕ ŞŕľĽ ৖ᅼŕľ?ఀࡑ৺‍ŕĽ?Řšâ€ŹŕŤŒâ€ŤÖŹÝšâ€ŹÖ„ŕ§&#x;Ɣ֏ഋ๬‍ދ‏ಀೊ ŐŁÓľŕ¨›á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ§şâ€ŤÖŹÖ›Ţ?â€ŹÓľŕ§˛ŕ Şâ€ŤŘšâ€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹá…Ž ༏è ! ŕ­”ÖŹá…Ľá†Ąß•Ö¤á‡ˆŕ¨›78-+ᇖ֏δŕŚ&#x; Ńźâ€ŤŕĄŒÝšâ€ŹĎŁŕľ?ႚॕ۳ฝۥਛ Ć— ยŕł–á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ Ň‰Ő?ᅤਟ๟ӣŕ§?Ć—ࡡŕŤ“ŕ¤ƒŇ‰ß˝ŕ˘?־ႚॕèŕ˛?‍޹‏ ŕ­‚ĆŞÔ‚ŕżŠŕľŒŕ­”ÖŹŕ˛?ŕąśŕŁŁŕ ˝ŕśĄŕşƒè৖ᅼŕŁ?ŕł?×‚ŕťť ۸ŕľŒŕ­”èŕŤŒâ€ŤÝšâ€ŹĆ“á„¤á„‡á…Ľŕľ…ĎŽâ€ŤŢąâ€ŹĆ”ञŕľšá ˘ŕłłŕŠŠâ€ŤŢ‹â€Ź á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ¤˛â€ŤŘ™â€Źŕť€Đƒá€ŠŕŚŚŕż ๡‍ŕž&#x;ŕž”׾ن‏ӳྎᅼᆥ֏ ŕŹ?ŕľ›Ḋ‍؞‏ᄆ֑‍ޑ‏ŕź?ĎˆÖŹÓłá†šĆ—á„¤á†Šŕ¨?Ő˜ŕ°–á łá†´ â€ŤŢąâ€ŹĆ—Óľŕť€ŕ¨›á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕˇ¸ÖŹá‡˝á€¸ŕš¤ŕŤ—ÖŹŕľ“á€™Ó?Ć— á ˘Ő•দܻҺ‍ދ‏ྒྷမþ‍ٺ‏ਥÜ֏लྠധ߽༏ᇌ ÖŹŕ śŕś“è

Ő?ŕŹ?á‡œá °á łŕ´?দනĆ—Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂś á €ྼá ‰۸ྒྷမྰḊŕŤŒŕż—â€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤Ťŕ§’֏èŕ¤ƒâ€ŤŢ â€Źŕ˝Ľŕ§&#x; ҡ֪Ḩຜ‍٠‏೭Ɠ:QKPIZL ?QT[WV ŕ­”ÖŹá…ĄŕŚ˛Ăľ ĆĽ ÜḊá ‰۸๠ས߉঺٣फ़֏ ŕŁˆŕś’ŕż?มƗᇢຽྼŕĽ?á ˘Ů˜Ý‚ÖŹá‚šÖŹÔ„ŕ¸›Ć—á‡Œá„ś Ô˘á ‰á‡œŕťŒऍŕ´?ÖŹŕť´ÖżÖŹŕ´ŽŘŽâ€ŤŰ’â€ŹĆ—๤ŕľ?ࡸ֏Ń? ૲ŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€Źŕş˘ŕŤŒâ€ŤŮ˜×€â€Źŕ´¤Ô˘ŮŁŕĄžÖŹŕ˘€áˆ„ḊŕŞ˜༜֏಼ಭ â€ŤÖŹŕ˘şŮľâ€Źá‚œོâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕš ֨֬ૠ‍֍ŕ ?ÜŒâ€Źŕ¨›â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†Ăľŕľ“ŕĄ„Ăś çþŃ?ᄜÜçþᆎྒྷÜçþŕ˝&#x;ཧÜçþŕź…฿Ü â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹĂľá„Łŕ˝ŠĂśÖŹá‡žŕ˝Šâ€Ť×Žâ€Źá łĂ¨á†Šá‡œŕ´¨ŕĄ€Ԣদ֬ହഺ ß‹ཚâ€ŤŮ˜Ý›â€Źá‚&#x;ŕ¨›á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤÝšâ€Źá„¤ŕ°Šलྠߋ֏ӳᆚࡾá‚’ á‚ŻÖŹŕĄ€Ň­Ć—á ˘ŕľ“ŕľ‡â€ŤŮ˜ŕĽ?Řšâ€ŹŕŽ™ÖŹŕ śŕś“Ć—и೉õද ŕą â€ŤŘžâ€Źá‰ƒÜḊá†Šá €ྼϣӳྎá‰›ŕť€á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á„¤ŰšÔ°ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ŕ˛Šড়Ď„ŕ˛?ŕ –â€ŤŘžÜ™â€ŹŕĽŹá‡Œŕ Žҧበ֏Ɨࡡ ŕŤ“ÖŹÓłá†šâ€ŤŕŤ˝ŕŹťŢ‹â€Źá‚–â€ŤŕĽ?ؚ‏Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ÖŹŮ˜ŕĽ?ÖŹá‡žŕž” â€Ť×Žâ€Źá łĂ¨ ᆊཻ๠֨Ć—ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ࡾ႟٣फ़֏ࢎ֨֏ŕ­„

to  Sharon  and  the  Israeli  military  for  a  model  of  how  to  conduct  new  kinds  of  urban  warfare  â€“  and  WKH :HVW %DQN WRZQV IROORZLQJ WKH WZR ,QWLIDGDV have  become  a  kind  of  laboratory  for  Israel  and  its  chief  allies  in  which  to  observe  and  experiment  ZLWK WHFKQLTXHV RI ÂľGLVDJJUHJDWHGÂś PLOLWDU\ VRFLDO control.20\ In  a  way,  too,  Enter  Ghost,  Exist  Ghost  is  a  kind  of  laboratory  â€“  of  an  aesthetic-­sensory  kind.  Like  5LFKDUG :LOVRQÂśV LQVWDOODWLRQ 20:50  â€“  a  metal  gangway  into  a  gallery  room,  surrounded  on  all  VLGHV E\ D SRRO RI UHĂ€HFWLYH RLO FUHDWLQJ ERWK WKH smelly  illusion  of  bottomless  depth  and  an  image  RQ LWV VXUIDFH WKDW SHUIHFWO\ PLUURUHG WKH URRPÂśV DUFKLWHFWXUH Âą 0DNKRXOÂśV PD]H RI FRQYROXWHG images  and  pathways  holds  under  erasure  (that  is,  forces  into  radical  reconsideration)  received  GHÂżQLWLRQV RI ÂľDFWXDOÂś DQG ÂľPDGH XS Âś ÂľUHDOÂś DQG ÂľLPDJLQHG Âś ÂľREMHFWVÂś DQG WKHLU ÂľUHSUHVHQWDWLRQV Âś 7KLV orchestrated  verfremdungeffekt  mirrors,  in  turn,  the  tactics  of  the  Israeli  state  with  its  military  mock-­ups  of  towns  in  which  to  practice  counter-­insurgency  WHFKQLTXHV VXFK DV ÂľZDONLQJ WKURXJK ZDOOVÂś Âą SDUW of  a  re-­conception  of  the  city  as  the  actual  material  of  warfare  against  Palestinian  resisters  in  their  towns  and  refugee  camps  across  the  territories  Israel  variously  owns,  controls  or  manipulates  through  Palestinian  Authority  security  agencies.21  These  pathways,  serially  blasted  through  the  interior  walls  of  whole  streets  of  houses  in  order  to  enable  Israeli  troops  to  avoid  becoming  visible  targets  themselves,  constitute  a  form  of  military  maze-­construction,  with  their  crudely  daubed  LQVWUXFWLRQV ÂľURDG PDSÂś VLJQV" VLJQDOOLQJ WKH URXWH for  other  soldiers  to  follow  or  to  warn  of  danger  DKHDG 7KHLU DQWLQRP\ DUH WKH Âľ+DXVVPDQL]HGÂś wide  roads,  cleared  by  army  bulldozers  through  the  maze  of  alleys  in  the  refugee  camps  and  towns Â

Richard Wilson, 20:50 (1987), Used sump oil, steel, Dimensions variable Image reproduced courtesy of the Saatchi Gallery, London Š Richard Wilson, 1987

ŕą Ň‰Ř•á€ƒŕ´ŹĆ—ŕľ—ÖŤá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€Ť×Žâ€Źŕ¤‰â€Ť×‹â€Źŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€ŹŃŒ૮ӵŕť€ ŕĽ?ࡵ֬଩њƗŐ?â€ŤÜ™Řžâ€ŹÓľŕ¨›á ‰á‡œलྠß‹֬ૠâ€Ťŕ˘€ÜŒâ€Ź áˆ„Ć—஬á‚źŕŠĽŃšá‚‹Ö¤ŕ°Šࡡŕľ?Ѩ๠â€Ťŕ ŽÝ?â€ŹŮ¤á†żá‰ƒÖĽŕşš ŕ˝‰ÖŹâ€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄĂ¨ŕˇˇŕŤ“ÖŹá™ŞŕŞ‰á„¤áƒ†Ć—लâ€ŤŘ™â€Źŕšžŕššŕ –௲௣ ֬଱ཻԳâ€ŤŕŤ˝ŕŹťÝ?‏႖‍ދ‏ӳᆚ֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĎľÖŹÖ¨ŕŠĽŕľĽŕť€ ŕ¨›ŕ˛Ľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹŕ¸“ŕĽ&#x;â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá„˘ŕ˛­â€ŤÜ„â€Źŕ¤•ŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€ŹŕąĽŕˇ…ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏è

ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ᆊཝáƒ—á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ Ă§Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“૽቉ಊড়ŕ – â€ŤÜ™â€Źŕąźâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹĐŤá…¤ŕ¨źŕąźÖŹŕ§şŕźŠĆ—Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂś ႀ‍؞‏ྗ֫෹֬๰࣫๴௒єӾਛŕŹ?á‡œŕ§’ŕž&#x;ÖŹÔş ߃èᆊྗ֫໨ŕŤ“ŕĽˆÖĽĆ—á†Šཻਾಭૠŕ ?֬๠ས ᇃϷӳ൮֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źáƒ—á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ˘€á„śÖŹŕŤ ŕ ?ྦâ€ŤŕžťŢ‹â€Ź ŕĄ“ÖŹŕą ŃŠá ‰ĎľĆ—ྼŕť€ŕ¨›ŕť‚ß€ࡡáˆ¸ŕ ´ŕĽˆŕˇ‚á ‰á‡ˆ ÖŹáˆ¸ŕť¨Ă§ŕť‘á‡‰â€Ť×€Ţ‹â€ŹŮĄÖŹŕž ཧè਽á ‰١૲Ɨᆊ á‡œá °ŕľ”ŕž ŕ¸†֬ս༷൥á Žধ჆ࡸ‍ؚ‏ບࢿ֏҉ؕ ૴ŕś”Ć—á†Š۸ŕşšࢿá„¤ŕˇ¸á†´ŕşšĆ—á €áƒ—á†´ŕť€ָè ᆊ ཝ‍؂‏ᅂྼָâ€ŤÖŹÝšâ€Źŕššâ€ŤŕĄŒÝšŢ‹×€â€Źá¸ŠĐ¸ŕł‰Ć— ! ŕ­” ÖŹŕˇ‘ŕ§šŕľžá„•â€ŤŢ‘â€Źŕąźáƒžâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÎľŕ Şŕź?Ň?èĎ&#x;ਠ‍ږ‏٤ན ֬Юদ଩֬൥á€¸Óľŕť€â€ŤŕĽ?Řšâ€ŹÎľŕ Şŕ¤˛â€ŤÖŹŘ™â€Źŕľ“ŕĄ„â€ŤŢ‹â€Ź

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like  Jenin  in  order  to  afford  easier  access  to  Israeli  tanks  and  personnel  carriers.22 In  alluding  to  these  realities  in  Israel,  Palestinian  Authority  areas  and  the  occupied  territories,  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  thus  turns  its  lenticular  pictures  into  windows  of  a  kind.  These  throw  light  on  the  state  and  the  land,  while  its  maze  of  misleading  routes  to  the  cardboard  city  alludes  to  the  wall  RI P\VWLÂżFDWLRQV DQG IDOVHKRRGV ZKLFK WKH VWDWH of  Israel  has  erected  in  order  to  maintain  its  own  seemingly  coherent  image  of  selfhood,  position  and  place.  On  the  one  hand,  this  ideological  HGLÂżFH KDV GHSHQGHG RQ LWV SHUVLVWHQWO\ PRELOH depiction  of  its  outside,  that  which  lies  beyond  and  against  it.  These  entities  have  been  both  alien/ enemy  lands  and  states  â€“  for  instance,  the  Suez  Canal  zone  and  Egypt  to  the  west,  in  1973.  The  Bar  Lev  Line  of  sand  had  been  intended  to  act  as  a  physical  and  visual  barrier  against  the  Egyptian  DUP\ Âą D ZDOO GHVLJQHG WR OLPLW WKH HQHP\ÂśV YLVLRQ and  actions,  with  both  tactical  and  ideological  meanings.  But  when  the  Egyptians  crossed  the  Canal  and  blasted  through  a  part  of  the  Line  using  high  pressure  water-­canons,  the  incursion  was  read  as  a  defeat  for  the  idea  of  Israel  being  limited  by  demarcated  physical  and  spatial  boundaries  potentially  vulnerable  to  penetration.  Instead,  DQG RQ WKH RWKHU KDQG Âľ,VUDHOÂś ZRXOG EHFRPH D matter  and  a  heterogeneous  material  of  depth  subject  to  comprehensive  internal-­disciplinary  FRQWUROV DQG VWUDWHJLFDOO\ XQÂż[HG ERUGHUV 23  Imagine  the  construction  of  the  Bar  Lev  Line  and  its  effective  demolition  during  the  1973  war,  then,  DV D NLQG RI SROLWLFDO PLOLWDU\ &ROG :DU FRUROODU\ WR 0LFKDHO +HL]HUÂśV Double  Negative  land  art  de/ construction  from  1971.  His  south-­eastern  Nevada  desert  mesa  location  is  exchanged  for  the  Sinai  peninsula,  themes  of  industrial  land  exploitation Â

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ŕĽ?ॾ֏á…ˇÎżá¸ŠŕľĽŕť€ŕ¨›á‰ŒÎżâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝’á‡Œָ٥֏ྐྵན‍ދ‏ ྡྷâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—á†ŠŕĄ‚á‚źŕ śŕś“ŕ´?Ć—á €á‚źá °ŕľ”ŕž ŕ¸†ÖŹáƒˇá‚€è Ö“Ö™Îľŕ Şŕ˛­á‚ŻŰĄŕżŠŕśŞŕŽĽÔłâ€ŤÝ?â€Źá„•â€ŤŢ‘â€ŹŃ°ŕšłŕŻŹá ‰Ň?‍ٺ‏ ٤ནƗᆊ۸ŕąšŕł?ЍࢺŘ‡ŕť€á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ Ăľŕ§&#x;ŕ­˜ĂśÖŹŕľ… ώƗఊྺּ҉ઉྼŕź…á‡?ß•ྼ༊फ़ŕ´?ŕ˛żá ĽĐŤŕąšŮœ ÖŹŕ˝’á‡Œèŕ˝”Ů˜Ć—਽á ‰١૲Ć—Ăľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ Ăśŕ˘ƒ߽Ӿ ŕť€á ‰۸ྠॸĆ—á ‰۸á‚źŕ´ŽŘŽÖŹá şá‡?ྠॸƗྺּ‍،‏ ١૲֬ŕ­„Ň?༏á‡Œâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÔ°áƒ†á…ĽŕŞ‚ŕžşá€¸ÖŹĂ§Ň‰ŕ­†ŕ˛™â€Ť×Žâ€Ź ÖŹŃ?ࢿè ŕ˝&#x;ཧá ‰ŕźśĎ&#x;ਠ‍ږ‏٤ན֏ࢀᄜ‍ދ‏ࡸᄤ ! ୔ᅼᆥᇖ֏Ѝէ߾Ć—Ö™ŕľ?ྼá‰›ŕť€á ‰á‡œŕ§– ᅼ֏ᆌᇔçलྠড়ŕ¨?Ć—ਞಭŕ˝&#x;ŕ°–ણŕĽ&#x;â€ŤŮ â€Źá¸¨â€ŤŢ˜â€Źá„˝ ‍٠‏Ɠ5QKPIMT 0MQbMZ ! ŕ­”֬ûටᇞ‍ڕ‏ â€Ť×Žâ€ŹĂźÖŹŕŠŤâ€Ť×€â€Źá Łŕś“ࢺ‍ܙࢀ Ü™â€ŹĂ¨ŕˇˇá„¤ŕ­„ß†Őšâ€Ť×ąâ€ŹŕŹš ÖŹŕłłŕŹ˜У࣌Ѝŕź?ସϽ֢෵ŕ˛ƒÖ„Ć—áƒˇŕŚŚâ€ŤÜ„â€Źá ƒß‹â€ŤŘšâ€Ź ŕššâ€ŤÖŹ×€â€ŹĐ?ཌྷâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá…¤á‚źÖŹá‡˝ŕ¸źĐŤâ€Ťŕ¨źŕĄŒÝšâ€ŹŕššĂ§ŕ´­â€ŤÚ â€Źŕ˛ą ๤ŕ˛ƒÖ„Ć—á Łŕś“ŕĄŒÖŹá °á‡„â€ŤŰ‡Ţ‹â€Źŕ­˜Ыलൠ๫ᇔᆇᄤ â€ŤŕŤ˝Řšâ€Źá‰‰â€Ťŕ˘€ŕĄŒÝšâ€Źáˆ„ÖŹŕ°–ŕˇ›ࡾŕ˛ƒÖ„èþႰਚཊƗႰ ਚá‚ŒĂśÖŹŕą ŃŠâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕš ֨ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—á„¤â€ŤŢ˜â€Źá„˝â€ŤÖŹŮ â€ŹŐ?௣ֿ ೽ဂᇖࡾ‍י‏༠֏Ö?á ‰ŕš Ö¨ŕˇ€ŕľŒŕ­”â€ŤŢąâ€ŹĆ—ŕŻ‚ŕŽ˜ྦ‍׀‏ ĎŁá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€Ťŕ˘€ÖŹÝ?â€Źáˆ„á‡žŕž”ŕŁ?ྡྷŕ¨›ŕŤŒŕż—ß‹Ć—ϣ๫ᇔ ÖŹ ಡ Ó? ཊ ŕľ“ ÖĄ ŕšž Óľ á‡? á — ÖŹ χ áƒŁ è

and  reclamation  exchanged  for  state-­territorial  advantage  and  identity,  and  the  will  and  conception  of  artists  replaced  by  the  will  of  military  rulers  in  the  prosecution  of  nation-­state  building.  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  GhostÂśV PD]H RI ZDOOV DQG SDVVDJHV IRUW\ \HDUV RQ IURP +HL]HUÂśV VLQJXODU FKDQQHO FXW WKURXJK the  mesa  rock,  works  critically  to  re-­aestheticize  the  architecture  of  the  Israeli  state,  turning  the  mundane  realities  of  its  own  forms  of  domination  back  into  interrogative  metaphor. Â

Â

 Â

Michael Heizer, Double Negative (1969) 240,000 displacement in rhyolite and sandstone 1,500’ x 50’ x 30’ Location: Mormon Mesa, Overton, Nevada Reproduced Courtesy of Michael Heizer Š Triple Aught Foundation 2011. The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. Gift of Virginia Dwan

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‘OPTICAL  URBANISM’24,  THE  MAZE  AND  THE  WEST  BANK   Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  works,  then,  to  defamiliarize  our  sense  of  image  and  direction:  the  lenticular  panel  walls  of  the  maze  offer  visibility  but  QRW YHULÂżDELOLW\ Âą DQG DV VXFK PRGHO D VHPEODQFH RI WKH UDGLFDOO\ GLVSHUVHG ÂľUKL]RPDWLFÂś PRGHUQ power  networks  Michel  Foucault  claimed  replaced  older  societal  orders  rooted  in  the  physical  torture  and  destruction  of  resisting  individual  and  social  bodies.25 ,Q WKH :HVW %DQN ZKHUH ,VUDHOL settlements  and  road  systems  function  effectively  as  barriers,  dividing  as  well  as  swallowing  the  Palestinian  population,  a  new  totality  of  temporal-­spatial  relations,  above  and  below  as  well  as  on  the  ground,  has  emerged.  In  effect,  this  is  nothing  more  or  less  than  a  local  expression  and  form  of  globalization :LWKLQ WKH VSHFWDFOH Debord  had  noted,  â€˜all  time  and  space  become  foreignÂś WR SHRSOH LWDOLFV LQ RULJLQDO WKH VSHFWDFOH he  observed,  â€˜is  the  map  of  this  new  world,  a  map  WKDW LV LGHQWLFDO WR WKH WHUULWRU\ LW UHSUHVHQWV Âś26  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  is  readable  as  a  version  of  such  a  map  â€“  a  remote  means  through  which  to  trace  literal  and  metaphoric  realities  in  and  of  the  â€˜Land  of  ,VUDHO Âś :KLOH WKLV VWDWH UHJLPH LQVWLWXWHV DQG UHSURGXFHV asymmetrical  relations  of  visibility  and  invisibility  centred  on  checkpoints,  one-­way  surveillance  mirrors  and  summary  death  for  Palestinians  looking  too  intently  at  settlements,  (the  dream  of)  a  perfected  system  of  control  would  be  one  that  was  fully  automatic  and  self-­regulating.  The Â

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þྐྵऍӳྎá‡˝á łĂśĂ§ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źá ˘ ŕ Ş ᄆ Ö‘ ‍ ޑ‏ŕź? Ďˆ

Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕ¤ƒá†Šá€Šŕľ“ŕ˝Šŕ¨›໨ŕŤ“â€Ťŕž Řšâ€Źŕ˝§ â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŮĄŕ˝Śâ€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤ŤÖŹŕŹšŕ´şß‹ƥ๰࣫ౠŃŠ֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‚źŕĽ?ࡵྦÖ“ ಖ҉୆ЍᆪྒྷḊá €á‚€Ő•ཚٌŕ¨›ŕ ĽŘ‘â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕł˘ÖŹŕ˝ŠÖ„ŕ˛Šড় ฿༩Ć—ŕ¤ƒོ‍ڼ‏༖෵න֬଱á€ŠĆ—ŕ˛ƒÖ„ŕ¨›â€ŤŰťâ€Źá†¸áƒ†ഭ฿Ӛ ‍֏ŕĽ?ؚ֞ދه‏۸฿‍ދ‏ധ߽á‰?ᆾ֏௎‍֏ࣿ֏ݤ‏ധ߽฿ ༩è ᄤᄆ֑‍ޑ‏ŕź?ĎˆĆ—á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹŕ¤‰áˆ…â€ŤÖ¨Ţ‹×€â€ŹŕŠĽŕźŠŕšŤ ‍؂‏ఖּٍÓ?ۥཚ֏٤áƒĽá‰›á‚ŻĆ—Ň‰ŕŁŽĎŁĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ຢ ŕ˛?‍ٺ‏ञƗߕຄྦྷਛ࡚֏ಭ༎Ć—á ‰á‡œŕž”ŕž&#x;֏ᆣ฿ߋ֏ ŕľ?फ़ ༊फ़ܸ༩Ő?â€Ť×€â€Źŕźśâ€Ť×€Ţ‹â€Źŕ´?๤ŕľ?Ԣཊèྠŕľ“ŕ´?Ć— á†Šŕ¤ƒྼŕ˛?ŕąśß‹ÖŹá ‰á‡œŕąźáƒžྦŃ?Őšâ€Ťŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕľ›è֪ќáˆ†á ° ּƗᄤᆊ۸࣌ܝᆴୄƗþࡾá‚źÖŹŕľ?फ़‍ދ‏༊फ़‍؂‏є֍ ହഺ Ć“áˆŠá‡žâ€ŤŢƒâ€Źŕť€áƒˇŕťšࡾ႟Ɣƌ࣌ܝӾŕť€ŕ¨›Ăľá†Š۸ ŕž”ŕľžࢿ֏â€Ť×€â€Źŕš´Ć—áƒ—ࡸࡾᄣཊ਼֬๹ຢŕ˛?á ‰á€ŠĂ¨ĂśĂľ á‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕ¤ƒྼá†Šá€Šá ‰۸ŕĽ?Ř‡ÖŹâ€Ť×€â€Źŕš´á¸Šá ‰۸ áˆ›áˆ˝Ăľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ Ăśâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕˇˇÖŹŕľ“á„¤â€ŤŘžŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕ´?֏ཊྒྷ֏္ᄀ ŮĄ ŕľ› è

ŕŁ—Üźá†Šá‡œâ€ŤŕĄŒÝšâ€Źá†Śŕ˛Šá„¤ŕĄŚŇˇâ€ŤÖŹ×‹â€Źŕ´¨ŕĄ€ŕ´şÓˆŕ¨›á†Šá‡œ ŕĽ?ॾáƒ—Ň‰ŕĽ?ॾѰŇ‰á ‰á‡ˆܸ֬༩Ć—Ö?١૲‍ڢ‏Ő?֏࣍ ོĆ—ܸáˆ†â€Ť×Žâ€Źŕ¤‰â€ŤÖŹ×‹â€ŹĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭ֬ҫ੸԰बĆ—Ö“Ć“ß&#x; ŕ˝&#x;ÖŹĆ”ຢŕ´†֏༏ᇌ฿༩á‚’Ö™ྼຢŕ˛?áˆ¸â€ŤŢ‹׾â€Źáˆ¸ŕť¨â€Ť×&#x;‏ ŕ˘˛ÖŹĂ¨ŕ ŽŕľĽŕśąĆ—Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ಭá‚’â€ŤŰ…â€ŹĎŁŕˇˇŕŤ“ÖŹâ€ŤÚ˘â€ŹŐ?ŕľąŕť€ ŕ§&#x;ࡾÖ™ŕ˛?Ć—ऎ҉ಇá‡?á —ŕ ŽŕšŽá…Ľŕ˛°â€ŤŢŒâ€ŹÓ˜â€ŤÝ?â€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ࡾฝ â€ŤŰşÜ‰â€ŹŕˇˇŕŤ“ÖŹŇ‰ŕ¤†൥ඪáˆŽáƒžĂ§ŕŚžŕ ”Ô°ŕ§&#x;çŕ­†áƒžĂ§ŕĽŠ फ़çŕ´ŒŕŻ?á ¤ŕ Žྼ‍܄‏ቛ֏ರâ€Ť×€ŢŒâ€ŹŮĄĂ¨á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ٥֏þࣼ ྣöá„źá °ŕťŒáˆŠŕˇˇŕŤ“ऎŇ‰ŕ˝’á‡ŒࡡŕŤ“á†Žá†Ľŕ˝&#x;း֏‍׹‏ŕź?è ŕłłŕŠŠŕ¤ƒá…‚ŕŁĽŰ¨á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ŕ˛­Ć—ĂľŇ‰á€¸á„¤ŕ¤‰áˆ…â€Ť×€â€Źá‡˘ŕş˝ŕ˘€â€ŤŰ‰â€Ź ຽ๠Ć—଱ညŕ­?ŕ¤ƒŕ˝’á‡Œŕ¨›áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕŚ›á…­ĂĽĂĽŕť¨ŕŤ“á‚’â€ŤŰ…â€ŹĎŁ ຽ๠ࢀᄤĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“á‡˘ŕş˝Ć—â€ŤŇ‰Řžâ€ŹŕľĽŕť¨ŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹá‡˘ŕş˝Ă¨ á ‰۸Ⴘฅࢤ‍׀‏๟֏τŕ˛?ࣼŕť–නຽౠõŕ­†ÓˆഺδŕŚ&#x;Ńź ಭ୆‍ےܛ‏ऍּ֏༪छèÖ™ࡡŕŤ“â€ŤÖĽŰ’â€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“֏༪छࡡŕŤ“

45


Palestinians,  that  is,  should  so  internalize  their  subordination  as  to  never  question  or  act  on  a  sense  of  entitlement  beyond  what  they  have  been  given  by  the  Israelis  in  terms  of  resources  such  as  water,  waste  disposal,  energy,  space,  goods  or  work.27  $QG ÂľYLJLODQFHÂś ZDWFKLQJ RQ WKH SDUW RI the  Israelis  actually  means  not  limiting  their  sense  of  what  they  can  take  if  they  really  want  it  enough.  6KDURQ KDG ZDUQHG ,VUDHOLV IRU LQVWDQFH ÂľGRQÂśW build  fences  around  your  settlements.  If  you  put  up  D IHQFH \RX SXW D OLPLW WR \RXU H[SDQVLRQ >ÂŤ@ ZH should  place  the  fences  around  the  Palestinians  DQG QRW DURXQG RXU SODFHV Âś $ VHFXULW\ JXDUG DW Qdumim  settlement  remarked  that  fences  â€˜project  IHDU WKDW WKH $UDEV FDQ VHQVH :KHQ WKH\ FDQ VHQVH RXU IHDU WKH\ ZLOO DWWDFN >ÂŤ@ IHQFHV DUH GHÂżQLWHO\ QRW ZRUNLQJ DV D VHFXULW\ PHDVXUH Âś  28  Instead,  the  design  and  layout  of  settlements,  their  ORFDWLRQ ÂľLQWUDQHWÂś DQG VWUDWHJLF YLVWDV ZRXOG DFW DV the  greatest  security. Lost  in  the  maze  that  is  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  a  loss  of  sense  of  direction  is  or  at  least  can  be  enjoyable,  even  exhilarating.  Much  contemporary  DUW DIWHU DOO VLPSO\ UHDIÂżUPV ZKHUH ZH NQRZ ZH are  already  and  feeds  our  persisting  appetites.  In  contrast,  real  insecurities  of  place  and  position  in  art,  as  in  a  social  order,  can  be  deeply  threatening.  %UXFH 1DXPDQÂśV WKUHH FRQVWUXFWHG ÂľVLWXDWLRQV Âś Performance  Corridor,  Live-­Taped  Video  Corridor,  and  Touch  and  Sound  Walls  (all  1969),  like  0DNKRXOÂśV LQVWDOODWLRQ DOO XWLOL]HG D SURYLVLRQDO but  effective  architecture  tightly  regulating  the  movement  of  spectators  allied  to  a  specular  regime  RI PRUH RU OHVV HQIRUFHG ÂľORRNLQJ Âś ÂľVHHLQJÂś DQG ÂľEHLQJ VHHQ Âś 1RWH WKH GLIIHUHQFHV /RRNLQJ LV an  adopted  physical  disposition  of  attentiveness  WKRXJK ZH DOVR DGRSW D ÂľORRNÂś LQ WHUPV RI KRZ we  dress  and  wish  to  appear,  look,  to  others). Â

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ŕ¤ƒß˝ŕŁ?‍܅‏üüຽ๠ऎâ€ŤŇ‰Řšâ€ŹŕľĽá ‰۸Ď„ŕ˛?վ྇è ŕ˝” Ů˜Ć—ŕ¤‰áˆ…â€ŤÖŹ×€â€Źŕ´¨ŕĄ€â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŇŠŕ¤ŒĆ—ࡸŕŤ“ÖŹŕť‘á‡‰Ć—ࡡŕŤ“ ÖŹ ŕ­„ ᄤ ŕş° ક ‍ ދ‏ᅼ ŕś“ Ň­ ં Ň“ ྼ ቒ Ő˝ ÖŹ Ď„ ŕ˛? á‚€ ࡔ è

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á„¤Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá‡–Ḋ๯áˆ†á °Ńšฟ৥ ‍ؚ‏ŕż?ß“á„•â€ŤÖŹ×ľâ€Źŕš¤Ö°ŕąƒâ€Ť×&#x;â€ŹĆ—â€ŤŢ â€Źŕ˝Ľá ‰۸ŕ –ŕ°?ŕ †ਚ á„¤â€Ťŕ ŽÖ¨ÝŒâ€ŹÓĄŕŞ„ŕ´?ÖŹŕťžŕ¸‚ŕ´?á„•â€Ť×ľâ€Źá¸Šŕť¨ŕŤ“૲਩áˆŠŕľ… ಇ٥ཌâ€Ť×ŽŢ‹â€Źŕť‘Ć“WZQMV\I\QWV Ɠφᅽᇖ‍ܼ‏ႎ áƒ›Ć—á†Š۸Ő”ÖŹá °ŕś¸ŕľĽŕŤ˛ŕ˝Śâ€Ť×ąâ€ŹŮĄĆ”á†´ŕĄžÖŹŕĄ“ന৺ ༩֬â€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤ŤĂ¨ĎŁá ‰۸‍ڜ‏á„?֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‰›ŕť€á ‰á‡œáƒ•ŕ§ˆÖŹ ŕž ŕľ›á†ĽŕľĽŕť€ŕ¨›á‚‹֤໨ŕŤ“ິॠĆ—ŕ Žá†‡â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†໨ŕŤ“ÖŹ ŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕť‘á‡‰֏ऎâ€ŤŘšâ€Źŕť‘á‡‰ÖŹŇ‰ŕ˛™ŕž—èÖ“໨ŕŤ“֏þऎ ‍ؚ‏Ü‍ے‏ᆎྼ႟‍۝‏႟ओ֏ઞƪ‍۝‏ओŕľ?ŕŤ€ĆŞá†Šཝáƒˇ

:H WKLQN RI VHHLQJ KRZHYHU DV DQ LQWHOOHFWXDO ÂľSHUVSHFWLYDOÂś DV ZHOO DV D VHQVRULDO FHQVRULDO ability  â€“  there  are  things,  that  is,  we  (and  the  Israeli  state,  of  course)  believe  simply  should  not  be  seen.  7KH VSHFWDWRUVÂś XQHDVH JHQHUDWHG LQ 1DXPDQÂśV ÂľVLWXDWLRQVÂś SDUWO\ DURVH IURP D WRR FORVHO\ ERXQG up  self-­awareness  of  both  looking  and  seeing  oneself  being  looked  at,  as  well  as  being  exposed  DV KDYLQJ D ÂľORRNÂś YLVLEOH WR WRR FORVHO\ SUR[LPDWH others  (the  video  time-­delays  added  to  these  disturbing  confusions  of  place,  position,  identity  and  appearance). In  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost Âą QRWH WKH WLWOHÂśV congruent  stress  on  revolving  movement,  with  the  sense  of  a  mechanical  ghost  possibly  mobile  across  the  stage  on  a  track  or  wheels  â€“  we  are  in  danger  of  losing  a  sense  of  the  presumed  connection  between  direction  and  orientation  (‘The  placing  or  arrangement  of  something  to  face  the  HDVWÂś Âą PLGGOH QLQHWHHQWK FHQWXU\ XVDJH 7KH point  of  a  complex  maze  as  a  form  of  entertaining  ¾GLYHUVLRQ Âś DIWHU DOO LV SUHFLVHO\ WR OHDG XV WR forget,  or  to  become  unsure,  about  our  absolute  as  opposed  to  our  relative  position.  But  are  our  senses  RI ÂľDEVROXWHVÂś HYHU UHDOO\ JURXQGHG" ,Q ZKDW" :KHUH GR WKHVH SULQFLSOHV FRPH IURP" ,V WKDW ZKLFK LV FDOOHG ÂľDFFHSWDEOHÂś VLPSO\ D PDWWHU RI ZKDW can  or  has  been  done?  Such  a  practical  relativism  seems  to  lie  at  the  heart  of  the  ethos  of  settlement  GRPLQDWLRQ GHSOR\HG E\ WKH ,VUDHOLV LQ WKH :HVW Bank  and  Jerusalem.  This  jars,  however,  with  the  theocratic  absolutism  of  the  claims  the  state  makes  RQ WKH Âľ/DQG RI ,VUDHO Âś This  epithet  articulates  not  an  actual  place  but  rather  a  vision  and  a  sense  of  an  entitlement  â€“  the  biblical  landscape  believed  to  have  been  as Â

Bruce Nauman, Changing Light Corridor with Rooms (1971) Accession no. AR00044, Medium Wallboard, 200 watt white light bulbs, timer Size 304.80 x 12192.00 x 76.20 cm Reproduced Courtesy of the National Galleries of Scotland and Tate. Acquired jointly through The d’Offay Donation with assistance from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the Art Fund 2008; Bruce Nauman Š ARS, NY and DACS, London 2012

á„źŐ?â€ŤŘžŢŒâ€ŹŕŚŚĆŞŕŹąĐŤŕľąŕť€ĂľŕĽ?ࢍྺ֏Üᆎྼá &#x;ࣣ ŕ Žá†‡ŕ­†ЍຢӾ֏ྠ๭ŕŞžĆŞâ€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†á„¤á„†Ö‘â€ŤŢ‘â€Źŕź?Ďˆâ€ŤŢ‹â€Ź á€źŕŠĽŕł˜ŕ§–ÖŹá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹŕ¤‰áˆ…â€Ť×€â€ŹŕšŤá‡”ÖŹáƒˇá„źŕŚŚŕśąĆ— á†Šá€Šá ‰۸ŕľ“ॳŕ´?ÖŹŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€Źá‡˝á łŕľĽŮŤÓ?ᇞး֏è֓ ྼĆ—á†Šŕ˛–áƒ—á†Š۸â€ŤŕĄŒÝšâ€Źŕˇľá‰š֏ܸáƒ†Ăľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á†´ ‍ ׀‏Ü ÖŹ ऎ ‍ ß‹ ؚ‏ŕ§&#x; ઉ ĐŁ Ö¨ ‍ ؞‏ԇ è

ᆊ۸Ӳâ€ŤŢƒâ€Źŕˇľŕż?ŇŠÖŹŃ°ŮŤá ‰۸ྒྷॄ֏‍׀‏٥Ɨ â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽá ‰á‡œá„‚࣌Ć—á ‰á‡œŕš†â€ŤÚľâ€Źŕ˛­ŕ˛ŠÖŹâ€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤Ťá¸Šá ‰ŕŻ’ŕ´? â€Ť×ƒâ€ŹŕˇľŐ—â€ŤŰşâ€Źá‚¸ŕ¸…ಭ֏҉ŕĽ?á†Ąá ˇÖŹŕššâ€Ť×€â€ŹĂ¨Ăľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á†´â€Ť×€â€ŹĂśŕľĽŕŞŒমḨĎ&#x;ŕ¸˛á °á łŕ´?ÖŹŕ´ąßŒĆ—á °ŕťŒáˆŠ á ‰ŕŻ’ŕľ“ŕĄ„ÖŹŕššâ€Ť×€â€ŹĆ—á ‰۸ւ႟௒૲֬ŕŹˆਞâ€ŤÝŞŢ‹â€Źá ł ֏þᄎ؇Ü‍ދ‏ᄂ࣌Ć—ࡸá‚źáˆŠŘ†า֏ŕż‚ŕľ â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá °ŕľ”

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an  unalienable  gift  from  God  to  the  Jews.  The  ¾/DQG RI ,VUDHOÂś IXQFWLRQV DV myth,  then,  but  in  the  VSHFLÂżF VHQVH 5RODQG %DUWKHV DUWLFXODWHG ,W LV D FRQQRWDWLRQ RI DQ DFWXDO ODQG DQG SODFH D ÂľUHDGLQJÂś and  a  visualisation  that  assigns  partial  order  and  PHDQLQJ ZLWK VSHFLÂżF QDUUDWLYH DQG LGHRORJLFDO effects.  29  The  operation  of  myth  is  this  sense  ¹ P\WKLÂżFDWLRQ Âą LV WKH RSSRVLWH WR WKH SURFHVV of  verfremdungeffekt  described  earlier.  If  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost ZRUNV WR ÂľPDNH VWUDQJHÂś WKH nature  of  image  and  imagery  and  to  problematize  the  relations  between  vision,  visibility,  knowledge,  consciousness,  self-­consciousness  and  position,  WKHQ WKH P\WK RI WKH Âľ/DQG RI ,VUDHOÂś RSHUDWHV WR naturalize,  suppress  and  hide  its  active  productions  RI PHDQLQJ 7KLV P\WKLÂżFDWLRQ LV HYLGHQW LQ PDQ\ aspects  of  the  way  the  state  of  Israel  represents  LWVHOI ,Q LWV ÂľQDWLRQ EUDQGLQJ Âś IRU LQVWDQFH DV D tourist  destination  for  westerners  and  in  the  visual  and  culinary  clichĂŠs  of  Israeli-­ness  which  Makhoul  has  both  made  art  and  written  about  in  the  past.  (A  critical  question  here  is:  should  the  Palestinians  simply  adopt  a  mirroring  procedure  â€“  identifying  themselves,  like  the  Israelis,  as  homogeneous,  traditional  and  rooted  in  a  singular  vision  of  their  land  and  nature  â€“  or  behave  differently,  inventing  pluralities  of  Palestinian-­ness  both  inside  Palestine  and  in  the  world  beyond?)  30  7KH WZR ÂľODQGVÂś DQG SHRSOHV DUH KRZHYHU irreversibly  concatenated  (connected  â€˜as  by  a  FKDLQ Âś 7KHLU LQWHUFRQQHFWLRQ Âą OLNH 0DNKRXOÂśV lenticular  panels  combining  two  or  more  images  â€“  fuses  and  confuses  a  series  of  sights,  looks,  positions,  perspectives  and  possible  directions.  The  ELEOLFDO YLVWD RI WKH Âľ+RO\ /DQGÂś DFWXDOO\ FRQVLVWV RI the  remaining  stone  houses  of  the  Palestinians,  their  work  in  the  olive  terraces,  the  meandering  dust  roads.  But  this  vista  is  the  systemic  object Â

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ŕž ŕ¸†ཚ‍ݛ‏è ᆊᇜറ૤ß‹ÖŹá„•á‰›áƒ—໨ŕŤ“á†´ŕ°´ŕ¸° ŕŞ‰ÖŹŕŹšŕ´şß‹ྼຢŕ˛?ŕ˝”Ů˜ÖŹâ€ŤÝ?‏Ӹè೉‍ݛ‏þႰਚ ŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œö൲๴ϣྠཧâ€Ťŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕ˝§ß‹ÖŹâ€Ť×ąâ€Źŕź?ହഺ ß‹Ć—൲๴á‡?á —á„‚࣌çŕĽ?ࡵྦçᆰྔçá†°ŕ¤ŤĂ§áˆ¸ ໨á†°ŕ¤Ťâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕť‘á‡‰á†´ŕĄžܸ֬༩Ć—Ăľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€Ť×€â€ŹĂśÖŹŕ´ą ßŒŕ¤ƒá‡ˆড়áƒ†ĎŁá†Šá‡œá °á łÖŹŕ ™ŕ Ľŕ´şÓˆáˆ¸ŕ˛?ß‹Ć—Ń° ŕą–࿊ᇌçá‚ŒŇŚá†Š۸‍Ý?â€ŹÓ¸Ă¨á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤŘšÝšâ€Źáˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹá„Ł ŕ˝Šá‡–á‚źŕžżâ€ŤŘŚâ€Źá†Šá€ŠÖŹŕ´ąŕŤ¤ß‹ŕ˝Šཧèи೉Ɨࡸ֏þ â€ŤŕĄŒÝšâ€ŹŕŻ?மÜྼŕź?١ಭ֬ੱá‚şŕŹŠÖŹâ€ŤŢ‹×€â€ŹŕŞ˜༜á…‚ࣣ á…Ąŕľœ૴ŕž†â€ŤÖŹÝ?‏ŕĽ?ॾ֏â€Ť×œৠŢ‹â€Źŕż°ÖŹá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ྦèĆ“ ᆊ৥á‚źá ‰۸á‡žá€¸ÖŹŕť ฟƼĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ŕĽ?á ˘Ň—á‚Żá ‰ ۸ོ࣍‍Ý?â€ŹÓ¸á¸Šŕ˝Ľá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ಭá ‰á€ŠĎŁŕˇˇŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕľą ŕť€á ‰฿â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÔľŕšŤÖŹĆ—â€ŤŰťâ€Źá†¸áƒ†ࡡŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕššâ€ŤŢ‹×€â€Źáˆ¸ ŕ˛?Ḋŕ Žá†‡á ˘Ň‰๤֬١ྛƗᄤĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ŕ­„ŕşšá‡Œá„ś Ô˘ ‍ ،‏ည ྦ ÖŹ Ď&#x; ে ŕśľ ณ ྦ ઞ Ć”

ᆊŕ¨?ŕŻ’ŕššâ€ŤŢ‹×€â€Źŕ˛­ŕŤ˝ŕľĽŕť´ŕĽ?ŕ­?áˆŽâ€Ť×€â€Źŕ§şŕźŠá„¤á ‰ ŕ°–ÖŹĆ“ĐŤá ‰۸਄ŕš?য়ࢍá„¤á ‰ŕ°–Ć”èࡡŕŤ“ÖŹß ŕ˝” ৺༩ḩ ŕ¤ƒོŕŞ˜ॶ֬๰࣫૲Ϸϣŕ¨?۸ŕ Žâ€Ťŕž ÖŹŘŚŰžâ€Ź ཧ৺༩ŕ°–দḩϣá ‰༩ਠࣦ೫ç൱ནçŕť‘á‡‰çŕ˘&#x; ؎‍ދ‏ŕĽ?ŕ­†֏٥ཌಟâ€Ťŕ ŽŢ?â€ŹŕŤ ŕ ?ŕ°–দèŕľƒࣣŕ´?෵න ÖŹĂľŕľƒâ€Ť×€â€ŹĂśŕľ“ŕĄ„ŕ´?ྼá‚ľĐ“ŕŠ„ÖŹĎ&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ÖŹŕľ?๯ ŮŁáˆˇĆ—ࡡŕŤ“á„¤áŁŠᢨมŕš‰ŕ´?ÖŹâ€ŤÜ„â€Źá‰›á ˘ŕ Şá°łá€ ÖŹŕšš ੥෵‍ܙ‏Ӿè ֓ᆊ۸â€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄŕľĽá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ֏लྠ‍ދ‏उ ህ༏ᇌ༩๫֬଩њ‍ދ‏ྒྷမྰè ŕ ŽŕľĽŕśąĆ—á†Š۸ ᆌಊྒྷॄŕ´?á‡Œá„śŕ¨›á†Š۸Ѝᅤਟ֏Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“ŕ´şŕ Š റ૤ࣦ֬ཧĆ“Ăľŕ˝&#x;ཧ֬౭ྠöĆ”Ḋ ᅤਟ٥ྒྷ ॄŕ´?ŕź—ŕşłŇ‰Ř•ಠá‡śÖŹŕ˛­Ă¨Ď†á…˝ÖŞâ€ŤÝšâ€Źá Łŕś“ŕľ•ŕĄŒŕ­ż ŕťšḨŕŽ“ŕ­˝â€ŤÚ–â€Źŕśľŕ •Ć“-Z_QV 8IVWN[SaĆ” ! ࡾá†žÔ˘ÖŹĆ—ŕš°ŕľąá Łŕś“ŕ¤ƒྼþကࣾ೉‍҇ૢŢŒâ€Źá…Ą ŕľœá„¤ŰĄâ€Ťŕ Ž×€â€Źá °á„¤á„€ŮĄÜťŕ´?ÖŹá Łŕś“ŕŻ?ÖŹŕŹƒŕ˝ˆÖŹ ୏๞Üè ໨ŕŤ“ŕĽ?á ˘â€ŤŰťâ€Źŕ¤“ࡡࡾŕ˘ŠÖŹŕ˘€áˆ„ÖŹá‰›á‚Ż দŕĽ?Һþá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá ˘ŕ Şŕ˝ŠÖ„ÖŹĂľá ˘ŕłŤ ਠâ€Ť×€â€ŹĂśÖŹŕ´ąßŒá‡Œá„śĂ¨á„¤ŕŽ“ŕ­˝â€ŤÚ–â€Źŕśľŕ •ŕĽˆদĆ—ŕ˘€áˆ„ ֬଩Ńšŕ¤ƒá„¤áƒ†ŕľ—֍ࡸи৯఼Ö™Ń°ŕą–â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˝ŠŮĄŮŒŕ˛‡ ૢŇ‡ŕľąŕ˝“ÖŹŕ° ŕŻ“ĂĽĂĽá†Šá €ྼŕĄ‡ŕ­˜ྦŕ˘€áˆ„ŕľ„ÖŹŕľ´ ŮŒĆ—ࡡŕŤ“Ň—á‚ŻÓľŕŻ?ÖŹĐ¸ŕ§Żá ˘Ń“ŕĽˆŕ°–দи৯֫ Ö™ ĂĽ ĂĽ ཊ Ö„ ÖŹ ૼ ‍ ࢀ ×‹â€Źáˆ„ Ć“ ^ I V Q [ P Q V O X W Q V \ KWV[\Z]K\QWVƔ୏๞ਛࡾá‚źâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹĐ¸ÖŹŕŚ ŘŽçഎ

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and  laboratory  of  Israeli  military  and  settler  control.  The  regime,  that  is,  actually  produces  this  mythic  scenario ÂľLPDJLQHG VLWXDWLRQÂś RI 3DOHVWLQLDQ OLIH under  occupation  â€“  the  very  people  whom  the  settlers,  however,  wish  continually  to  displace.  Scenography,  according  to  the  German  art  historian  Erwin  Panofsky  writing  in  the  1920s,  was  the  â€˜study  of  how  to  compensate  for  the  apparent  distortions  of  works  of  art  displayed  in  high  places  or  meant  WR EH VHHQ DW D GLVWDQFH Âś &RQVLGHU KLV GHVFULSWLRQ of  the  role  of  architecture  in  relation  both  to  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  and  the  modern  day  material  SURGXFWLRQ RI WKH P\WK RI WKH Âľ/DQG RI ,VUDHO Âś 7KH goal  of  the  architect,  Panofsky  continues, is  to  make  his  construction  well-­proportioned  in  its  impression  and  to  discover  remedies  for  the  GHFHSWLRQV RI YLVLRQ >ÂŤ@ VXFK DOVR LV WKH PHWKRG RI the  monumental  sculptor,  who  gives  the  proportion  DV LW ZLOO DSSHDU LQ WKH ÂżQLVKHG ZRUN LQ RUGHU WKDW LW PD\ EH ZHOO SURSRUWLRQHG WR YLVLRQ >ÂŤ@ WKH modern  vanishing-­point  construction  distorts  all  widths,  depths  and  heights  in  constant  proportion,  DQG WKXV GHÂżQHV XQHTXLYRFDOO\ WKH DSSDUHQW VL]H of  any  object,  the  size  corresponding  to  its  actual  magnitude  and  its  position  with  respect  to  the  H\H >ÂŤ@ $OUHDG\ LQ DQWLTXLW\ EXW WKHQ DERYH DOO LQ the  late  Middle  Ages  when  this  construction  was  revived  in  many  parts  of  Europe,  such  awkward  discrepancies  were  concealed  by  an  escutcheon,  a  festoon,  a  bit  of  drapery  or  some  other  perspectival  ¿J OHDI  31  :ULWLQJ DW WKH WLPH DUWLVWV VXFK DV (O /LVVLW]N\ in  Russia  and  Pablo  Picasso  in  France  had  turned  naturalistic  representation  on  its  head,  demonstrating  how  techniques  and  forms  of  composition  construct  familiar  images  of  the  world,  Panofsky  was  well  aware  that  the  technology  of  perspective  â€“  in  the  hands  of  compliant  artists  and  architects  â€“  was  a  systematizing  device  that Â

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ŘŽâ€ŤŘŽŰĄŢ‹â€ŹĆ—á‚€Ő•ŕŹƒŕ˛™â€Ť×Žâ€Źá łŕ¨›ರâ€ŤŢŒâ€Źŕź…฿֏Ń?૲Ô‹ ŐąĆ—ŕ°ŠÔ‹Őąáƒ—ŕľ“ŕĄ„֏սཱིâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá€‹ŕŁœࡾŕĽˆÖĽÖŹŕť‘á‡‰ á ‰á‡ˆåå෠න൥‍؞ܼ‏႟ᆴƗ֓ᇽးྼᄤᇖ‍ܼ‏ŕľ?Ö„ ຼŕ°€Ć—á†Šá‡œŕ˘€áˆ„ÖŹŮĄŮŒá„¤ŕ­żá‡¤â€Ť×€ŘŚŢšâ€ŹŮĄâ€ŤÖĽÖŤŘ‚â€Ź ‍ŕž?Úśâ€ŹĆ—á†Šŕ˝ťŃ ŕ­ŹÖŹŕŞ¸â€ŤŘ˘â€ŹĐŤâ€ŤŘ˘â€Źá…ŞĂ§ß„Ň˜çŇŠŕ¨&#x;ŕ Ž ŕ°Š ࡡ á ‰ ཝ Ů˜ Ý‚ á‚Ż ÖŹ ŕť´ ß„ ‍ Ý›â€Źá „ áˆˇ ࡾ ည ‍ ۉ‏è

Ö™ŕľ?Ɨξ‍٠‏Ḩ৭ŕź?ŕśľŕ • -T 4Q[[Q\bSa ᄤ‍ݚس‏ƗĎ&#x;ѸŕŞŒḨпŕĄ?ࡳ 8IJTW 8QKI[[WĆ” á„¤ŮŒâ€ŤÝšâ€ŹĆ—ࡡŕŤ“â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹáˆŽཌŕ¨›áˆ¸ŕ˛?á‡˝á łÖŹá„Łŕ˝ŠĆ—Ń?ཊ ŕ¨›ŕ śŕą?â€Ťŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕľ›á‰?‍Ţ?â€Źŕł‰â€Ťŕ˘€Ü™ŢŒâ€Źŕľžࢿŕ´?Ő˝ŕĄŒŕśŠŕź˜ ֬ྠཧèŕŽ‰ŕ­˝â€ŤÚ–â€Źŕśľŕ •Ć“8IVWN[SaƔٍÓ?๊Ԫ ŕľąŕ˘&#x;ÖŹŕ śŕś“Ḋá„¤á ‰ཝᇄ๤֨‍֏Ţ?â€Źá Łŕś“ŕĄŒâ€Ťŕ˘€Ţ‹â€Źáˆ„ ྄ྴᇖḊྼԞá„śŕ´§ß˝á‡Žŕż„â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŤŒŕż—á‡Žŕż„֬༩๫ ŮĄŮŒèá†Šá‡œŮĄŮŒÓ?Ó?ྼá‚Œ૤֬Ć—ࡡŕŤ“ß˝á‚ŒŇŚá ‰ ཝŕ¸…â€Ť×€ÖŹŕž‡ŕ –Ý?â€ŹŮĄâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕť‘á‡‰èŕ˝ŠÖ„á Łŕś“ŕĄŒĆ—á ˘ŕ Ş â€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚÖŹŕ˘€áˆ„ŕľ„â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ´¨ŕĄ€á†‡ञâ€ŤŮ†â€ŹÔ˘á ‰ཝྐྵऍҭં দࢪŕľœá†ŠཝЍሸŕ˛?ß‹֏ྐྵऍ‍ދ‏ധ߽ᇎ࿄èþá‚° ਚŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśŕś’áƒ†á†Š۸Ե๫Ć—á…šַḨиาඵ Ć“2IV ,QJJM\[þƔ ! ୔ք‍޹‏ఀç ! ŕ­”Ö„á„ąŕ°€ÖŹŕ´Łá‚œ и೉ƗÝྐྵऍ࢛ᆼß‍ދ‏Ýŕ¨? ۸ ‍ ŕ˘&#x; ؚ‏ན ÖŹ ݃ Ó? Ăź ‍ Ř‚â€Źŕ˝ˆ ŕľœ ਛ ŕľą ŕ˘&#x; ÖŹ ŕžť ß&#x; ཚ ‍ ݛ‏è Ó?ŕ°€á ˘ŕŚŚĆ—ŕžżâ€ŤŘŚâ€Źá Łŕś“ŕĄŒâ€Ťŕ˘€Ţ‹â€Źáˆ„ŕľ„â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹĎŁÖ™Ö„á ˘ŕłŤ ਠÖ™ ቛ á ‰ ۸ ࣌ ཧ ç Ó? ࣌ ç ĐŤ ŕĽˆ ÖŹ ‍ ׀‏٥ দ Ń? ཊ è иŕł‰Ć—ŕłłŕŠŠá„¤ŕŁ?ྡྷŕ¤‰áˆ…â€ŤÖŹ×‹â€Źŕ´¨ŕĄ€ŕľ?ŕ¤ƒáƒ—ŕ¤?ŕľžŕť› ŕŹ‡ ÖŹ ŕťž Ö ŕ§&#x; ઉ ŕĄŒ δ ‍ ÝĄ Ýžâ€ŹŕŹĄ ໬ ŕ°Š પ Ć“ ) ^ Z I P I U ?IKPUIVƔ‍Ţ?‏ቛƗ໬ŕ°Šપá…‚ञâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ¨›á ‰ŕ¸ąŕťžÖ â€ŤŰ‡â€Źŕ­˜Ć—ŕľ—ÖŤŃ?ŕťžŕĽ?á ˘á„¤á‡ƒŕ´?ĎŁŕťžÖ Ń?չԢদĆ— ŕ¤ƒོŕ§ˆ௽á ‰á€ŠĂ¨ŕť‘á‡‰Ć—á ˘ŕ Şâ€Ť×ľâ€Źá‰›â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá ”â€ŤŕžŚ×ľâ€Źá &#x;ࣣ Óľŕť€á ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ á„¤á„†Ö‘â€ŤŢ‘â€Źŕź?ĎˆÖŹŕ¤‰áˆ…â€Ť×€â€ŹĂ§á†šŕŤ˝â€Ť×€â€Źŕ´¨ ी ÖŹ ܸ ड़ Ő” è

þᆍŕĄ?ŰŠĂśŕľĽá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ â€ŤÖŹÝšâ€Źá ‰۸ٌá„śŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ— á ‰۸ӳྎߋ‍ڼ‏৭ӳᆚƗఊനीྼŕť€ŕ¨›Ôžŕž”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕľ“ ॳÔ‘ŕšłŕ śŕś“Ć—á†Š۸ӳá†šÖŹŕž ŕľ›â€ŤÜ†Ţ‹â€Źŕ­†á €ࡢáˆŠŕľž ࢿलྠҭં‍ދ‏ᅼᆥ ᅤਟ‍֏׀‏єߋ‍ن؞‏ഺਛ‍ۆ‏ Ń”èᆊ۸ӳᆚቒԥࢀ৲჆ ! ŕ­”Ö„Ć—ྼŕť€ŕ¨› ŕŹ?ŮŚá ‰۸৚Ď&#x;ŕ­…ÖŹŐŻáˆ“Ć—â€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚŕľĽŕť€ŕ¨›࿼ŕ¨‡á ˘ŕłŤ ਠ֏ŕľ?ѨĆ—ࡡŕŤ“ŕťŠŕ­†á„¤ !! ŕ­”ÖŹá ?ŕŚ&#x;ŕĽ&#x;ӳᆚ ฝŕĽ&#x;৥าӾ‍܆‏χ೹೚չଡެŕłžá‚€èþᆍŕĄ?ŰŠĂś

helped  to  create  social  as  well  as  aesthetic  order.  It  disguised  its  own  operation,  he  notes  here,  by  covering  up  some  of  its  ordering  lines  that  betrayed  a  too  mechanistic  place  and  position.  Modern  artists,  and  later  some  architects  and  planners,  developed  visual  strategies  designed  instead  precisely  to  reveal  the  workings  of  such  naturalized  visual  and  social  orders.  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  belongs  in  this  tradition,  along  with,  for  instance,  Jan  Dibbets,  whose  photographs  in  the  late  1960s  and  early  1970s,  such  as  Perspective  Corrections  (Square  with  Two  Diagonals)  (1968),  showed  the  illusory  effects  of  perspective.  32  Architects  and  artists  have  long  been  enlisted  into  the  work  of  producing  contemporary  Israel  as  scene/scenario/ seen  and  place.  Sharon,  for  instance,  worked  on  settlement  design  with  the  internationally  known  GDQFH WKHRULVW $YUDKDP :DFKPDQ Âą ZHOO NQRZQ IRU his  role  in  developing  a  system  of  dance  notation,  which  enabled  choreographers  to  encode  a  dance  on  paper,  like  a  musical  score.  33  Position,  then,  but  also  mobility  and  mutability  have  been  the  watchwords  in  creating  the  regime  of  Israeli  security  LQ WKH VHWWOHPHQW FRORQL]DWLRQ RI WKH :HVW %DQN Âľ&KLFDJR Âś WKH ,VUDHOL VWDWHÂśV RZQ PRFN XS PD]H of  an  urban  warfare  town  designed  for  innovating  DQG SUDFWLFLQJ WHFKQLTXHV RI FRQĂ€LFW KDV VLPLODUO\ seen  its  form  and  function  mutate  as  fashions  in  military  strategy  and  wars/occupations  around  the  world  have  changed  over  the  years.  Originally  built  in  the  1980s  to  simulate  a  Lebanese  village,  then  to  train  Israeli  soldiers  who  tried  but  failed  to  assassinate  Saddam  Hussein  in  the  Iraqi  town  RI 7DNULW LQ Âľ&KLFDJRÂś EHFDPH D NLQG RI multi-­purpose  revolving  theatre  in  which  changing  scenarios  of  battle  have  been  orchestrated,  with  military  advisors  and  observers  from  the  US  and Â

єӾਛ á ‰á‡œâ€ŤÜ†ŘŚâ€Źŕ­†ÖŹŕż?áˆŽŕťžŕ¸‚Ć—Ň‰ŕš›â€Ť×€â€Źŕ´?á€? áˆŠŇ‰๤֬ᅼᆥÓ?࣌Ć—ŕĄ‚á‚źŕŚŚáˆ¸á‚ŽŕŤŒ֏लྠâ€ŤÜŤâ€Źŕť â€ŤÜťŢ‹â€ŹŇşáƒťĆ—ࡡŕŤ“Ó?Ó?দ٧Ć—á‚€ŕť€á†Š৥֏ࢤ࿼ ‍ؚ‏δ‍ދݡڽ‏á ?ŕŚ&#x;ŕĽ&#x;֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĎľÖŹŕ˝Šŕľ“ŕ¤•á‚źŕ°šâ€ŤŮ†â€Źá ° á łĂ¨Ö“଩ఴ෷ŕŤ“â€ŤŘ‚â€Źŕ´?ŕťŠŕ˛ƒÖŤâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹÖ‡Ăľŕ­„Ň?ָಭÜ ÖŹŕľ‚৭Ƽŕ˛™â€ŤÖŹ×Žâ€ŹĂľĎŹŕş‰á…ĽŕŞ‚Ăśß•ŕŤ‡á‚źĐŤá…şÖĽĆ— ଱á‚’â€Ťŕ˘€Ű…â€Źŕ§˛á„¤á‰ƒÔ˘â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ¤Łŕł?ఊᇖ֏ŕź?١൤৶দන ÖŹá…Ľá†Ąâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¤‰áˆ…â€ŤÖŹ×€â€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĂ¨â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†Ăľŕ˛?૲öीߊ‍ދ‏ ༏á‡ŒÖŹáˆ¸â€ŤÚźâ€Źá¸Šá†Šྼŕ˘€áˆ„ŕľ„çനी྄çáˆ¸ŕť¨ŕ˛°ŕŹˆ ÖŹâ€Ťŕ˘€ŕĄŒÝšâ€Źŕ´¨á†‡çְÖ‡ĐŤá‡žŕž”ŕż‘ŕ¤?ÖŹá†ŚŕĽĄâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¤˛ŕľ áˆŒŕĄŒá ‰۸ŕśŠŕź˜ÖŹá‰ŒοྦáˆŒá ƒาá†&#x;Ḋ҉ؕᄏּᄇ দᄇ‍ŕĽ?ÖžÖŹŘŚâ€Źá ˘ŕ Şŕť´ŕą˛ŕť´ŕŁ—ÖŹŕ¤’ऎŕ¤‰áˆ…ÖŹŕ¤‰ ૽ƗቒᇛࡡŕŤ“ĐŁŕŽ™ŕ¨›ŕąšŕŞ‚á†‡ࡾá‚źÖŹŕ śŕś“á ˘ŕ Şâ€ŤÝšâ€Ź ŕĄŒ ሎ ሀ ÖŹ Ů˜ ŕĽ? ŕŽ™ ઀ ÖŹ ŕź… á‡? è

Ö™໨ŕŤ“á‰’á‡›â€ŤÖžâ€ŹŐšĂľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚Œö֬ૠâ€ŤŕŁ—ÜŒâ€ŹŕšŻÖŹá‡ƒϡկᆚŕľ?Ɨᆊ۸ŕĽˆŕˇ‚ÖŹŕ˝Šŕľ“ŕ Ž྿൥ ቒਞಭᆘ࣠֏èá‚€ŕť€á„¤á†Šཝྒྷॄŕ´?ਊŕľ?ÖŹĎ˝ŕŚ&#x; áˆˇĂśŮŁáˆˇá‡–ŇžÔˇáˆŠŕ˘œྤ֫հ֬Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľŕ¸“Ółá†šç ŕ˝›ŐŻâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˝Šá„¤ŕŹąŕ˝ťá‚ŹŕŁšÖŹĂľŕŹťŕŤ˝á‚–ĂśĆ—и೉ŕĄ?Ď&#x; ৭࿡Ć—ŕŚ&#x;ŮŒâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕłłâ€Ť×€â€ŹĆ—଱ৡ‍֏ŕĽ?Öžâ€Źŕ´şŕ Šá ‰á†ˇá„¤ŕĄ† ŕżŠĆ—ŕŁ—Üźá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹŕ¤˛â€ŤŢ‹Ř™â€Źŕ°ĄÓĄâ€Ťŕ­”ŘŚâ€ŹŕŚŚá ‰á†ˇá„¤ŕąš Ůœ௏ß‘ࡡŕŤ“֏ਟ‍׀‏èࣣ‍Ý?â€ŹŕŞ˜ॶ֬଱ཻá‚‹Ö¤â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕź‰ ֤ಭŕŤ“֬๠֨֬๰࣫૲Ϸŕ´?Ń”ß—ŕž áˆ˜֬ྠཧ á‰ƒÖĽá†Š۸á‰’á‡›ÖŹŕśźâ€Ť×‹â€ŹĆ—á†Šá‡œáƒˇŕľšÖŹŕ§&#x;ࡾÖ™ŕ˛?‍ދ‏ á‚Żá„Łŕ´şá‡ƒϡá‡Œá„śÖŹâ€ŤŢŽâ€ŹáˆˇÖŹâ€Ťŕ Ž׌Ř—â€Źŕžżŕ˛Ľŕť¨ŕŤ“â€ŤÖĽŰ’â€Ź ྍŕ˛?ḊࣗܟѰٍྼŕť€ŕ¨›ಹ๊á ‰۸ॏÖ?֏ᆎཔƗ ŕ Žá†‡á ‰Ű¸á Łŕś“ŕ´?֏þҒŕ¨&#x;á‡˜ŕľ“ÜèþႰਚཊƗ á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá„¤á†Łŕ¸żŕ´?ŕąƒâ€Ť×&#x;â€Źá†žÔ˘ŕ¨›á ‰۸ਞಭ҉τ֏ ಹŕľ”á¸Šá °ŕľ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źáˆ¸ŕť¨á °ŕľ”á¸Šŕ Žŕˇľá‚źÖŹŇ’ŕ¨&#x;â€Ťŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕľ› ŕĽ?á ˘á °ŕťŒŕ ŽÖ„Ń?á ‰ཝྠĆ—Ö“á„¤ŕ¨˝á ‰á‡œŕą­ŕž á‡–Ć— á €ŕĽ?á ˘á °ŕťŒŕ ŽÖ„Ń?਽á ‰ཝྠƗാᇇࡸ֏‍ؚ‏৲ ૲èᄣഺ֏‍Ý?‏ӸŕĽ?ŕ­†ྼഺÓˆྦ֬á €ŕĽ?ŕ­†൥ঽ‍پ‏ ÖŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€ŕĽ?୆ᄤᄣഺᇖЍԞᄜ֏ḊþٙߴÜ ֏Ḋŕ Ž྿൥๤á ‰ŕľ ŕź…ÖŹŇ‰๤ྠྛ‍؞‏á &#x;Ć—ࡸᄤׂ á ‰ŕŞ„á…‚ࣣ൥໴Ⴏ‍ދ‏௏ߑྦ֬è໨ŕŤ“á„¤á ‡ຼÝ„দ Ý„ ಇ ĐŤ ŕ Œ ಞ ŕ´• Ć“ 1 V / Q Z ] U 1 U ] [ 6 W K \ M M \ +WV[]UQU]Z 1OVQĆ”è ଱ŕĽ?ŕ­†ྼŕĽ?ॾ֏Ć— Ö“ಜŕ˛?҉ŕĽ?ĐŤá†ŞŕŹƒè

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Britain  in  regular  attendance  as  the  lessons  learned  here  were  thought  to  have  real  life  applications  in  the  mazes  Afghanistan  and  Iraq  came  to  represent.  In  neither  of  these  cases  to  date,  however,  has  a  FHUWDLQ DQG ÂżQDO YLFWRU\ RYHU WKH ÂľHQHP\ ZLWKLQÂś LQ WKHVH FRXQWULHV EHHQ DFKLHYHG QR GHÂżQLWLYH ÂľH[LW VWUDWHJ\Âś KDV EHHQ IRXQG EDVHG RQ UHDOO\ JHWWLQJ out  of  the  mazes  these  wars  and  occupations  have  become  for  the  western  powers  involved.  7KH DUURJDQFH RI ÂľWRWDOÂś SODQQLQJ DQG FRQWURO Âą D familiar  disabling  professional  trait  of  architects,  planners,  self-­appointed  state-­builders,  needing-­to-­ be-­re-­elected  politicians  and  military  experts  â€“  has  continued  to  meet  the  more  dogged  resistance  and  seemingly  endless  numbers  of  inhabitants  who  resist  to  live  and  live  to  resist,  eventually  turning  against  their  invaders  all  the  techniques  and  materials  of  state-­sponsored  counter-­insurgency. Â

and  underlines  the  disturbing  realization  â€“  the  consciousness  and  self-­consciousness  â€“  that  all  materials  and  forms  can  mean  or  represent  something,  but  then,  in  another  situation,  can  come  to  mean  or  represent  something  else,  perhaps  even  its  opposite.  The  recycling  process  can  be  productive  or  wasteful,  for  what  might  be  created  â€“  ¾UHWXUQHGÂś Âą IURP WKH UHF\FOLQJ PD\ EH MXVW DQRWKHU form  of  the  same  thing  that  was  useless  and  GHVWUXFWLYH WKH ÂżUVW WLPH DURXQG In  Girum  Imus  Nocte  et  Consumimur  Igni.  :KDW PD\ EH YLVLEOH WKHQ EXW UHPDLQV XQYHULÂżDEOH

:KHQ RQH ÂżQDOO\ UHDFKHV WKH ÂľFLW\Âś RI FDUGERDUG boxes  at  the  end  of  the  maze  that  is  Enter  Ghost,  Exist  Ghost  it  is  this  seeming  reality  that  is  perhaps  most  striking.  For  in  such  actual  provisional,  â€˜Jerry  EXLOWÂś KRXVHV FKRNLQJ WKH XUEDQ HQYLURQPHQW RI surviving  Palestinian  towns,  villages  and  now  SHUPDQHQW ÂľUHIXJHH FDPSVÂś VXFK DV WKRVH RI Jabalya,  Rafah  and  Shati,  the  life  of  resistance  goes  on,  despite  their  demolition  and  temporary  occupation  at  will  by  Israeli  troops  and  their  vehicles  over  the  years  and  decades.  After  the  shape-­shifting  images  of  the  lenticular  panels  GLUHFWLQJ DQG PLVGLUHFWLQJ RQHÂśV GLYHUWLQJ SDVVDJH WKURXJK 0DNKRXOÂśV PD]H WR WKLV FRQFOXGLQJ GHDG end,  the  crude  matter-­of-­factness  and  stacking  of  the  boxes  made  from  recycled  cardboard  may  come  as  something  of  a  relief  â€“  though  not  really  as  the  recognition  of  a  simple  truth,  or  as  WKH UHFRJQLWLRQ RI DQ DUWLVWLF ÂľWUXWK WR PDWHULDOV Âś For  Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost  as  a  whole  prompts Â

52

53


NOTES , KDYH OHDUQHG D ORW IURP (\DO :HL]PDQÂśV Hollow  Land:  Israel’s  Architecture  of  Occupation  (Verso:  London,  2007).  For  his  own  discussion  of  the  ¾YLVLEOH EXW XQYHULÂżDEOH Âś VHH DQG Q For  an  interesting  discussion  of  literally  dangerous  artworks,  see  Anna  Chave  â€˜Minimalism  and  the  5KHWRULF RI 3RZHU Âś HGLWHG DQG UHSULQWHG LQ )UDQFLV Frascina  and  Jonathan  Harris  (eds.)  Art  in  Modern  Culture:  An  Anthology  of  Critical  Texts  (Phaidon:  London,  1992):  264-­281. See  Carola  Hein  â€˜Toshikeikaku  and  Machizukuri  in  -DSDQHVH 8UEDQ 3ODQQLQJ LQ .REH Âś Jahrbuch  des  DIJ  (Deutsches  Institut  fĂźr  Japanstudien),  no.  13  (2001):  221-­52.  Maze-­like  centres  constructed  in  Japanese  cities  were  purpose-­built  to  resist  foreign  occupation.  See  Yoshinobu  Ashihara  The  Hidden  Order  (Kodansha  International:  New  York,  1989) See,  e.g.,  Stephen  Pinker  How  the  Mind  Works  3HQJXLQ /RQGRQ DQG :LOOLDP /\FDQ HG  Mind  and  Cognition:  A  Reader  (Blackwell:  Oxford,  1990). Âľ&RQ MXQFWXUHÂś OLWHUDOO\ ÂľD PHHWLQJ RI FLUFXPVWDQFHV Âś 6HH : - 7 0LWFKHOO Âľ:RUOG 3LFWXUHV *OREDOL]DWLRQ DQG 9LVXDO &XOWXUH Âś in  Jonathan  Harris  (ed.)  Globalization  and  Contemporary  Art :LOH\ %ODFNZHOO 2[IRUG 253-­264.  Hamlet:  act  3,  scene  II. See,  e.g.,  Neil  Asher  Silberman  Between  Past  and  Present:  Archaeology,  Ideology  and  Nationalism  in  the  Modern  Middle  East  (Holt:  New  York,  1989)  and  Nadia  Abu  El-­Haj  Facts  on  the  Ground:  Archaeological  Practice  and  Territorial Â

54

Self-­Fashioning  in  Israeli  Society  (Chicago:  University  of  Chicago  Press:  2001). See  Hollow  Land:  151-­2.

Spectacle  trans.  Knabb:  7-­9. Â

(PPDQXHO 6LYDQ Âľ7KH /LJKWV RI 1HW]DULP Âś Ha’aretz,  30  December  2006.

Gaza-­Jericho  Agreement,  Annex  I:  Protocol  &RQFHUQLQJ :LWKGUDZDO RI ,VUDHOL 0LOLWDU\ )RUFHV and  Security  Arrangements,  Article  X:  Passages,  http//telaviv.usembassy.gov/publish/peace/gjannex1  and  Azmi  Bishara  Checkpoints:  Fragments  of  a  Story  (Babel  Press:  Tel  Aviv,  2006). Â

Amoz  Harel  â€˜Soldiers  can  kill  Gazans  spying  on  1HW]DULP Âś Ha’aretz,  5  November  2003. See  John  Barrell  The  Dark  Side  of  the  Landscape:  The  Rural  Poor  in  English  Painting  1730-­1840  (Cambridge  UP:  Cambridge,  1980).  See  Guy  Debord  Panegyric  (Verso:  London,  2004)  and  Libero  Andreotti  â€˜Play-­tactics  of  the  ,QWHUQDWLRQDOH 6LWXDWLRQQLVWHÂś October :LQWHU 2000:  37-­58).  Note  the  palindrome,  according  to  Andreotti,  was  an  ancient  â€˜playform  that,  like  the  riddle  and  the  conundrum,  â€œcuts  clean  across  any  possible  distinction  between  play  and  VHULRXVQHVV ´œ

See  Hollow  Land:  particularly  chapters  1,  3  and  6.

See  Shimon  Naveh  In  Pursuit  of  Military  Excellence:  The  Evolution  of  Operational  Theory  (Frank  Cass:  New  York,  2004).  See  Stephen  Graham  â€˜Cities  as  Strategic  6LWHV 3ODFH $QQLKLODWLRQ DQG 8UEDQ *HRSROLWLFV Âś LQ Stephen  Graham  (ed.)  Cities,  War  and  Terrorism:  Towards  an  Urban  Geopolitics  (Blackwell:  Oxford,  DQG 6WHSKHQ *UDKDP Âľ:DU DQG WKH &LW\Âś 1HZ /HIW 5HYLHZ 0DUFK $SULO 121-­132.

See,  e.g.,  Gordon  Hon  and  Bashir  Makhoul  â€˜Found  LQ &RQĂ€LFW $ &RQYHUVDWLRQ EHWZHHQ %DVKLU 0DNKRXO and  Gordon  Hon  on  Identity  Theft  in  the  Context  of  Palestinian-­Israeli &RQĂ€LFWÂś LQ -RQDWKDQ +DUULV HG Identity  Theft:  The  Cultural  Colonization  of  Contemporary  Art  (Liverpool  University  Press  /  Tate  Liverpool:  Liverpool:  2008):  29-­50,  Gordon  Hon  and  Bashir  Makhoul  The  Origin  of  Palestinian  Art  (Liverpool  University  Press,  forthcoming)  and  Jason  Forbus  Art  of  the  Palestinian  Diaspora:  The  Voice  of  a  Generation  (Lulu.com:  London,  2011). Erwin  Panofsky,  Perspective  as  Symbolic  Form  WUDQV &KULVWRSKHU 6 :RRG =RQH 1HZ <RUN 98-­99,  40. )RU LQVWDQFH RQ 6LWXDWLRQLVW ÂľDQWL SODQQLQJ Âś VHH Tom  McDonough  (ed.),  Guy  Debord  and  the  Situationist  International.  Texts  and  Documents  (MIT  Press:  Cambridge,  Mass.,  2004). See  Hollow  Land:  80.

Guy  Debord  Society  of  the  Spectacle  trans.  Donald  Nicholson  Smith  (Zone:  New  York,  1995)  and  trans.  Ken  Knabb  (Rebel  Press:  London,  n.d.). See  Ernst  Bloch,  â€˜Enfremdung,  Verfremdung:  $OLHQDWLRQ (VWUDQJHPHQWÂś WUDQV $QQH +DOOH\ DQG Darko  Suvin,  The  Drama  Review  vol.  15,  no.1  $XWXPQ > @ Guy  Debord  Comments  on  the  Society  of  the  Spectacle  trans.  Malcolm  Imrie  (Verso:  London,  1990):  2. Debord,  Theses  1  and  4-­5,  The  Society  of  the  Spectacle  trans.  Knabb:  7. Debord,  Theses  5  and  8,  The  Society  of  the Â

See  Hollow  Land:  201-­3,  205. /W *HQHUDO 6DœDG (O 6KD]O\ The  Crossing  of  the  Canal  (San  Francisco:  American  Mideast  Research,  2003):  and  Hollow  Land:  chapter  2. Hollow  Land:130-­133. Michel  Foucault  Discipline  and  Punish:  the  Birth  of  the  Prison  (Penguin:  London,  1977). Debord,  The  Society  of  the  Spectacle  trans.  Knabb,  Thesis  31:  16  and  Thesis  42:  21.  See  Hollow  Land:  143. See  Hollow  Land:  133  n62. Roland  Barthes  Mythologies  (Farrar,  Straus  and  Giroux:  London,  1972).

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SPECTRES OF PERCEPTION, OR THE ILLUSION OF HAVING THE TIME TO SEE: THE GEOPOLITICS OF OBJECTS, APPREHENSION AND MOVEMENT IN BASHIR MAKHOUL’S “ENTER GHOST, EXIT GHOST” RYAN BISHOP 感知幽灵,抑或幻想还来得及看见: 柏谢尔 ・玛库“幽灵现,幽灵隐”中客体、理解和运动的地缘政治学 瑞恩 ・毕晓普

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INTRODUCTION   ¾7KH JKRVWV ZRQœW VWDUYH EXW ZH ZLOO SHULVK œ 39 Art  of  the  Motor,  p.  61)

Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŇ‰ß˝â€ŤŘźâ€ŹŕśźĆ—Ö“໨ŕŤ“ŕ˘ƒá›łŕŤźĂ¨ĂśĆ“8> છ ŐšÖŹá Łŕś“Ć—8 Ć”

‘Angels  and  ministers  of  grace,  defend  us!/Be  thou  D VSLULW RI KHDOWK RU JREOLQ GDPQÂśG %ULQJ ZLWK WKHH airs  from  heaven  or  blasts  from  hell,/Be  thy  intents  wicked  or  charitable,/Though  comest  in  such  a  TXHVWLRQDEOH VKDSH Âś Âą +DPOHW

þ཯á„ ŕ˘?‍֏Ú?â€Źá‡´ŕš†ŕľ—Đ“ß€໨ŕŤ“ĆŒ ҉ઉŕ­?ྼഹ ਚß•ྼá€­ŕŹ‘Ć— Ö‚দ֬൥ŕš†â€Ťß•Ú‹â€ŹŕľĽâ€Ť×€â€Źáƒ¨ÖŹŕłˇ ఞƗ ҉ઉŕ­?ÖŹŕŚŚá °ŕľĽâ€Ťß•Ţ â€ŹŕľĽß‘Ć— ŕ­?ूŕ˛?ւਛ ᆊည۸ŕĽ?á —ÖŹŕž áˆ˜Ć“໨း‍ŕ­?Řšâ€ŹŕśąßŒĆ”èÜ

‘The  breeze  at  dawn  has  secrets  to  tell  you. 'RQÂśW JR EDFN WR VOHHS You  must  ask  what  you  really  want. 'RQÂśW JR EDFN WR VOHHS People  are  going  back  and  forth  across  the  doorsill where  the  two  worlds  touch. The  door  is  round  and  open. 'RQÂśW JR EDFN WR VOHHS Âś Âą -HODO DO 'LQ 5XPL

ḊḊÝâ€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าßĆ“á‡˛ŕ´şâ€ŤÝžâ€Źá šĆ”

‘Six  mirrors  stare  at  each  other  unblinking , WKLQN ZHÂśUH KHDGHG IRU WURXEOH Âś Âą *XLOODPH $SROOLQDLUH Âľ0RQGD\ LQ WKH UXH &KULVWLQHÂś 7KH Self-­Dismembered  Man  49)

þ๊Ӎ֏ຸâ€Ťŕ˘ƒÚ‹â€Źá€¸Ű¨ŕˇ›ŕ­?૤૨è ๯҉းߴಇණಇè ŕ­?Ńˆ྽නԢŕ­„ŕž–ÖŹá€¸ŕąˇĂ¨ ๯҉းߴಇණಇè ಭŕŤ“á„¤ŕŤ‘঺ৡັŮ™Գ࡯ ŕ¨?۸ŕľžࢿá„¤ŕŹąŕ§Ąŕ˘Ťŕ˛˘Ă¨ Ő˝ŕŤ‘ŕ ‡áƒźâ€Ť×şâ€Źŕ¤žĂ¨ ๯҉းߴಇණಇèÜ ḊḊŕĄ?ŕŚ&#x;েḨΞ‍ؽ֡ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŠĄŕŤŁ ĂľŕŠ‰૲࣫áˆˇá ‰á€‹Ň‰á…‹â€Ť×€â€ŹĐťŐ•áˆ†ŕľą ໨ŕ˝&#x;໨ŕŤ“ŕ˘ƒá€¸áƒ˘ÖĽŕŞ—Ů—èÜḊḊ‍ۉ‏ŕŚ&#x;ବḨδѶ ৡସ ĂľŕĽ&#x;ৡඵŕš™ßśá‰“ÖŹá‡˘á ‰ĂśĆ“Ăťáˆ¸ŕť¨á†ąŕ˘şÖŹ ಭßĆ— !Ć”

The  artwork  by  Bashir  Makhoul  â€˜Enter  Ghost,  Exit  GhostÂś WDNHV LWV WLWOH IURP WKH VWDJH directions  found  in  the  opening  act  and  scene  of  Hamlet.  The  directions  for  the  spectral  apparition  FRQWLQXH DQG UHDG Âľ5H HQWHU *KRVWÂś RU Âľ(QWHU *KRVW DV %HIRUHÂś GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH HGLWLRQ The  movements  indicate  a  return,  a  turn  and  a  re-­turn,  that  owes  a  debt  to  the  Greek  stage.  The  chorus  in  Greek  drama  moves  and  speaks  -­-­  the  strophe,  anti-­strophe,  and  epode  -­-­  which  follows  an  almost  dialectic  movement  of  both  thought  and  bodies  on  the  stage,  but  one  without  resolution.  The  chorus  sings  a  stanza  and  moves  in  one  direction  (strophe),  provides  another,  sometimes  contradictory  statement,  moving  in  the  opposite  GLUHFWLRQ DQWL VWURSKH DQG WKHQ VLQJV WKH ÂżQDO stanza  while  stationary  near  its  original  spot  (epode).  The  choral  dance  allows  a  return  that  is  not  a  return,  a  dialectic  resolution  that  leaves  the  UHVROXWLRQ XQÂżQLVKHG DQG WKH FRPSHWLQJ G\QDPLFV of  the  drama  at  play,  though  now  with  additional  emotional  and  psychological  weight  that  comes  IURP WKH FKRUDO UHĂ€HFWLRQV 7KDW WKH FKRUXV LQ Greek  drama  is  also  the  citizenry,  the  voice  and  commentary  of  the  people,  lends  it  an  especial  power,  one  driven  by  circumstances  beyond  their  FRQWURO EXW ZKLFK GLUHFWO\ LQĂ€XHQFHV WKHLU OLYHV a  commentary  on  fate,  as  well  as  the  illusion  of  agency,  movement  and  progress.  The  installation  â€˜Enter  Ghost,  Exit  GhostÂś LQFOXGHV two  sections,  one  comprised  of  a  maze  and  the  other  a  cardboard  replica  of  an  Arab  town  or  refugee  encampment.   According  to  the  curatorial  brochure  for  the  work,  the  walls  of  the  maze  are  2.4  meters  high,  with  the  entire  length  of  the  maze  running  about  100  meters.  The  walls  of  the  PD]H DUH FRYHUHG IURP WKH Ă€RRU WR WKH WRS RI WKH wall  with  lenticular  images  that  move  as  viewers Â

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ĎŞŕž?‍ Ů â€Źá¸¨ŕŞ˜༜֏ቛŕŻ?Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂś ŕ˛ƒŕŹ‡áˆ¸Ăťâ€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าßञŕľšŇ?â€ŤÖŹŮşâ€Źŕťžŕ¸‚â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÓ?ࣦ֬න ŕŹƒèᆊཝᆓ‍ß&#x;Řšâ€Źá‚œĎľÖŹá‚°ŕ¨šŕˇľŕ´¨ŕĄ€ÖŹŕśąŕŹƒÔ‚ŕżŠŇ‰ Ř•Ć—иŕł‰Ć—Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šá„ŁŐ˜ŕŁ?ŕł?ĂśĆ“ŕ ŽĂľá‚°ŕ¨šŕŁ?ŕł?Ć— ೉๤‍Ý?‏ಇÜƗक฿ྐྵϸЎâ€Ť×ŽŘžâ€ŹĆ”èŕ¤?ᇖ‍׾‏ቛŃ?ŕŹƒ á ‰á‡œß´Ý‰Ć—á ‰۸áˆŽá†ƒĂ§ŕ ŞĂľá„ŁĂśáˆŽá†ƒĆ—á†Šá‡œŕ´¨ŕĄ€ ֏ਚâ€ŤŰ’â€ŹŕŚŚáˆ¸ŕź—ঢ໾ขèŕź—ঢŕ¤?ᇖ֏‍Ţ?‏Ӗ‍๖ྡྷ๖ؙ‏ ငḊḊྉࢲĆ“[\ZWXPM Ć—Ů˜ŕľ‰ࢲĆ“IV\Q [\ZW XPMĆ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕś ŕą­ŕľ‰Ć“MXWLMĆ” ḊḊᆊྼá ‰۸їᆪ‍ދ‏ ŕŤ‡á‚źŕ˘šŕ¤ŒÖŹâ€ŤÝ?‏ӸƗමŕ˝&#x;â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ´­ŕ¸żá„¤ŕťžŕ¸‚ŕ´?Ň‰ŕš›â€Ť×€â€Źá„• ‍׾‏è‍Ţ?‏Ӗ๽۪Ó–á ‰۸ྉࢲĆ—ཌŕŹ?۸٥ཌá ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źá ‰ŕźś Ć“[\ZWXPMĆ”Ć—á„ŁÓ–á ‰ࢲĆ—ŕš Ó?ྼŕ˝”Ů˜ÖŹÓŽŕś”Ć— ŕ˛?â€ŤŢąâ€Źŕ˝Śá ‰۸ŕ˝”Ů˜֏٥ཌá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ“IV\Q [\ZWXPMĆ” Ć—ŰŞÓ–á‡‡á‰’â€ŤŢąâ€Źá ‰ࢲŕľ?ŕ¤ƒࣨᆿᄤቒԥ֏‍׀‏٥ƓMX WLMĆ”è‍Ţ?â€ŹÓ–ŕťžÖ ŕĽ?á ˘á‚źá ‰á‡œŃ°ŮŤß´Ý‰ÖŹß´Ý‰Ć— ß•ŕĽ?á ˘á‚źá ‰۸Ń—á†ŞÖŹŕ˘šŕťˆĆŚá‚€ŕť€Ń—á†ŞĆ—á†Š۸࢚ŕťˆ ྼञي֏ƌ‍Ţ?‏Ӗྗ༫ŕ¤?Ô?નŕ¨›ŕ Šড়Ɨ‍Ţ?ؚ‏Ӗ֏ මŕĽ?áƒ‚Óˆŕ´şŕŁ?á ‰Ň‹ÖŹŕą­â€Ťŕž–Ţ‹Ű’â€Źŕ§&#x;ཚ‍ݛ‏èྒྷॄŕ´?Ć— ŕź—ঢŕ¤?ᇖ֏‍Ţ?â€ŹÓ–á €Ů˜á‚&#x;ਛಭŕŤ“ÖŹŕ´­â€ŤÚ â€ŹĂ§á °ŕĄľâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŻŚ ॕƗࡸâ€ŤÚľâ€Źáƒ”ŕź—ঢŕ¤?á ‰á‡œŕ¸˛Ń ÖŹŕ§śŕ¨?Ć—á†Šá‡œড়ŕ¨?ᄤ า‍࣊ߓ׎â€Źá‡–Ó˜á„‡ŕ¨›ಭŕŤ“ÖŹá…ŽŕĽŹĆ—ŕ˛–á†ˇŕ˘Ťá‚œŕ˝ ŕ¨›ࡡ ŕŤ“ÖŹŕ´şŕ ŠĆĽá†Šྼâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŹˆá„•֏ௌŕĄ•Ć—á €ྼᇽ฿çᄕ‍׾‏ ‍ŕŁ?ދ‏ҋ֏ß&#x;ऍè

Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśĐŽŕŚšŕ¨?Ň?â€ŤŮşâ€ŹĆ—á ‰Ň?‍ٺ‏ྼ á ‰۸ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—਽á ‰Ň?â€ŤŮşâ€ŹŕľĽá ‰۸á‚Żá‡ƒϡá‡Œá‰›ÖŹŕŹ?ŕž&#x;δ ŕŚ&#x;ŃźŐŻá†šĆ—ŕ°Šŕľ“á €൥۸଻૽á‚–èá„¤á Łŕś“Ü˝â€ŤŮ†â€ŹŮŠÖŹ á‚źÜ¸á†ŠŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?֏ཱིүáˆˇŕ´?ŕž†áˆŠĆĽŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕą ŰĄ ૣĆ—ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‰€Ó?ᄆ ૣèૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕˇľá‚źŕą ૲Ő?ŕ´?֥༶य â€ŤÚ´â€Źá ˘ŕ§”࣫๴ཥ Ć—ŕŁ?ŕł?ૠâ€ŤÜťÖŹÜŒâ€ŹŇşá†‡á‰ƒâ€Ť×ľâ€Źŕľ?Ć—á‚œོ ß˝ŕ˝”á‚’á ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨á†Šཝá‚œོá…Ąŕľœ֏ྼâ€Ť×ąâ€Źá€źŕŠĽŕł˜ŕ§–çŕź— ŃźŕŞ…â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá ‰ཻࢧս֬଻૽႖Ɨᆊཝá‚œོŕ´?áƒ‚â€ŤŕĄ?׌â€ŹáˆŠ ᇃϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ÓłÖŹá‚œོèá‚œོ֏á‰€ŕś›ŕ˝’á‡Œá„¤ŕľŒâ€ŤŮ„â€ŹŰ¸á ˘ ŕ­„Ć—ࡸŕŤ“Ů˜â€ŤÚśâ€Źŕť´ŕż„Ô˘ŕ˝ŠĆ—á…€ŕĄ?ਛૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€ŹŕŤ ß&#x;ྦĆ— ŕľ—ಭ฿á€™ÖĽá ‰á‡œŕśŠŕź˜â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŤ ŕľ…ŕ˘“á„?֏‍ے‏ऍè۳‍Ř&#x;‏Ḩ ŕ ?‍ Ř˝â€Źá„¤ŕŤ´ŕś”ŕŞ˜༜ᄹఀቛŕŻ?ᇖຸ֬࣫๯๰࣫ౠ૲ŕľ?

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move  through  the  maze.  The  images  themselves  show  buildings  and  streets  from  East  Jerusalem,  Hebron  and  a  few  of  the  larger  refugee  camps,  as  well  as  being  interspersed  with  images  of  the  cardboard  city.  The  number  of  images  is  limited  to  less  than  a  dozen,  and  they  are  repeated  over  and  over  in  a  non-­sequential  fashion  to  add  to  the  confusion  of  the  maze,  generating  a  sense  of  familiarity  and  disorientation.  Gordon  Hon,  writing  about  the  micro-­lens  lenticular  surfaces  in  an  earlier  work  by  Makhoul,  states  that  â€˜each  image  is  given  an  equal  portion  of  the  surface.  Rather  than  multiple  exposures  the  various  images  are  split  into  thousands  of  strips,  which  are  then  equally  DQG UHJXODUO\ LQWHUVSHUVHGÂŤ7KHUH DUH QR VWDEOH Âż[HG SRLQWV RI YLHZ DQG WKH SODFH VHHPV WR EH GHÂżQHG E\ WKLV LQVWDELOLW\ 7KLV LV HPSKDVLVHG E\ WKH GHÂżQLQJ IHDWXUH RI WKH OHQWLFXODU WKH LOOXVLRQ RI PRYHPHQW Âś 3DXO 9LULOLRÂśV LQĂ€XHQWLDO OLQNLQJ RI VSHHG DQG YLVLRQ art  usefully  places  an  Einsteinian  relativity  of  DSSUHKHQVLRQ DQG SHUFHSWLRQ ÂżUPO\ ZLWKLQ PRGHV of  visualizing  technologies  and  image  production.  However,  his  discussions  in  The  Art  of  the  Motor  (1995)  (which  perhaps  might  be  more  accurately  translated  as  the  motor  of  art)  often  privileges  the  viewing  subject  in  this  equation,  with  the  speed  of  the  viewing  subject  in  relation  to  the  object  taking  precedent  in  the  status  of  the  image  produced  from  it  or  even  in  the  status  of  the  object  itself:  the  viewing  subject  and  her/his  speed  in  relation  to  the  viewed  object  is  almost  completely  deterministic.  For  example,  Virilio  often  uses  an  example  of  a  tree  perceived  when  he  is  walking  past  it  as  opposed  to  seeing  it  when  riding  on  the  TGV,  and  he  asks  which  is  the  real  tree.  This  in  turn  leads  to  a  consideration  of  the  movement  of  the  perceiving/

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ӲƼþŕŤ‹۸á‚œོ‍֍ŕ ?Ř‚â€Źŕš¤á€ŠŐ˝ŕ˝łÖŹá ‰ŕŻ’ౠ૲è ۚ۸á‚œོѰٍ‍،‏ᇞ௞݂Ɨ‍؞‏ྼЍ‍ٺ‏۰ӾӾ఍ŕ´? ສ֏ŕš?Ö‚Ć—ࡾá‚źŕš?Ö‚â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽŕ¤Żâ€ŤŮşŢ â€ŹŇŠÖŹĂĽĂĽŕŤ‡á‚ź ŕťžâ€ŤÖŹ×ľŇ‰׎â€Źŕš´ŕ˝ĽĆ—଱۸â€Ť×€â€ŹŮĄŕĽˆŕ°–দŕ¤ƒྼá‚ľá†Šá‡œ ҉ಙ‍ܙྦ׮â€ŹÓľÖŹĂ¨á†Šá ‰â€Ť×‹â€Źá‚€ŕ§”࣍֏Ӿོาá†&#x;Űł ŕşšŕšłŕ˝ˆĆŚá†Šŕ ŽŕľĽß&#x;ऍ֏ŕŠ‡â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨Ăś

Đ“ŕŞŒḨŕť‚৭৥ϔƓ8I]T >QZQTQWĆ”á‚źá ‰ རá‡žá€¸Ü‘ŕ˝‹ĆĽŕ˘ƒŕˇ•ŘŽáƒ—ྐྵऍ á Łŕś“৺༩ŕ°–দĆ— á†Šá‚źŕ˝šâ€Ťŕ˘ƒ×€â€Źŕ§&#x;ࢺâ€ŤŰ’Ţ‹â€Źá†°ÖŹŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŞ‰ŕ´Žá†¸áƒ†ŕľąŕ¤Ťŕ ś ŕś“â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‚œོഺÓˆÖŹŕŹ?ྛᆴୄè҉‍Ý?‏ƗࡡᄤÝછ՚ ÖŹá Łŕś“ĂźĆ“ŕ Žŕžżâ€ŤŰžâ€Źŕ˛™ŕą”ÖŹŮ‘á šá‚’â€ŤŰ…â€ŹŕľĽĂťá Łŕś“ÖŹ છ՚ßƔᇖ֏ะઉŕľ?Ó?௑ཌཔ‍ؚ‏ઉְྛᇖ֏ܝ ҺᆇƗಹŕť€áƒ—༥฿ܸ৺֏ܝҺᇽ฿֏ࡕ؎‍۞‏ᇞ းƗܝҺá‡˝ŕ¸żÖŹŕˇ•ŘŽáƒžáˆ¸ŕĽĄŕ¸żÖŹá‚œོƗാᇇ á†ˇŕ˘ŤŕľĽŕĽĄŕ¸żĐŽŕ´­Ă¨ŕ§Żŕł‰Ć—ŕť‚৭৥Ď”Ó?ŕ¤?á†Šá€Šá ‰ ৯Ƽࡡá‰ƒâ€ŤÝ?â€Źá ‰ŕĽ—ŕś•ŕľ?â€ŤŰ’â€ŹŕľşÖĽÖŹŕŹąŕĽ—ŕś•Ć—áƒ—ࡡӡ á‰œŰĄŕˇ•ਠӥĆ“</> ŕľ?ŕĽˆÖĽÖŹŕś•ŕ˝”иĆ—ֿ֥ମ ŕĽ—ŕś•ྼá†ŽÖŹĆŞá†Šá‡œะઉŕŁ?â€ŤÖ¤Řžâ€Źá‡ˆâ€Ťß‰ŕ ‚Řšâ€ŹĂ§ŕ´Łá‚œ ‍×?Ţ‹â€Źá‚œá‡–ಹᆰ Ń?ŕ˝ŠŕŤ‰࣠á„•â€Ť×ľâ€Źáˆ˜ŕŚŠ֬මŕĽ?èᄤ ࡾá‚źÖŹŕ§Żáˆˇá‡–Ć—â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽÜťŇşá‡˝ŕ¸żŕ Žá†‡áˆ”á‡‰á„¤á ” â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—â€ŤŇ‰Řžâ€ŹŕľĽĐŤÜťŇşÖŹŕĽĄŕ¸żá„¤á ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨

ŕŞ˜༜֏áˆ”á‡‰ŕľ—ЍܝҰŕź…฿֏ࡕ؎çУ࣌֏ ࡕ؎çಭ‍؎ࡕ֏࣊ß“Ü„â€ŹĂ§ŕĽĄŕ¸żÖŹŕˇ•ŘŽĆ—á ˘ŕ Şá‚´ ŕť€á‡žá€¸ÖŹŕĽĄŕ¸żŮ˜ŕ´¤ÖŹÝ‚Ć—â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕŹłŕł?‍ے‏ᆰçŕ§&#x;ࢺ‍ދ‏ á Łŕś“á†´ŕĄžÖŹŕ˝”â€ŤÜ¸Řšâ€ŹŕźŠá†´á‡–èá ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źŕź…฿֏ŕ˝”ß á‰› Ⴏ‍ؚ‏ᆊ۸ሔᇉᇇܸá‡žá€¸Ă¨ŕť¨ŕ˛ąŕť€Ć—ŕť‚৭৥Ď”ܸ áƒ†â€ŤŰ’â€Źá†°ŕŞ›՚çá‚œŕ˝Ľá ˘ŕ Şá‡˝ÜťŕžŚ ॡܻྦܻ֬‍׋‏ ŕť€໨ŕŤ“ฝâ€ŤÜ‰â€Źŕ¨›á ‰۸á‚źá‚ŻÖŹŕą”ŕł?‍׋‏Ɨྗ໨ŕŤ“ÖŤá ˘ ࢺŘ‡ŕŞ˜༜ŕž”ŕŁ”ŕ´Śŕ Şâ€Ť×€â€Źáƒżá†Śá‡”çհá„¤á‡˝á łá ˘ŕ Şŕ˝Š ཧŕż—֬଱۸áˆ”á‡‰ÖŹá„•ྡྷáƒˇŕ§&#x;èþႰਚཊƗႰਚ á‚ŒÜиࢧŕŹƒŕ˛™â€ŤŮş×€â€ŹŕźŒŕ¨›ӳྎß‹çᅼᆥçಡÓ?ŕ´ş ŕ Š֏लྠß‹Ć—á ˘ŕ ŞŃ?૲çŕ­„৥‍ےދ‏ᆰᆴफ़֏ ܸ༩ְ໠฼èՕບƗњฟß•ŕ´Śŕ ŞÖŞŕ§ĄŐšá‚źÜ¸ÖŹ

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representing  medium  from  paint  to  photography  to  cinema.  In  each  instantiation  the  viewing  subject  or  apparatus  is  moving,  not  the  viewed  object. 0DNKRXOÂśV LQVWDOODWLRQ EULQJV WKH VSHHG RI WKH viewed  object,  the  speed  of  the  landscape,  the  speed  of  the  built  environment,  the  speed  of  objects  and  most  importantly  the  light  from  them  back  into  the  relative  relation  of  perception,  apprehension,  and  art.  The  reciprocity  of  moving  ERGLHV EHFRPHV FHQWUDO WR WKH ZRUN 9LULOLRÂśV provocation  regarding  the  motors  of  perception,  image,  and  subjectivity/objecthood,  I  suggest,  provide  a  useful  entry  point  for  reading  elements  RI 0DNKRXOÂśV UHFHQW JHRSROLWLFDO H[LVWHQWLDO DQG phenomenological  installation.  â€˜Enter  Ghost,  Exit  GhostÂś DGGUHVVHV LQ D PRUH RU OHVV H[SOLFLW manner  issues  of  urbanization,  warfare,  and  the  militarization  of  daily  life,  as  well  as  the  relationship  between  surfaces  and  interiors,  and  perception.   Further,  the  title  prompts  DQ HQJDJHPHQW ZLWK 'HUULGDÂśV VSHFWHUV DQG hauntings  as  they  pertain  to  larger  historical  and  structural  forces  at  play  within  a  given  site  and  their  connection  to  temporality.  By  keeping  this  entire  range  of  resonant  elements  operative  at  the  VDPH WLPH WKLV FKDSWHU ZLOO XVH 0DNKRXOÂśV ZRUN WR TXHU\ 9LULOLRÂśV HYHU SUHVFLHQW EXW SUREOHPDWLF relation  between  speed,  perception,  image  and  observer  to  argue  for  a  more  complex  relativity  of  knowledge  production  and  epistemology  than  that  suggested  by  many  of  his  writings.

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á‚°ŕ¨šÖŹŕŞ‰ŕś”Ć—á‚€ŕť€á†Šŕ¨?۸â€ŤŰ‡â€Źŕ­˜áƒ—á„¤á ‰â€Ť×Žâ€ŹÓ?áƒžâ€ŤŮ†â€Ź ߯á‰›á‚ŻÖŹâ€ŤŰžâ€Źŕąƒս֏৏ŕľ•â€ŤŕžŚÜ™࢚Ţ‹â€Źá‚€ŕˇ”á‚źÜ¸Ć—á € â€ŤŰźâ€Źŕˇ¸ŕŤ“ÖŹá„§ŕľ?ྦá‚źÜ¸Ă¨ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ྗࡾá‚źŕ˝”ܸႀࡔ๤ ŕľ?ቄཚĆ—ĐŽá…Şŕ˘ƒŕŁ€áˆ€ŕŞ˜༜֏ቛŕŻ?দŕ¸—ŕźŒŕť‚৭৥ Ď”ฝԢ֏ࡕ؎çಹá†°Ă§á‚œོთܝҺᆇᆴफ़֏ܸ ༩Ć—ŕť‚৭৥Ď”฻Ԣ֬໠฼ŕ¤•á‚źŕŁŁŕŁšŇ‰ŕź–֬༼ࡵ á†´ŕŹƒĆ—Ö“á €á‚źá†ťÖŤŕ´Œŕ˛˜á†´Ô°ĆŚĐŽá…Şŕ˘ƒŕŞ‰á†Şá ‰á‡œ á†°ŕľ”ŕ´şÓˆáƒ—ಹྔઉᆴफ़֏པ‍ؚ‏ઉƗᆊиŕť‚ŕł’৥ Ď”á„¤ŕ°Šŕžżâ€ŤŘŚâ€Źá‰›ŕŻ?ŕ§Ąŕ¸ťŕ ŞÖŹŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŞ‰â€ŤŰžâ€Źŕť€â€ŤÚśâ€Źá„?è

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ENTER  GHOST,  OR  THE  ILLUSION  OF  MOVEMENT STROPHE. 9LULOLRÂśV ORQJ VWDQGLQJ HQJDJHPHQW ZLWK DQG WKHRUL]DWLRQ RI VSHHGÂśV HIIHFWV RQ D UDQJH RI human  experience,  including  metaphysics  and  perception,  e.g.  time,  space,  time-­space  and  YLVLRQ OHDGV KLP WR FRQVLGHU ÂľGURPRVFRS\Âś ZKLFK KH FDOOV ÂľWKH OLJKW RI VSHHGÂś 2SHQ 6N\ 43)  and  how  it  pertains  to  the  acceleration  and  deceleration  of  appearances.  Dromoscopy  also  reveals  a  great  deal  about  our  perception  of  reality  and  of  the  status  of  the  image  as  a  mode  of  representation  that  may  or  may  not  pertain  to  RXU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH UHDO :LWK WKH UHODWLYH relation  between  phenomena  accounting  for  the  status  of  a  perceived  object,  of  its  empirical  status,  dromoscopy  provides  an  important  means  for  considering  the  status  of  the  image.  This  is  especially  the  case  with  â€˜Enter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghost Âś The  rapidity  with  images  appear  and  disappear  LV DEVROXWHO\ FHQWUDO WR 0DNKRXOÂśV SLHFH PDNLQJ speed,  which  might  seem  an  incongruous  element  in  most  works  of  art,  central  to  this  installation.  The  speed  of  the  viewer  moving  through  the  maze  and  into  the  cardboard  village  is  just  one  aspect  of  speed  addressed  in  the  work.  The  physical  movement  of  the  viewer  through  the  maze  is  WUDFNHG LQ D VSHFLÂżF PDQQHU UHJDUGLQJ GLUHFWLRQ but  not  regarding  speed  (and  thus  time).  The  time-­space  of  the  images  is  partially  determined  by  this  relative  speed  of  the  viewer.  However  another  aspect  of  speed  addressed  by  the  work, Â

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á‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—ŕ Žá„•â€Ťß&#x;֏׾‏ऍ ྉ ࢲ Ć“ ; \ Z W X P M ŕť‚৭৥ϔᅂÓ?ŕ°€ܸáˆ†ŕˇ•ŘŽâ€ŤŘšâ€Źá ‰༩ਠಭ৒฿ မ֏ቛႯƗᆊཝ฿á€™ĐŽŕŚšá‡´ŕł‰ŕľ?फ़ç༊फ़çŕľ? ༊â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕľąŕ¤Ťá„¤ŕ­„ÖŹâ€ŤŰ’â€Źá†°â€ŤŘžŕž Ţ‹â€Źŕ´?ŕż—Ć—ࡡß•ŕ˘ƒá†Šཝ ቛႯŕ§&#x;ઉߋƗᆊգྗࡡŕŁ?â€ŤŘšŘžâ€ŹĂľŕŹŁÖ¨á‚œོÜŕŁ? ྡྷමŕĽ?Ć—õଣ֨á‚œོÜЍࡡӲቛþࡕ؎ᆴ݂Ü Ć“ÝञŕŚ?ŕš†༊ßĆ— ƔƗ෷֬මŕĽ?ß•ŕ´Śŕ ŞĂľ ଣ֨á‚œོÜთŃ?ཧ֏ŕĄ?ࡕ‍ࡕ९ދ‏ᆴफ़ܸ֬༩è ଣ֨á‚œོߕᄤ‍ޚ‏սӸ؎ŕ´?Ů˜á‚&#x;ਛ໨ŕŤ“â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ˝Šŕľ“ÖŹ â€ŤŰ’â€Źá†°á ˘ŕ Şá‚œོá‰›ŕť€á„Łŕ˝ŠŮĄŕľ›ÖŹâ€Ť×€â€Źŕť‘Ć—á†Šá‡œá„Łŕ˝Š ŕ Žŕžżâ€ŤŰźâ€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ˝Šŕľ“ÖŹŕ§&#x;ࢺá‚źÜ¸Ă¨ŕĄ˛áƒ†á„śÓľĐŤâ€ŤŰ’â€Ź á†°ŕź…฿áˆ˜ŕŚŠÖŹŕ˝Šཧâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá„śÓľĐŤâ€ŤŰ’â€Źá†°ŕź…฿ŕľ“á†Şáˆ˜ŕŚŠ ֏ཊཧá†´ŕĄžÖŹŕ˝”â€ŤÜ¸Řšâ€ŹŕźŠĆ—ଣ֨á‚œོฝâ€ŤÜ‰â€Źŕ¨›á ‰á‡œ ŕĽ?ŕ¨?á‚œོáˆ˜ŕŚŠÖŹá‡žá€¸ŮĄŕľ›èá†Šá ‰â€ŤŘš×‹â€Źáƒ†Ăľá‚°ŕ¨š ŕ˝ŠĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šá‚ŒĂśá‚´ŕ°Šྨá‚ŻĂ¨â€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŞ˜༜֏ቛŕŻ?‍؞‏ငƗ á‚œོԢཊç཯ŕľ…ÖŹŕŻ›ŕŠ¸ŕ Ľŕť€á‡žá€¸ĆŚá†ĽŕľĽá†ŠŕŻ›੸ ŕľ—ŕˇ•ŘŽÓľŕť€á†Š۸ሔᇉ֏ܸड़ḊḊࡠŕ˛?ࡕ؎ᄤ‍،‏ ŕś›á Łŕś“ŕŻ?ᇖࡂ޳ྼ҉ാཿ‍֏×&#x;‏ႀࡔè

ܝҺá†‡á ˘á ‰â€ŤŘŽŕˇ•֏׎‏Գ‍Ý?â€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—á‰ƒŕŁ?ŕŹ?ŕž&#x; կƗᆊᇠྼቛŕŻ?ࡾŕąƒâ€ŤÖŹŘŽŕˇ•×&#x;â€Źá ‰١૲èܻҺᆇ á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‡–ÖŹŕź…ŕ§&#x;á„•â€Ť×ľâ€Źá ˘á ‰á‡œาŕś€ÖŹŮĄŕľ›ŕľşÖĽáˆ› áˆ˝Ć—á†Šá‡œáˆ›áˆ˝Ü¸áˆ†֏ྼ٥ཌƗ‍؞‏ٍࡕ؎Ɠႀ‍؞‏ á €áƒ—ŕľ?फ़໴ܸĆ”èá‚œོᄤŕľ?༊ŕ´?Ň?â€Ť×€Ůşâ€Źŕľşá‡Œáƒ† ܝҺá†‡ÖŹá†Šá‡œŕ˝”â€ŤŘŽŕˇ•Řšâ€ŹĂ¨ŕ˛?‍؞‏ƗቛŕŻ?ŕąƒâ€Ťŕˇ•ÖŹ×&#x;‏ ŘŽ֏਽á ‰۸á €ŕĽ?ŕ­†ྼâ€ŤŰžâ€Źá‡žá€¸ÖŹŮĄŕŤ˛Ć—ŕĽ?á ˘Ő?‍ڴ‏ â€ŤŰ‰â€Źá„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕą ŕ´?á‚œོ֏ᄕ‍؎ࡕދ׾â€ŹŕŚŚÜťŇ°Ć—á†Šཝ á‚œོŕť‘áƒ†ܝҺᆇ֏ŕ´?٥èᆊཝá‚œོྒྷॄŕ´?ྼá…˝ ŕŻ’Ć—á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€ŹĆ“ŕ˝ˆŕ˛?Ć”ಜྼá‚œོƌॲ჆ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕ­„ÖŹŕš° ࣍Ń?૲Ɨᆊཝá‚œོࡢáˆŠÜťŇşá†‡๯Ň?ÖŹáˆŽâ€ŤŘž×ľâ€Źá ”

perhaps  the  more  important  one,  can  be  found  in  the  movement  and  speed  of  the  images  clad  to  the  walls  of  the  maze,  towering  over  the  viewers.  The  images  are  photographs  and  thus  (apparently)  still  images;Íž  however  due  to  the  lenticular  surface,  the  LPDJHV PRYH ZLWK D VKLIW RI WKH YLHZHUVÂś KHDGV Âą not  the  eyes  but  of  their  heads  or  bodies.  Speed,  as  Einstein  reminds  us,  is  not  a  phenomenon  but  rather  a  relationship  between  phenomena.   The  speed  of  viewing  subject  is  no  longer  the  GHWHUPLQLQJ IDFWRU RI WKH LPDJHVÂś DSSHUFHSWLRQ DV WKH YLHZHG REMHFW WRR LQĂ€XHQFHV WKURXJK LWV own  paradoxical  relationship  to  speed,  how  it  is  to  be  engaged.  Even  though  the  images  stop  if  we  do  in  the  maze,  they  move  in  response  to  the  YLHZLQJ VXEMHFWV WKRXJK WKH\ DFWXDOO\ UHPDLQ Âż[HG Âľ7KH EOLQGQHVV VSHHG FUHDWHVÂś 9LULOLR 0RWRU LV frozen  in  the  installation  and  also  reinserted  here  while  remaining  in  constant  motion,  or  at  least  potentially  so.  9LULOLR DUJXHV WKDW Âľ0RYHPHQW LV EOLQGQHVVÂś DQG WKDW ÂľLPPRELOLW\ PDNHV YLVLEOH Âś +H FRQWLQXHV Âľ7KH plastic  arts  will  come  to  immobilize  movement,  thereby  offering  the  illusion  of  seeing,  of  having  WKH WLPH WR VHH Âś 39 0RWRU 7KH NH\ WHUP KHUH LV ÂľLOOXVLRQÂś IRU LW SHUWDLQV WR WKH UROH RI temporality  in  the  constitution  of  the  subject  as  a  viewing  subject.   The  subject  becomes  a  subject  through  its  engagement  with  and  against  objects  that  determine  the  subject  through  negative  GHÂżQLWLRQ WKH VXEMHFW LV ZKDW LW LV E\ QRW EHLQJ the  objects  with  which  it  interacts).  The  role  of  speed  in  relation  to  vision  speaks  to  the  heart  RI HPSLULFLVP LWV SRZHU DQG LWV Ă€DZV IRU WKH object  seems  to  change  as  the  relative  speed  apprehension  adjusts.  The  further  effect  is  that  the  viewing  subject  too  is  changed  through  seeing  the  object  in  a  different  manner.  However  we  see Â

‍׾‏ḊḊ҉ྼࡢáˆŠÜťŇşá†‡ÖŹá€‹ŕŁœĆ—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽŕˇ˘áˆŠŕˇˇŕŤ“ ֬๯Ň?ŕ Žഭ฿á ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨á†Ľŕł‰Ď€á‚€ŕśľŕ¸“ࡾငƗࡕ؎ Ń°ŮŤá ‰á‡œŕ˝ŠཧƗ‍؞‏ྼཊཧᆴफ़ܸ֬༩èܻҺᇽ ฿֏ŕˇ•ŘŽŇ‰á„ŁŕľĽá‚œོâ€ŤŰ’â€Źŕ¤ŤÖŹŕ¤Źâ€ŤŕžŚ×Žâ€Źá‚€ŕˇ”Ć—á‚€ŕť€ ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źáˆ¸ŕ´­áƒ—ŕˇ•ŘŽá†´ŕĄž֏સâ€ŤÜ¸Ř˘â€ŹŕźŠĆ—ЍܝҰŕź…á € ŕĽ?á ˘á‚œའࡸáˆ¸ŕ ´ŕ´Śŕ Şá†Š۸‍Ý?â€ŹÓ¸ÖŹŮĄŕľ›Ă¨ŕ ŽŃ“໨ ŕŤ“á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‡–ŕš›á†żÖŹŕľ?Ţ°á‚œོá €ŕš›á†żĆ—á‚œོá €ß˝ â€ŤÜťŘšâ€ŹŇşá†‡á‰šÔ˘Ů˜á‚’ŕĄ†â€ŤŘžâ€Źá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—ମனࡸŕŤ“ŕľ“ŕĄ„ŕ´? ࣨá†żŇ‰â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨Ăľŕˇ•ŘŽá„śÓľÖŹŕŹŠŕŞ°ĂśĆ“ŕť‚৭৥ϔƗ છ՚Ɨ Ć”ĐŤâ€ŤÚ†â€ŹŐ°á„¤áˆ”á‡‰á‡–Ć—â€Ťŕą–Řžâ€ŹĐ“Ô‚ŕŻ›â€ŤÖŹ×ľâ€Ź ŕľ?Ţ°ĐŤĎ„Ňłá„¤Ő•Ć—á‡‡ŕ´™Ő°á„¤á†Šá‡œŕĽ?ŕ­†ྦè

ŕť‚৭৥Ď”ಹŕť€Ć—Ăľá„•â€Ťŕ Ž×ľâ€ŹŕŹŠŕŞ°Ăś þ҉‍׾‏ ÓˆഺྐྵऍèÜ ࡡß•ಹŕť€Ăľŕľąŕ¤Ťá Łŕś“ŕ˘ƒá‡śŕĄ˝ŕľ— ᄕ‍׾‏୧‍܏‏ƗŕŁ?â€ŤŘžâ€ŹÓˆŕ´şŕžťß&#x;ÖŹŕľąŕ¤Ťá ˘ŕ ŞŕŚŚÖŤŕ ŞŕĽˆ ÖŹß&#x;ऍ ÜƓ8> છ՚Ɨ !ƔՕ԰֏ܸड़Ő” ྼþß&#x;ऍÜĆ—á‚€ŕť€ŕ°Šáƒ—ĎŁá‡˝ŕ¸żŕ˘€â€ŤÜ™â€Źŕť€ܝҺᇽ฿ ŕľ?ᆴᄧŕľ?ྦ֬á‰›á‚Żá‚źÜ¸Ă¨ŕĽĄŕ¸żŕš â€Ť×ŽŕŤ˛ÚźÝ?â€Źá ł Ɠᇽ฿҉ྼთࡸŕ˝”ß á‰›á‚ŻÖŹŕĽĄŕ¸żĆ—ŕ¤“Ő•Ć—á‡˝ŕ¸ż Óľŕť€ŕ¨›ࡸáˆ¸ŕ´­Ć”एâ€Ť×Žâ€Źá‡˝ŕ¸żĆ—á„¤áƒ—ॡ฿֬৺༩ ‍ؚދ‏৲ᆴᇖƗᇽ฿єӾਛ༥฿èᄤთྐྵऍ֏ܸ ༩֙ᇖƗࡕ؎Ϛá€?ÖŹŕ˘&#x;್á†ŞŕŹƒŕ¨›ŕľ“á†Şá‡˝á łÖŹâ€ŤŢ‰â€Ź ŕž–çড়ŕ¨?â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˛“ŕ˝‘Ć—á‚€ŕť€á‚źÜ¸ŕ˝”â€ŤÖŹŘŽŕˇ•Řšâ€Źŕ§&#x;ࢺ‍×&#x;‏ ᆣŕľ?Ć—༥฿ŕˇ‚Ţłá €ß˝â€ŤŰ†â€ŹŃ”èŕŁ?á ‰Ň‹֏ཚ‍ݛ‏ྼƗ ܝҺá‡˝ŕ¸żá ˘Ň‰๤١ŕľ›ŕĽˆּ༥฿â€ŤŢąâ€Źáˆ¸ŕ´­á €â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şâ€ŤŰ†â€Ź Ń”èÖ“ྼĆ—Ö™á ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źŕź…฿áƒ—Ň‰â€Ť×ľâ€Źŕź…฿པ‍ؚ‏ᆴŕľ?Ć— ໨ŕŤ“ࡾॾּ֏఼೉ఊྒྷƗᇠ҉‍Ý?â€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕĽˆÖŹŮĄŕľ› ҉๤èá†Šŕ¤ƒ൥໨ŕŤ“ࣨᆿŕľ?฿á€™ÖĽÖŹŕť‚৭৥Ď”ࡾ ŕť“֏ྐྵऍþß&#x;फöè໨ŕŤ“ŕ ˆཹŕ¨›ŕ§’Ń â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¸˛á‡?ᆴ ŕĄžÖŹŕąźŃ Ă¨

‍۞‏ᇞး֏ྼƗ໨ŕŤ“ß•ŕ˝”ŕž—໨ŕŤ“á‚źá‰‡â€ŤÖŹÜ›â€Źŕľ? ŕĄžŕŹƒĎŠĆ—á†Šá‡œŕž—ŕ­˜ྼࣨá†żÖŹá Łŕś“â€ŤÚľâ€Źáƒ”໨ŕŤ“֏è ŕŞ˜༜֏áˆ”á‡‰ŕ­†ŕ˛™Đ“ಭŕŤ“â€ŤŰ’â€Źá†°ÖĽÖŹÜťŇşá†‡áƒ—ĐŤÜť Ň°ŕź…á†´ŕĄžâ€ŤŰťâ€ŹĐŽÜ¸ŕźŠĐ“Ô‚â€Ť×ŽŢĄâ€ŹÔ‚ŕżŠÖŹŇ‰ŕťžâ€Ť×Žâ€ŹĆ—áˆ”

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no  better  or  no  worse  when  mobile  as  opposed  to  immobile;Íž  we  merely  see  differently.  This  is  9LULOLRÂśV ÂľLOOXVLRQÂś RI VLJKW WKDW ZH H[SHULHQFH ZLWK LPPRELOLW\ :H FRQIXVH WKH GLIIHUHQFH RI NLQG DV D difference  of  quality.  More  importantly  we  also  believe  we  have  the  time  to  see:  this  belief  is  what  static  art  affords  XV 0DNKRXOÂśV LQVWDOODWLRQ ZRUNV WKH FRQIXVLRQV of  visibility,  stasis,  mobility,  temporality  and  consciousness  by  ensuring  that  the  assumed  fundamental  relationships  between  the  viewer  and  the  visible  remain  constantly  and  consistently  unstable.  The  static  images  that  supposedly  yield  us  the  time  to  see  that  is  found  in  the  embossed  SKRWRJUDSKV RQ WKH ZDOOV Ă€LFNHU DQG IDGH PRYH as  we  move,  and  barely  remain  still  even  if  we  are.   The  time  for  seeing,  the  time  of  the  visible,  EHFRPHV HYDQHVFHQFH LQFDUQDWH :H KDYH QR WLPH WR VHH DQG WKH YLVLEOH Ă€HHV 7KH LOOXVLRQ of  seeing  that  emerges  from  static  art,  e.g.  still  photography,  is  revealed  for  the  illusion  it  is  because  the  image  in  this  installation  is  both  static  and  kinetic.  The  plastic  art  of  photography  has  IDLOHG XV EXW DQG WKLV LV 9LULOLRÂśV PRVW SURYRFDWLYH point,  static  art  always  would  have  failed  us  because  all  it  can  offer  is  the  illusion  of  the  visible.   The  ineluctable  movement  of  bodies  and  time,  and  of  course  bodies  in  time,  that  provides  the  essence  of  speed,  blinds  us.  The  images,  static  or  otherwise,  lack  the  corporeality  of  the  viewers  moving  through  the  maze  but  to  say  so  is  to  state  the  obvious,  for  the  incorporeal  image  is  redundant.  The Â

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ᇉࢽŐ•Óˆŕ´şŕĽ?൱ྦçŕš›á‡“çá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ§á„§ŕľ?ྦâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá ° ŕľ”ŕ´?ÖŹŕ ˆཹèࣨá†żÖŹá‚œོЍಹŕť€ŕ­†ŕŠ„â€ŤŰşâ€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“á‰‡ ‍֏ܛ‏ŕľ?ŕĄžŕĽˆÖĽŕą ŕ´?ŕšąŕ˝ˆÖŹá…˝ŕŻ’Ć—á†Šཝá‚œོá€Żá … ҉‍׎‏Ɨቒᇛ཯á‚ŒĆ—෢໨ŕŤ“á ”â€ŤŘž×ľâ€Źá ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—ŕ ŽŃ“໨ ŕŤ“Đ“Ô‚ࣨᆿŕľ?á €â€ŤŕŁ¨ŕŹťŢšâ€Źá†żĂ¨ÜťŇşÖŹŕľ?फ़çŕĽ?ॾ ŕź…Ô˘ŕ˝ŠÖŹŕľ?फ़ƗєӾਛؒᄧ֏ߋഭè໨ŕŤ“দ҉ ŕ ŞÜťŇşĆ—ŕĽ?ॾŕź…á„¤ŕ¸­á ŤĂ¨Ő?ᇴ೉ࣨŕź…ŕ´Łá‚œá†´ŕ§’ ֏ࣨá†żá Łŕś“Óˆŕ´şÖŹŕĽ?ŕľąß&#x;ऍŕť€ŕ¨›ß&#x;ऍЎഭ‍؞‏Ѝ ࢪŕľœĆ—á‚€ŕť€á†Š۸áˆ”á‡‰á‡–ÖŹá‚œོूྼࣨá†żÖŹá €ྼ á„•â€ŤÖŹ×ľâ€ŹĂ¨ŕť¨ŕŤ“á„¤ŕŁ¨á†żŕ´Łá‚œá Łŕś“ŕ´?ᄏྺ՜ώƗ֓ á†Šá†ĽŕľĽŕť‚৭৥Ď”á‰’ŕ¤•ŕ°šâ€ŤŮ†â€Źá °á łÖŹÜťâ€Ť×‹â€ŹĆ—ࣨá†żá Ł ŕś“ŕĽ?ŕ­†á‚Źá„€â€Ťß˝Ř‚â€Źŕ¨žŕť¨ŕŤ“á„ŹŕľşŐśĎŽĆ—á‚€ŕť€ࡸࡾŕ­† ฝ‍֏܉‏ᇠྼŕĽ?ŕľąŕź…ÖŹß&#x;ऍèഭ฿თŕľ?फ़Ɨ֙ŕ˛? ß•á‚źŕľ?फ़ᇖ ഭ฿֏҉ŕĽ?ŃŒ૮֬á„•â€Ť×ľâ€ŹáŒ˛ŕľŤŕ¨›ŕˇ• ŘŽÖŹĐŽá‡?Ć—á†ĽŕľĽá†Šá‡œá„•â€Ť×ľâ€Źá„śÓľŕ¨›໨ŕŤ“֬଩રè ҉ܟྼࣨᆿߕྼŕ°Šࡡáˆ˜ŕ¸†Ć—á‚œོ‍҉؂‏कШá„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‡–á ”â€ŤÜťÖŹ×ľâ€ŹŇşá†‡ÖŹŕ¤•฿ྦĆ—á†Šá ‰â€Ť×‹â€Źŕ˝ˆâ€ŤŘžâ€Źá Ľ ॾĆ—á‚€ŕť€ŮŤŕ¤•฿֏á‚œོŕľŒâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹÓ?ॾèᄤÓ?áƒ—Ň‰á„¤ Ó?‍ؚ‏ᄣཊ‍؂‏ᇇܸá‡žá€¸Ć—á‚œོá„¤ŕŤ˛â€ŤŮ„Řšâ€Źá†‡ŕľ?Ć— ቚਛŕą?ૺ԰ŕ§&#x;Ć—áƒ†ྼá‚œོÓ?Ó?ŕ˝ˆÖŤá‚źŕł‰á‚°ŕ¨šĂ¨ ᄣཊ‍Ý?â€ŹÓ¸á‡–Óˆŕ´şÖŹá…­ŕ§śŕĽ?á ˘ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏þᄣÜᆊ۸ ŕ°´áˆžদŃ?ŐšĆ—á„¤Ăťá‚œོŕ •ÔŤĂźá ‰ŕś‡á‡–Ć—ಥḨ੮ ŕĽ&#x;Ḩ়ŕź—ӲƼþóá„Łŕ˝ŠĂ´á ‰Ő”á‡–ÖŹĂłá„ŁĂ´Ń°Ň‰ ྼá‡žâ€ŤÖŹÚśâ€ŹĆ—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽŕ Šá„†ŕž&#x;ÖŹĆ“â€ŤŰžâ€Źŕ˛™ŕą”â€Ť×€â€ŹŕśąĆ—ŕŚ&#x;‍ק‏ ŕťšá‡–Ăłá„ŁĂ´á†Š۸ఴáˆžÖŹÔĄŕľšá‡žâ€ŤÚśâ€Źŕ¸˛á†&#x;á &#x;á€?єӾ ŕ¨›á ‰á‡œŕŤ¨ŕ ŠŘŽĆ—ŕ Žá†‡ŕł‰á‚źŕ˝ťŕ˛­ŕˇľá€„Ć—ྼá ‰á‡œĂł ௛੸ôาྦèƔÜƓ Ɣ֙ŕ˛?Ć—়ŕź—Ő•á€„Ň‰ ŕžťĆ—Ö“á €á‡ ྼá ‰â€Ť×Žâ€ŹÓ¸ŘŽŕ´?á†Ľŕ˛™Ć—á‚€ŕť€ŕ°´áˆžÖŹŕĄ• á†ťŕĄ‚Ň‰á„¤áƒ†á‡žâ€ŤŕžŚÚśâ€ŹĆ—á €Ň‰á„¤áƒ†ŕŤ¨ŕ ŠŕžŚĆ—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽá ‰ á‡œá‚€á‡žâ€ŤÖ¤Úśâ€Źá‡ˆÖŹŕŤ¨ŕ ŠĆ—ྼá ‰۸ටᇞ֬౭ྠèá„Ł ཊᆊ۸‍ڜ‏á„?ÖŹŕŹ?٦ྦ‍׾‏ቛᆴᇖ֏þᄣÜƗूྼ á‡žâ€ŤÖŹÚśâ€ŹĆ—á €ŕľĽŕŤ¨ŕ ŠÖŹĆŚŕĄ‚ྼá‡?ÖŹĆ—á €ྼŕ¨?ÖŹĆŚ ूྼŕŹ?ŮŚÖŹĆ—á €ྼԞŕž”ÖŹĂ¨ŕ ŽĆ—á„Łŕ˝Šá‚Źá„€â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽ ू‍؎Ý?â€Źáƒ‚Ň‰á‰‡๤ŕľ?Ń°Ő°ÖŹá†Šá€Šá ‰á‡œŕą­ŕž ĆĽŕŹ?ŮŚ ྦĆ“á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€Źá €ŕ¤•á‡žâ€ŤŕžŚÚśâ€ŹĆ”áƒ—ŕ´şÓˆྦĆ“á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€Źá €ŕ¤•á€ƒ ࿊ྦĆ”è

image  is  always  ghostly,  taking  advantage  of  the  sleight-­of-­hand  with  regard  to  presence  and  absence  essential  to  representation.  The  tensions  operative  within  representation  can  be  articulated  LQ WKH SUHÂż[ ÂľUH Âś -HDQ /XF 1DQF\ ZULWLQJ LQ 7KH Ground  of  the  Image,  claims  â€˜The  re-­  of  the  word  representation  is  not  repetitive  but  intensive  (to  be  more  precise,  the  initially  iterative  value  of  the  SUHÂż[ UH LQ /DWLQDWH ODQJXDJHV LV WUDQVIRUPHG LQWR DQ LQWHQVLYH RU DV RQH VD\V ÂľIUHTXHQWLYHÂś YDOXH Âś (35)  Nancy  is  correct,  of  course,  but  only  partially  VR IRU WKH SUHÂż[ÂśV YDOXH LV QRW HLWKHU UHSHWLWLRQ RU LQWHQVLÂżFDWLRQ EXW UDWKHU DQ LQWHQVLÂżFDWLRQ UHVXOWDQW IURP UHSHWLWLRQ D ERWK DQG VLWXDWLRQ 7KH ÂľUH Âś RI the  troublesome  mimetic  act  of  representation  is  both  repetitive  and  intensive,  qualitative  and  quantitative,  imitative  and  innovative.  That  is,  representation  is  always  too  little  and  too  much  at  the  same  time:  imitative  (and  thus  repetitive)  and  productive  (and  thus  generative).  The  mimetic  power  of  mechanical  reproduction  holds  a  special  place  in  the  history  of  representation.  The  imitative  powers  of  photography,  its  mimicry,  seem  singular  but  should  actually  be  understood  as  operating  in  a  continuum  from  perspectival  painting  to  WURPSH OÂśRHLO WR GLJLWDO WHFKQRORJLHV 7KH SLYRWDO technology  in  the  trajectory  likely  belongs  to  photography  and  the  illusion  of  unmediated  access  to  the  original  with  analog  photography.   Roland  Barthes  famously  argues  that  the  illusion  of  unmediated  access  can  be  found  in  what  he  FDOOV ÂľWKH GHQRWDWHG LPDJH Âś 7KH LOOXVLRQ UHLWHUDWHV the  utopian  character  of  denotation  in  language,  that  is  the  meaning  of  a  given  term  is  obvious  in  and  of  itself  and  resides  in  the  term,  as  it  were,  clearly  and  equally  accessible  to  all  who  speak  the  language  to  which  the  term  belongs.   (Rhetoric Â

ŕ –ŕž‡â€ŤÚśâ€Źá‡ŒÖŹŕŹ?ŮŚŕ­†ড়ᄤᄣཊྕŕ´?ᅤओาŕś€ â€Ť×€â€Źŕť‘èᅽ௒֏ŕŹ?ŮŚâ€ŤÜ†â€Źŕ­†ŕ Şŕ°ŠŕŹ?ŕ­ŒŕĽˆŕ°–দâ€ŤŢšâ€Źŕ°Œ าƗ֓ྒྷॄŕ´?ಭŕŤ“á‚’â€ŤŰ…â€Źá °ŕľ”ÖĽĆ—ࡸᄤŐ?á„€࣌ŕ ‚ ߉ּաྐྵß‰ŕŽ‘Ć“\ZWUXM TĂ´WMQT Ć”á„ŁÖĽŕś› áˆşŕ śŕś“Ô°ŕ§&#x;Ö°á ‰ཝਠ‍Ý?â€ŹÓ¸á‡–â€ŤŘ‚â€Źŕ°–á‰›á‚ŻĂ¨á†Šá ‰â€ŤÝŒâ€Ź ŕ ?á‡–ÖŹÜ¸ŕĄśŕ śŕś“ŕˇ‚Ţłá‚’Ö™Ý‰â€ŤÜ†â€Źáƒ†ŕ´Łá‚œĆ—á ˘ŕ Şŕ˛ą ŕť€ŕĽ?á ˘Ň‰ࣣŕŤ‰࣠Ć—ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ŕŹ?ŕ­Œŕ´Łá‚œŕ¤ƒŕĽ?á ˘á†ˇŕ˘Ťâ€ŤÖžâ€Ź ŐšáƒˇÔĄŕź…฿ᆊᇜß&#x;ऍèŕŞŒমḨĎ&#x;ŕśľá…‚á‚źá‡žŕŹ‡ŕŞ‰ Ř•Ć—Ó˛ŕĽ?á ˘á„¤ŕˇˇŕ˘¨á‰šĂľá†ˇŕ˘Ťá‚œོÜᇖॾּ҉ࣣ ŕŤ‰࣠֏ß&#x;ऍèß&#x;ऍŕąƒß‹ŕ¨›áƒ›á€„á‡–á†ˇŕ˘ŤÖŹŕžťß&#x;า á†&#x;Ć—á °ŕ ŽĆĽá ‰۸าâ€Ť×Žâ€ŹŐ”ßżÖŹá °á łá„¤áˆ¸ŕ´­á†´á‡–Ć— ŕą–Ň‰á€„áˆ¸ŕŹƒĆ—ŕˇ‚Ţłá†Š۸Ő”ŕŹƒŕ˝ˆç௣ְâ€Ť×€â€Źŕť€ŕŤ‹á ‰ ŕť‘á†Š۸Ő”߿ࡾá„¤áƒ›á€„ÖŹŕľ—á‚Żá†‡á‚Ąá‚źĂ¨Ć“á‚œོ֏ ŕž°Ő‘Ć”á†ˇŕ˘Ťá‚œཥ๠‍Ý?â€Źŕ´Łá‚œຢӾਛŕ§&#x;ŕ˝&#x;ÖŹŕš°ŕŹƒá„Ł ŕ˝ŠĆ—ŕ¤ƒŕ´Łá‚œâ€ŤŘžâ€Źá€„Ć—ŕ­†á†žĂ§ŕˇľá†žá†´ŕĄžܸ֬༩൥õ ࡠ੪öŕ ŽĂľŕĄ‡੪öĆ—ŕ°ŠŕĄžŕŤ‡á‚źŕŁŁâ€ŤÝ?â€Źŕ´Łá‚œá†Š۸ŕŤ‰ ࣠֏ ರ ‍ Ü„ ŕĄ? ŢŒâ€ŹĂ¨ Ăľ ᆡ ࢍ á‚œ ོ ݉ ß‹ ਛ ཧ á†&#x; ŕž— ŕź– Ăś Ć—ࡸ֏á‰›á‚Żŕ˝”Ö™áƒ†ŕŹ?á‡œĂľá„¤Ó?Ăśŕź…฿èᄤŕŹ?ŕ­Œ ŕ´Łá‚œá‡–Ć—ŕ´Łá‚œŕŤ‰࣠֏á ‰۸Ńˆá€¸ŕš?ॸྼƼᄣཊŕľ? ༠႟क฿ŕź…฿ྒྷॄᄤÓ?èႀ‍؞‏ƗŕŹ?ŕ­Œྦ֬ᄣཊ ŕ˝”Ö™áƒ†ŕ¨?۸๤ŕľ?հᄤ֏ؒᄧŕľ?फ़ƼՕ‍ ׀‏Օ༠‍ދ‏Н‍ ׀‏Нŕľ?Ć—á†Šŕ ŽŕľĽŕˇľá‚źá„Łŕ˝Š֏ড়ŕ¨?ࡾᄤƼ ᄣཊᄤÓ?ŕź…Ć“ŕ Žฝఴ ࡉদ֬‍׹‏ŕź?Ć—ŕ ŽáƒŽŕ´¨á†´ ŕź…Ć”èá‚€Ő•Ć—á‚œŕ˝Ľŕ śŕś“Ăľá„¤áƒŽŕ´¨á °á łÖŹßŤáˆˇŕźś á€Šâ€ŤŰ‰â€Źŕ¨›ŕ˘€â€ŤÜ™â€Źá °á łĂśĆ“ Ć”Ć—Ń°ŕť€ŕ´Łá‚œĆ“á ˘ŕ Şâ€Ť×?‏ á‚œçŕś›áˆşá„Łŕ˝ŠçŕŹ?ŕ­ŒĆ”ฝâ€ŤÜ‰â€Źŕ¨›á ĽÖŤŕž—ŕź–Ć—á†Šŕž— ŕź–áƒ‚áƒ—á‚œོ‍Ţ?‏Ѱè

ŕ˛?‍؞‏Ɨᆼ೉֪৥՚‍ދ‏ఊࡡâ€ŤŘŚŢšâ€Źŕ˛­áˆ†á °ÖĽ ÖŹĆ—ࡾá‚źá†Šá ‰ŕą”य໴ŕĽ?ŃŒ૮â€Ť×€â€Źá Žধáƒ†Ň‰á„¤Ó?Ć— ҉ᄤÓ?ྗ֍ᄣཊ֏ᄤÓ?Óľŕť€ŕĽ?ŕ­†â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŃˆ྽è೉‍ݛ‏ ŕŤ‡á‚źŇ‰á„¤Ó?Ć—ŕ¤ƒŇ‰ŕĽ?୆႟ᄣཊè๠‍Ý?â€ŹŕŤ‰ŕŁ ÖŹŕ ś ŕś“Ć—Ň‰á„¤Ó?ŕĽĄŕ¸żá ˘á„¤Ó?ÖŹŮĄŕľ›ŕ˝Šŕ´­ĆŚá„¤ŕŤ‡á‚źŕľ“ ŕź…Ő°á„¤ÖŹŕą­ŕŚŠŕźśĆ—á‡ á‚źŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ᄣཊ֬ྡྷŕť€â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŤ‰࣠༥฿Ň“ŕ­†ŕľ“ŕ˝Šŕ°ŠŐ°á„¤Ă¨á‚€Ő•Ć—ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€ŹŰšá‡œŕť‡áˆ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Ź ཊཧƗᄣཊ֏৏ŕľ•þЍ҉ᄤÓ?ÖŹŕ¨ĄŕźŞÝ ÔłĆ—

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of  the  Image)  The  denotated  image  achieves  the  ideal  of  transparent  representation  through  the  photograph,  in  which  the  relationship  between  VLJQLÂżHU DQG VLJQLÂżHG LV RQH RI ÂľUHFRUGLQJÂś RU ÂľGRFXPHQWLQJÂś ZLWKRXW DQ\ PHGLDWLRQ FUHDWHG E\ the  medium  of  photography.  â€˜The  denoted  image  QDWXUDOL]HV WKH V\PEROLF PHVVDJH Âś IXQFWLRQLQJ DV D NLQG RI ÂľEHLQJ WKHUHÂś RI REMHFWV 7KH PHGLXP of  photography,  so  the  analogic  story  goes,  QHFHVVLWDWHV DQ DFWXDO REMHFWÂśV DFWXDO SUHVHQFH at  the  moment  of  representation.   Analogical  representation  therefore  equals  two  simultaneous  temporal  moments:  here-­now  and  there-­then,  which  is  the  power  of  all  representation:  to  re-­present  what  was  present  (or  pre-­sent,  or  given).  So  image  technology  â€˜helps  mask  the  constructed  meaning  under  the  appearance  of  the  JLYHQ PHDQLQJÂś SURYLGLQJ SKRWRJUDSK\ DV well  as  cinema,  digital  representation,  simulations)  DQ HDVLO\ JHQHUDWHG PHVVDJH WKDW FRQĂ€DWHV ZLWK the  image.  Yet,  all  of  this,  as  Derrida  and  many  others  have  noted,  depends  ineluctably  on  absence,  which  makes  the  presence  of  representation  possible  DQG LQGHHG QHFHVVDU\ :LWKRXW DEVHQFH ZH ZRXOGQÂśW KDYH UHSUHVHQWDWLRQ 7KURXJK WKH WHFKQH of  the  medium,  the  absent  object  emerges  as  if  present,  incapable  of  existence  other  than  through  the  act  and  medium  of  representation.  The  history  of  representation  in  all  of  its  guises  and  manifestations,  therefore,  is  â€˜thus  traversed  E\ WKH ÂżVVXUH RI DEVHQFH ZKLFK LQ HIIHFW GLYLGHV it  into  the  absence  of  the  thing  (problematic  of  its  reproduction)  and  the  absence  within  the  WKLQJ WKH SUREOHPDWLF RI LWV >UH@SUHVHQWDWLRQ Âś (Nancy  37,  emphases  in  original)  The  status Â

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ྒྷॄŕ´?֏҉ᄤÓ?Ć—áƒ‚â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕť€ŕź…ÖŹ ҉ᄤÓ?Ć“ŕ°ŠÄƒ á„ŁÄ„á„śŐ°á„¤ŕť ฟĆ”â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕź…á‡–Ň‰á„¤Ó?Ć“ŕ°ŠÄƒá„ŁÄ„ŕ˝Š Ő°á„¤ŕť ฟĆ”ÜèĆ“ହŕź—Ć— Ć—áˆŠá‡žâ€ŤŢƒâ€ŹŕŚŚáˆ¸áƒˇ ŕťšĆ” ᄣཊ֏༥฿Ѝá„Łŕ˝ŠÖŹŕŤ‰฿ŕź•ྍĆ—á €á‚€á„Ł ŕ˝ŠĐŽŕ´­â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕź•ྍèá‚€Ő•Ć—áƒŽŕ°€ÖŹâ€ŤŘšâ€Źá†Žŕľ“ÖŹŐ‰ŐŹá„Ł ཊєӾਛߢŕ¨‹ŕŤŒŕŤšĆ—Ö“ŕŹ?ŕ­Œá‚œོ֏ŕŞ?ŕ §Ă§ŕ°Šâ€ŤŘšâ€Ź ᄤÓ?ÖŹá ŽŕŚ§Ă§ŕ Şŕ°ŠŰĄŘŽŕ˝”ŕˇ‚ྦáƒ‚ŕľ—á†Š۸ŕŤŒŕŤšŕ Š ਚŕ Šŕ˝Šèᄤᆊ۸‍Ý?‏ӸᇖƗ༥฿â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‚œོ֏๭ŕŚŠâ€ŤŘ‚â€Ź ‍ن‏ഺਛ‍ۆ‏єƗŕŁ?â€ŤŘžâ€Źá €ŐŁŕľ—ܝҺ֏ᇽ฿‍ن‏ഺਛ‍ۆ‏ Ń”è

á‚œོ֏ٍक฿ྦŕľ—໨ŕŤ“ß´ÖĽá‚°ŕ¨šĆ—ŕ Žá†‡ß´ ּ‍Ý?‏ಇ଱ᇜႜོâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‚°ŕ¨šÖŹŕ ˆâ€ŤŢ?â€Źŕ¸żĆ—á ˘ŕ Şá‰›ŕť€ á‚°ŕ¨šÖŹá‚œོèᆊ۸ሔᇉ৥֏á‚œོŕľ—ಭŕŤ“Ň‰ŕŁ“ŕ˝&#x; ŕ°– !ŕľžŕĄ‡ÖŹŕťžŕ¸‚ŕ´?ĐŤÓ˛á†´ŕť€ĂľŕŽ‘௭ႰਚÜ֏ ϣ༫Ć“ŕ§’ŕˇ‚Ăťâ€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŹĄŕ§‰าßá€?Ô˘á‡–ŕľ—á‚ŻÖŹŕŹąá‡œĆ” èÓ‚ཝᇴ೉Օ৒ૠß&#x;֬൱फϣ༫Ć—ŕĽ?á ˘ŕľ—ܝҺ á†‡ŕ˝”ŕž—áˆ¸ŕ ´ŕĄľÖĽŕ¨›á ‰ཝ‍׹‏ŕź?Ɨ‍؞‏ྒྷॄŕ´?ᆊཝ‍׹‏ ŕź?Ő?ŕťŠá„¤ŕŹąŕ§ĄÔ˘ŕ˝Šèྐྵऍŕ´?֬ϣ༫൥๠‍Ý?‏௣ϡ ѹৡç࣍áˆˇâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŹƒŕ¨‘áƒ—â€ŤŢ˜â€ŹĎ‡༊फ़֏ŕą?ૺŕ ˆâ€ŤŢ?‏ᄜӾ ÖŹĆ—á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ­†â€ŤÜ›â€Źŕ˝Śá ‰â€ŤÖŹ×Žâ€ŹŕĽŠŕĄžĆ—á‚´ŕ°Š൥໾ขŕ´?Ć— ๮തŕź…฿ŕ Žಭ֏॓ཧĆ—ࡡŕŤ“á ˘á‚°ŕ¨šĎľŕžťŕžťŕľ“ŕľ“ ÖŹŕž ŕľ›Ň‰Ř•Ô˘ŕ˝Šç҉ؕ཯ŕľ…èഭ฿ŕ¤ƒá„¤ŕŹąŕ§ĄĆ— ŕ Žá†‡â€ŤŢ â€Źŕ˝Ľŕ¤ƒá„¤ŕŹąŕ§ĄĆ—Ö“ŕ˛–ŕľĽá ˘á ‰á‡œŕť´ŕž ÖŹŕž ŕľ›ƥ໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕľ´ŕĽ?á ˘Ôłâ€ŤÝ?â€Źŕˇ¸Ă¨á„¤ŕŞ˜༜ቛŕŻ?ᇖ‍ن‏ཊ ÖŹĂľŕŽ‘௭ႰਚÜྼŕ˛?ŕź–ŕš´ÖŹŕ°´ŕ´­Ć—Ѱ٫൥Ы๮ ത֥๰࣫ౠ૲Ć—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽĐŤá…ĄŕŻŁÖĽŕŹąŕ§ĄĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šĎľÖŹ á‚œོЍŕś–â€ŤŰ â€Źá„¤á ‰á‡œŕĄ“ཧᆴᇖƗ॓ཧྼá‚ľß ŕ˝”ŕ˘“ ‍֏׌‏ŕł&#x;ŕť‚á‚œཥྠӵĆ—á†Šá€Šá ‰দĆ—໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕľ´ŕĽˆŕ°– দŕ¤ƒŕĽ?á ˘Ő?ࡸŕŤ“á†´á‡–Ôłâ€ŤÝ?‏ਛè҉‍Ý?â€ŹĆ—Óˆŕ´şŕĄ“ཧ ֬๰࣫ౠ૲֬Ń?Ňąáƒ‚ß˝ŕ§˛ŕ Žá‰Œá†żŕť¨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕľ´á†žĂ¨ á‚°ŕ¨šĐŤŕ ąŕżŠÖĽĐ¸ !ŕľžŕĄ‡ÖŹĂľŕŽ‘௭ႰਚÜ‍۞‏Б ֏ॊҹᇖƗ֓ࡸŕ˛–Đ“Ô‚ŕ¨›ĂľŕŽ‘௭ႰਚÜԢཊ‍ދ‏ ཯྅֏௛੸è

of  the  represented  object  becomes  attenuated  by  the  media  of  representation,  as  well  as  by  representation  itself.  Thus  the  hoped-­for  purity  of  representation  of  the  Real  becomes  but  a  dream,  and  yet  the  logic  of  the  analog  image  and  its  reliance  on  presence,  as  well  as  the  verity  of  its  likeness,  keeps  the  dream  alive.  In  the  process,  the  object  and  the  status  of  the  image  undergo  change,  and  thus  so  does  the  viewing  subject.  The  incorporeality  of  the  image  brings  us  back  to  the  ghost,  or  rather  our  old  combination  of  the  image  and  the  ghost  as  well  as  the  image  as  ghost.  The  images  in  this  installation  recall  the  19th  century  stage  trick  (one  likely  used  IRU SURGXFWLRQV RI +DPOHW NQRZQ DV 3HSSHUÂśV Ghost.  This  bit  of  visual  trickery,  of  illusionism  that  enables  viewers  to  believe  in  what  was  never  there  as  being  there,  was  generated  by  plate  glass,  mirrors  and  a  skilful  combination  of  illuminated  and  dark  space,  thus  making  it  possible  to  project  into  space,  especially  the  stage,  the  illusion  of  objects  or  people  appearing  and  disappearing  in  ghostly  semi-­corporeal  form.  The  body  is  there,  or  apparently  so,  but  in  an  incorporeal  manner:  our  hands  would  pass  right  through  it.   A  precursor  to  the  hologram,  the  3HSSHUÂśV *KRVW IRXQG LQ 0DNKRXOÂśV ZRUN LV QRW SURMHFWHG EXW Ă€DWWHQHG LQWR WKH OHQWLFXODU VXUIDFH the  ghostly  images  trapped  in  an  illusion  of  three  dimensional  overlay  of  images  superimposed  on  one  another,  so  that  our  hands  would  appear  to  be  able  to  pass  right  through  them.  However  the  very  VXSHUÂżFLDO OD\HU RI OHQWLFXODU VXUIDFH WKDW DOORZV IRU WKH LOOXVLRQ ZRXOG VWRS RXU ÂżQJHUV LPPHGLDWHO\ The  ghosts  are  squeezed  into  a  thinner  layer  than  their  19th  century  brethren  yet  maintain  the  rapidity  of  appearance  and  disappearance  found  in  the  earlier  form.

ŕ˝ˆ ŕ˛? Ć— ᆊ á ‰ ሔ ᇉ ÖŹ ᇽ း ŕž° Ő‘ ŕľ´ ŮŒ ࡂ Ţł ྼ ŕ´ż ં ‍ Ţƒâ€ŹĂ¨ ŕ´ż ં ÖŹ ŮĄ ŕľ› á‚ź ĆĽ á‚œ ོ ç ŮŤ ŕľ“ ฿ ྦ ç ŕ°´ŕŁ?֏՜ώ‍ے‏çᄧŕľ?ྦ‍ދ‏ŕĽ?൱ྦ ଩ર֬༫ ୲çá‚°ŕ¨šâ€ŤÚśŮ˜Ţ‹â€ŹÔ˘ŕ˝ŠÖŹŇ‰á„¤Ó?ᆴ‍۪ڳ‏èܝҺ ᆇᄤഠཊ֏ࣨá†żá‚œོá‡–ŕŹŠࡳĆ—ŕ˛–á‡ ŕ­†áˆŽŕ´­â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ§? ञĆ—á„ŁáˆŽŕ´­Ć—á„Łŕ§?ञĆ—Ń°ŕą–ŕšłÔ˘ŕ˛“༣ᆇçྣಇ ÖŹâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŐ”áƒ›á‡–֏༊‍׺‏Ɠᆊཝŕ¤ƒྼിŕŞ‚â€ŤÖŹŢƒâ€Źá‰›á‚Żâ€ŤŢ‹â€Ź ࡸᆞք֏‍׹‏ŕź?Ć”èിŕŞ‚â€ŤŢƒâ€ŹŃ?ŕŹƒŇ‰á„¤Ó?ç༊‍ދ׺‏ á…¤á‚źĂ¨ŕ´żŕŞ‚â€ŤŢƒâ€ŹĎ‡ŕľœŕĽ?ŕ­†ྦĆ—Ń°ŕą–ĐŽŕ´­ŕ ŽŕľĽŕĽ?ŕ­† ྦƥඪࣨᆿ҉‍׾‏ƌఴŕŁ?‍ދ‏࿂ྠ֏աऍЍŕ “ß´Ć— ŕ˛?‍཯޹‏྅èá‚¸ŕł‰ßŒáƒ›Ć“á†Š۸๠֨ƔƗ໨ŕŤ“á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€Źŕš Ö¨á‡–áƒ„ß´ŕąžá†ƒèÖ“ŕľ“á‡?ŕ´?Ć—໨ŕŤ“á„¤Ôł ࡯ŕľ?๛ဋ଩Ř‰â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕśźá†‡ÖŹá‡ˆŐ‘èá„•â€ŤŕŠˇÝ†׾‏çྐྵऍ â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŹŠŕŞ°Ý†੷Ć—á ˘ŕ Şá‚œོ֏ٍक฿ྦáƒ—ŕť´ŕž á„¤ŕ´ ŕ¨‘֬๰࣫á‚œོŃ?૲ථफ़཯Ԋਛ໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕ¤•฿ྦĆ— á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ˛Ľŕť¨ŕŤ“áƒ‚ß´Ý‰ŕ¤•฿ྦĆ“ŕ¤ƒོá‚°ŕ¨šá €ŕľ?Ó? ೉ՕƔèࡠŕ˛?໨ŕŤ“ŕ˘ƒá‡ ŕ­†á‚Źá„€ॾּá ‰á‡œŮŤŕ¤•฿ ྦĆ—Ö“ࣨᆿ֏ᅽ௒಼ಭÓˆŕ´şá ‰á‡œŕ­†ॾ֏ß&#x;ऍè ࡸß•ŕľ—໨ŕŤ“Óˆŕ´şá‚źá‰‡â€ŤÜ›â€Źŕľ?ŕĄžŕ˛‡ŕĽˆÖŹß&#x;ऍĆ—ࡠŕ˛? ࿊ࡹŕŁ?á†ŠŕĄ¸á Łŕś“ŕŻ?৥á‚œོŃ?૲֬ࡕ؎Ń?ŕŹƒŕľ?फ़ á &#x;ࣣ‍Ý?‏ಇè

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Apparently  the  major  rhetorical  device  of  the  installation  -­-­  through  its  images,  its  incorporeality,  its  frustrated  sense  of  progress,  its  plays  with  the  temporality  and  visibility/blindness,  its  ghosts,  its  insistent  refrain  of  absence  â€“  seems  to  be  the  apostrophe.   The  viewers  grope  through  the  Ă€DVKLQJO\ VWDWLF LPDJHV RQO\ WR WXUQ DQG WXUQ DZD\ to  re-­turn  the  turn,  away,  and  address  the  absent,  the  dead,  the  holes  in  words  (which  is  what  the  apostrophe  does  and  indicates).  Apostrophes  mark  absence,  holes,  and  possession.  They  indicate  and  are  the  topoi  of  possibility:  still  stand  the  waters;Íž  delusions  of  progress  and  narrative  are  routed  back,  away.  Like  discourse  (this  FRXUVH RXU ZD\ WKURXJK WKH PD]H Ă€RZV EDFN and  forth.  But  we  are  essentially  seeing  and  witnessing  â€“  by  moving  through  -­-­  an  address  to  the  dead.   The  ethics  of  movement,  the  ethics  of  vision  and  blindness,  and  the  insubstantiality  and  incorporeality  of  the  image  returns  (as  ghosts  always  do  and  begin)  us  to  our  corporeality  through  having  it  removed,  for  a  second,  in  the  Ă€LFNHULQJ OHQWLFXODU LPDJH VXUIDFH 7KH VWDWLF photograph  provides  the  illusion  of  seeing  though  we  will  only  ever  see  an  incorporeality.  And  the  it  provides  us  the  illusion  of  having  the  time  to  see  though  the  speed  compressed  into  the  surface  of  WKH LPDJHV LQ WKH DUW ZRUN UHYHDO RQO\ WLPHÂśV having  passed.

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EXIT  GHOST,  OR  THE  FITNA  THAT  IS  THE  SURFACE ANTI-­STROPHE. A  maze  evokes  ideas  of  inside/outside,  depth/ surface,  and  the  thin  membrane  of  the  lenticular  surface  is  the  site  at  which  all  the  transformations  take  place.   The  actual  surface  of  the  display  walls,  of  the  cladding  of  the  piece,  manifests  evanescence,  transformation,  illusion,  process,  WUDQVLWLRQ PLPHVLV UHSUHVHQWDWLRQ ÂŤHYHQ immateriality.   This  surface  is  constructed  with  a  manipulation  of  material  that  invokes  immateriality  and  transience.  So  at  the  most  HYLGHQWO\ VHOI UHĂ€H[LYH OHYHO WKH SLHFH DGGUHVVHV the  materiality  and  affect  of  surfaces:  the  surface  on  the  walls  and  the  walls  as  surfaces  too.  The  surface  of  the  installation,  the  surface  of  the  cladded  images  as  well  as  the  cardboard  surfaces  of  the  Arab  village,  embodies  and  evokes  ¿WQD D PRVW IHFXQG $UDELF ZRUG WKDW KDV PDQ\ diverse  but  interrelated  meanings  including  trial,  tribulation,  chaos,  a  state  of  extreme  psychological  stress  and  turmoil  (almost  as  a  test  from  God),  lust  or  seduction,  a  fascination  or  bedazzlement,  suffering,  temptation  by  the  materiality  of  the  ZRUOG DQG PRVW LPSRUWDQWO\ FRQĂ€LFW VHH 3DQGROIR ,W LV D ELJ ZRUG ÂżOOHG ZLWK FRPSOH[O\ intertwined  meanings,  and  is  a  productive  term  IRU WKH P\ULDG VXUIDFHV RI DQG LQ 0DNKRXOÂśV installation.  In  the  surface  of  the  image  and  the  LPDJH WKDW LV QRWKLQJ EXW VXUIDFH WKH ÂżWQD Ă€DVKHV DQG VSDUNV FDXVLQJ FRQIXVLRQ DQG FRQĂ€LFW WKURXJK the  repetition  of  images  that  provide  the  illusion  of  progress  that  reveals  itself  as  an  unachievable  stasis.  The  images  are  lovely,  almost  too  much Â

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á‚° ਚ á‚Œ ŕ Ž ቛ ŕť€ Ń? ૲ ÖŹ Ăť ‍ پ‏า ଲ Ăź Ů˜ ྉ ࢲ Ć“ I V \ Q [ \ Z W X P M Ć” ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‚‹â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˛­ŕŤ“â€ŤŘšâ€Źŕ­„á„¤ ບᄤçഎҹ Ń?૲ ֏৺ŕ˝&#x;Ć—â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕš°ŕŁŤŃ?૲֬଱ұĐ‘ŕŹŽྼࡾá‚źáˆŽŃ”ÖŹ â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şâ€Ť×€â€ŹĂ¨á‚Żáƒ†ŕ˝ˆŕľœÖŹŃŠŕą ÖŹŕľ“฿Ń?ŕŤ˛á ˘ŕ Şáˆ” á‡‰ÖŹŕşšŇąĆ—á…Ąŕľœŕ¨›áˆŽŕśŽŕ ŽŕľŁĂ§áˆŽŃ”çß&#x;ऍç ‍Ý?‏Ӹç‍Ř?Ý?‏çŕŹ?ٌçá„Łŕ˝ŠĂĽĂĽŕ´ľá‡‡ß•á‚źŮŤŕź…á‡? ྦèࢀᄜᆊҹŃ?૲֬ŕľ?ް‍ؚ‏Ғŕ¨&#x;ቚਛ԰ŕ§&#x;Ć—Ő? â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ­†Óˆഺٍŕź…á‡?ྦâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹáˆŽŕśŽŕ ŽŕľŁÖŹŕ˝šâ€ŤÝ›â€ŹĂ¨ŕˇľá ˘á„¤ á‰’ŕŹƒŕ˝ˆÖŹáˆ¸ŕť¨Ů˜തұ૲Ć—áˆ”á‡‰ŕšąŕ˝ˆŕ¨›ŕź…á‡?ŕžŚá ˘ ŕ ŞŃ?૲֬ཹ‍ݛ‏Ƽ๠֏Ń?ŕŤ˛á ˘ŕ Şá‰›ŕť€Ń?૲֬ౠè áˆ”á‡‰ÖŹŃ?૲Ć—ĐŤâ€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€Źá‚œོ֏Ń?ŕŤ˛á ˘ŕ ŞÎ´ŕŚ&#x;ŃźŐŻ ÖŹŕŹ?ŕž&#x;Ń?૲Ć—฿ŕ˝ŠŃ°á‚‹â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˛­ŕŤ“â€ŤŮľŘšâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛Óˆഺ৺ ŕ˝&#x;"á ‰۸á‰’ŕť€â€ŤÚ…â€Źŕ˛ŚÖŹÎ´ŕŚ&#x;ŃźŕľžࢿĆ—ࡸá‚źáˆŠâ€ŤŘŚâ€Źá‡ž ŕ˝”ß Ü¸ŕ§şÖŹá °á łĆ—ĐŽŕŚšŕ´łŕŽ˜çॴ଻çŕ ˆŕŞ€çऔ Ő˝ÖŹŕž–ŕ§&#x;࿊ড়‍ދ‏ќ‍׾‏ƓႸ೉ŕ´?â€ŤÖŹ×ƒâ€ŹŕĽ?မƔç áƒ§ŕşłŕ Žáƒ ŕ ?çŕŹ‘ড়ŕ ŽૠŕŚ…ç๬ॴçŕź…á‡?ŕľžࢿ֏ რŕ ?Ć—á ˘ŕ Şá‰’á‡žá€¸ÖŹá ‰â€Ť×‹â€Źá¸Šá¸ŠÔ‘๳èĆ“ŕŽ“ÖŞâ€ŤŮ â€Ź ‍ڼ‏Ɨ Ɣᆊྼ۸औս֏ྞࢿĆ—Ô?નਛա áˆżŕ˘“á„?ÖŹá °á łĆ—á†Šá €ྼá†“â€ŤŘšâ€ŹŕŞ˜༜áˆ”á‡‰ŕť´ŕś›Ń?૲ ÖŹá ‰۸ୄ‍֏ڽڅݍ‏Քèᄤႜོ֏Ń?ŕŤ˛á ˘ŕ Şŕľ“á‡? ྼŃ?૲֬á‚œོá‡–Ć—â€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛ŕ´ ŕś´â€ŤÝ‚Ů†â€ŹĆŚá‚œོ҉ Ř•á‡žâ€ŤÚśâ€ŹĆ—á„śÓľŕ°´ŕž˘ÖŹß&#x;ऍĆ—á†Šá‡œఴྡྷŕ°Šŕľ“ྼ‍ݿ‏ ŕť´Ń”ß‹֏ࣨá†żĆ—Ăťâ€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛Ăźŕ˘˝Ő•á‡Œá„śŕ ˆཹ‍ދ‏ԑ ๳èá‚œོŕĽ?π‍׾‏ಭƗ‍ؚ‏ୄಿâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕťšĐŽâ€ŤŘžâ€Źá€„ŕ ˛Ţłá‚ź ཝ‍ٺÝ?‏ƗŕŁ?â€ŤŘžâ€Źáƒ‚ŕľ—á‚œོᡧড়ŕľŒá‰‡çრಭá??මƦ ࢚‍ݛ‏ƗܝҺᆇᇉഭЫ૴ŕś”Óľá€ąá„€â€Ťß&#x;ྻؾ‏Ó?პᇖ ÖŹŕ ˆŕŞ€èÖ“ࡢáˆŠÜťŇşá†‡á‡śŕĄ˝ŕ´Žŕł?ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—Ń°Ó˜á„‡ áˆ”á‡‰ŕ˝ˆŕľœ֏డҹŃ?૲Ć—Ń?૲ࢪŕľœŕ¨›á ‰á‡œŕĽ?မƗ Ń°ŕ˘ƒŕ°ŠŕĄ?á‡´ÜťŇşá†‡Ć—â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ˛­â€ŤÜ„â€Źŕ´ŽŇąá‡–á‚œོ֏ᇞ‍ڜ‏ áƒ—ŕ˘“â€Ť×Śâ€Źŕ¸żŕ˝Šŕ¨›á†Šá‡œŕĽ?မèᆊᇜŕĽ?á€™ŕ ŽŕľĽĆĽŕľąŕ¤Ť ֏અŕ§&#x;çŕ­†ॾ֏҉ŕĽ?ŕ­†Ă§á ˘ŕ ŞÔ‘ŕšłÖŹâ€Ť×?â€ŹŕżŚŕ Žá„€ ӸาྦĆ—á†Šá‡œÔ‘๳൥ರâ€Ťŕ śŢŒâ€Źŕś“ŕ Žá„Łŕ˝Šâ€ŤŘ‚â€Źŕť´ŮŒૢ ‍֏Ţ?‏è

so  for  the  content  and  context,  rendering  them  seductive  and  fascinating,  leading  the  viewer  to  engage  the  chaos  of  the  sites  depicted  as  distanced  and  unreal.  But  as  the  viewer  moves  more  deeply  into  the  maze,  moves  beyond  the  initial  surface  of  the  installation  as  it  were,  the  LPDJHVÂś UHSHWLWLRQ DQG RYHUODSSLQJ LQ DUWLÂżFLDO depth  reveal  the  trial  the  surface  embodies  and  foists  on  the  viewer:  the  ethics  of  vision,  the  impossibility  of  seeing,  and  the  tele-­  or  distanced  QDWXUH RI FRQĂ€LFW WKDW QR DPRXQW RI WHFKQRORJLFDO or  representational  power  can  bridge. The  surface  as  a  site  of  contestation  has  emerged  somewhat  recently  in  the  work  of  the  architect  (\DO :HL]PDQ ZKR KDV PRGLÂżHG DQG H[WHQGHG his  previously  conceived  trope  about  the  politics  of  verticality  and  concentrated  all  of  its  evocative  and  actual  power  to  the  few  centimetres  above  and  below  ground  level,  a  surface  that  can  be  extended  to  other  surfaces  as  well:  the  surface  WKDW LV ÂżWQD DQG WKDW LV WKH ÂżWQD RI VSDFH LQ WXUPRLO FRQĂ€LFW DQG WULDO :ULWLQJ DERXW WKH YHU\ sites  pictured  in  the  photos  of  the  installation  and  VXJJHVWHG E\ WKH FDUGERDUG FDPS :HL]PDQ argues  that  the  struggles  for  power  in  urban  sites,  of  economic  and  inhabited  contention,  the  ¿HOGV RI FRQĂ€LFW WKDW KHOS FRQVWLWXWH HPHUJHQW and  long-­standing  dwelling  spaces  can  be  found  RSHUDWLQJ ZLWKLQ WKLV VXUIDFH :HL]PDQÂśV PRYH to  think  of  the  surface  as  the  site  of  symbolic  and  actual  contestation  also  achieves  the  trick  of  reading  the  vertical  and  the  horizontal  at  the  same  time;Íž  it  provides  access  to  both  surface  and  depth  simultaneously.  The  lenticular  surface  of  the  exhibition  evokes  just  such  an  understanding  of  surfaces  as  it  reveals  depth  through  layered  views  of  palimpsest-­like  images  of  other  surfaces  (walls,  houses,  buildings)  and Â

á‰’ŕŁ”Ć—á„¤ŕ˘€áˆ„ŕľ„á ?á€źâ€ŤŮ â€Źá¸¨ŕşśáˆŹŕŞŞÖŹá‰›ŕŻ? ᇖƗŃ?૲á‰›ŕť€ŕŞ‰ŕś”ŕ˘‘â€Ť×‹â€ŹÔ˘ŕ˝Šèá ?á€źâ€ŤŮ â€Źá¸¨ŕşśáˆŹŕŞŞ á…‚ฝԢá‚źÜ¸Őƒá†ˇá†Śá‡”֏иáƒŁĆ—ŕ˝Šá„¤á‰šŕ¨›ŕž°â€ŤŢ‹Ű†â€Ź á€ƒŕ´ŹĆ—ŕşśáˆŹŕŞŞŕ˘ƒŃ?૲෵႟ాᄤ‍ދ‏ྒྷॄড়ŕ¨?â€Ťŕ ŠŘ‚â€Ź á‡–á„¤â€ŤŕŤ˛×€â€Źŕ´?ŕźśŕ ˛ŕ§—ŕŤŁá ˘ŕ­„Ć—á†Š۸Ń?૲á €ŕĽ?á ˘á€ƒ ഏᇇఊࡡŃ?૲ƥá‰›ŕť€Ăťâ€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛ ĂźÖŹŃ?ŕŤ˛á ˘ŕ Ş ŕ ˆŕŞ€༊ŕĄžÖŹĂťâ€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛ĂźĂ¨á„¤ŕŞ‰ŕś”ܸáƒ†áˆ”á‡‰ÖŹá…˝ ŕŻ’á‡–Ć—á ˘ŕ Şá‡ƒϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;á‡–ŕ˝ˆŕľœ֬଱ཻÓ?პŕľ?Ć— ŕşśáˆŹŕŞŞŕ˛ąŕť€á„¤á†Š۸Ń?૲ᇖŕĽ?á ˘â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˝Šŕł‰ŕźśŕ ˛ŕ˝˘ĆĽ ӳྎᇖ֏ಊড়á†´á†ĄĂ§ŕŁŁŕ ˝â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¤‰áˆ…١૲ࣰ֬ᆥç á ˘ŕ ŞŐŁÓľŕ˘€â€ŤŢ‹ŕž?ŕž”Ü™â€ŹÓ?ŕ°€ŕ¤‰áˆ…༊फ़֏ԑ๳èຶ áˆŹŕŞŞŕŁ?â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ˛ąŕť€Ć—Ń?૲൥ཧá†&#x;ྦ‍ދ‏ྒྷॄઉᆥ֏Ó? áƒžĆ—ࡡ֏á†Šá‡œÜťâ€Ť×‹â€ŹŐšÖĽŕ¨›๤ŕľ?ࢺŘ‡Őƒá†ˇâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕśŞŕŻŁ ұ૲֬റŕ°Œཚâ€ŤÝ›â€ŹĆ—áƒ‚ŕ­†๤ŕľ?‍֞‏՚Ń?૲‍ދ‏എҹè ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źŕś›Ňąŕ°Šࡡá‡žâ€Ť×Śâ€Źá‚œོŃ?૲Ć“ŕą ŃŠç٣໳çࢀ áˆ„Ć”֏࣌ཧĆ—á…Ąŕľœá‡–๰࣫֬Ń?૲ŕ žâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ¨›â€ŤŘšâ€ŹŃ?૲ ÖŹá†Šá‡œŕ§&#x;ࢺĆ—ŕ°Šáˆ¸ŕ´­ŕ¤–ŕ§?ౠ૲á €Ň‰â€Ťŕ ˛Ý?‏ৗૣè ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕą ૲֬๰࣫‍ۉڴ‏ҹ႟ড়Ń?ŕ˝Šŕ¨›ŕşśáˆŹŕŞŞÖŹ Őƒá†ˇá†Śá‡”ŕż—Ć—á†Šá‡œá†Śá‡”ŕż—ྨá‚Żáƒ†ӳྎŕ Žŕ˝›ŐŻŃ? ૲Ɨᆊည֏Ń?૲ŕť‘áƒ†â€Ť×€â€ŹŃ?ŕ Žŕź…฿Ń?ŇąĆ—á„¤ŕŹą ৥Ć—Ăťâ€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛Ăźŕť€ŕ¨›áˆ”á‡‰â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¤‰áˆ…â€ŤŘž×€â€ŹŐ°á„¤Ă¨

ᆊ۸áˆ”á‡‰Ć“๰࣫â€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹŇąĆ”ÖŹŕ˘€á„śŕž ŕľ›฻ྣ ໨ŕŤ“ĆĽâ€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹŇąŇ‰ŕŁŽྼá ‰۸ŕ˘€áˆ„ŕŹ‡Ő”Ć—â€Ťŕą–Řžâ€ŹŕľĽá ‰ ۸Ý‚ŕż—Ő”ßżĆ—á‚ŻŕŚŚá†žÖ„ŕ­†ŕ˘ƒÝ‚â€ŤÚ†â€ŹŃ…á„¤â€ŤÖŹŕž–Ţ‰â€ŹŕŹą ŕ˝ťŕ Šŕś–èŕ¤ƒá†Šá€ŠĆ—áˆ”á‡‰ཌܝҺᆇฝ‍܉‏ਛ႟Ⴏ֏ Ń?ŕś”ŮĄŕľ›Ć—á‚€ŕť€ܝҺᆇ๤â€ŤÚ†â€ŹŃ…á„¤Ý‚ŕźżá‡–ÖŹÝ‚ŕ˝“ á ‰á€ŠĆ—á €ĐŤâ€ŤÚ†â€ŹŃ…á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤŢ‹ÜŒâ€Źŕš°ŕŁŤŃ?૲֬â€ŤŘŚâ€Źá‡žá‚œོ ᆴᇖƼࡡЍŕ˝’á‡Œâ€Ť×šÚ†Ţ‹â€Źá„¤ŕŹąŰ¸ŕĽŠŕĄž৥Ć—Ö“á„¤á‚œ ོá†´ŕ­„â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá†´á‡–á ”â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ¨ŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕĽ?á ˘á„¤â€ŤŘšâ€ŹĂľâ€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹĂśá ‰ Ő”֏਽á ‰á‚ŻŮŒá‡–â€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ˝Šâ€ŤŰžâ€Źŕ´ŽŇąÖŹâ€ŤÜ’â€ŹŕŹ…Ć—ࡸհᄤ჆ ‍މ‏ಞŕ¨&#x;ÖŹŕ´şÓˆá†´á‡–Ć—á„¤á†Šá ‰â€ŤÝ?â€ŹÓ¸á‡–Ć—â€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹŇąŕ˘ƒ ٩തྦ෥௒૨‍چ‏ఖদĆ—á ˘á‰Œá†żŕˇ¸ŕŤ“໱ಠŕ­†ŕ¨?І á‚ŻÖŹŕ§–ŕ˛–ŕ ťĂ¨â€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹŇąŕľĽŕ­†ŕ¨?І֏ບҹƗ‍Ţ&#x;‏ۜᄤ Ы໱ಠ֬ಞŕ¨&#x;â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ§–ŕ˛–ŕ ťá†´ŕĄžĂ¨ŕˇľá ˘Ć—๰࣫‍ۉڴ‏ ҹ‍ދ‏ఊࡡâ€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹŇąá ‰á€ŠĆ—á‚Żáƒ†ĐŽຽçŕś–â€ŤŰ â€ŹĂ§Đ“ß€

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is  itself  but  a  few  centimetres  thick  stuck  to  the  walls.  The  lenticular  cladding  on  the  walls  of  the  PD]H DUWLFXODWHV :HL]PDQÂśV SROLWLFV RI YHUWLFDOLW\ caught  in  the  urban  or  village  surface  at  ground  DQG VXUIDFH OHYHO ZKHUH ÂżWQD UHVLGHV IRU ERWK WKH installation  and  the  site  of  dwelling. The  formal  construction  of  the  installation  (lenticular  cladding)  reminds  us  that  cladding  is  not  only  an  architectural  term,  but  also  one  XVHG LQ ÂżEUH RSWLFV WR UHIHU WR WKRVH SDUWV RI WKH strand  that  seals  the  light  into  the  core.  As  such  it  provides  the  viewer  a  useful  play  of  terminology,  IRU WKH YLHZHU OLNH WKH OLJKW FODGGHG LQ ÂżEUH RSWLFV is  sealed  into  the  maze  and  the  multiple  images  on  the  lenticular  surface:  stuck,  frozen  in  that  space  but  moving  through  and  within  the  images.  Further  resonance  is  found  in  yet  another  usage  RI WKH WHUP ÂľFODGGLQJ Âś WKLV WLPH LQ QXFOHDU IXHO production,  in  which  cladding  seals  in  radioactive  fragments  to  prevent  them  from  contaminating  the  coolant  for  the  fuel  rods.   Cladding  serves  as  the  outer  layer  of  the  fuel  rod,  the  border  between  the  contaminated  fuel  and  the  coolant.  Thus  the  lenticular  cladding,  as  with  other  cladding,  serves  to  encase,  to  entrap,  to  protect  and  to  seal  in  light  as  well  as  unstable  power  sources  that  can  potentially  contaminate  anything  with  which  they  come  into  contact:  a  latent  potentiality  of  force  hewn  into  the  horizontal  lines  of  alternating  imagery.  The  lenticular  cladding  attached  to  the  walls  of  the  maze  provide  a  literalization  of  the  ,7 ÂżEUH RSWLFV WHUP ¾¿UHZDOO Âś ZKLFK SURWHFWV D computer  from  viruses  and  invasion.  However  little  protection  occurs  here,  except  perhaps  for  the Â

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â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŤ¨â€ŤÝ‚Ú†â€Źŕźżá ˘ŕ ŞŇ‰ŕťžâ€ŤÖŹ×Žâ€Źŕ­†ŕ¨?á†´áƒžĆ—á†Šཝŕ­†áƒž ŕĽ?ŕ­†໱ಠ෸ŕŤ“ࢍԯ֏á ‰ŕą”ĆĽá ‰á‡œŕ°ľá„¤ÖŹŕ­†ŕ¨?ŕ°ş ŕł?֥ඪ௣ནŕ´?Ň‰Ř•ŕ˘“ŕš€ÖŹá‚œོᆴᇖèŕž—ŕź–Ý‚ŕźż ᇖ֏þ٤ŕ Œŕą ĂśĐ“ß€ŕĄ€ŕˇ&#x;ŕ –Ć—ŕľ—ࡸá„€ŕ§?ѯ؄‍ދ‏ ŕł?ŕąšĆ—â€ŤÚżŘžâ€ŹáˆŠá„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕą ŕ´?֬๰࣫â€ŤŰ‰Ú´â€ŹŇąŕť€á†Š۸ Ő”߿ฝâ€ŤÜ‰â€Źŕ¨›á ‰۸ᆡࢍࢺྍèŕ˛?‍؞‏Ɨᆊ৥ŕŤ‡ŕľ?ŕŤ€ Г߀ƗԊਛ଱ཻá„€ŕ§?֏ܝҺᆇƗࡡŕŤ“Ň‰ŕ­†ࢍԯ ᆊཻ໠฼ç‍׋׀‏çᆊཝŇ’ŕ¨&#x;â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ˛­Ć—á ˘ŕ Şá†Šཝࢀ áˆ„â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá…Ąŕľœá‚œོ֏Ń?૲Ć—ԩ٫൥๠‍Ý?â€Źá‚œོĆ—ŕ¤ƒŕˇ&#x; ࡡŕŤ“á…Śá„¤ŐŻáˆ“֏ࢎ֨ŕ´?á €Ň‰ྡྷè

໨ŕŤ“á†°Ö¨Ć—๰࣫Ń?૲ á‚œོŕ˘ƒŕ¨?á‡œá„•â€Ť×ľâ€ŹĂ§ ŕ¨?۸á‚œོ‍لŢ?â€Źŕť€á ‰Ć—Ń°ŕą–ŕ˘ƒࡸŕŤ“Ň‰ŕĽ?‍ٺ‏۰‍׀‏ ૨â€ŤÚ†â€Źá„¤á ‰ŕ°–èŕ¨?۸á‚œོçŕ¨?۸‍ܪ‏ྠçŕ¨?۸Ó? პçŕ¨?á‡œá„•â€Ť×ľâ€Źá ˘ŕ Şŕ¨?۸ŕŹ?á‡œŕľ ŕź…á‚ŹŕŁšá…›â€ŤŢ?‏ᄤ á ‰ŕ°–Ć—ĐťŐ•ŕ˘“ŕš€Ć—ß ŕ˝”ŕ˘“á†ľĆ—ŕŹťá ˘â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ§?Ć—ࡸ ŕŤ“á…¤ŕ¤“áˆŠŕš¤á€ŠÖŹŕĽŠŕĄžçŕľ?ŕĄžâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŚ†ŕĄ– â€ŤÚżâ€Źŕś’è ಥḨ੮ŕĽ&#x;Ḩହŕź—á„¤Ăťá‚œོ֏ŕ •ÔŤĂźá‡–ฝּ ‍Ý?‏þW[KQTT]UÜᆊ۸ŕź—ঢŐ”Ć—ŕˇ¸á °á†žá ‰۸ཱི á‰?Ć—á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŃ”Óľŕ¨›ŕ¨ƒÖŹáˆŽáƒŁĂ¨Ö“ĂľW[KQTT]UĂś ᆊ۸Ő”á €á†žÜ˛á„¤ŕŻľŕ¸ŤŕĄ–ŕ´?֏ࣟഹĎ&#x;ŕĽ&#x;ඵ֬૲ कƗ૲ŕ¤•ŕ°–áˆŠÖŚŇŤŕ˛­ÖŹá‰›á‚ŻĆ—ࡢ‍ڋ‏ఴ‍޹‏Ϗ‍׾‏Ɨ ೉๤á‡™ĎŹĆ—ŕ´ ŕś´ÖŹá†ĽŕŤ˛ ŕ¨ƒŇ?ÖŹĎŹâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹŕľĽŕť€ŕ¨›ŕźš á‰ƒŕš­ŕľ‘ÖŹá„žŕ­›èହŕź—ௌॕ૲कƗಹŕť€ŕ°Šࡢ‍֏ڋ‏ ĎŹâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹŕľĽŕŁ áƒ†ŕĽˆॾâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕśąÔ˘Ć“á€‹ŕŁœâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‰?Ɣᆴफ़Ɨ࣠჆ࢍླâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹÓˆÔ˘á†´ŕĄžĆ—ŕˇľá ˘Ć—á€‹áƒ—á‰?á„¤á ‰á…­ŕ¨ƒŕ´? ÖŹŕŹƒŕ˝ˆ࢚‍Ţ?‏ྒྷॄŕ´?á‚Źá„€â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽŕŁ áƒ†ŕ¨?ᆇᆴफ़֏Ϗ ‍׾‏Ɨࡸá†ŞŕŹƒŕ¨›ŕ¨ƒŇ?ྼá ‰۸ŕŠ‡ྣ֏ŕ¤‘ŕ Šá†´Ó?პè Ć“ Ć”ට١â€ŤŘ‚â€Źŕť´ÖŤŕľ…Ć—Ö“â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹĐŤâ€Ť×ŽÜŹâ€Źá„¤áˆ¸ŕ ´ á‚Źâ€ŤÖŹŢĄâ€ŹĎŹâ€Ť×ľâ€Źá†´á‡–Ć—á ‰۸ཌ਽á ‰۸಼ҋƗᇠྼŕť€ ਛߗ֍‍ؚ‏٥֏಼ҋḊḊŕŤ‡á‚źá‡›࢚Ɨᇠ႟þŕ¨?ᆇ ŕŹťá ˘á‡‰ŕž—֏࢚‍Ţ?‏ÜèƓ Ć”

distanced  viewers  who  will  not  be  able  to  access  the  issues  and  sites,  the  materials  and  people,  the  buildings  and  the  surfaces  of  the  images  displayed  except  through  the  images  â€“  even  if  they  were  to  stand  in  the  streets  of  a  village.  As  we  see,  the  lenticular  surface/image  traps  two  moments  in  one,  two  images  in  one,  sealing  them  together  inextricably.   Two  images,  two  stories,  two  sites,  two  moments,  two  of  X  permanently  bonded,  oscillating  with  each  other,  inextricably  intertwined,  occupying  the  same  space,  time  and  frame/ parergon.  Jean-­Luc  Nancy  writes  in  The  Ground  of  the  Image  about  the  Greek  term  oscillum,  which  designates  a  small  mouth  and  thus  becomes  a  metonym  of  the  face.  But  oscillum  is  also  a  mask  of  Bacchus  hung  amongst  the  grape  vines  to  act  as  a  scarecrow,  a  mask  that  moves  back  and  forth  in  the  wind  providing  a  kind  of  oscillation,  the  PRYHPHQW RI WKH Ă€LFNHULQJ IDoDGH IDFH LQWHQGLQJ to  scare  away  the  marauding  and  thieving  birds.  Nancy  says  of  the  mask  that  its  wind-­tossed  oscillation  is  between  seeing  and  speaking  (eyes  and  mouth),  between  reception  and  production,  so  the  apparent  conjoining  of  eyes  and  mouth  into  a  face  is  actually  forever  an  oscillation  between  one  RU WKH RWKHU UHYHDOLQJ WKH IDFH DV D Ă€HHWLQJ WHUUDLQ of  coming  together.  (73-­4)  Neither  wins,  neither  loses,  but  both  are  caught  in  the  constant  of  their  oscillation,  one  yielding  to  the  other  only  to  have  the  other  yield  yet  again  â€“  no  resolution,  only  â€˜the  LPSUREDEOH XQLRQ RI WKH WZRÂś

Ö™ ໨ ŕŤ“ Ôł ‍ Ý?â€ŹŕŞ˜ ༜ ÖŹ ሔ ᇉ Ć— ᆊ ᇜ ‍ ڜ‏á„? ࢓ ᆾ ÖŹŕŹťá ˘á‡‰ŕž—֏࢚‍Ţ?â€ŹĆ—á ‰Ń™áƒ‚á ‰Ń™â€Ť×€â€Źá‡žâ€ŤÚśâ€ŹáˆŠáˆ¸ ŕ ´ĆĽŕš¤á ‰ॽ๰࣫Ń?૲ŕ´?ÖŹŕ¨?۸á‚œོçܝҺᆇ‍ދ‏ ЍܝҺŕź…çՕ‍ދ׀‏Н԰çᄕ‍ࣨދ׾‏ᆿçᄤÓ?‍ދ‏ ಓ༣çഺá†‡â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕśźá†‡çŕł„฿â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ¨šŕ †çáˆ¸ŕť¨â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕˇˇ ᆇç໨ŕŤ“â€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕˇˇŕŤ“ç༊फ़‍ދ‏ŕľ?फ़çྐྵऍâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŕŹŠŕŞ°Ă§ ૠâ€ŤŢ‹ÜŒâ€ŹŐŻáˆ“èŕ¤‘ŕ ŠÖŹâ€ŤŮ­â€ŹŕľŁÓ?áƒžĆ—ĐťŐ•Ř†৲֓Ⴢ ࢚‍٭֏Ţ?‏ྣÓ?áƒžĐťŐ•ܸ৺༩Ć—৺༩൥๠‍Ý?‏á?‡á ş ཊཧᆴफ़ܸ֬༩ྠӵ֬Ɨᆊ۸Ó?áƒžá„¤ŕšłÔ˘ÖŹŕˇ˜ ŕ¨&#x;‍ۉڴ‏ҹ֏డБŃ?ŕŤ˛ÖŤá ˘Ń?՚èᆊ۸Ń?૲฻‍܉‏ ŕ¨›á ‰۸ŕ˝&#x;ཧ֏Ô‘ŕšłâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹĂťâ€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛ĂźÖŹŕşŞß„๪ƥᄤ ༊ŕĄžŕľşŕ˝’ÖŹâ€Ť×€â€Źáƒżá†Śá‡”ŕŚ†ŕĄ–ŕ­„Ć—ŰĄŕŻ›á ”â€ŤÖŹ×ľâ€Źŕ˛­ŕĄ„ ܸ༩ŕ˛?ŕąśâ€Ť×Žâ€Źŕť‘༩๫ᇠ୆ႏᄀϏ‍׾‏è

This  improbable  union  of  the  two  inextricably  intertwined  repeats  itself  over  and  over  as  one  PRYHV WKURXJK 0DNKRXOÂśV LQVWDOODWLRQ WKH WZR images  of  a  single  plane  of  lenticular  surface,  the  viewer  and  the  object,  here  and  there,  movement  and  stasis,  presence  and  absence,  the  living  and  the  dead,  the  corporeal  and  the  spectral,  self  and  other,  us  and  them,  space  and  temporality,  vision  and  blindness,  the  maze  and  the  village.   7KH Ă€HHWLQJ WHUUDLQ RI FRPLQJ WRJHWKHU RI conjoining  while  remaining  separate,  linked  by  the  relationship  between  disparate  phenomena,  is  articulated  in  the  thin  surface  of  embossed  plastic  cladding.  The  surface  provides  a  kaleidoscope  of  VXJJHVWHG FRQĂ€LFW RI ÂżWQD D UDSLGO\ PRYLQJ *36 of  human  relations  within  a  spatially-­delimited  geopolitical  frame  that  can  only  ever  oscillate.  Â

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ENTER Â GHOST, Â AS Â BEFORE, Â OR Â THE Â OSCILLATION Â OF Â THE Â DOUBLE Â OTHER Â THAT Â Â IS Â US EPODE.

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á‚°ŕ¨šŕ˝ŠĆ—á†Ľŕł‰á ˘ŕşąĆ— á ¤ŕ Ž໨ŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ´­ÖŹŕś§á‡žࡡᆇ ֏Ϗ‍׾‏ ŕś ŕą­ ྉ Ć“ - X W L M Ć”

An  epode.  A  return  that  is  not  really  a  return.  A  maze  that  is  really  not  a  maze.  A  village  that  is  but  a  cardboard  model  of  one,  not  built  on  any  scale  or  of  any  true  relation  to  the  maze. Â

ŕś ŕą­ŕľ‰èá ‰Ő˜Ń°ŮŤá†Žá†Ľß´Ý‰ÖŹß´Ý‰èá ‰۸ Ń°ŮŤá†Žá†ĽŕŤ â€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĂ¨á ‰۸ᇠྼᇃϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ÖŹŐŻ áˆ“Ć—Ň‰Ď†á†Žá†ĽŕŤ â€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€Źŕ˛°â€ŤŢŒâ€ŹĐ¸ŕ§ŻĆ—áƒ—ࡸŕŤ‡á‚źŕ˛°â€ŤŢŒâ€Ź ܸ༩è

The  maze  is  actually  a  maze-­like  structure  â€“  more  like  a  labyrinth  than  a  maze.  In  a  maze,  one  PLJKW QRW EH DEOH WR ÂżQG WKH ZD\ WKURXJK KDYH WKH SRWHQWLDO QRW WR EH DEOH WR ÂżQG DV 'DHGDOXV provided,  the  thread.  In  this  installation,  though,  there  is  very  little  chance  of  getting  caught  in  an  eddy  of  the  static/moving  images.  As  a  kind  of  playful  maze,  or  a  mirage  of  a  maze,  the  construct  has  a  teleology  of  sorts  that  leads  to  the  cardboard  ER[ FLW\ LWVHOI DOVR D PRGHO RI D YLOODJH :H FDQ get  lost  in  the  repetition  of  the  images  but  not  in  the  maze  per  se.  The  repetition  of  images  adds  to  the  frustration  of  the  maze  while  providing  both  a  variation  on  a  set  of  themes  and  (more  importantly)  the  illusion  of  movement  â€“  the  illusion  of  progress  as  well  as  the  illusion  of  truly  seeing  DQG KDYLQJ IXOO\ H[SHULHQFHG WKH ZRUOG YLVXDOO\ :H cannot  get  beyond  these  surfaces  and  yet  we  also  FDQQRW JHW ORVW LQ WKH PD]H RU ODE\ULQWK :H PXVW

ᆊ۸ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źŕľ“ŕĄ„ŕ´?൥۸ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źáˆ˜֏࢚‍ܙ‏ḊḊ‍۞‏ ࡂૠáƒşâ€ŤŇ‰Řžâ€ŹŕľĽŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĂ¨á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‡–Ć—á ‰۸ಭŕĽ?ŕ­† á…şŇ‰ÖĽŕ­†á‰ƒ๠֬੥ƥŕ¤ƒྼŕĽ?ŕ­†á…şŇ‰ÖĽÖşÖŞŕ§‡ŕśľ ࡾฝâ€ŤÖŹÜ‰â€ŹŕŹąá‡œŕ˝“ࡳèŕ˛?‍؞‏ᄤᆊ۸áˆ”á‡‰á‡–Ć—á„¤ŕŁ¨ ᆿ á ”â€Ť×ľâ€Źá‚œོ֏᜛໦á‡–ŕŤ ŕŠĽÖŹŕ ˛ŕŠ¸ŕ ĽÖľĂ¨á‰›ŕť€ á ‰á‡œŕşžŕ¤•ŕˇ‚֬ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—ŕ Žá†‡á ‰۸ૠ‍ß&#x;ÖŹÜŒâ€Źá‚œĆ—á†Š ۸࢚â€ŤÜ™â€ŹŐ°á„¤áˆŠŕŹ?ᇜ଩֬ઉƗᆊ۸଩֬ŕŞ‰á„śŕ¤ƒŕ¨› ᇃϡ‍ގ‏ӳƓӳྎЎഭá €ྼá ‰۸կሓŕŹ?ŕž&#x;Ć”è໨ ŕŤ“ŕĽ?ŕ­†á„¤á‚œོ֏ᇞ‍ڜ‏ᆴᇖૠŕľ…Ć—Ö“ŕ˛–Ň‰ß˝á„¤ŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĐŽŕ´­á†´á‡–ૠ੥èá‚œོ֏ᇞ‍ڜ‏ᅀŕĄ?ਛૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá„śÓľ ÖŹŐśá†ƒâ€ŤŰ’â€ŹĆ—๤ŕľ?á €Óˆŕ´şŕ¨›á ‰á‰?á‡˝ŕ¸żÖŹŃ”á‰„á ˘ŕ Ş ܸáƒ†á„•â€Ťß&#x;֏׾â€Źŕ¤ŤĆ“á†Šá ‰â€ŤŰž×‹â€Źá‡žá€¸Ć”ḊḊâ€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†ŕ°´ ྡྷ֬ß&#x;ऍĆ—á ˘ŕ Şß&#x;ऍá†Žŕ­†ŕĽˆÖĽĆ—Ń°Ô?‍ٺ‏ᄤྐྵऍ ŕ´?฿မਛᆊ۸ŕľžࢿè໨ŕŤ“ŕť´ŮŒÓ˜á„‡á†ŠཝŃ?૲Ć— á €Ň‰ŕ­†ૠŕľ…á„¤ŕŤ â€Ťŕ ŽÜŒâ€ŹŕŤ áƒşá†´á‡–è໨ŕŤ“Ńˆŕž˝á‰ƒÔ˘ ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€á‡ á‚źá ‰ŕš?Ԣ੥Ʀ๤ŕľ?Ć—໨ŕŤ“ß•Ńˆŕž˝

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exit  the  maze  as  there  is  only  one  way  through,  and  we  must  enter  the  village.  Once  in  the  village,  the  surfaces  have  actual  three-­dimensional  depth  and  can  be  peered  into  and  behind,  each  house  uniquely  crafted  but  still  homogenous  with  the  others,  as  village  houses  are.  The  scale  is  meant  to  overwhelm  for  each  miniature  house  implies  a  miniature  family  but  with  metonymic  expansion,  to  a  whole  village,  which  itself  would  be  only  one  of  thousands.  The  power  of  the  representation  is  an  engagement  with  representation  itself:  a  maze  that  is  not  a  maze,  a  village  that  is  not  a  village,  but  both  present  through  their  absence,  which  we  must  experience  and  consider. Ghosts,  like  representations,  as  we  have  noted,  work  the  liminal  terrain  between  presence  and  DEVHQFH 7KH\ DOVR VSHDN WR WKLV H[KLELWLRQÂśV interest  in  the  return  that  is  not  really  a  return.  Derrida  makes  a  nice  point  about  ghosts  in  his  book  Spectres  of  Marx  when  he  says  that  all  ghosts  begin  by  returning.  A  ghost  can  only  be  a  ghost  through  a  return  to  the  earthly  sphere.  Those  experiencing  the  installation  have  a  return  (epode)  of  sorts  when  they  emerge  from  the  maze  into  the  cardboard  box  city  for  they  arrive  in  a  village  they  know  (through  endless  representations)  and  yet  which  is  uncanny  in  its  sense  of  being  a  a  return  to  a  past  that  is  not  their  own.  Derrida  continues,  though  in  a  later  HVVD\ Âľ0DU[ 6RQVÂś WR GLVWLQJXLVK KLV spectre  and  the  one  of  communism  Marx  invokes  LQ KLV PDQLIHVWR 'HUULGDÂśV VSHFWUH WDNHV WKH PRUH traditional  role  of  a  past  haunting  a  present  while  0DU[ÂśV LV D FXUUHQWO\ XQIRUPHG EHLQJ WKDW PXVW be  made  real  in  a  futural  living  present:  it  must  be  made  to  materialize  in  a  manner  it  only  vaguely  hints  at  currently  (at  the  moment  that  Marx  is  writing  the  manifesto).  These  temporalities  for Â

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ቃŕŁ?ŐŻáˆ“èá ‰Ö‘ŕŁ?ŕł?ŐŻáˆ“Ć—Ń?ŕŤ˛ŕ Žŕ¤•ŕł&#x;ŕť‚ÖŹŕľ“ ॄഎ؎ƗŕĽ?á ˘ŕŚŽࡵৡ૲â€ŤŕŤ˛ŢąŢ‹â€ŹĆ—ŕŤ‹á ‰ࡾ٣áˆˇâ€ŤŘ‚â€Ź ྼŘ†ŕ¤•ŕ˘‹ŕž–Ć—Ö“áƒ‚áƒ—ŕ°Š෷٣໳๤ŕś’á ‰ŕ§’Ć—â€ŤŰźâ€ŹŐŻ ሓৡ֬٣໳á ‰á€ŠĂ¨á†Šá€ŠÖŹÝ†ŕŹ?ྼŕť€ŕ¨›಼ಭ‍ּے‏ ࣠ŕ°ŒĆ—á‚€ŕť€ŕŤ‹ࡾຸŕž&#x;ŮŁŕťłâ€ŤŘ‚â€Źá °ŕťŒáˆŠá ‰۸ຸŕž&#x;ŕĄŒ ŕš?Ɨᆊ۸ŕĄŒŕš?á„¤áˆŽáƒŁá °á łŕ´?ŕĽ?á ˘ŕŚ›á…Ąŕť€á ‰á‰?ŐŻ áˆ“Ć—â€ŤŘžâ€Źá†ŠŐŻáˆ“ĐŽŕ´­á €Ň‰â€ŤÝ?â€ŹŕľĽŕ°ŤĎŤŰ¸ŐŻáˆ“á‡–ÖŹá ‰ ۸èᄣཊ֏ড়ŕ¨?ŕ°Šŕľ“ྼáƒ—á„Łŕ˝ŠЎഭ֏ࢧŕ¨?ĆĽá ‰ ۸Ѱ٫ૠâ€ŤÖŹÜŒâ€ŹŕŤ â€ŤÜŒâ€ŹĆ—á ‰۸Ѱٍկáˆ“ÖŹŐŻáˆ“Ć—Ö“ ŕ¨?á†‡áƒ‚â€ŤŘ‚â€Źŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źáˆ¸ŕ´­ÖŹŕ˛“༣‍؞‏ᄤÓ?Ć—໨ŕŤ“Ńˆ྽฿ မѰ৺ŕ˝&#x;á†Šá‡œŕ˛“༣è

ᆼ೉໨ŕŤ“ࡾáˆ†á °ÖĽÖŹĆ—á‚°ŕ¨šŕ¤ƒོᄣཊ଱ ညƗᄤᄤÓ?‍ދ‏ಓ༣á†´ŕĄžÖŹá °ŕľ”Ń?áƒżŕąźáƒžŐ°á„¤Ă¨ ᆊཝá‚°ŕ¨šá„¤áˆŽá†ƒá‡–á‚źŕ§­áƒ†á…ĄŕľœĆ—Ö“á†Š۸ሎᆃ ß´Ý‰Ń°ŮŤá†Žá†ĽÖŹáˆŽá†ƒ ߴ݉è֪৥՚ᄤఊᇞቛ ÝછŕĽ&#x;ම֬á‚°ŕ¨šĂźá‡–ŕ´şâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹÓ‰ŕś”ŕ¨›á‚°ŕ¨šĆ—ࡡಹŕť€ ࡾ႟֏Ⴐਚᄤߴ݉֏ŕľ?Ţ°Ö–ഺèá ‰۸Ⴐਚᇠ႟ ŕš â€ŤÝ‰ß´Ý?‏ྞࡓ֏ࡾá„¤Ň“ŕ­†Óľŕť€á‚°ŕ¨šĂ¨ŕ¸żá€™á†Š۸ ሔᇉ֏ಭŐ?ૠ‍ŕł?ŕŁ?ÜŒâ€Źá‡ƒϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;Ółŕľ?‍ن‏ഺਛŕŹ?ᇜ ৒ŕž&#x;ÖŹß´Ý‰Ć“á„ŁáˆŽá†ƒĆ”Ć—á‚€ŕť€ࡡŕŤ“â€ŤÖžâ€ŹŐšŕ¨›á &#x;ᆰ ÖŹŐŻáˆ“Ć“ŕš â€ŤÝ?â€Źŕť´ŕŁ—ÖŹá„Łŕ˝Šá†°Ö¨Ć”Ć—Ö“ŕ¤ƒŕ°Šß´Ý‰ ‍֏ູÝ?â€Źá °á łŇąŕŤ˛â€ŤŘžâ€Źá€„Ć—ŐŻáˆ“áƒ‚ྼŕ§?ŕ°ŒÖŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€ ᆊѰ҉ྼࡡŕŤ“áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹâ€ŤÝ?‏ಇèâ€ŤŢąâ€ŹŕŚŚĆ—á„¤ŕ¨˝á ‰ŕŻ?ŕťš ᅪƓþછŕĽ&#x;මáƒ—â€ŤŘżâ€ŹáˆˇŕŤ“ĂśĆ— !ƔᇖƗ֪ ৥՚ॆ࿊ทะĆ—ŕ˘ƒࡡฝּ֏á‚°ŕ¨šâ€ŤÜ’Űźâ€ŹÓˆá‡˝á łÖŹ છŕĽ&#x;මᄤఊŕż?ငᇖჸႋ֬଱۸á‚°ŕ¨šŕąźâ€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ¤žŕŚŚĂ¨ ֪৥՚֏á‚°ŕ¨šâ€ŤŰžâ€ŹÔľŕšŤĆ—ࡸྼá‘Śŕ˛¨áˆŠŕ˝Šá„¤ÖŹâ€ŤÝ?‏ ಇƗ‍؞‏છŕĽ&#x;ම֬á‚°ŕ¨šŕŹŠŕ°´ŕ´?ŕťŠÓľŕž Ć—á‰şÖ‡á„¤ŕťŠ দԢŕ˝ŠÖŹŕźžŕ ŠÖŹÖ™ŕ°´ĐŤŕ žŕ ŠĆĽá‚’Ö™á ˘Ö™ఴࡸࡾ ๼ຸĎ‡ŕľœ֬଱ညӜཊƓ֙ఴྼᆞછŕĽ&#x;මŕž†á‰›ŕż? င֬଱á ‰༠Ć”èÖ™ŕľ?Ý‚á†´ŕĄˇŇ‰ŕš›â€Ť×€â€ŹŐ?‍Ý?‏ಇࣣá‚ľ Ö™ŕźśâ€ŤŕťŠູ٭â€ŹŕŚŚá†´ŕĄ„Ć—á†Šŕ¨?á‡œá‚°ŕ¨šÖŹá„§ŕľ?ྦࡂ޳ ŕž Óľŕ¨›â€ŤŘšâ€ŹĐ¸ĆŚŕ˛?‍؞‏Ɨᆊ۸á‚°ŕ¨šĆ“Ő•Ô°á €ŕĽ?ŇœŕĽ? ŕŞ˜ॶ֬๰࣫á‚œོĆ”཯ࢺŕ¨›á†Šá‡œŕž â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕ´?֏ནྦ‍ދ‏

the  two  spectres  seem  antithetical  when  keeping  ZLWK WKH DUURZ RI WLPH Ă€\LQJ IURP WKH SDVW WKURXJK the  present  to  the  future;Íž  however  the  spectre  UHDG KHUH DOVR DV 0DNKRXOÂśV OHQWLFXODU LPDJH undoes  this  metaphysical  linearity  and  apparent  stability  by  being  all  temporal  tenses  at  the  same  time  â€“  past,  present  and  future  piled  up  simultaneously  in  the  image.   Hence  its  endless  cycling  between  entering  and  exiting  (presence  and  absence)  becomes  mobility  and  stasis  together  at  the  same  time,  rather  as  in  a  play  by  %HFNHWW ,Q IDFW 6KDNHVSHDUHÂśV VWDJH GLUHFWLRQV continue  to  include  â€œExit  Ghostâ€?  a  second  time,  providing  an  oscillation  of  presence  and  absence  that  suggests  a  pattern  to  be  repeated  (perhaps  LQÂżQLWHO\ )RU 6KDNHVSHDUH WKLV LV VLPXOWDQHRXVO\ profound  and  cheeky  because  the  absence  is  TXDOLÂżHG Âą LQGHHG FRPSURPLVHG E\ WKH TXDOLW\ of  the  presence.   That  is,  the  presence  upon  which  absence  structurally  depends,  insofar  as  ghosts  or  spectres  are  concerned,  is  in  doubt  from  the  outset.  Ghosts  are  both  immaterial  and  material,  so  their  presence  is  insubstantial  and  perhaps  not  even  acknowledgable  as  presence  at  all.  Thus  the  absence  also  wobbles  under  inspection  for  a  thing  not  really  there  cannot  really  disappear  either.  The  second  point  about  ghosts  is  that  at  the  larger  metaphysical  level,  we  all  enter  (as)  ghost  and  exit  (as)  ghost.  This  is  the  fate  of  us  all,  and  part  of  what  haunts  the  installation  is  its  explicit  role  as  memento  mori.  The  thin  line  between  presence  and  absence  demarcated  by  ghosts  speaks  to  our  existential  condition,  a  commentary  furthered  by  the  cardboard  houses  of  this  installation  in  that  hey  signify  unoccupied  homes  in  what  is  often  called  occupied  territory.   That  the  images  themselves  make  ghostly  visions  of  sites  in Â

ŕŹƒŕ˝ˆÖŹŕťžâ€ŤŕžŚ×Žâ€ŹĆ—ŕ°ŠŮĄŮŒ൥๤ŕľ?कШࡾ႟ؒᄧŕľ? ฆḊḊ‍Ý?‏ಇçŕ˝Šá„¤Ă§ŕ˘ƒদᄤᆊ۸á‚œོᇖ๤ŕľ?‍׌‏ ŕĄ?èႀ‍؞‏ƗႰਚᄤŕŁ?ŕł?â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‰ƒÔ˘Ć“á„¤Ó?‍ދ‏ಓ༣Ć” á†´ŕĄžÖŹŕť´ŕ˝’ŕż?ߓєӾਛ๤ŕľ?Ń°Ő°ÖŹá ”â€ŤŕŁ¨Ţ‹׾‏ á†żĆ—ŕ¤ƒོᄤФŕĽ&#x;า֏ŕ¤?ᇖèྒྷॄŕ´?Ć—೯ŕľ?и࿡ ÖŹŕťžŕ¸‚ŕśąŕŹƒ×‚â€ŤŮ„â€ŹŐ˜áƒ‚ĐŽâ€ŤÝŞâ€Źŕ¨›Ăľá‚°ŕ¨šá‰ƒԢÜĆ—Óś ཊਛᄤÓ?‍ދ‏ಓ༣֬ŕ˘“ŕš€Ć—Ń?ŕŹƒŕ¨›á ‰á‡œá‡žâ€ŤÖŹÚśâ€ŹŕŹ? ŕľ›Ć“ŕ Ž྿൥໴དྷᇞ‍ڜ‏Ɣè‍ؚ‏೯ŕľ?и࿡‍؞‏ငƗᆊ ूྼഎ༠֏Ć—á €ྼળáˆ–ÖŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€ŕ˛“༣֬ྦá‡?ŕ˝’ á‡ŒáˆŠĆ“ŕ°Šŕľ“á €ྼá ‰á‡œá†ƒá‡–Ć”á†Šá‡œá„¤Ó?èá €ŕ¤ƒྼ ŕśąĆ—ŕ¤ƒá‚°ŕ¨šâ€ŤŘžÜśÝ?‏ငƗಓ༣ᄤ࢚‍ܙ‏ŕ´?ࡾá Žধ֬ ᄤÓ?Ő?á ‰ञŕľšŕ¤ƒྼᆝ֍ß?á —֏èႰਚक႟҉क ฿‍ދ‏क฿֬ටᇞྦĆ—á‚€â€ŤŘžâ€Źŕˇ¸ŕŤ“ÖŹá„¤Ó?҉क฿Ć— ാᇇ҉ོᆎᆼ֏ᄤÓ?଱ညŕĽ?Ń–ŕ˛ąĂ¨ŕˇľá ˘Ć—ŕ´łŕľą á†´ŕźśÖŹŕ˛“༣á €á‚şá ”Ň‰â€Ť×Žâ€ŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€â€ŤŰťâ€ŹĐŽŇ‰á„¤Ó?ÖŹŕľ ŕź…á €Ň‰ŕĽ?୆߽ᆎ֏཯ŕľ…è

ܸáƒ†á‚°ŕ¨šÖŹ×‚â€Ť×‹Ů„â€ŹŕľĽĆĽá„¤â€ŤŰĄŰžâ€Źá ‰ŇąÖŹŕž â€ŤŘžâ€Ź ŕ´?ŕż—á °á łŕ´?Ć—໨ŕŤ“â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽĆ“á‰›ŕť€Ć”á‚°ŕ¨šŕŁ?ŕł?â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‰ƒ Ԣèᆊ൥໨ŕŤ“ࡾá‚źŕ˛­ÖŹŕˇšŕŹˆĆ—á‘Śŕ˛¨áˆŠáˆ”á‡‰ÖŹá ‰ Ň?â€ŤŮşâ€Źŕ¤ƒྼࡸá‰›ŕť€඼ຮཧá†&#x;ÖŹŕ˝ˆá‡žŕ˘&#x;್èႰਚњ Ԣ֏ᄤÓ?áƒ—ŕ˛“༣ᆴफ़֏ࢿŕ˝’á†ŞŕŹƒŕ¨›໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŐ°á„¤ á‡˝á łŕŚ™࣊Ɨᆊ۸áˆ”á‡‰ÖŹá‡ƒϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ŮŁŕťłŕ´Žß‹ŕ¨›á†Š ۸ܝâ€Ť×‹â€ŹĆ—á‚€ŕť€ŮŁŕĄžཧá†&#x;áˆŠŕ˝„á‡‰ŮŁŕĄžĆ—á†Šཝ٣फ़ ŕť‘áƒ†଱ཻܿÓ?ĐŤÓ˛á‰›ŕľşá…¤ŕ¨źÖŹŕššâ€Ť×€â€Źŕ´?è଱ཻá‚œ ོáˆ¸ŕ´­á„śÓľŕ¨›á ‰ཝ‍׀‏٥ӜཊႰਚϾ֏࣌ཧƗᄤ ᆊཝ‍׀‏٥Ɨࡾŕľ—á‚ŻÖŹŕ¤˛ŕľ ŕ śŕś“á„śÓľŕ¨›ŕžżâ€ŤŘŚâ€Źá‚°ŕ¨š Ɠ႟ཝാᇇྼ‍Ý?â€Źá„ąÔ˘ŕ˝ŠÖŹá‚°ŕ¨šá¸Šá¸Šŕł‰â€ŤÝ›â€Źŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕ­† ‍ܛ‏നŕ˝&#x;ᆊཝŘ’á„§ÖŹŐ°á„¤á‡˝á łÜťâ€ŤßŒÖŹ×‹â€ŹĆ”Ć—á†Šཝ á‚°ŕ¨šĎľÖŹá‚œོŕľ—໨ŕŤ“ŕ˝&#x;ŕ°–á†Šá‡œâ€ŤÜ’â€Źŕš¤ÖŹŕŹˆá„•Ć— ᆊྼá ‰á‡œŐ°á„¤áƒ†á‚°ŕ¨šá‡–֏ಭ৒‍ܒ‏႟֏ܸ৺èՕ ບƗ ໨ŕŤ“ß•Ň‰Ř•ŕ˝&#x;ÖĽĆ—໴ಭᇃϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ŐŻŕ˝ˆŕ˛? ŮŤÓ?ժ೗Ɨ‍؞‏ӳᆚ֬଩֬Ю൥ŕť€ŕ¨›٤áƒĽÖŹĂ¨ á„¤Ăťŕˇ•ŘŽáƒ—á†Śá‡”Ăźá‡–Ć—ŕť‚৭৥Ď”ಹŕť€Ć—Ő? á ‰ञྚƗӳྎá ‰á†ˇŕľĽá ‰á‡œ٤áƒĽŕžŚŕ¤‘â€ŤÖŹŢ?â€Źá€ƒŕżŠĆ—

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which  much  of  the  military  technology  used  in  these  locales  has  created  many  ghosts  (some  even  premature  ghosts,  if  we  can  assume  such  temporal  and  existential  claims)  reminds  of  us  this  shared  fate,  this  shared  human  bond  found  in  spectres.  Also  a  portion  of  what  haunts  us  with  the  unoccupied  cardboard  village  is  the  sense  of  its  rather  explicit  vulnerability  for  towns  were  formed  for  protection.  Virilio,  in  Speed  and  Politics,  argues  that  from  the  outset  the  city  has  always  been  the  continuation  of  the  defensive  gathering  that  it  was  in  antiquity.  An  agglomeration  of  people,  structures  and  systems  emerges  out  of  the  forces  and  vectors  of  movement  along  rivers,  roads,  and  takes  its  character  by  taking  advantage  from  and  protecting  itself  against  the  forces  it  encounters  on  those  SDWKV RI VSHHG :DOOV DQG JDWHV PD\ \LHOG WR OHVV visible  forms  of  defence  but  the  rationale  of  the  city  as  opposed  to  the  settlement  or  the  camp  is  one  of  security  and  strength  in  numbers  against  external  and  even  unknown  dangers  that  outweigh  the  potential  threats  from  those  contained  within  the  polis.  Even  laid  bare  as  settlements,  the  Arab  villages  that  the  installation  models  would  be  built  of  concrete,  somewhat  permanent  but  Ă€H[LEOH WRR ,Q 0DNKRXOÂśV UHFDVWLQJ RI WKH 0LGGOH Eastern  village,  the  surface  and  material  is  no  longer  concrete  but  cardboard.  The  plasticity  and  strength  of  concrete  (which  so  fascinated  that  great  urban  planner  and  architect  with  a  military  bent:  Le  Corbusier)  transforms  into  the  ephemerality  of  cardboard.   The  metonym  for  KRPHOHVVQHVV LQ :HVWHUQ FLWLHV WKDW LV FDUGERDUG renders  this  city  in  all  of  its  explicit  vulnerability  and  exposure:  the  city  as  target,  but  not  the  kind  you  aim  for,  only  rather  the  kind  you  shoot  at. Â

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á†Šá‡œŕ¤‘â€ŤŢ?â€Źáˆ¸â€ŤÜĽâ€Źá‚źá†´Ă¨á€ˆáˆŠâ€ŤŕŠ‡Ţ‘â€ŹĂ§Ö¨ŕŠĽĆ—á‚źá„•â€Ť×ľâ€Ź ÖŹŕ­†ŕ¨?‍ދ‏ྖŕ¨?Ć—Ő?ᆊཝŕ­†ŕ¨?çŕľ–ŕ¨?á‡–Óˆŕ´şŕ¨›á‚Ą á‚źŕ˛­Ă§ŕ˘€áˆ„â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‡ŒŘŽÖŹŕ¤‘ŕ¤‰๟ƌᄤᆊཝŕˇ•ŘŽá†´ŕŠĽ ŕ´?Ć—ŕ¤‘ŕ¤‰ŕąźß˝á„Źáƒ˘Đ™ড়Ć—ŕš â€ŤÝ?‏৭ႯѰ‍ŕĽ?ؚ‏Й ড়Ć—ŕ¤‘ŕ¤‰ŕąźŕž Óľŕ¨›áˆ¸ŕ ´ÖŹŕ¸˛á†&#x;èԊਛӳ๠‍ދ‏ӳ ŕŤ‘Ć—ß•á‚źâ€ŤŰžâ€Źŕť€á‡žá€¸Ă§â€ŤŰžâ€Źŕť€á‚ŒО֏٤áƒĽŮĄŕľ›Ć— Ö“ŕ˝”â€ŤŘšâ€Źáƒ†áˆˆलŕ Žá‚–â€ŤŘž×€â€Źá€„Ć—ӳྎ֏â€ŤŰťâ€ŹĐŽá„¤áƒ†Ď„ ŕ˛?áƒ—ŕľ“ড়Ć—ŕ°Šá„¤ŕś›ŕ¨?ŕ´?ÖŹĎ„ŕ˛?áƒ—ŕľ“ড়áƒ—ŕşšদຶ ŕž„çാá‡‡ŕťŠá†°ŕşśŕž„â€ŤŕĽ?ؚ‏Ɨᆊཝຜŕž„иদáˆ¸ÓłĐ€ áˆ¸ŕ´­ŕ­„Ň?ÖŹŕ°ľá„¤ŕşśŕž„â€ŤŰžâ€Źŕ´ľĂ¨ŕ ŽŃ“á‡ ྼོለल଱ ညᆡࢍӎਠƗᆊ۸áˆ”á‡‰ŕˇ˜á„śÖŹŕŹąá‡œδŕŚ&#x;ŃźŐŻáˆ“ á €ྼá‚ŻŕśŞŕ­Šŕ˘€á„śĆ—ŕ •ĐŽŕ´?ྼá‚ŹŕŁšŕžŚÖŹĆ—Ö“á €á‚ź Ö—ྦèŕŞ˜༜ᇞࢀ֏ᇖ‍׹‏ᆴկ֏Ń?૲‍ދ‏Ғŕ¨&#x;҉ᄣ ྼŕ ˆ୧๹Ć—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕľĽá‡ƒϡèŕ ˆ୧๹Ć“á ˘ŕ°Šलྠ޽ŘŽ ਞá ‰ŕť‘ŕť†ս֏ӳྎ݆ߊ྄ॠŕ˘€áˆ„ŕľ„ŕł‰Ő•Ô ŕŤ ĆĽ েḨ༖Ҋŕź?ဟƔ֏ŕĽ?ŕˇ˜ྦáƒ—ŕ§€â€ŤÜŹâ€ŹŃ”Óľŕ¨›á‡ƒϡ֏ Ř’ŕŹˆèᇃϡࢀᄜ֏ŕź?ŕľ›ӳྎá‡–ŕŠ‡ŕ§?ŕľ…ࡾ֏áˆŽáƒŁ â€ŤÚľâ€Źáƒ”ŕ¨›á†Šࡾӳྎࡾá‚źŕ˝ˆâ€ŤŘžâ€Źá ĽŕĄľÖŹŐŞŕł—áƒ—ŕ¸“੤ƥ ᆊࡾӳྎŕ¤ƒ൥଩њƗ֓҉൥૵ሠ֬଩њƗ‍؞‏ྼ ŕ´¤ŕ “֬଩Ńšè

଱ᆼྼᆊཝկáˆ“ÖŹŕľ“á‡?ĆĽá‰›ŕť€ŕ´¤ŕ “଩ŃšÖŹÓł ྎèáˆ”á‡‰á‡–ÖŹŐŻáˆ“ྼá‚ŻŕŚŚâ€ŤÖŹŕ “Ü…â€ŹŕŹŠŃšĆ—าŕś€ŕŹ? ŕž&#x;ŐŻáˆ“ĐŤŕąšá…¤Ć—Ö“໴ಭŕ¤‰áˆ…èŕľ•× â€ŤÚ–â€Źá¸¨Űłŕ§‰ଡ ࡠ੪ਛஶѸ֬ŕž”Ółŕ˝ŠཧĆ—ࡡŕ˘ƒá†Šá‡œŕ˝ŠཧӲቛþ á‡˝ŕ¸źâ€ŤÜ‹â€Źáƒşŕ˛œ֢ÜĆ—Ăľŕ˛œ֢Üŕ˘ƒलྠŕĄ€ßŠáƒ´ŕˇ”ç áƒ•ŕ§ˆྡྷá ƒâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źá‚‹ಭŕł?ŕľ‚֏ྐྵ௧á‚şŕźŤŕ¸żá€™áł â€ŤŢ?‏ᄤྒྷ ྒྷᄤᄤ֏ӳྎߋ‍׀‏๟Ɨ଩֬൥ŕť€ŕ¨›ӳྎ֏लྠ࿼ਇƗᆊྼáˆ¸ŕ§–á…Ľŕ˘šŕś–â€ŤŮ˜Ţ‹â€ŹŕĽŞá…Ľá†Ąá ˘ŕŚŚÖŹŕšŤá‡” ŕ śŕą?èᆊཝâ€Ť×€â€Źŕąźŕź’ଳਛ‍×?â€Źá‚œá„„֏ࡾ႟าཚƗ֓ á„¤á†Šá‡œŕą­ŕŚŠ༶ѰŕťŠŃ”Óľá‡˝ŕ¸źâ€ŤÜ‹â€ŹáƒşĂ¨á†Šཝâ€Ť×€â€Źŕąźŕš Ó?ྼŕ´ƒÓ?Ő•ŕ§’â€ŤŰ†â€Źáˆ”֏लྠá‡ŒŕŻ’Ó“â€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ°Šࡡᇞးᇌ ௒ӓཿቛ֏࢚ŕŁ?Ć—ŕ°Šá‡–ĐŽŕŚšß“ŕąśâ€Ť×?â€Źá‚œâ€ŤÜ‹â€ŹŕśşĂ¨ ŕ°Šá‡–á‚źá‡–á€›ŕĄšŕĽŹÖŹß â€Ť×ľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕ˝šĆ—á ˘Ń“ŕľ?Ѩŕ­† ŕ ?ÖŤáƒ—ӳྎᅼᆥཔܸ֏ྐྵऍçá‚‚ŕ˝ â€ŤŕžłŢ‹â€Źŕ¤Ťŕ¸ż မèŕ˝ˆŕ˛?Ɨᆊཝŕ˘€áˆ„â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽá‚ŻŕŹłŕśŹŕ˛­ŕ˘ĄŕŹłÖŹŕśŹŕľł ࢀᄜ֏ƗఊᇖཔܸŇ?â€Ťŕ§źÖŹŮşâ€ŹŕźŠŕŚ›á…Ąŕ¨›໨ŕŤ“ܸ჆

And  that  is  exactly  what  these  villages  are:  cities  to  be  shot  at.  The  village  in  the  installation  LV D VWDJH VHW WR ERRW PRGHOOLQJ VSHFLÂżF villages  that  are  occupied  but  unlived  in.   Steve  Graham  documents  the  burgeoning  neo-­urban  phenomenon  that  he  calls  â€œthe  theme  park  archipelagoâ€?  combining  elements  of  military  planning  with  entertainment  industry  and  video  game  immersive  experience  in  actual  urbanized  sites  for  urban  warfare  training,  a  skill  on  the  DVFHQGDQF\ VLQFH WKH HQG RI WKH &ROG :DU DQG the  emergence  of  the  war  on  terror.  These  sites  combine  all  the  special  effects  of  cinema  but  in  this  instance  not  made  into  theme  parks.   These  sites  are  often  collaborative  endeavours  between  the  military  and  major  studios  skilled  at  such  metamorphoses,  including  Universal  Studios.  They  include  centrally-­monitored  interactive  special  effects  so  that  soldiers  experience  sights,  sounds  and  smells  associated  with  urban  warfare.  The  nexus  of  interested  parties  involved  in  these  FRQVWUXFWLRQV DOO RQ WKH WD[SD\HUVÂś GLPH RI FRXUVH leads  us  to  expand  our  nomenclature  of  linkages  from  the  military-­industrial  complex  to  what  I  have  called  â€˜the  military-­industrial-­entertainment-­ XQLYHUVLW\ FRPSOH[Âś 2QH RI WKH ODUJHVW RI WKHVH sites,  according  to  Graham  is  a  co-­operative  effort  between  the  US  and  Israeli  militaries:  the  $40  PLOOLRQ GROODU PRFN XS JHQHULF Âľ$UDE FLW\Âś IDFLOLW\ LQ WKH 1HJHYH GHVHUW DQG WKH ,VUDHOL EDVH =HÂśHOLP The  generic  Arab  city  is  actually  a  mini-­Palestinian  town,  intended  to  help  regularize  and  imporve  military  movements  and  actions  in  such  villages,  when  encountered  outside  their  video-­game  immersive  and  modelled  virtual  reality. Â

ৼ༩֬ŕŹˆŕŹ‡༩๫Ɨᆊཻৼ༩Ő?लྠḊâ€ŤÜ„â€Źá ƒáˆżâ€ŤŢ?‏ ฿֥໨฻֥‍֏Ý?‏þलྠḊâ€ŤÜ„â€Źá ƒḊáƒ•ŕ§ˆḊսŕż—áˆż ‍Ţ?‏฿Ü҉ְè۳৉ଡಱŕť€Ć—ŕ§’ŕˇ‚â€Ť×€â€Źŕąźá‡–á‰’Ő˝ÖŹ ଱۸Ć—ྼŕŤŒâ€ŤŢ‹Ýšâ€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ लྠ‍Ţ?‏ቛ֏࢚â€ŤÝ›â€ŹĆĽÔŽáˆŽ ࡀ఍ສŕŤŒáƒ´á„¤ŕ­žŰłŕť†ŕłłŕŹ˜â€ŤŢ‹â€Źá ˘ŕłŤŕ¨ ÖŹá„źŕ§­ŕŹĄŕ¤˛ ŕľ ŕ •â€Ťŕ˘€×€â€Źá„śÖŹŕŹ?ŕ­ŒÓ?݆þδŕŚ&#x;Ѽӳö֬஬ัന ྇èᆊ۸Ó?݆δŕŚ&#x;џӳྒྷॄŕ´?ྼ۸ཱིŕž&#x;Ď&#x;ŕ§‡ŕśľ ŕ¸“ÓłĆ—ŕ˘€á„śŕˇ¸ÖŹŕŹŠÖŹĆ—ྼŕť€ŕ¨›á„¤á‚‹ಭŕł?ŕľ‚ÖŹŕľą ௧á‚şŕźŤâ€ŤŕžťŢ‹â€Źŕ­Œŕ˝Šŕľ“á‡–ŐŁŕŁ?á„¤ŕ§’ŕˇ‚ŐŻáˆ“á‡–֬लൠྡྷ‍ދ׾‏ఊࡡŕ Šâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹĆ—Ń°ŕľ—á†Šཝŕ Šâ€Ť×ľâ€ŹÓ?݆ߋè

ᇃϡŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ӳ҉࣓ྗಭŕ˝&#x;ŕ°–ќาŕŁˆŐŻâ€ŤŢ‹â€ŹŮŚá„ś ÖŹŇ?‍ٺ‏Ď&#x;৚Ɨ‍޹‏ᆇྼá„¤á ‰á…Ľâ€ŤŢąâ€Źŕ°€ŕť€ŕ¨›ૠŕ ?֪ल â€Ťŕž˘Ů­â€Źáƒťâ€Ťŕ˘€Řžâ€Źá„śÖŹĂ¨ŕĽŠá‡–â€ŤŢ˘â€Źá…?ŕť ŕľžá†´ÔĄĆ—á…?အႾ â€Ťŕž˘Ů­â€Źáƒťŕľ´â€Ť×ľâ€ŹŐ?՟ञ֏ॗྙңŕŽ&#x;Ԣƌٌá„śÖŹĎ&#x;৚ ྼá ‰á‡œӳྎŕŻ“ŕś“Ć—෸൲๴á‚ŻŮŚá„śÖŹâ€ŤÜ„â€Źá ƒŕ´¨ŕľ‡ç ŕ ŒÓĄá…Śâ€ŤŕŤ˝Ţ‹â€Źá‡ ְদŕ ˆཹྐྵŕš—Ć—଩֬൥áƒ ŕľ—֪ल է߾ŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ÓłĆ—â€ŤŇ‰Řžâ€ŹŕľĽŕ¤‰áˆ…áˆŠŕŻŁŕŤ˝ÖŹá†Ž֏ӳྎè ŕ˛?â€ŤŘžâ€ŹĆ—ŕŞ˜༜֏ӳྎ҉ྼŕť€ŕ¨›ོќาŕŁˆկ଱ညಇ ะâ€ŤŇ‰Ţ â€Źá†°ŕą­ÖŹŕ˝ˆá€¸ŕ˛­ŕź…Ć—Ň‰ྼŕť€ŕ¨›â€ŤÖžâ€ŹáƒĽÖ¸ŕ¤˛ÖŹ ٤áƒĽŐľŕľ‡Ć—á €Ň‰ྼá‚€ŕť€าŕś€֬૽቉ á†Śá‡”â€Ť×€â€Źáƒž ֏ӳྎᅼᆥࢀᄜ֏लྠ࿼ਇÓ?èྒྷॄŕ´?Ć—ࡸྼ á ˘ŕ´?ࡾ႟৒ŕž&#x;ÖŹŮ˜૲৯áˆˇĆ—ࡸ‍۟‏ŕ´?ŕś”ࡾ႟ಭᄜ ӳྎ֏áˆžá‡‚á €ŕ˝”Ů˜èఠ௓ç௑ҟç࿼ਇç᧚ ‍ڽ‏ᆴᇖ֏ರá ‰á‚€ŕˇ”â€ŤŇ‰Ř‚â€Źá„¤á†Š۸áˆ”á‡‰ÖŹŐŻáˆ“á‡–Ć— Ö“ࡸŕŤ“áƒ‚â€ŤŘ‚â€ŹŕľĽŕ˝”ܸá‚€ŕˇ”Ć—á‚€ŕť€ࡸŕŤ“ฝ‍܉‏ಭᄜႀ ࡔƗᆊཝႀࡔŕĽ?á ˘á‚‹ŕ°–ಭŕŤ“áˆ†á °ÖĽĐŤá†‚Öšçá‚Œ Ҍ‍ދ‏Ѝညྏ֏༥฿è

ᇃϡկáˆ“ŕĄ‚३໴á ‰ŕź…áƒ‚ĐŤá…¤ŕ¤“Ć—ࡸŕľ—ಭŕ˝&#x; ŕ°–á‡–â€ŤÖŹ×ąâ€ŹŐŻáˆ“Ć—ŕŁ?â€ŤŘžâ€ŹÔ˘ŕ˝Šá„¤â€ŤŰžâ€ŹŐ˝á °á łÖŹâ€Ť×€â€Źáƒżá†Ś ᇔ֏৏ྕ‍ŕ ?ÝŒâ€Źá†´á‡–èᇃϡկྼá ‰á‡œáˆŽáƒŁĆ—ࡸཧ á†&#x;áˆŠŐ˝Ý†ŕŹ?ÖŹĂľŮ˜ӳྎ‍މ‏ᅼંÜƓ8>Ɨછ՚ Ć”Ć—á €ŕĽ?á ˘ŕ˝§á†&#x;‍׀‏๜ŕ´?֏ӳྎŕ˛?ŕąśß‹ÖŹŮĄ ŕľ›ĆĽÓľŕť€â€ŤÖŹŕŤźßľŢ‰â€ŹŕŹŠŃšĆ“пི௝Ć—ŕĽ&#x;মŕź?Ć”è

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The  cardboard  city  is  reminiscent  of  a  Potemkin  village  or  the  sham  version  of  Paris  partially  built  on  the  outskirts  of  the  city  intending  to  fool  *HUPDQ SLORWV GXULQJ WKH ÂżQDO GD\V RI :RUOG :DU , %HLQJ WKH HDUO\ GD\V RI DHULDO ERPELQJ when  explosives  were  dropped  manually  from  the  air  by  pilots  in  open  cockpits,  this  attempt  at  subterfuge  â€“  an  urban  decoy  â€“  with  fake  industry,  railway  station,  populace,  etc.  was  meant  to  lure  the  Germans  to  destroy  the  model  as  opposed  to  the  actual  city  where  innocent  civilians  lived.  +RZHYHU 0DNKRXOÂśV FLW\ LV QRW LQWHQGHG WR impress  otherwise  ignorant  dignitaries,  such  as  a  Potemkin  village,  nor  is  it  meant  to  be  a  defensive  measure  against  an  enemy  army,  nor  is  it  a  site  for  military  training  for  urban  warfare  RI D VSHFLÂżF HWKQLF SROLWLFDO JHRJUDSK\ ,W LQVWHDG operates  as  a  negative  version  of  all  of  these,  the  opposite  goals  of  those  put  forward  by  these  other  DUWLÂżFLDO FLWLHV 'HFHSWLRQ GHĂ€HFWLRQ WUDLQLQJ display  of  opulence,  none  of  these  are  at  play  in  WKH LQVWDOODWLRQÂśV YLOODJH \HW WKH\ DUH DOO UHOHYDQW DV WKH\ SURYLGH HOHPHQWV RI DUWLÂżFH WKDW GUDZ attention  to  the  very  objects  veiled  or  hidden,  what  is  masked.   The  cardboard  village,  paradoxically  empty  and  occupied,  evokes  villages  in  the  Middle  East  but  further  appears  within  a  larger  historical  trajectory  of  geopolitics.  It  serves  as  a  metonym  IRU WKH ODUJH VFDOH ÂľQXFOHDU DQWLFLW\ VWUDWHJ\Âś 39 motor  10)  or  the  rendering  of  the  global  city  as  global  by  virtue  of  its  having  been  targeted  for  nuclear  destruction  (Bishop  and  Clancey).  Yet  it  is Â

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ŕ§–á…Ľá†´â€ŤŢąâ€ŹĆ—â€Ť×€â€Źáƒżá†Śá‡”ŕ˛?ŕąśá…ĽŕŞ‚Ń”ÖŤâ€ŤŰžâ€Źá‚Œ૤Ć—á‡ƒ ϡկá €ŕľ—ಭŕŤ“â€ŤŰžâ€Źŕ˛żá Ľŕ§şŕ˝&#x;ÖĽÖ™ఴè৖ᅼॾᆪਛ Ď&#x;â€Ť×€Ű‹Ů â€Źŕąźŕś›ŕľŒŕ­”ÖŹá‡œá‰‰౩༨çହŕł˜â€ŤÝžâ€ŹŕŚ&#x;‍׀‏๟ ŐŻáˆ“ÖŹŇ?઒༢ŕ “çŕ¨?á ?ᅼᆥ֏ŕĽ?ŇŽçâ€Ť×ƒ׹‏ᚲ‍ދ‏ ࿡ŕ°‘ÖŹá‡śßƒ༢ŕ “Ć—á ˘ŕ Ş ྞे༪ŇŽ֏༝‍ݚ‏ᅼ á†ĄĆ—ŕ°Šá‡–ĐŽŕŚšâ€ŤŮ†â€Źŕ´şá„¤Îľŕ Şâ€ŤŢ‹â€Źŕ§­Đ¸ŕżˇÖŹá‡žŕŹ‡ŕ°– á łĂ¨á‡ƒϡ೉ฯŐ“ĎľŐŞŕł—á ĽŕˇĽĆ—Ö“ŕ˛–ŕŤ‡ŕ´ľŕĄ•á†ťĆ— ॕ۳־৞Ć—Ń°ŕą–Ń“áƒ†Ô°ŕ§&#x;èᆊཻ٣໳çկáˆ“â€ŤŢ‹â€Ź उ૽ŕĽ?á ˘ŇžÔŠĂ§áˆŽá ”ç཯Ԋŕ ŽߵૼĆ—๤ညƗᆊ ۸ሔᇉ֏ӳྎྼá ‰á‡œá‚ľŕ˛“༣ŃšŕŹƒÖŹá„¤Ó?Ƽྼá ‰ ۸ŕŹ?ŕž&#x;ƗႸ೉ႰਚƗϚá€?áˆŠŇ‰á„¤Ó?ÖŹŕ˘&#x;್Ɨ೉ ๤ರâ€ŤŢŒâ€Źŕ°Šࡡá„Łŕ˝ŠĆ—á‡ á‚źŕš â€ŤÝ?‏ಓ༣Ň“Óľŕť€ŕĽ?ŕ­†è ೉๤๰࣫Ń?૲Ć—á‡ƒϡŃ?૲Ӽá„˘áˆŠŕŹąá‡œŕ˛“༣Ć— á†Šá‡œŕ˛“༣ŕĽ?á ˘á„¤ŕ Ľŕ°ŠŕśŠŕź˜ÖŹâ€Ť×€â€Źáƒżá†Śá‡”â€Ť×˝â€Źá†Ąá‡–ॾ ÖĽĆĽŕ´żŕŞ‚â€ŤŢƒâ€ŹĂ¨

ࡢáˆŠŕť¨ŕŤ“Ő?ૠâ€ŤÜŒâ€Źá‡–Ô˘ŕ˝ŠĆ—ŕ˛?‍޹‏ŕ§?ञᇃϡ ŐŻĆ—á‚œོ֏á‚°ŕ¨šá ˘ŕ Şâ€ŤŘšâ€ŹŃ?૲֬ӭම҉ŕĽ?ŃŒ૮‍׀‏ á„¤ŕť¨ŕŤ“ŕ´­Ń?ഠපèŃ?૲֬ûâ€ŤŮľâ€Źŕ¸˛ŕŹ˛ĂźŐ?Ѝ‍ۉڴ‏ ŕą ŃŠ֬๰࣫Ń?૲á„ˆŕ°–Ć—Ôłâ€ŤÝ?â€Źá‡ƒϡկáˆ“Ć—á€ˆáˆŠß‰ ঺â€ŤŕŤ˛×€â€ŹĆ—á‰ƒŕ´?ࢎ֨Ć—á‰ƒŕŁ?ӳྎçկሓçलྠ࿼ ਇႯ֏ŕŹ?ŕ­Œá‡˝ŕ¸źâ€ŤÜ‹â€ŹáƒşÓłŕľŽŰłŕ¤ŒĆ—Ôłâ€Ťŕ˘”Ý?â€ŹŕąźĆ—ŕŽ’ ŕ´?ŰĄŕą â€ŤŰĄŢ‹â€ŹŕŠ“ÖŹŃ?૲Ć—á„ŁŕśŻáˆŠŕşš૲֬ࢮ֨Ć—á‰ƒ ŕŁ?໨ŕŤ“ÖŹŕĄŒ৥èЍŕś–â€ŤŰ â€Źá„¤ŕ´ ŕś´ÖŹŃ?૲֬û‍پ‏า ଲüᆴᇖ֏Ɨ൥଱â€ŤÚŁâ€Źŕšąá‚œོĆ—á‚œཥ൥໨ŕŤ“ĐťŐ• ŕ§şŕźŠĂ§ŕŹťá ˘Đ?ŕ§?֏ࡡá†‡á†´á‚°ŕ¨šĆ—â€ŤŘžâ€ŹŕŹąŕ ŽŕľĽŕť¨ŕŤ“ áˆ¸ŕ ´Ă¨

perhaps  more  evocative  of  the  moments  when  the  geopolitical  global  strategy  became  more  intimate,  DIWHU WKH HQG RI WKH &ROG :DU ZKLFK VDZ GHFDGHV of  ethnic-­cleansing  in  the  Balkans,  tribal  targeting  of  villages  in  sub-­Saharan  Africa,  the  horrors  of  the  Iran-­Iraq  war,  the  house-­to-­house  attacks  in  (DVW 7LPRU RU $FHK DQG LQWR WKH ZDUV WKDW ÂżOO WKH 21st  century  with  cross-­border  dread  and  terror,  including  the  celebrated  uprisings  in  Egypt  and  Libya.  The  nearly  porcelain  fragility  of  cardboard  is  offset  by  its  cheapness,  its  lack  of  value,  its  inherent  transience.  As  with  those  houses  and  villages  and  dwellers  similarly  removed,  relocated,  FOHDQVHG RU GHVWUR\HG WKLV LQVWDOODWLRQÂśV FLW\ LV one  of  a  presence  marked  by  absence:  a  model,  OLNH D JKRVW ÂżJXUHV ZKDW LV QRW WKHUH DQG DV with  any  representation,  is  only  possible  through  absence.   The  cardboard  surfaces,  just  as  the  lenticular  surfaces,  carry  the  mark  of  that  absence  found  in  the  terrible  intimacy  of  geopolitical  struggle:  the  mark  of  the  apostrophe. As  we  emerge  from  the  maze  and  as  we  leave  the  cardboard  village,  the  spectre  of  the  images  and  the  meditation  on  surfaces  unavoidably  spark  DORQJVLGH XV 7KH ÂżWQD RI WKH VXUIDFH UXQV IURP the  lenticular  surfaces  of  the  cladded  walls,  across  WKH FDUGERDUG YLOODJH DORQJ WKH JDOOHU\ Ă€RRU into  the  street,  and  into  the  city,  the  village,  the  simulated  theme-­park  urban  formations  of  military  training,  through  the  suburbs,  up  the  walls  and  cladding  of  high-­rise  buildings,  along  the  street  outside,  and  into  our  homes.  And  trapped  in  this  Ă€LFNHULQJ ÂżWQD RI D VXUIDFH LV WKH HPERVVHG LPDJH of  the  inextricably  intertwined  doppelganger  Other  along  with  us,  and  that  is  us. Â

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References: %DUWKHV 5RODQG µ7KH 5KHWRULF RI WKH ,PDJH¶ Bishop,  Ryan  and  Gregory  Clancey.  â€˜The  City  as  7DUJHW¶ UHSULQWHG LQ 6WHYH *UDKDP HG &LWLHV :DU DQG Terrorism.  Malden  MA  and  Oxford:  Blackwell,  2004 %LVKRS 5\DQ µ7KH &ROG :DU 5 DQG ' 8QLYHUVLW\¶ Theory  Culture  &  Society,  'HUULGD -DFTXHV µ0DU[ 6RQV¶ LQ *KRVWO\ Demarcations  (ed.  Michael  Sprinker).  London:  Verso,  2008 *UDKDP 6WHYH µ7KHPH 3DUN $UFKLSHODJR¶ LQ 5\DQ Bishop,  Gregory  Clancey  and  John  Phillips  (eds.)  The  City  as  Target.  London  and  NY:  Routledge,  2011. +RQ *RUGRQ µ5HWXUQ DQG WKH 6SHFWUHV RI 2FFXSDWLRQ¶ Nancy,  Jean-­Luc.  The  Ground  of  the  Image  (trans.  Jeff  Fort).  NY:  Fordham  UP,  2005 Pandolfo,  Stefania.  The  Impasse  of  Angels:Scenes  from  a  Moroccan  Space  of  Memory.  U  of  Chicago  P,  1998 Rumi,  Jelal  al-­Din.  The  Essential  Rumi  (trans.  Coleman  Banks).  San  Francisco:  HarperOne,  2004 Virilio,  Paul.  Speed  and  Politics  (trans.  Mark  Polizzoti).  NY:  Semiotext(e),  1986 Virilio,  Paul.  The  Art  of  the  Motor  (trans.  Julie  Rose).   Minneapolis:  U  of  Minnesota  P,  1995 Virilio,  Paul.  Open  Sky  (trans.  Julie  Rose).  London:  Verso,  1997

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PROJECT  TEAM Artist:  Bashir  Makhoul

Exhibition  Producer:  Ray  Yang

Critic:  Jonathan  Harris Â

Bashir  Makhoul  is  a  Palestinian  artist  born  (1963)  in  Galilee.  He  has  been  based  in  the  United  Kingdom  for  the  past  21  years.  During  this  time  he  has  produced  a  body  of  work  based  on  repeated  motifs  which  can  be  characterised  by  their  power  of  aesthetic  seduction.  Once  drawn  into  the  work  however,  YLHZHUV ¿QG WKHPVHOYHV HQJDJHG ZLWK VRPHWKLQJ IDU PRUH complicated  than  beautiful  patterns.  Economics,  nationalism,  war  and  torture  are  frequently  woven  into  the  layers  of  0DNKRXOœV ZRUN DQG RIWHQ WKH PRUH FRPSOH[ WKH PDWHULDO WKH more  seductive  the  surface.

Ray  Yang  is  a  digital  artist  specializes  in  computer  graphics,  photography  and  motion  graphics  and  is  currently  a  lecturer  at  WKH *UDSKLFV $UW DQG 0HGLD 'HSDUWPHQW DW :LQFKHVWHU 6FKRRO RI $UW ,Q KH UHFHLYHG KLV PDVWHUÂśV LQ &RPPXQLFDWLRQ Design  from  the  University  of  Southampton  and  2006  completed  his  BA  in  Graphic  Design  at  the  University  of  Bedfordshire.  Prior  to  his  arrival  to  the  UK  he  studied  Fashion  Design  at  Dalian  University  Polytechnic  (northern  China)  .  He  has  worked  for  several  companies,  both  in  China  and  the  UK,  as  a  graphic  consultant,  producing  a  variety  of  work  including  web  design  and  book  design  as  well  as  advertising  materials.  He  has  also  produced  several  exhibitions  for  international  venues  including:  Return  by  Makhoul  for  Suzhou  Museum  and  5HWXUQ &RQĂ€LFW IRU 6KHQ]KHQ 0XVHXP +H KDV DOVR SURGXFHG H[KLELWLRQV IRU WKH :LQFKHVWHU *DOOHU\ LQFOXGLQJ =KRX 0LQJ 3DQ ;LODQJ 5D\ <DQJ FXUUHQWO\ ZRUNV DV SURGXFHU LQ 0DNKRXOÂśV studio  in  Beijing  for  the  production  of  the  â€œEnter  Ghost,  Exit  Ghostâ€?  project.

Jonathan  Harris  has  a  BA  in  art  history  from  the  University  of  Sussex  and  a  PhD  from  what  is  now  Middlesex  University.  He  has  taught  at  Edinburgh,  Goldsmiths,  Leeds,  Keele,  and  Liverpool  universities  He  has  lectured  widely  around  the  world,  in  the  US  at  Harvard,  UCLA,  The  Clark  Art  Institute,  The  *HWW\ ,QVWLWXWH 1RUWKZHVWHUQ 8QLYHUVLW\ DQG :LOOLDP DQG 0DU\ &ROOHJH ,Q (XURSH KH KDV OHFWXUHG DW WKH +DPEXUJ :DUEXUJ Institute  and  the  universities  of  Copenhagen,  St  Petersburg  $UFKLWHFWVœ +RXVH %DUFHORQD DQG &LGXDG 5HDO

Makhoul  completed  his  PhD  in  1995  at  Manchester  Metropolitan  University  in  the  UK.  He  has  exhibited  his  work  widely  in  Britain  and  internationally,  including  the  Hayward  Gallery,  London,  Tate  Liverpool,  Harris  Museum,  Preston,  Arnolni  Gallery,  Bristol,  Ikon  Gallery,  Birmingham,  the  Liverpool  Biennial,  The  Herzilya  Museum,  Israel,  Jordan  National  Museum,  NCA  Gallery  Lahore  Pakistan,  the  Florence  Biennal,  Haus  am  Lutzowplatz  Berlin,  UTS  Gallery,  Sydney,  Australia,  (OJD :LPPHU *DOOHU\ 1HZ <RUN &KDQJVKX $UW 0XVHXP Suzhou  Art  Museum,  Shenzhen  Art  Museum  in  China  and  many  others.  He  has  received  several  prestigious  awards  from  the  Arts  Council  of  Great  Britain,  the  Arts  Council  England,  the  $UWV DQG +XPDQLWLHV 5HVHDUFK &RXQFLO $ +5 & 6KHIÂżHOG +DOODP 8QLYHUVLW\ DQG 1RUWK :HVW $UWV %RDUG DPRQJVW RWKHUV He  is  the  co-­author/editor  contributer  to  several  books/  publications  including  Identity  Theft  ,  published  by  Liverpool  University  Press;Íž  Return,  published  by  Deebipublishing;Íž  Ibrahim  Noubani,  Outside  the  Camp,  published  by  The  Israel  0XVHXP 7HO $YLY DQG 5HWXUQ LQ &RQĂ€LFW SXEOLVKHG E\ ,VVXHDUW New  York. He  was  the  founding  Head  of  School  of  Media  Art  and  Design  at  the  University  of  Bedfordshire.  He  is  currently  the  Head  of  RQH RI WKH 8. ÂśV OHDGLQJ DUW VFKRROV :LQFKHVWHU 6FKRRO RI $UW part  of  the  University  of  Southampton.

Curated  By:  Gordon  Hon  Gordon  Hon  is  an  artist  and  writer  based  in  London.  His  ([KLELWLRQV KDYH LQFOXGHG Âľ&LUFOHVÂś DW WKH +DW )DFWRU\ /XWRQ IRU ZKLFK KH WRRN Ă€\LQJ OHVVRQV LQ RUGHU WR VKRRW DHULDO IRRWDJH RI D QHZ %$( (OHFWURQLF :DUIDUH 5 ' SODQW LQ /XWRQ Âľ5XLQVÂś DW WKH 6KHQ]KHQ 0XVHXP RI $UW ZKLFK H[SORUHG WKH ÂłUXLQ DV D VWUXFWXUH´ LQ ÂżOP DQG YLGHR KLV PRVW UHFHQW RQH SHUVRQ VKRZ ZDV Âľ3LFWXUH 7KHRU\Âś DW WKH <HDUV *DOOHU\ /RQGRQ +LV SXEOLFDWLRQV LQFOXGH :KDW 5HPDLQV WR EH 6HHQ $UW DQG 3ROLWLFDO &RQĂ€LFW 9LHZV )URP %ULWDLQ ,VUDHO 3DOHVWLQH and  Northern  Ireland  (editor)  Multi-­Exposure,  London  (2004),  Return  and  the  Spectres  of  Occupation  in  Return:  Bashir  Makhoul  (ed  John  Gillett)  IssueArts  New  York  (2007),  Found  ,Q &RQĂ€LFW %DVKLU 0DNKRXO LQ FRQYHUVDWLRQ ZLWK *RUGRQ +RQ in  Identity  Theft:  Cultural  Colonization  and  Contemporary  Art  (ed)  Jonathan  Harris,  University  of  Liverpool  Press  and  Tate  Publishing  (2008).  He  produced  a  series  of  12  radio  programmes  called  Daily  Subversions  for  Resonance  FM  in  2011  and  is  currently  completing  a  book  on  Palestinian  art  co-­authored  by  Bashir  Makhoul  which  will  be  published  in  2012  by  the  University  of  Liverpool  Press.

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Project  Manager  Beijing:  Summer  Lin  (Lin  Xia)  Xia  Lin  (ćž—ĺ¤? LV D 3K' FDQGLGDWH DW :LQFKHVWHU 6FKRRO RI $UW University  of  Southampton.  She  attained  her  Masters  degree  IURP WKH 6FKRRO RI $UWV 'HVLJQ 8QLYHUVLW\ RI :ROYHUKDPSWRQ in  2010.  Her  Bachelor  of  Arts  degree  had  been  received  in  2008  from  the  School  of  Architecture,  Tianjin  University  in  China. She  is  an  architecture  designer,  landscape  designer  and  interior  designer.  Xia  specializes  in  theory  associated  with  research  into  the  spatial  relationship  between  traditional  Chinese  architecture  and  contemporary  globalized  architectural  space.  She  has  accomplished  several  projects  in  both  residential  restaurants  and  entertainment  as  well  as  museums,  combining  aesthetics  with  function. She  has  received  several  awards  including  2006-­2007  School  of  Architecture,  student  excellence  award,  Tianjin  University.  She  has  participated  in  major  international  projects  in  a  variety  of  roles,  including  a  project  for  the  Protection  of  the  National  Culture  Heritage  and  Ancient  Buildings  in  2007,  the  5th  and  6th  â€œFrom  Lausanne  to  Beijingâ€?  International  Fiber  Art  Biennale,  and  is  a  team  member  of  the  organizers  of  the  International  Fiber  Art  Symposium  in  2008  and  2010.  She  has  also  organized  international  lectures  and  events  at  the  Academy  of  Arts  &  Design,  Tsinghua  University  in  collaboration  with  University  of  Southampton.  Xia  currently  works  as  the  project  PDQDJHU IRU 0DNKRXOÂśV VWXGLR LQ %HLMLQJ IRU WKH Âł(QWHU *KRVW Exit  Ghostâ€?  project.

He  is  Professor  in  Global  Art  &  Design  Studies  and  Director  RI WKH :LQFKHVWHU &HQWUH IRU *OREDO )XWXUHV LQ $UW 'HVLJQ DQG 0HGLD DW :LQFKHVWHU 6FKRRO RI $UW 8QLYHUVLW\ RI 6RXWKDPSWRQ His  most  recent  publication  is  â€˜Globalization  and  Contemporary  $UWÂś :LOH\ %ODFNZHOO DQG KH LV DXWKRU RU HGLWRU RI PRUH than  a  dozen  other  books, several  in  collaboration  with  Tate  Liverpool  where  he  edited  WKH Âľ&ULWLFDO )RUXPÂś VHULHV IRU WHQ \HDUV +LV QH[W ERRN 7KH Âľ8WRSLDQ *OREDOLVWV $UWLVWV RI :RUOGZLGH 5HYROXWLRQ Âś LV GXH IURP :LOH\ %ODFNZHOO LQ +LV LQWHUHVWV include  modern  and  contemporary  art,  art  historiography,  social  art  history,  the  state  and  cultural  production,  cultural  globalization  and  critical  criting  on  art.

Photographic  Assistant:   Bashar  Alhroub  Bashar  Alhroub  is  a  Palestinian  artist  born  (1978)  in  Jerusalem, 3DOHVWLQH +H FRPSOHWHG KLV 0$ LQ DW :LQFKHVWHU School  of  Art  -­  University  of  Southampton  in  the  UK.  He  has  produced  a  body  of  work  directly  dealt  with  the  polemics  of  the  complexity  of  a  place,  He  asserts  his  identity  as  essentially  part  of  and  an  outsider  of  those  places.  In  his  work  he  utilizes  deferent  media  including  painting,  Photography,  Video,  Installation  and  mixed  media.  He  has  exhibited  his  work  in  Palestine  and  internationally,  including  the  Eli  and  Edythe Broad  Museum-­  Michigan  Stat  University-­  USA,  Center  for  Contemporary  Art  â€œLazania  â€œ,  Gdansk,  Poland,  Green  Art  Gallery,  Dubai,  UAE,  Birzeit  Ethnographic  and  Art  Museum  â€“  Palestine,  Instants  VidĂŠo  festival  24thâ€?,  Marseille  â€“  France  and  many  others  in  UAE,  Sweden,  Lebanon,  Morocco,  France,  Oman,  Algeria,  Syria,  Japan,  Jordan,  France,  Scotland,  Norway,  USA,  and  the  UK.

Critic:  Ryan  Bishop  Ryan  received  his  PhD  in  Cultural  Anthropology  from  Rice  University  in  1992,  where  he  worked  with  Stephen  Tyler,  George  Marcus  and  Michael  Fischer.  Prior  to  coming  to  FRPLQJ WR :6$ KH ZDV $VVRFLDWH 3URIHVVRU LQ WKH 'HSDUWPHQW of  English  at  the  National  University  of  Singapore.  He  has  been  a  Senior  Fulbright  Scholar  in  Yugoslavia,  Thailand  and  Singapore.  In  addition  to  co-­editing  with  John  Armitage  and  Doug  Kellner  the  journal  Cultural  Politics  (Duke  University  Press),  he  also  co-­edits  with  John  Phillips  the  Annual  Review  of  Theory,  Culture  &  Society  and  is  an  editorial  board  member  of  that  journal.  He  also  edits  the  book  series  â€œTheory  Nowâ€?  for  Polity  Press.  His  books  include  Comedy  and  Cultural  Critique  in  American  Film  (forthcoming  2012,  Edinburgh  University  Press),  The  City  as  Target  (co-­edited  with  Greg  Clancey  and  John  Phillips,  Routledge,  November  2011),  Modernist  Avant-­Garde  Aesthetics  and  Contemporary  Military  Technology  (co-­authored  with  John  Phillips,  Edinburgh  University  Press,  2010),  Baudrillard  Now  (Polity  Press,  2009),  Postcolonial  8UEDQLVP FR HGLWHG ZLWK -RKQ 3KLOOLSV DQG <HR :HL :HL Routledge  2006)  and  Night  Market  (co-­authored  with  Lillian  S.  Robinson,  Routledge,  1997).  His  research  areas  include  critical  theory,  critical  cultural  studies,  literary  studies,  visual  culture,  urbanism,  aesthetics,  critical  military  studies,  STS  (science,  technology  and  society)  studies,  architecture,  sensory  perception  and  knowledge  formation,  and  international  sex  tourism

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PROJECT TEAM ၣඓࡌ" Bashir Makhoul

ᅡলᇌቛಭƥသ೒

ூ௦ࡌ" Jonathan Harris

ണႜሀয়ƥBashar Alhroub

*I[PQZ 5ISPW]T൥၉໑ഺᄤࡍ৭৭֬ϟেඵณࠨၣඓࡌè ෷ᄤ‫ݝ‬ಇ ୔၉ᆷվᄤႎ‫ݚ‬èᄤՕఀ࡞Ɨ෷Ծቛਛսਏቛ ௝Ɨఊᇽ฼၉ᆷ൥ѝཊૌ֬Ⴡࠏ৶ਏè၉֑Ы෷֬ቛ௝༒ ႋƗܻᆇ߽‫ن‬ཊሸ࠴ᇉഭ჆ᄀиૌ֬଍൛‫ڶ۾‬ᄝ֬‫ױ‬།è ࣣ࠽ç૽቉ᇽၳçᅥᆡ‫ދ‬ᆃଏӏӏЫ࢓ᆵ֥5ISPW]T֬ቛ ௝ұ՘ᇖè‫ౖؾ‬Ғਟᄇ‫ڶ‬ᄝƗѝ૲ःᄇჁಭè

သ೒൥၉໑ሌ‫ࡀ܅‬ෟࠖࠂ๴çᅽ௒ç‫׵‬ฆႜཥ֬‫׏‬ሷၣඓ ࡌè෷଩ఴ൥໘౔ඵาၣඓ࿗ᄄၣඓçനࡀთૉ฿࿗ᄄ֬ ၉ଇࢊൄè ୔Ɨ෷ࠍ֫ਛହτ௻‫؟‬ս࿗Եૉനࡀሌ၃ ֬඲൝࿗໑è ୔ƗຢӵਛФ֪‫֪ڥ‬ս࿗֬௣૲നࡀന ࡀ࿗൝࿗໑èᄤ෷দႎ‫ݚ‬ᆴఴ෷ᄤսৼ‫܄‬၃ս࿗Ɠᇖ‫ݚ‬С ҍƔ࿗༤ਛ൏ഐനࡀè෷ᄤᇖ‫ދݚ‬ႎ‫ݚ‬ເ‫܋ࡌئ‬ය‫܄‬ቛƗ ቚനࡀ‫ܫ‬໠ƗᇌቛਛЎচະ၁നࡀçඇࠨࠪ‫૲چ‬നࡀ‫݃ދ‬ ۨҒਟְᄤୄ֬սਏቛ௝è෷ߕԛШਛ྿‫ࡄݚئ‬ᅡলƗЎ চƥෑᇣѷ༅ܽ֬ûߴ݉üƓ5ISPW]TƔᅡçമᎱѷ༅ܽ ֬ûߴ݉ԑ๳üᅡè෷ເ໘౔ඵาૌඓܽԛШ֬ᅡলЎচ ቂଃçஓ༦਌֬ૌඓᅡè:Ia AIVO ଩ఴᄤСࣟ5ISPW]T‫܄‬ ቛ൰֙ᇌቛಭƗᇌቛõႰਹཊƗႰਹႌöར଩è

2WVI\PIV 0IZZQ[ Ⴜෑೝय़ඵ֬ၣඓൕ࿗൝࿗໑‫ދ‬ཊଇເૣ ֪‫ف‬ೝय़ඵս࿗֬ѷ൝࿗໑è෷ᄤπ‫ק‬Дç֪۬ൕ૨ඵç ৭ሬ‫ދ‬৭༅௼ս࿗ࢤ‫ݝ‬ඇè෷ߕᄤ൞ࢿ۹‫׀‬࿢ࢊƗ೉ᄤૌ ‫ڔݞ֬ݚ‬çࡍ৭‫ڔ‬ୋ࿷ս࿗ઓ೼ᨩ‫ཱུٺ‬çय़টय़ၣඓ࿗ ᄄç།Сս࿗‫৾ຶދ‬ଡઘ২ս࿗èᄤ୿ᇤƗ෷ᄤ‫ݸ‬Д໬Ѽ ۳࿗ᄄç۩Ю‫ۻݞ‬ս࿗çൃл֫Дࢀሄ࿗ᄄçϟೝઌ଱‫ދ‬ ྯչৡ‫ف‬ဍࢊè

ၣඓࡌ *I[PIZ )TPZW]J ! ୔Ԣഺᄤϟেඵณြ੥೘৖è ෷ᄤ ୔ᄤႎ‫ݚ‬໘ӥඵาၣඓ࿗ᄄຢӵਛ෷֬ကࣵഺè ᄤ෷֬ቛ௝ᇖࣣӏൗႯ҉๤֬ૉࣁদԾᄶ‫ދ‬ຢӵ෷֬ቛ ௝ƗЎচࠂ߉çണႜç൱௛ሔᇉၣඓ‫ލࠈދ‬ૉ฿è෷֬ቛ ௝ᅂᄤϟেඵณ‫ࡄݚދ‬ഏᅡԢƗ೉-TQ ‫*ދ‬ZWIL 5][M]U 5QKPQOIV ;\I\ =VQ^MZ[Q\a ૌ‫ ݚ‬+MV\MZ NWZ +WV\MUXWZIZa )Z\ õ4IbIVQI õ /LIV[S Ѷম /ZMMV )Z\ /ITTMZa ַ ϯ =)- *QZbMQ\ -\PVWOZIXPQK IVL )Z\ 5][M]U ϟেඵ ณ 1V[\IV\[ >QĻW NM[\Q^IT \Pö 5IZ[MQTTM ‫ئޚދ‬ఊ ෷‫ࡌݚ‬೉ƥδ৺౹ ೒‫ ׌‬৚ϟ୅ ଐઓ۩ ٌ‫ ݚ‬δપ δ ‫ࠪف‬৭࿷ ࿂৭࿷ ಷЮ ᄆ֑ ٌ‫ ݚ‬ෑ۳ম ୺ຶ ૌ‫ ݚ‬ ‫ދ‬ႎ‫ ݚ‬

5ISPW]Tᄤ !! ୔ᄤႎ‫ݚ‬પӥඵาӳ൮ս࿗ຢӵਛѷ൝ ࿗໑è෷ᄤႎ‫ݚࠪݚ‬ບ۹԰ᅡল෷֬ቛ௝ƗЎচႎ‫ݚ‬ 0Ia_IZLૌඓܽƗฃา৭༅௼Ɨ௻৉ඵ‫ݞ؟‬ৡඵѷ༅ܽƗ Ҋৡඵຈ‫)ف‬ZVWTVQ ૌඓܽƗѼଃ‫ݰ‬1SWVૌඓܽƗ৭༅௼ ට୔ᅡƗ၏়0MZbQTaIѷ༅ܽƗో֌‫ࡌݚ‬ѷ༅ܽƗϟࠕඵ ณট‫فލ‬൮6+)ૌඓܽƗ‫ڔ‬ઌઅඵට୔ᅡƗϪਦ0I][ IU 4]\bW_XTI\bƗϖս৭࿷༘ୋ=<;ૌඓѷ༅ܽƗ୮ᄆ-TOI ?QUUMZૌඓܽƗᇖ‫ݚ‬ӏඊၣඓѷ༅ܽƗෑᇣၣඓѷ༅ ܽƗമᎱၣඓѷ༅ܽၢࠪ྿‫ئ‬ఊ෷ѷ༅ܽè෷ࠍ֫ਛ၉ཻ ഹຳ‫ࢉ֬ۡޚ‬Ɨ෷૓দሸս҉ਠ‫ׇ‬ၣඓ໅჻߽çႎ۳মၣ ඓ໅჻߽çၣඓთಭ৒ကࣵ໅჻߽Ɠ) 0: +ƔƗྍৡ֌ ‫ݞ‬েଡս࿗ၢࠪС།ၣඓ‫׳‬ൠ߽‫ދ‬ఊ෷໅჻߽è෷თಭ‫ލ‬ ᇾࠎ‫ލ‬ѐਛ‫࠲ށ‬ЮඇƗЎচ৭༅௼ս࿗Ԣϸധ֬ûഭ‫֩ځ‬ ᄾüƦḋиԢϸധ֬ûߴ݉üƦၢ೫ਠาটໂ‫ږ‬ѷ༅ܽ֬ 1JZIPQU 6W]JIVQ‫ދ‬û႖ᅲᆴບüƦ୮ᄆ1[[]MIZ\Ԣϸധû ߴ݉ԑ๳üè෷ԾϾਛ*MLNWZL[PQZMս࿗ૉ฿ၣඓთനࡀ ࿗ᄄè෷଩ఴ൥໘౔ඵาၣඓ࿗ᄄᄄӐè໘౔ඵาၣඓ࿗ ᄄ൥ହτ௻‫؟‬ս࿗֬၉ҍ‫ٺ‬Ɨ൥ႎ‫֬༼਼ݚ‬ၣඓ࿗ཱུè

ҭᅡಭƥGordon Hon /WZLWV 0WV൥၉໑ᄤઅ‫֬؞‬ၣඓࡌçቛࡌè෷֬ቛ௝Ў চᄤઽሷ‫܄‬ӓਗ਼‫֬؟‬ᅡল õಈöƓ Ɣè෷֙൏ເ ਛ஌ണਗ਼‫)*ྟྔ؟‬-‫׏‬ሷᅥᆡက‫܄ن‬ӓ֬३ᇖ࣫๯Ɨߕഏ ਛ‫ॢྡྷ٭‬ӸèߕႼᄤമᎱၣඓѷ༅ܽ֬õߵૼöƗᄤ‫׏‬ႜ ‫ދ‬൱௛ᇖ‫ن‬नõቛເ၉ᇜࢹ‫ૼߵ֬ܙ‬öèၢࠪ෷ቒྔ֬ ᄤઅ‫֍঺߉୔ ؞‬ಭྵõᅽ௒য়ઉöè෷ၟࣣ‫ن‬ѝƓၢࠪ ࢃး‫ن‬ѝƔ֬ᇾቛЎচƥûၣඓთᆦᇔԑ๳üƗûদሸႎ ‫ݚ‬ç၏়çϟেඵณ‫ދ‬Сπ‫ف‬মܻ֬‫׋‬üƓѐᆇƔû‫ئ‬ ૲ᅡ൜Ɨઅ‫؞‬üƓ ƔƗûߴ݉თ෢ᆴ‫ؾ‬দ֬ᆶ၃Ⴐ ਹƥ*I[PQZ 5ISPW]T üƓѐᆇWPV /QTTM\\Ɣçû୮ᄆၣඓ ृüƓ ƔƗûԑ๳෵֫üƗû/WZLWV 0WVთ*I[PQZ 5ISPW]Tःഭ‫ځ‬๭ౘ໠฼‫ߌؚ‬ƥ໚ߋᆹ૽თ֙քၣඓüƓ ѐᆇƔè෷჆ ୔ᇌቛਛ၉༩ਠ ۸ࢨቚોಷ‫ܒ‬ᆙ‫ן‬௛ ‫݃֬ڴׇ‬ѳࢲ଩èཊᄤƗ෷ᆥთ*I[PQZ 5ISPW]T၉ఖຢӵ ၉ҍܸ჆ϟেඵณ֬ᇾቛƗხఀࢃᄤ Ⴕ৭༅௼ս࿗Ԣ ϸധԢϸè

98

ར଩ҭߊƓСࣟƔƥਦ༸ ਦ༸൥၉໑ହτ௻‫؟‬ս࿗໘౔ඵาၣඓ࿗ᄄ֬ѷ൝ഺè෹ ჆ ࠍ֫໿‫ݸڧف‬௻‫؟‬ս࿗ၣඓ‫ދ‬നࡀ࿗ᄄ֬඲൝࿗ ໑Ɨ჆ ୔ᄤᇖ‫֬ݚ‬ๆ࣊ս࿗ࢀሄ࿗ᄄࠍ֫࿗൝࿗໑è ෹൥၉໑ࢀሄനࡀൄç‫ࣦڋ‬നࡀൄ‫ދ‬൰ୄനࡀൄè༸ሌ‫܅‬ ᇖ‫ݚ‬Ե๫ࢀሄთ֙ք‫ࢀߋࡄݚ‬ሄ३࡞֬३࡞ܸ༩য়ઉè෹ ၟຢӵ֬࠲۸ར଩҉࣎Ўচധ౼ٝ‫ދג‬ვৈӍ෵ƗߕЎচ ѷ༅ܽƗࢃૌ‫ے‬თ‫܆‬୆ࢹ‫ލ‬è ෹ࠍ֫ਛЎচ ๆ࣊ս࿗ࢀሄ࿗ᄄ֬Ⴑྵ࿗ഺ ࢉè෹ၢ‫ئ‬ᇜ࢟೫Ҝთਛᇞս‫ࡄݚ‬ར଩ƗЎচ ୔Г߀ ‫ࡌݚ‬໚ߋၓӈ‫ࢀܥދ‬ሄ֬ར଩Ɨׂ ‫ࣄ ׂދ‬õ՝ઓೣ֥С ࣟö਍୔၉؎֬‫ࡄݚ‬༿ໂၣඓƗҜთቍᆵ ୔‫֬ ދ‬ ‫ࡄݚ‬༿ໂၣඓઉญè෹ߕቍᆵਛ౩߆ս࿗‫ދ‬ହτ௻‫؟‬ս࿗ ৺‫ލ‬एϾ֬ၣඓനࡀ࿗ᄄ‫ࢊࡄݚ‬ቝ‫׵ࠊދ‬è༸଩ఴ൥Сࣟ 5ISPW]T‫܄‬ቛ൰ར଩ࣣয়Ɨ‫ڼ‬ᄺõࠆ࣐ࠆԢöར଩è

෷൥‫ࡄݚ‬ၣඓთനࡀကࣵᄄ֬ࢤ൸çହτ௻‫؟‬ս࿗ ໘౔ඵาၣඓ࿗ᄄ໊দ಍౶ၣඓനࡀთૉ฿ᇖྖ ֬ᇽರè෷֬ቒྔԢϸ༅ເû಍౶ߋთ֙քၣඓü Ɠ?QTMa *TIKS_MTTƗ Ɣè෷ߕሏ྆ѐࠧਛඛൌҍఊ෷ ᇾቛèఊᇖႼ၉ཻ൥თฃา৭༅௼‫ލ‬ቛԢϸ֬Ɨ෷ᄤ଱ৡ ѐࠧõூ௦ઉญöչൌ୔ᆴࣹè෷֬༶၉ҍᇾቛƗû໰ຈ Ѐ֬಍౶ᇽၳᆇƥ൞ࢿٚຽୄ֬۱ྔၣඓࡌƗ ! ! ! üƗࢃᄤ Ⴕ?QTMa *TIKS_MTTԢϸè෷֬ྜྷಆЎচཊ֙ քၣඓçၣඓѐൕçധ߽ၣඓൕçӳЀთ໚ߋӈഺç໚ߋ ಍౶ߋ‫ދ‬ၣඓூ௦è

ூ௦ࡌƥRyan Bishop :aIV *Q[PWX !! ୔ࠍ֫ধඵս࿗໚ߋಭ৒࿗ѷ൝࿗໑è ෷ᄤধඵս࿗თ;\MXPMV <aTMZ /MWZOM 5IZK][ ‫ ދ‬5QKPIMT .Q[KPMZ‫ܒ‬ൠ‫ݝ‬èᄤಇ?;)ᆴఴƗ෷൥ྔࡍ௨‫ݚ‬৲ս࿗ႎ ໚༩‫ࢤڳ‬൸è෷ᅂ൥ହඵট‫ږ‬çฃ‫ݚ‬çྔࡍ௨ሮമ‫فڽ‬ Ҋথาٌϊࠕࣈ࿗ᆇèԩਛთ2WPV )ZUQ\IOMၢࠪ ,W]O 3MTTVMZ ၉ఖѐࠧఀृ໚ߋᆦᇔƓ؋य़ս࿗ԢϸധƔƗ෷ ߕ‫ދ‬2WPV 8PQTTQX[၉ఖѐࠧয়ઉç໚ߋთധ߽୔؎ള௦Ɨ ෷ߕ൥଱۸ఀृ֬ѐࠧ‫׳‬ൠӵ჻è෷ߕເᆦᇔԢϸധѐࠧ ༩ਠඇࠨõ֙༶য়ઉöè෷֬ඇЎচûૌ‫׏ݚ‬ႜᇖ֬༦झ თ໚ߋூ௦üƓπ‫ק‬Дս࿗ԢϸധƗ ԢϸƔƗûቛເ ଩њ֬ӳ൮üƓ/ZMO +TIVKMa ‫ ދ‬2WPV 8PQTTQX[‫ލ‬ѐƗিา ৡఌԢϸധƗ ୔ ᄌƔƗûཊքఴဈૌ࿗თ֙քल ൠ࠶ඓüƓ2WPV 8PQTTQX[‫ލ‬ѐƗπ‫ק‬Дս࿗ԢϸധƗ ୔ƔƗû֙༶Л֪ৡ࿷üƓᆦᇔԢϸധƗ !ƔƗû‫ޱ‬ᆹ ૽൏ք֬ӳ൮ߋü 2WPV 8PQTTQX[ ‫ ދ‬AMW ?MQ ?MQ‫ލ‬ѐƗ িาৡఌԢϸധ ࠪû၇൮üƓ4QTTQIV ; :WJQV[WV‫ލ‬ ᇾƗিาৡఌԢϸധƗ !! Ɣè෷֬က਼ࣵპЎচூ௦য় ઉç໚࿗ကࣵç൱फ໚ߋçӳ൮ߋçૌ࿗çூ௦लൠကࣵ ‫;<;ދ‬Ɠग़࿗ç࠶ඓ‫ދ‬ധ߽ƔကࣵƗࢀሄç‫ܹے‬ᆰफ‫ދ‬ᆰ ൔྠӵࠪ‫ੱྦࡄݚ‬Ⴚè

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Yang  Gallery  would  like  to  acknowledge  the  following  individuals  and  institutions  for  their  encouragement,  assistance,  support  and  contribution  for  the  realisation  of  this  project: :H DUH JUDWHIXO ¿UVW DQG IRUHPRVW WR DUWLVW  Bashir  Makhoul  for  his  inspiring  art  practice.  5\DQ %LVKRS (G '¶6RX]D $XJXVW -RUGDQ 'DYLV -RQDWKDQ +DUULV *RUGRQ Hon,  Annie  Makhoul,  Tim  Metcalf,  Ray  Yang,  Summer  Lin,  Bashar  Alhroub,  Alick  Cotterill,  Chirtopher  Carter,  Andy  Brook,  Lin  Le  Cheng,  Liu  Xiao,  Alnoor  Mitha,  Bryan  Biggs  . :H ZRXOG OLNH WR WKDQN WKH IROORZLQJ SHRSOH DQG ERGLHV IRU WKH UHSURGXFWLRQ of  paintings  and  other  works,  which  are  courtesy  of:  National  Galleries  of  Scotland;;  Getty  Images;;   &KULVWR DQG -HDQQH &ODXGH DQG &DPHUD 3UHVV /WG 5LFKDUG :LOVRQ DQG Saatchi  Gallery;;  Michael  Heizer  and  The  Museum  of  Contemporary  Art,   Los  Angeles;;  Bruce  Nauman  and  National  Galleries  of  Scotland  and  6SHURQH :HVWZDWHU *DOOHU\ -DQ 'LEEHWV DQG 7DWH *DOOHU\

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