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Slow Pattern Yan Luo s3262035


Slow Pattern

Strategy for Human Interaction in Urbanism How can I use patterns as mechanism to generate a complex landscape system for sustainability of human interaction in urban redevelopment? The research is concerned about relationship between patterning, human interaction and urban redevelopment in old residential area. Intension is to research a landscape system based on mechanism of different natural patterns to conduct landscape design in these city spaces for integration with human interaction (neighborhood) and urban redevelopment. In project A, I explore for a strategy to integrate human interaction with social economic redevelopment, between which clash is made in Urbanism, especially in China. Chinese city towns are undertaking economic redevelopment by governments and the lost of neighborhood is a result after the projects. My project is one of these redevelopments in Guangzhou, China. My intention is to research a landscape system for circulation space in new design instead of government plan, which can maintain quality of KXPDQLQWHUDFWLRQDQGIXO¿OOWKHGHPDQGVRIVRFLDO and economic redevelopment. In this system, patterns are mechanisms to conduct generation of spatial morphology and programmatic arrangement in order to affect human interaction (of human behavior) according to social psychology (social theatre). In the design, I analyzed the site integrated with different mechanisms RISDWWHUQVWRJHQHUDWHVSDWLDOFRQ¿JXUDWLRQVZKLFKDV a result, produced different types of social theatres to affect human interaction. But the exploration of spatial design is not enough and not all the mechanisms of patterns were clear, therefore, some spatial properties were not considered, as a result, how social theatre works in these mechanisms of spatial design was unclear. Secondly, interaction and integration between different patterns to create a larger and more complex system are not clear enough. That is to say there are still potentials to explore the systems in order to make the mechanism of these patterns more reusable on human interaction in any urban redevelopment. Based on previous spatial design in project A , intention of project B is to improve understand of patterns DVGHVLJQSURWRW\SHWRUH¿QHGHWDLOGHVLJQRQWKH spatial qualities such as Pavement, Programs and Infrastructures, Terrain Design, road system and look at how different patterns exert in these properties and how these patterns interact to create an active complex system in spatial–chronological process, in order insert social theatres for human interaction in urban landscape and eliminate stereotype in government plan such as physical separation( fence and inaccessible huge green ¿HOG ULJLGSURJUDPGLVWULEXWLRQDQGLQWHJUDWLQJZLWK social economic redevelopment. Finally, through design with patterning and based on the theatre of social theatre, this research aims at transferring the logic of patterns into generation invisible theatres for producing of a series of invisible fence by human behavior/interaction in order to replace the physical separation and redistribute the rigid program arrangement in government plan. 3


Content Introduction

7

Preface

9

Diagram of the Book

11 13

The Essay Patterns Slow Exploration of Stevens Natural Patterns

29

The Site

35

First Exploration of Patterns through Design

51 55

A Need for Theory of Human Interaction Study Further Exploration of Patterns, Simulation, Redevelopment Patching

65

Meandering

87

Spiral

123

Slow

163

Explosion--- Spatial Process Superimposition--- Chronological Process Conclusion and Direction

205

My Passion

207

5HĂ€HFWLRQDQG3URMHFWLRQ0RUH(VVD\

209

Bibliography

211

5


Introduction Âł+XUU\KXUU\ZUDSDJLIWÂżQLVKWKDWZRUN project, send a card, stop at the grocery store, and hit the gym‌ December is the busiest month of the year as we all try to pack in ‘just one more thing’ to our day. Give yourself an early gift this year and give yourself a relaxing hour to regroup and refresh around the relationship you hope to have. Get off the to-do list treadmill and take a deep breath. Ask yourself, where is ÂżQGLQJDUHODWLRQVKLSLQ\RXUSULRULWLHVDQG are you giving it the attention it deserves? Think about a year into the future — what would be great about being with ‘The One’, DQGRQWKHĂ€LSVLGHZKDWZRXOGEHEDG about it. Finding love shouldn’t be a chore with a handful of tasks on your to-do list, take some time today to reconnect with what is important‌and then back to your frenzy!â€? ----- Kelleher International, “Deep Breath, Regroup, and Go!â€?, December 12th, 2011 (http://www.kelleher-international.com/blog/ deep-breath-regroup-and-go/) Figure 1 Kelleher’s essay is an epitome which describes the speed of life in current urban. This speed is related to circulation system LQWKHPRGHUQXUEDQ2QORQJVWUDLJKWWUDIÂżF tracks, in high-rise towers and in elevaWRUVSHRSOHDUHKXUU\IRUZRUNDQGÂżOOHG with a heap of jobs, tasks. We become to have nothing to say with or take care about others, except for talking about projects, works and assignments. These burdens of life push us forward without having time to think what we really lose, the chance for communication. Nowadays, as the pursuit of high-income and high-density buildings in modern metropolitans, many cities and urban still suffer from the lost of neighborhood due to the international standardization design as WRZHUVWUDIÂżFWUDFNVLQDFFHVVLEOHJUHHQ ÂżHOGVDQGZDOOVRIKXJHUHVLGHQWLDOGLVWULFWV These rigid and grim components are built in every urban as a sign of urban redevelopment. They stand for modernization and internationalization image of urbanism, at the same time; they provoke many social problems in the history and presence. Separation of community interaction is a protruding one of the problems, which also indicates the difference between urban and old town. Lack of community interaction can produce poor sense of neighborhood, which means people become harden and uneasy to talk, know, consider and communicate with each other. As a result, human in society are divided into different groups, each of which is indifferent with others. People in the same group are due to they have similar interest. They only talk

to someone in-group and neglect other out-group. They talk because they have to. They talk to their clients, talk about the project with colleagues, talk about the price and business on the telephone and teachers talk with student on class. They behave together because they have to. They stop at the same station because they wait for the same train for work, slot in a small room of elevator without talk with each other. They are in the same group because they have to. These are what current circulaWLRQV\VWHP VXFKDVWUDI¿FWUDFNVHOHYDWRU À\RYHUDQGVRRQ GRWRXV%XWLWLVXQGHQLDEOHWKDWWKH\DUHHI¿FLHQWDQGIDVWHU,Q comparison, the ones in old towns generate different behaviors. People there become all in group. (Figure 2)They talk about trivia things of what they see and hear; in shops, customers are familiar with the shop runners; in particular dates, they cook and eat together on open-air space; they have their own temple to serve for their particular evens and daily activities. They do because they want to. This is freedom which the circulation system in old towns gives back WRXVHUVXQOLNHWKHPRGHUQRQHFRQ¿QLQJ LQWHUDFWLRQKRZHYHULWODFNVRIHI¿FLHQF\ Arrangement of buildings and programs creates particular patterns such as morphology of circulation system and human behaviors. Behaviors and circulation systems are relevant, while they interact through particular mechanism/rules. These mechanism and rules are what this essay means about patterns. To sum, patterns are the containers of behavior, which indicate physical and programmatic arrangements as well as human behavior. Physical and program arrangement in circulation system create physical patterns, while human behaviors are perceptional patterns which react to the former. This interaction obeys to the rule, mechanism pattern. Grids are the important patterns in modern urban, while many nature patterns present in spatial composition in old towns or old residential areas. The dynamics and image of urban landscape is derived from behaviors, which change with time and space. The behaviors living in urban grids restrict community interaction and only pursue one-sided development. Conversely, the behaviors in ROGWRZQVEHQH¿WKXPDQLQWHUDFWLRQEXWDUH QRWHI¿FLHQWIRUHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQW$V patterns are activators of behaviors, it is the key to solve the social problem to research of these patterns in old town and exploration of their usage in order to remain old town’s quality on human interaction at the same time respond to the requirement of HI¿FLHQF\DQGHFRQRP\IURPJRYHUQPHQW


redevelopment. This Essay is to research the relationship between patterns and behavior system in order to explore landscape patterns in old residential area and reuse to provide a third pattern as an interface between community interaction and social development in urban redevelopment.

Figure 1 A photo on a street of Tokyo Japan. People hurry up to do their tasks without paying attention to each other.

Figure 2 A photo on a corridor of old town in Hainan province China. People are having an easy talk about trivias.

7


Preface From Behavior To Pattern ,QÂżUVW\HDURIP\PDVWHUSURJUDPLQ50,7 there are 2 studios I have experienced, which talk about dynamic models and its translation into actual landscape system. These studios reveal an innovative way to think about landscape design. Dynamic model is an abstract and chronologically variable system, which is composed with components and rules. The iconic property RIWKHVHPRGHOVLVWKHLUVSHFLÂżFEHKDYLRXUV which is the result of interaction between a Behaviour components following rules. In the studios, it is required to compose a dynamic model(Figure 3b, Figure 4b) by oneself and use it as prototype to recreate a landscape system for a particular site( Figure 3c, Figure 4c) as a result, the outcome of design have a similar behaviour (Figure 3a, Figure 4a) as the model does. This progress of design inspired me to think about the ambiguous archetypes of different behaviour systems. These archetypes indicate rules or principles about how components are b Dynamic Model arranged and joint to create a complex system and how behaviours inside the system change along with space and time. (Figure 3 ; Figure 4)

a Behaviour

c Landscape System Made by Dynamic Model

b Dynamic Model

Morning

Noon

Evening c Landscape System Made by Dynamic Model Entrance

Destination

Entrance

Destination

Entrance

Destination

d Figure 3 Behaviour: Spatial Perception Changing Along Walking Through The Space With Different Form and Programs.

Figure 4 Behaviour: Activities Changing In The Same Place Along Different Time


a

b

f

d

c e g Figure 5 a:Local Interaction between different boids; EGI0RYHPHQWRIÂżVKVFKRROFHJ3DWWHUQVDSSHDUIURP PRYHPHQWRIÂżVKVFKRRO

a

c

b

d

6LPLODUO\LQĂ€RFNLQJV\VWHP )LJXUH 5) behaviours of each boid [1]usually UHĂ€HFWSDUWLFXODUFRQVWUXFWLRQVZKLFKDUH mechanisms of the movement. A series of local interactions between different boids (Figure 5a)in the system become basic relationships to compose complicated behaviours of the system (Figure 5 c,e,g). Mechanisms exists in spatial-chronological progress of this behaviour system, which present as patterns (Figure 5 b,d,f) to indicate the rules and principles about how these local interaction join together. In this case, patterns here are not only physical structures but also abstract prototypes as dynamic models. Patterns (Figure 6b,d) UHĂ€HFWKRZDFRPSOH[EHKDYLRXUV\VWHP works. If a city is one behaviour system, its layout and performance of landscape (Figure 6 e,f) represent patterns as well. Local interaction and particular behaviours (Figure 6a,c) are related to these patterns. That is to say, the quality of a natural town represented in particular patterns which pose relevant behaviour and interaction between domestic people. These behaviours act as icon of a site. Sense of neighbourhood and grouping of people are conveyed through the perception on these behaviours. Specialty of urban landscape is attributed to behaviours rather than heaps of physical constructions or architectures. /DQGVFDSHDUFKLWHFWXUHLVWRÂżQGRXWZKHUH these patterns are and how can they be used to recreate new landscape and behavior.

e f Figure 6 a,c: Local behaviour; b,d:Patterns of village and city e,f:Performance of Landscape in village and city

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9


Diagram of the Book

Finding Patterns

Explore Patterns Components

Natural Phemomena Spiral

Meandering

Patching

Part A

Vortex

Center + Rotational Fluid

Stream Dynamics

Block + Transfering Fluid

Patches in Matrix

Activator, Patch, Matrix + Species

Part B

Simulate Patterns Circulation System in City Town

Components in Citytown Redevelopment Project

10 Small Courtyard

Landscape Sign/Landmark ( Active Centre and Neutral Centre) with Transitional Boundary ( Boundary and In-between Zone )+ Pedestrians

3 4

5

Enlargement of Scale

Laneway

Facilities( Active Centre and Neutral Centre) + Pedestrians

Activator1: Ratio of Program Arrangement/ Policy negotiation with Government, Local people and designers who consider about migrant workers.

2

Activator2: Legislation

Masterplan 0

1

Activator 1: Ratio of Programs Patch: program Matrix: Land use Activator 2:Legislation Patch: Land form Matrix: Site

9

+ Consumers and Resident

Part C

Further Redevelopment of Patterns Detail Design

Explore in Scale Circulation System in City Town

Components in Citytown Redevelopm

Small Courtyard

Infrastructure, Pavement, Terrain Design

Laneway

Infrastructure, Pavement, Canopy, Dailyroutine.

Resilient Design

Explore in Chronological Process Circulation System in City Town Spiral Activator 4: shadow/sunlight

Meandering Activator 3: time

+

16 Patching

Components in Citytown Redevelopme Shadow Variation, Pavement, Dailyroutine, Traditional Event, Terrain Design

Small Courtyard

Canopy, Dailyroutine, Pavement, Infrastructure

Road

Dailyroutine, Road system

Masterplan

Explore in Relationship Patching

Pattern Landscape Ecology

Topography + matrix with patches

Circulation System

Exterior Spatial Morphology

Replacement On Govermentplan

Program Arrangement as Invisible Fence and Zoning vs

Lowrise Buildings

Ac

vs

Physical Fence and Rigid Program Zoning

Process of Enlargement

La

Towers

In-between Zone Varying Boundary + Neutral Centre

Passi

Meandering (A Gallery of Progra

Spiral (Small Courtyard with Programmatic Transition) Active Centre + Varying Boundary

Multi-pro

Enlarge the Scale Active Vortex

Active Centre

When this relation enlarge in scale, what happen?

Neutral Vortex

,Q0HDQGHULQJ,ÂżQGWKH Each Other, through relat and participation, private

Neutral Centre

Interaction Assortment of Outreaching Behaviours

Participation (Direct Interactio

Image Theatre Invisible Theatre

Opposite Behaviours Transition

Part D

Forum Theatre

Observation( Indirect Interact


Mechanism of Pattern

Behaviour of Pattern

Variation of Speed Proportion to Distance Towards or From Centre; Direction of partical follow that of the Centre, so the centre can repulse or attract particles .

Center absorbing Particle in Varying Speed

Interval Between Different Blocks and Relative Positions of Them affect Distance, Interaction, Quantity of the Fluid.

Turbulant Transportation

Activators from affection of human or nature create Changes/Patches to disturb the Matrix and isolate some of Patches, which allow more interaction and generation of different species.

Spatial Process

Mechanism

Interfacing: Intensity of participation and observation varies along from centre and create hierachy, as a result, different behaviours are FODVVL多HGZKLOHSHRSOHDUHDWWUDFWHGE\FHQWUHDQGWKHVHRSSRsite programs or behaviours can integrate with each other into DQXQL多HGFRQGLWLRQE\DQLQEHWZHHQLQWHUIDFH

Landscape Fragementation

Perception Pattern:Social Theatre

Physical Pattern

11

Attractive Centre Enclosed by Transitional Boundaries(Programmatic Transition)

Forum Theatre ( Behaviour Transition)

Multi-programmatic Courtyard

12

6 Extrusion: Arrangement of Facilities extruding programs from walls to exterior laneway space as blocks, active centres can produce narrowness and void(neutral centre) which affect the spatial volume through thier interval and relative position. This spatial morphology generates active and neutral edges for human interaction, at the same time, routes of pedestrians are affected too.

Image Theatre (Behaviour Assortment)

Gallery with Varying Volume (Programmatic Assortment) Gellery: People can observe or take part in activities during their journey of transportation. All behaviours facilitate one dominant program (laneway for pedestrian transportation). Varying Volume made by Programmatic Extrusion from walls of laneway/road Multi-programmatic Laneway

7

Programmatic Fragmentation (Programmatic Redistribution)

Insertion: Activators, Different Ratio of Programmatic Distribution and Legislation on Overshadowing, Fire Distance and Hieght of Lowrise Buildings, affect Arrangement of Programs and Morphology of Exterior Space which produce chances for human interaction by inserting opposite program into the main one.

Forum Theatre ( Behaviour Transition)

Insection: The opposite programs as patches inserted into the dominant one as matrix which render the place different interaction.

14 explosion: complex combination of invisible theatres

Components in Citytown Redevelopment Project

Spatial Process

Mechanism

Physical Pattern

Perception Pattern:Social Theatre

ent Project 13

......

......

......

......

......

Forum Theatre ( Behaviour/Program Transition) Using People behaviour in section to talk about transition

8

......

Image Theatre (Behaviour/Program Assortment) Using People behaviour in section to talk about assortment

Using People behaviour in plan to talk about assortment 15

ent Project

Chronological Process

......

......

Superimposition (Overlap of Multi-program)

......

......

Superimposition (Active Transportation)

Forum Theatre ( Behaviour/Program Transition)

Forum Theatre 17 ( Behaviour/Program Transition)

Active: Self-Organization, Responsive to Changes over Time, Complex

Invisible Fence Behaviour Zoning

......

......

Meandering

Spiral

Particle

Corridor

Patch/Block and Void in Corridor

Species and Energy

aneway + Road

Small Courtyard

Human

ogrammactic Laneway + ctive Roadsystem

Small Courtyard

Human

vs

ve Road System

Superimposition (Ever-updating Spatial Zoning)

Forum Theatre ( Behaviour/Program Transition)

vs Huge and Inaccessible Green Field

am Assortment)

Attraction to People Physical Interaction

Participation (Direct Interaction)

Active Edge(Provide Higher Interaction Activities)

Programed Area

Block

Unprogramed Area

Void

Active: Participation Promoting

WZRFHQWHUVHQKDQFHZLWK tionship between observation and active

Visual Interaction

Observation( Indirect Interaction) Identify:

Neutral Edge(Provide More Privacy)

Participation: Participate in a program. (Watching Movie) Observation: Observe other participant running a program. ( Watch people playing check)

on)

tion)

11


Diagram of Slow Pattern --- A Landscape B

Components

Particle

Behaviour (1)

local Interaction Affected by

Affected by

Single Pattern 1

Behaviour (2)

Physical Pattern 1 Spatial morphology, form, volume,structure, program arrangement

Perception Pattern 1 Particle Behaviour

Spatial Perception

Components

Behaviour (1) Pattern Behaviour (2)

Simple System1

Slow/Transition(Spatial+ Chronological Process)

Pattern

Particle

Object

Single Pattern 2 Physical Pattern 2 Spatial morphology, form, volume,structure, program arrangement

Perception Pattern 2

Pattern Arrangement of Objects

Particle Behaviour

Particle Behaviour

Spatial Perception

Simple System2

Particle

Local Interaction 2 Affected by

Single Pattern 3 Physical Pattern 3 Spatial morphology, form, volume,structure

Perception Pattern 3 Particle Behaviour

Spatial Perception

Complex System

Pattern Complex Arrangement of Objects

Particle Behaviour


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Behaviour System Landscape Behaiour System Landscape is a behaviour system which has different components and is conducted by patterns (prototype, mechanism). Components include particles and objects. Particles are dynamics in the system, while arrangement of objects is the framework of the system. This framework includes spatial morphology and programmatic arrangement and is created according to particular mechanism as prototype. This prototype is presented as a pattern. Thus, the framework is a physical form of pattern which I name it physical pattern. It is physical behaviour of the system. As a result, particles moving inside have particular behaviours as reaction to it, and result in different behaviours/activities/motions which affect spatial perception. Thus a simple system is made. Two (or more) simple systems act as two (or more) new components which interact in accordance with another pattern. As a result, a complex system is made, which is a consequence of a chronological or spatial process which I mean “slow�.

Behaviour Behaviour is movement or interaction existing in the whole process of landscape V\VWHP'HÂżQLWLRQDERXWEHKDYLRXULV involved of two aspects: Local Interaction and Characteristic of Patterns.

(1). Local Interaction The minimum behaviour is explained as local interaction between two particles or the smallest scale of interaction. In behaviour system, this is the basic reciprocity in a FRPSOH[V\VWHP,QĂ€RFNLQJV\VWHPWKLVLV interaction between every two animals.

(2). Characteristics/Effect of pattern Behaviour is an effect or result of a pattern in progress of time. It reveals characteristics of pattern. Therefore, it is also the charDFWHULVWLFVRIDV\VWHP,WLVÂżHOGFRQGLWLRQ 7KLVÂżHOGFRQGLWLRQSUHVHQWVDVphysical patterns and perception patterns.

Perception patterns/Particle Behaviour and Spatial Perception Perception patterns refer to particle behaviour and spatial perception. Particle behaviour: This refers to movement and interaction of particles which react to physical patterns in the enviroment. Spatial Perception: Spatial perception refers to how space is perceived, such as being compressed, relax, formal, informal, interactive, oppressive, according to particle behaviour.

Component Particles: Elements moving in a system, such as water, wind, animals and human. These are dynamics of a system.

1. Particles Elements moving in a system, such as water, wind, animals and human. These are dynamics of a system. (Note: Simple system itself can be seen as a particle or a group of particle, in this case, interaction between such systems is local interaction too.)

2. Objects ( in Physical Pattern) Stable elements affect movement or interaction of particles, such as elements in topography, trees, buildings, landform, programs... Thus, Objects are material in spatial morphology or program in programmatic arrangement. (Note: Sometimes, particles can be objects, when we research how animals’ behaviours affect human behaviours. Here Animals are objects and their arrangement affects human behaviours. Human is particles.)

6ORZ7UDQVLWLRQ Slow means process of system. It refers to chronological process and spatial process.

3DWWHUQ$6LQJOH3DWWHUQ Pattern refers to prototype of system. It is mechanism of how particles move and interact as well as how objects are arranged in a system. Thus, it is the principle and rule in a system.

Physical patterns/Arrangement of Objects Physical patterns refer to arrangement of different objects like materials or programs with different positions, intervals, proportion, form and directions. These physical SURSHUWLHVÂżQDOO\FRQWULEXWHWRDSK\VLFDO images which represent as spatial morphology and program arrangement and affect movement of particles in them. Thus, VSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQDQGSURJUDPGLVWULEXtion are physical patterns to affect particle movement, just like topography affecting water particle movement. 13


Patterns


What are patterns? Patterns are prototypes of landscape. La Vallee (Figure 7), the Garden in Movement, by Gilles Clement reveals a behaviours and interaction of elements in untended territory. The elements in the garden intertwine with each other. 6RPHRIWKHPEHQHÂżWRWKHUVRUVXSSUHVV (Figure 7a,b,c) This reciprocity contributes to variation of landscape, a richness of the garden performance(Figure 7d,e,f). A designer’s role in the garden is an observer and yardman who does as less intervention as possible to the site. They have “A User’s Manualâ€? (Figure 7g,h) UHĂ€HFWLQJWKHVSRQWDQHRXVJURZWKRI different species such as annuals, biennials b or perennials and the competition of them UHĂ€HFWELRORJLFDOGLYHUVLW\LQSHUSHWXDOO\ PRGLÂżFDWLRQ$WWKLVWLPHGHVLJQHUVRQO\ observe and make decisions whether to WULPYHJHWDWLRQIRUOLJKWDQGĂ€RZHUVRUWROHW trees covering the whole site. The manual reveals patterns (Figure 7g,h) of vegetation growth which indicate principles of how they move and affect the environment. These patterns are prototypes of c local interactions between different vegetation, which is not detailed phenomenon(Figure 7d,e,f) in the landscape process but the mechanism and principle(Figure 7g,h) underneath them. They are not pre-set of images and they allow a maximum of interaction of local elements. Âł7KHREMHFWLYHLVQRWWRPDLQWDLQDSUHVHWLPDJHRU aesthetic, but to converse a sculptural and biological balance, open to the greatest possible diversity, to wonder and impermance......Left to their biological devices, plants good and bad will rub shoulders and intertwine in ways that determine where and how they grow.â€? --- Gilles Clement

d

e

f

g

Patterns are dynamic geometrical principles of system behaviours In Aldo Rossi’s Analogy City, designing city is a compositional process to construct a new urban reality, through approaching it with the prototypes from people’s collective memory of architecture of the place, instead of a rational single thought.[2] Collective memories are comprehensive experience sharing the same cultural base.People’s unconscious accumulation of collective h memories generates prototypes. These Figure 7 prototypes are what Aldo Rossi talked La Vallee, the Garden in Movement, by Gilles Clement DERXWÂłW\SH´Âł,ZRXOGGHÂżQHWKHFRQFHSW of type as something that is permanent and complex, a logical principle that is prior to form and that constitutes it.â€?[3] In his statement, “permanent and complexâ€? means that prototype is, as Quatremere de [2]: Quoted from a wed site http://www.atributosurbanos.es/en/terms/analogue-city Quincy and Durand said,primitive geometry; [3]: C, McEwan, The Fragment as a Category of Critique, Forgetting Fundamentals


a and functional elementsâ€? of architecture through reference to “history as well as memoryâ€?.(Figure 8,b) As Hee Won said, Rossi transforms these prototypes into “new design vocabulariesâ€?(Figure 8,c) in accordance with the sites and programs. The evolution from these vocabularies to a real design is conducted by several algorithms such as “transformation and FRPELQDWLRQ´ )LJXUHG ÂżQDOO\YDULRXVW\SHVRI architectures is created.[4] (Figure 8,e) My opinion about Rossi’s prototype is a little different from that of Hee Won. Firstly, Hee Won asserts prototypes are original forms and primitive shapes extracted from people’s collective memory and history, which are relevant to structure and function of architecture and these prototypes are transformed into initial vocabularies (a tower) in different sites and programs. Vocabularies are, as Rossi said, “complexâ€? conditions evolved from prototypes and they are subprototypes. This is what I admit. But, secondly, he said through rules/algorithms of transformation and combination (here “transformationâ€? means change on scale, proportion and texture of the geometry and “combinationâ€? refers to addition, subtraction and replacement), the initial vocabularies are transformed LQWRGLIIHUHQWÂżQDOYRFDEXODULHV ÂżJXUHG DQGWKHQ completed works of architecture (different towers in different scale, texture and proportion). A type LVDWRWDOUHVXOWRIWKHVHÂżQDOYRFDEXODULHV+HUH prototypes are some primitive geometry changed in design development according to rules and he seems to distinguish rules/principles from prototypes. The statement “type is something that is permanent and complex, a logical principle‌â€? by Rossi lets me think that these primitive geometry (prototype) and logical principle should be superimposed into a fusion. This essay asserts that, as a fusion, a prototype is also a rule.Therefore, a prototype is a pattern instead of simply geometry.In Simon Bell’s book “Landscape: pattern, perception and processâ€?, a pattern shows“a standard way of moving or actingâ€? which is a constant principle of behaviours in a process and can be dynamic to respond to “physical forces, the environment, social structures or economic imperativesâ€?, while a geometry is only a static object. Moreover, a pattern is “an arrangement of repeated or corresponding partsâ€? in a process, as a result, it is constant and the order inside the process is selfevident; in history, patterns as “plansâ€? for human to

they are “prior to formâ€?, prototypes are “logic principlesâ€? constituted through, as McEwan C said, reading of history/collective memory. Thus, these principles link forms with human’s spatial perceptions, as Rossi said, â€œâ€Śwhile I may talk about a school, a cemetery, a theatre, it is more correct to say that I talk about life, death, and imagination.â€? Therefore, prototypes are a VHULHVRISULQFLSOHVRQSK\VLFDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQLQWHJUDWLQJ conceptual and material.(Figure 8, a) But what do these prototypes look like? According to what Hee Won Lee said in his essay, prototypes are “pure, primitive forms, such as cube, cone, cylinder, and pyramidâ€? and these shapes are relevant to “structural

b c

d

Figure 8

e

Rossi’s concept: prototypes are geometries separated from rules a, Rossi (1970) Gallaratese elevation, plan, photograph, Canal side tenement in Milan; b, Prototypes/Primitive Geometries from collective memory; c, A (Initial) Vocabulary (as a Tower); d, Rules to Create a type of Different Vocabularies; e, Physical Works from Transformations of Vocabularies.


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make architecture and landscape in space and time, while a single shape of geometry does not contain any indication of the regulation in spatial and chronological relation.[5] Finally, a pattern makes the relation between prototype and its vocabularies PRUHFRKHUHQWDQGXQLÂżHGZKLOHJHRPHWULHVDUH separated. A prototype as a pattern should not be static; conversely, it revealsa basic relation of a movement so that it can be the principle and prior to forms. It reveals a process rather than separate moments. To sum, a pattern is a prototype which is a geometrical principle of behaviours on components (objects/spatial materials and particles/users) (Figure 9,a & b)of a landscape system or architecture and, like different dynamic models, it can dynamically change to respond to the environment maintaining the same characters/behaviours. In its evolution, different vocabularies are sub-prototypes as homological conditions for the changing needs and programs and share similar behaviours(Figure 9,b). A type is the total result of vocabularies from a pattern. Behaviours are a series of consecutive motions or actions made by components as physcial entities, systems and users like people in response to environment, other systems and users. Behaviour of a system is the total result of interaction of these DFWLRQV7KHVHDFWLRQVUHIHUWRÂżUVWO\SURJUDPPDWLF DUUDQJHPHQWDQGVSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQLQVLWHZKLFK reveal how environmental materials and systems act in such a circumstance; secondly, user’s actions in response to the space and their interactions between each other, which indicate people’s reactions. (Figure 9,c) When these reactions and interactions are repeated by a group of people LQDSDUWLFXODUVSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQVDVHULHVRI habits and synthetic memory are generated and become history and culture of the place. Therefore, “collective memoriesâ€? and “historiesâ€? are carried by behaviours, which describe the qualities of environment produced according to a pattern. +HQFHEHKDYLRXUVUHĂ€HFWWKHFKDUDFWHUVRID pattern.

Figure 9 My concept: Patterns are Prototypes which at the same time are rules. The pictures are from my work, one of street trans-programmatic designs named “Superimposition�. They describe a simple system. a,A Primitive Dynamic Pattern; b, Different Vocabularies evolved from the Primitive Pattern, which are Chronological Variation Rules: 1.Sub-prototypes, 2.People Behaviours, 3. Plans of Facilities Arrangement interacting with People Behaviours, 4.Sections;

c

c, Physical Works of Landscape Architecture. 1RWH3URWR\WSHLVGHULYHGIURP*UHHNPHDQVÂżUVWLPSUHVVLRQSULPLWLYHIRUP [4]:Lee, Hee Won, The Computation of Design Vocabulary:Prototype,Variation,and Composition, University of California at Los Angeles, June, 1992 [5]:Bell, Simon 1999, Landscape : pattern, perception, and process, New York : E & FN Spon.

17


Memories on structure and function Memories on structure and function

Rule

Prototypes: Primitive Geometries Sub-prototype Initial Vocabulary: Combination of Geometries

Vocabulary 1 Form 1 of Component

Site 1 and Programs 1

Vocabulary 2 Form 2 of Component

Site 2 and Programs 2

Vocabulary 3 Form 3 of Component

Site 3 and Programs 3

Vocabulary 4 Form 4 of Component

Site 4 and Programs 4

......

A Same Type

Aldo Rossi’s Prototype read by Hee Won Lee in Architecture


System Behaviour

Prototypy: Primitive Pattern = Rule/Principle of original behaviours accumulated from total local interactions.

Vocabulary 1 Behaviour 1 of Component

Interaction 1 between spatial programmatic arrangement 1 and human activities 1 in site 1 or time point 1.

Vocabulary 2 Behaviour 2 of Component

Interaction 2 between spatial programmatic arrangement 2 and human activities 2 in site 2 or time point 2.

Vocabulary 3 Behaviour 3 of Component

Interaction 3 between spatial programmatic arrangement 3 and human activities 3 in site 3 or time point 3.

Vocabulary 4 Behaviour 4 of Component

Interaction 4 between spatial programmatic arrangement 4 and human activities 4 in site 4 or time point 4.

......

Chronological and Spatial Process

A Same Type

My Prototype in Landscape Architecture 19


Why we use patterns? 1.Finding patterns is nature of human perception of environment. The patterns from Clement’s manual suggest a balance between diversity and simplicity. Diversity means many possibilities of interaction between different elements in landscape design. Thus diversity is also complexity.Simplicity refers to a way that we streamline redundant information to describe the mechanism of these interactions. Euclidian geometry is an example. “It is true that Euclidian and Cartesian JHRPHWULHVDUHVLPSOL¿FDWLRQVFUHDWHGE\WKHKXPDQ mind to deal with complex patterns in the absence of mathematical tools.... This is the traditional way of describing or reducing the world about us into its (Euclidian geometry’s) constituent parts... Until now almost all designed human constructions and planned changes to the landscape have been based on Euclidian geometry.”[6] It is human nature that we tend to produce simpler, abstract and bigger pictures/patterns before developing into complex one in the progress of perception of environment. (Figure 10) This is how we learn about composition of a complex system, which inspire us to think about the methodology of designing a landscape system.

a

2.Patterns are codes of landscape system. &KDRVWKHRU\UHÀHFWVWKDWDFRPSOH[ phenomenon comprised with massive simple b causes. Figure 10 “Chaotic behaviour seems to follow deterministic a: A scene in Woterton lakes Notional Park, Alberta, Canada; b: A “primal sketch” of the scene where contrast between different elements gives the principles, but at the same time appear to be simple pattern for people to learn. Here contrast is interactions, of which extremely irregular...Irregular effects on process and DSDWWHUQLVWKHUHVXOW7KLVPRVWREYLRXVSDWWHUQLVWKH¿UVWVWUXFWXUH pattern can be mistaken for randomness, but belie a which people streamiline from other environmental information according deep order.... The reason for this misunderstanding to David Marr’s theories of visual perception. lies in the assumption that simple causes lead to Components simple effects and conversely, that complicated, multivariate causes produce complex effects. Now Local Interaction we know that simple cause can produce complicated effects, processes and patterns. The world is full of repeated patterns, of perceived order, and not A Single Pattern 2 A Single Pattern 1 chaos. Paradoxically, these patterns are the large Behaviour 1 Behaviour 2 VFDOHVLPSOL¿FDWLRQVWKDWHPHUJHIURPWKHFRPSOH[ interaction of large numbers of different cause or A Simple System 1 A Simple System 2 elements.”[6] Thus, the process of design is a procedure from simplicity to diversity/complexity. As Local Interaction 2 landscape is a complex system with complicated behaviours, it consists of a large number of A Single Pattern 3 simple local interactions(which means “simple causes” above). These interactions produce Behaviour 3 irregular variations. However, all of them integrate into a series of similar mechanisms at the larger scale. “The climatic conditions producing rain can Complex Landscape System vary enormously, along with the vegetation growing Figure 11 on the landscape producing evapotranspiration. Diagram of landscape system structure( Each simple system has not less The numbers of interactions of all these possible than 2 elements and this diagram shows a basic situation. Local interaction is relative concept which means interaction between components.But variations is huge and the number of possible system itself can be seen as a component, in this case, interaction between patterns ought to be limitless. This is true of minor such systems is local interaction too. ) detail – which stream goes where and how it erodes a particular piece of rock – but at the larger scale, it


produces a pattern that is remarkably similar to all other drainage systems. In chaos theory, the gradual coalescence of a number of different patterns into a single pattern caused by changes to the initial conditions is said to be caused by a strange attractor.â€?[6] “Different patternsâ€? of variation could be understood as local interactions between different elements. A “single patternâ€? is a prototype or mechanism to arrange or manipulate these elements in a simple landscape system. In the research, pattern means this “single patternâ€? , prototype and mechanism. The interactions among a number of these “single patternâ€? (prototypes) result in a complex system of landscape. (Figure 11) 7RÂżQGRXWWKHVHSDWWHUQV is to acquire codes of a complex system which landscape architecture design is. 3.A pattern is a way to make design repeatable In Glanville’s “Researching Design and Designing Researchâ€?, pattern seeking is to simplify logics by “making objects constantâ€? from complexity. 7KURXJKVLPSOLÂżFDWLRQZHRPLWWKHUHGXQGDQWDQG remain similarities in different objects and systems to recognize them in a handleable “continuumâ€? of experience from an elusive reality.[7] Pattern is this continuum of experience which is coherent and convenient enough to give us “objects and recognizable behaviours, allowing us to predict, and risk living by our predictionsâ€?. In this case, simplicity, similarities and predictability of a pattern can make a design methodology repeatable, coherent and consistent in different sites and programs.

RIELUGVVFKRRORIÂżVKHVDQGVZDUPRIEHHVXVH collective intelligence to “increase their chances of GHWHFWLQJSUHGDWRUVÂżQGLQJIRRGORFDWLQJDPDWH or following a migration route. For these animals, coordinating their movements with one another can be a matter of life or death.â€? Furthermore, Google “uses the collective intelligence of the Web to determine a page’s importance.â€? [8]This kind of system can be found in some city town and old residential areas in cities, where people make their lives in their own way, as a result, a special ÂżHOGFRQGLWLRQLVFUHDWHGDQGEDODQFHEHWZHHQ function and community interaction is revealed. In comparison, urban redevelopment in some Asian countries is rigid and less effective, because these projects destroy the local system and replace with a single plan for economic pursuit without consideration domestic way of life. As a result, the collective intelligence is inhibited and lost. Without integration with originally existing routines, in the new design SODQLPDJHRISODFHEHFRPHVXQLGHQWLÂżDEOHIXQFWLRQ zoning loses animation and local community lacks of vitality and sense of belonging. A dynamic pattern is a principle of these collective behaviours and routines, hence, in which the logic of collective intelligence is HPEHGGHG$VSDWWHUQVDUHUHSHDWDEOHDQGVLPSOLÂżHG it can be used in arrangement and prediction of designing a new system in order to integrate these existing intelligences with new demands in urban redevelopment.

4.A pattern is a collectively intelligent way to conduct a system. A pattern contains collective intelligence from a number of users in a site, which implies a better arrangement of a system. As it is mentioned before, behaviours are the carrier of user’s collective memories/history in physical environment. These collective memories contain heaps of methods, ideologies and insight of how people live and react to a particular circumstance. These collective intelligences are generated in the process from individual behaviours (local interaction) between different users and environment, accumulating into a collective phenomenon, a way of life in a site. In WKLVSURFHVVWKHUHLVQRWDXQLÂżHGLGHRORJ\WRFRQÂżQH each one’s behaviour; therefore, these daily routines or behaviours in particular environmental condition is a decentralized system. As what Peter Miller says in his composition “The Genius of Swarmsâ€?, this system is brilliant, because “crowds tend to be wise only if individual members act responsibly and make their own decisions. A group won’t be smart if its members imitate one another, slavishly follow fads, or wait for VRPHRQHWRWHOOWKHPZKDWWRGR´,QQDWXUHDĂ€RFN [6]: Statement quoted from Bell, Simon 1999, Landscape : pattern, perception, and process, New York : E & FN Spon. [7]: Glanville, Ranulph, Researching Design and Designing Research, The MIT Press, 2012 [8]: Miller, Peter, The Genius of Swarms, National Geographic Magazine, 2007 21


Where are patterns? 1.Patterns from designers’ single scenario FRQ¿QHÀH[LELOLW\RIV\VWHP3DWWHUQVRI DÀH[LEOHV\VWHPVKRXOGFRPHIURPORFDO interactions of elements. --- Bottom-up instead of Top-down Conventionally, mechanism/patterns of landscape or architecture design are a topdown plan by designer’s single scenario which is over one-sided. Modernism in 1960s-70s provoked a severe clash with public life and natural environment, because it failed to consider social and natural problems, instead, focusing on practicability, high productivity and renovated forms. 0DQ\GHVLJQVZHUHUHÀHFWLRQRIKLJKDQG profound skills by designers. Design is thought as professional’s single scenario without consideration of local interaction of people who use the design and environment. 3DWWHUQVLQWKHVHGHVLJQVZHUHLQÀH[LEOHWR adapt needs from local interaction of social interaction and protection of environment. As the statement written by James Corner on his “Taking Measure across the America Landscape” (1996), development of humanity LVLQHYLWDEO\FRQ¿QHGE\WKHLU³DWWDFKPHQW´ however, people still pursuit their utopias to control environment or even everything. Attachment is elements in places where we live including natural environment and people in community. Utopia is a particular pattern/ design strategy to control every components of the attachment. Nevertheless, there is not a single pattern competent to cover all of the aspects aforementioned. Conversely, a ÀH[LEOHV\VWHPVKRXOGEHDFRPSOH[V\VWHP conducted by different single patterns from diverse local interactions. (Figure 11) The survey landscape in America (Figure 12) is made of grids with particular size. Sections as unit in this mechanism are subdivided into different dimension such as half sections, quarter sections, half-quarter sections in order to provide more people with chances to purchase land. It represents the need of equalization in America. [9] However, local variations on topography, arable land, water,local climate and soil are neglected and poses many problems and clash. These local and regional variations are local interactions in this grid system. People cannot purchase lands in a real equal condition, due to the grids fails to produce equalization on local quality.This example gives an inspiration to this research: progress of landscape system generation is a bottom-up process from local interaction instead of a topdown one by designer’s imagination. Landscape design is a synthetic result made of a number of patterns instead of only one. These patterns should come from local interactions.

b

a

d

c Figure 12 Survey Landscape in America a.The Grids is a pattern as designer’s single scenario to state sense of liberation in America; b. The pattern/Grids aims at producing a fair state for people purchasing lands; c. Local interaction presents in regional change which make sections with different environmental conditions even though in same dimension; d. Local interaction of topography and FOLPDWHPDNHVGLI¿FXOWWRGUDZJULGV

[9]: Corner, J 1996, Taking measure across the America landscape, New Haven : Yale University Press.


a

b

c

d

e

f Figure 13

g

a, Rossi A (1976) Analogical City Panel; b, Montage diagram by McEwan C; c, A picture from Stan Allen’s Field Conditions;

2.A pattern only can be found in a completed system integrated with users’ behaviours/ perception patterns and VSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQVSK\VLFDOSDWWHUQV In Aldo Rossi’s practices on architecture typology, (Figure 13,a) prototypes are some principle of form generation (Figure 13,b) which is a synthetic aggregation of people’s historical memory on architecture in a particular place, which is a typical ideology of neo-rationalism. However, there are still some critics from opponents against its formalism. Prototypes ought to be rules of behaviours in a completed system, which includes spatial and programmatic arrangement, morphology (Figure 13,e) as well as users’ interaction(Figure 13,g) in the site. The interactions of these spatial FRQÂżJXUDWLRQDQGXVHUÂśVPRYHPHQWDUH behaviours in a system and result from a primitive pattern as a prototype(Figure 13,d). Aldo Rossi’s idea is about rules of constitution of physical patterns and how WKHVHJHRPHWULHVUHĂ€HFWDVXSHULPSRVLWLRQ of people’s collective impressions on architecture. Nevertheless, his thought neglects perception pattern which is the behaviours of people living in this condition and their interactions after the erection of WKLVVSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQ7KXVKLVLGHDLV on-sided. His prototypes are not completed patterns, as a result, there is not a whole system made in the design, instead, it just a part. Eventually, it is undeniable that a pattern is a principle of behaviours from an entire system. In this case, an intact pattern is not only a rule for formation and constitution of a VSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQEXWDSULQFLSOHWRLQGLFDWH integration of people’s interactions in this new physical arrangement in the whole life of site as well. In Stan Allan’s “Field Conditionsâ€?,(Figure 13,c) a pattern of a system, as he mentions, DG\QDPLFÂłFRQÂżJXUDWLRQ´RIFURZGVÂśJOREDO behaviours is a cumulative result of localized behaviour patterns which is local interaction in the essay, and spatial obstruction can be DFFRPPRGDWHGE\Ă€XLGDGMXVWPHQWZKLFK reveal a collective intelligence. In other word, a pattern is a total result of local behaviours acting in a particular spatial morphology, which is changeable in “roughly similarâ€? FRQGLWLRQVLQVWHDGRID³¿[HGW\SH´>@

From d to g, pictures are from my work of a courtyard design QDPHG³)URPREMHFWWR¿HOGDQGEDFNDJDLQ´ d, A pattern as prototype to rule the behaviour of landscape system; e, Physical Patterns: Programmactic and Spatial Arrangements; f, Plan; g, Perception Patterns: User’s Behaviours in response to spatial form and program. [10]: Allen, S , Field Conditions 23


3.Patterns from Nature as Design Prototype Natural patterns discovered by Peter Stevens[11] such as spiral, meandering, branching, explosion, packing or cracking (I name it “patchingâ€?), are suitable prototypes to explore in this essay, because they are major patterns in most of the nature phenomence. Presented in Euclidian geometry, they result from numerous local interactions between elements in natural phenomena such as ZDWHUG\QDPLFVSODQWVIRUHVWÂżUHPXG cooling lava and solid rock. (Figure 14) There is similarity between human patterns and natural patterns These patterns are prototypes of natural systems. As what Stevens said, “The range of various possibilities of patterns is imitated by the restriction of spatial dimension in the world and the degree of similarity is greater than that of difference in the same treeâ€?. As the same tree here refers to the same origin, alternatively, we can consider that there is similarity between human and nature patterns more than difference, due to they has a same origin, the world. As one kind of human patterns, Euclidian geometry which people simplify from natural complexity is used as guidance in most human design including landscape design. (Figure 15) That is to say, it is feasible to design landscape by using nature patterns as design prototypes after learning their similarity to human patterns(Euclidian geometry). Thus, Stevens summarizing natural patterns into Euclidian geometry reveal these similarities and can be suitable prototypes for this research to design a complex landscape system.

a

6XQĂ€RZHU

b

Trees

c

Forest

River

d

e Figure 14

Peat

Euclidian Geometry of Nature Patterns by Peter Stevens: a. Spiral; b.Branching; c. Meandering; d.Explosion; e.Packing and Cracking ( This reseach names it “Patching� afterwards)

a Figure 15 a. The knot garden at Hampton Court Palace near London, England; b. Examples of spirals used in decoration from various ancient culture ( After Wilson, 1994)

b [11]: Statement quoted from Bell, Simon 1999, Landscape : pattern, perception, and process, New York : E & FN Spon.


Slow

25


Slow refers to process and transition during and after design. “Slow” in this essay means transformation process and transition of a design exerting on user’s behaviours spatially and chronologically. Design is not just a static point to hypothesize an ideal condition in a site. It refers to the whole evolution of interaction between users and the space from the very beginning when a physical FRQ¿JXUDWLRQLVPDGHWRWKHDIWHUZDUGVFDULQJ about how people get along with the

Old View of the Town

landscape system to a new one. As he says, this “evolved” refers to people’s “engagement” in the variation of landscape, “contemporary, everyday modes of experiencing the land”. This “engagement” is perception pattern, user’s interaction in site and their reaction to surrounding forms and programs. Landscape transformation arises from this reciprocity between perception pattern and physical pattern. A rule of the UHFLSURFLW\LQDFRQ¿UPSODFHDQGWLPH reveals a particular pattern. In a process of

2010 July 14th

site. When something moves slowly, we can see the process of movement. However, the situation is too fast in Chinese urban redevelopment. Many projects take place in a short time, as a result, functions and programs are inelastic and the process lacks of a transition for domestic people to get in habit.(Figure 16) No one can really tell how new space comes when it is already there. The missing process in these projects trigger many problems in spatial misuse and waste as well as deterioration of city function, identity, aesthetics and community interactions. Dispute on the issue whether an ancient area in urban reform project should be demolished or preserved is always important for the place cultural, social and economic development. Entire preservation and demolishment are static notions. The correct answer is transformation. As Steen A.B. Hoyer says in his essay “Things Take Time and Time Takes Things”: “The shift from local to global culture afforded by new economies and technologies means that people are becoming more interested in progressive approaches to the design of landscape. This is especially true when new approaches to design creatively reinterpret and extend past traditions… Landscape ought to be treated as something to be worked with or “evolved”, not held as an unchanging image… New and unusual landscape forms arise in respond to changing needs and programs.” [12] These reinterpretation and extension of tradition are transformations from an old

spatial or chronological variation, a diversity of such interactions emerges as a series of vocabularies arranged by another rule in response to different needs and programs, which makes a complex landscape behaviour system. This diversity in a process of times and places is what Ruskin appreciated about buildings: “A Building cannot be considered LQLWVSULPHXQWLOIRXURU¿YHFHQWXULHVKDYH passed over it.”[13] For this “timely decay”, as what Emilie Gomart says, it is “an active selection and guidance of forces that exerted themselves in a slow, predictable, rhythmic manner”. Thus, beside architecture, a good landscape reveals a visible evolution process of interaction between traditional behaviours and economic activities in urbanism and the new urban phenomenon UHÀHFWHG.(Figure 17) Thus, it is crucial to design with process in order to release potential function and activate a 24hours in-used city (Figure 18) from these restrictions by a single and unchangeable mode of planning and enhance more chances for human communication as well as the understand of the culture of the city we live. It is about how a design integrates with daily routines, culture and convention as well as people’s perceptions in spatial variation. Thus, there are two kinds of processes to research, which are spatial process and chronological process. Spatial process )LJXUH UHÀHFWVYDULDWLRQ of people’s behaviours when they switch into different places along the spatial sequence. Chronological process is a process


superimposed by different activities in relevant moments in the same site (Figure 19) or a particular area ( Figure 17).

2012 January 16th

Totally New Plan being built

Figure 16 Process of Redevelopment Project in Yangji Citytown From an old citytown to a new modern residential area, there is not a transitional period which for local people to get used to. A standard scene of city-scape is made with absence of the original special, cultural behaviours and neigbourhood.

a

b

c

d

e

Figure 17 From a to b:OMA’s visionary of Beijing preservation project. Through insertion of sampling point grid to record all the develpopment in it, a perspective preservation of the historical substance in Beijing is generated. These points activate a series of different areas diffused in the city to be preserved for GLIIHUHQWSHULRGVRIWLPH7KLVYLVLRQDU\RIÂłWLPHEDVHGHFRORJ\´LVDQLQQRYDWLYHZD\WRFUHDWHDÂłSHUPDQHQWFHQWHU´DQGDQÂłHYHUFKDQJLQJSHULSKHU\´ZKLFKGHÂżQH and enrich the city by “planed phase difference between its partsâ€?. This results in a permanent interface of “older and newerâ€?. People can witness a more relative contrast between past and new, without being astonished by the suddent change of living environment. New architecture and landscape can be more interactive with the surroundings. ----- Content by Koolhaas, R.

How?

From c to e: It is my visionary of Yangji Citytown’s redevelopment plan. To use the original main corridor as new commercial street to boost a generation of new area nearby the city avenue as a “sample point�. After a period of the following 3 years for adaption and interaction, the other part of the development begins to take place. But this has few things to do with a behaviour pattern and it should do. Need further exploration.



Figure 18

Figure 19

Yokohama Masterplan, Japan, 1992 by OMA

Chronological Process

To design the structure of programs in the site. A complementary spectrum of events, which would exploit to the maximum the location and its existing infrastructure, to create a 24-hour “peak� composed of a mosaic of heterogeneous 21st century life.

Figure 20 Spatial Process

[12]: Hoyer, Steen A.B. , Things Take Time and Time Takes Things: The Danish Landscape, Recovering Landscape Edited by Corner J. ,1999. [13]: Gomart, E. , The Invention of Preservation, Content by Koolhaas, R. , 2004

27


Landscape is a behaviour system of different patterns

Photo Precedent Figure 21 Aerial of site Architecture by Biennale Rotterdam Aerial Photography Inc


29


Exploration of Stevens Natural Patterns Spiral

Branching

Problem I researched mechanisms of each patterns in Stevens examples and drew VRPHGLDJUDPVWRDQDO\VH$WWKH多UVW time, I found the information is too broad to conclude and therefore it is hard for PHWR多QGRXWXVDJHRIWKHVHSDWWHUQVDV prototypes in spatial design. From then on, I know I have to narrow down the LQIRUPDWLRQDQG多QGRXWPDLQSRLQWVRI them for spatial designs.


Meandering

Explosion

Patching

31


Diagram Analysis of Patterns Paticles Biosphere: Individual Plants, Stones, Water,human...

Physical Pattern/ Arrangement of Objects Local Interaction of Heterogeneity Landform: Geological and Climate Process Natural Ecosystem Activities and its disturbance Human Activities

Terrain Obstruction Climatic Change Competition of Patch or Edges Wind Water and Ice Earth Movement Insect Pest Fungal Disease Natural Fires Animal Activities Erection of Construction Clearance of Vegetation 0RGL¿FDWLRQRI/DQGIRUP

Paticles

Physical Pattern/ Arrangement of Objects

Affect 5HÀHFW

Particle Behaviour

I use this diagram to streamilines the information into particle, physical pattern, prototype(pattern) and particle behaviour these 4 sections. This diagram reveal the munipulation of patterns. Particles are affected by physical pattern and generate particular particle behaviours, through this process, mechanism of these generation is indicated. This is the main process of how a behaviour system work.

5HÀHFW

Mechanism/Prototype


Mechanism/Prototype Quality

Pattern

Different Friction One End Point Number of Oreders Hierachy Direction Tilted to One End Point Angle volumes Different Length

Branching

Back and Forth Direction of Movement Sinuous Silhouette

Meandering

Folded Turbulant

Spinning around or towards one center or along an axis One Direction Slot in limited space

Spiral

Seasonal or Period Gwroth Continueous Sequence

Regular in Small Scale Irregular in Large Scale Spreading Multiple-Directions

Explosion

Straidgt Line Parthway Center

Non-End-Point Angle Fractal Same Look of Pattern in Decreasing Scale

Patching (Packing and Cracking)

Particle Behaviour

‡'LIIHUHQW)ULFWLRQVWR'LIIHUHQW6SHHG ‡1XPEHURI2UHGHUV Total volume ‡'LIIHUHQW/HYHO ‡'LUHFWO\6SUHDGLQJLQ6SDFH ‡7RZDUGVRQHZD\ ‡&RQQHFWHGLQ'LIIHUHQW$QJOHV

‡,QGLUHFWO\6SUHDGLQJ ‡7HQVHDQG5HOD[0RYHPHQW ‡1RW8QLIRUP ‡,QGLUHFWO\6SUHDGLQJ ‡0RUH2SSRUWXQLW\RI,QWHUDFWLRQZLWK6XUURXQGLQJVLQDFRQ¿QHGVSDFH ‡6KRUWLQ7RWDO/HQJWK ‡$V\VWHPERWKDEVRUEKRPRJHQHLW\ and repulse heterogeneity ‡$FRQWLQXHRXV6XUIDFHLQGLIIHUHQW level with a single Line ‡/RQJHVW'LVWDQFHIURP6WDUWWR7HUPLnation --- Lowest Speed ‡'LUHFWO\6SUHDGLQJ ‡6KRUWHVW'LVWDQFHIURPVWDUWEXW wasting Most of Total Length ‡(ORQJDWLRQDQG([SDQVLRQ)ROORZLQJ Agents(Wind, Insect and colonizing patches) Direction ‡'HFOLQHRI'HQVLW\RI/LQHVIURP&HQWHU ‡+LJKHVW6SHHG ‡3DWWHUQV)URPEHLQJ5HJXODUWR)UDFtal Following Radiation from Center ‡'LUHFWO\6SUHDGLQJ ‡1RQ)L[HG3RLQW ‡8QFKDQJH3DWWHUQVLQ'LIIHUHQW6FDOHV ‡0XOWLGLUHFWLRQDO ‡2SHQ&ORVH6HW

‡'LUHFWO\6SUHDGLQJ Right Angle Connection with Straight Lines Non-End-Point

‡3URSRUWLRQDOLQ'LIIHUHQW6L]H

Grids

‡'LUHFW&RQQHFWLRQ%HWZHHQ.QRWV ‡,QGLIIHUHQFHZLWK6XUURXQGLQJV ‡(I¿FLHQF\LQ$FFHVVLELOLW\ Between Estates on Average ‡,QÀH[LEOHLQ'HIRUPDWLRQ ‡+HLJKHVW6SHHG

33


The Site

What is a city village? “City Village� is a special situation of dwelling in many Chinese City. They are natural villages which are encompassed by modern development in Current Asian Urbanism. These areas have very low-rise buildings and the residents here are having low income. They are at the bottum line of city. For the sake of economic redevelopment, governments generate a series of policy to demolish and rebuild the city village with high-income programs, but the policy is not considerate enough for local social construction such as migrant workers which is one important components in city village for generation of local community interaction.

Figure 22. CityVillage in Guangzhou (face point at the south)


View Direction

Residential Tower Being Built

35


Site Condition The site of this research is a citytown called “Xian” village, located in CBD district of Guangzhou which is beside the middle axis of CBD and the VXUURXQGLQJRI¿FHDQGUHVLGHQWLDO areas. It is a high-income urban space that the site is. But within the site, there are three kinds of people which are the indigenous villagers, migrant workers living there and working outside as well as the shop runners ( most of which are the other migrant workers in the village).

N

2I¿FH

Residential Area

High Commercial

Xian Village Residential Area

High Commercial Residential Tower

CBD

Site Plan 1:5000

Office

Residential Area Mainroad

Useless Grass Field

Office

N

Office Office

Office Useless Grass Field

Mall Office

Useless Grass Field School

Hotel

River Residential Tower

Mainroad

Residential Area

Residential Tower

Village Existing Plan 1:2000

Residential Tower

Residential Tower


8000Villagers

25,000Migrant Workers

Shops

Social Construction of the Site

37


Existing Social Construction/Components The social construction means the composition of different community members within a site. From the diagram below, it is easy to see many of the building in the village LVDERXWÀRRUVKHLJKWDQGWKHYHUWLFDOUHODWLRQVKLSVLQ each building are similar. Migrant Workers are the exotic people from other province coming to work in Guangzhou. The host living at the top and migrant workers living at PLGGOHÀRRUVZLWKDVKRSRQWKHJURXQG7KHZRUNHUV pay for the rental by cash because it is adjacent to the host living in a low-rise building and the shop runners KDYHWKHLUEXVLQHVVRQWKHJURXQGÀRRULQWKHYLOODJH This relationship of dwelling and living is helpful for the local people as well as migrant workers to get familiar and interact with other residents in the site, which is the cusial reason for creating chance of enhancement of neighborhood in the village.

Host(Domestic Villager) Rental by Cash

Work Outside the village Rent Shops creating diversity of commercial estates

Migrant Workers

Rent a Room Work outside

Migrant Workers Running Shops

Rent a Shop

A diagram presents the Social Construction/Composition in this city village


Figure 23. The Facades of The Village Buildings are PHVVLYHDQGWRRFORVHWREHVDIHWRHDFKRWKHU$QGWKLV多JXUHLV showing the in-progress demolishment by the government.

Figure 24. The Shop Runners are migrant workers in village. This is a telephone shop in the site.

39


Special Behaviours/Collective Memories Spatial Composition of Circulation System in the Town There are many interesting activities or special atmosphere in the village circulation system to maintain a sense of neighborhood. They are a series of small courtyards, parks and many laneways with different width. They have special dimension and particular human activities, which provokes interpersonal communication and neighborhood sense. These are special behaviour systems in the landscape of Xian village.

Figure 25.

Figure 26

Figure 27.

Figure 28.

Figure 29.

Figure 30.


Useless Grass Field

Useless Grass Field

Figure 27.

Figure 29.

Figure 25. Useless Grass Field School

Diagram Presenting Location of Small Courtyards and Shops. Small Courtyard attracts Senior Villagers and People to rest and gradually become centers of commercial shops which assemble towards them and the village fridges near CBD

Figures 25,27,29 are the current situation of the small courtyards in the village and Figures 26,28,30 reveal the dimension RIWKHFRXUW\DUGV7KH多UVWFOXVWHU shows the local interaction in the courtyard is rich and people would like to stay in the courtyards; the latter cluster reveal a relationship of dimension to this harmonious feeling of neighborhood because these courtyards possess a ratio between 1:1 to 1:2 when comparing width to hiegth of the courtyards.

41


Special Behaviours/Collective Memories Spatial Composition of Circulation System in the Town

Figure 31. 2m Laneway

Figure 33. 2m laneway

Figure 35. 8m laneway

Figure 37. 6m laneway

Figure 32

Figure 34

Figure 36

Figure 38.


Figure 39. Selling Clothes

Figure 40

Figure 42

Figure 41. Stall

Figure 43. Tailor

Figure 44

Figures 31,33,35,37,39,41,43 are the current situation of the lanways in the village

Figures 32,34,36,38,40,42,44 are the drawings of sections to analyse intelligence about how people use these spaces or how the spaces affects people behaviors.

43


Government Plan/Demands from Government(including interest developers) The Plan from the local government for redevelopment of the city village reveals an obvious ambition about high-income land use, which will not be tolerant to migrant workers due to the price for living in this plan is too high for them to substain. At the same time the original shops of the village buildings are all switched into new house of residential replacement in the tower building, in this case, the host the indigenous villagers lose thier tenants and shop runners. As a result, the original relationship of neighborhood will break down and the new circulation system showed in Figures 45 ~ 48 reveal a social separation. The elevators in the towers let people transfer too fast, the huge scale of inaccessible JUHHQ多HOGDQGURDGSURGXFH useless space to enlarge human distance and the fence around the districts is a physical block to human interaction. Thus, in comparison, lost of neighborhood is the result in the future plan by government, after all, the towers are too high to have motivation for residents to get down and be concerned about the ground.

View Direction

Residential Towers Being Built

Overview Office

View Direction

Residential Area Mainroad

N

Office

Office Office

Office

Mall Office

Hotel Residential Tower

Mainroad

Residential Area

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Masterplan 1:4000 Current Policy of Replacement Commercial

Apartment

Rental of Shop (60m2 56000RMB/month)

Business Run

Village Own (70-60)m2 on average

Hotel

Office

Residents Replacement Room: House to House including exchange original shop into residential area

Policy of Program Arrangement


Figure 45. In Modern High Tower, elevators replace the role of stair which becomes useless or just for emergency in daily life.

a Figure 46.

b

a:A giant lawn is useless and there is some notices says “ protecting grass, no entrance”. b: A big pool without water has no maintenance, because the villagers after replacement do not want to consume due to the unaffordable price.

Figure 47. A large parthway in the residential area separate people, no function and PL[ZLWKWUDI¿F

Figure 48. 2QWKHIULQJHRIJUHHQ¿HOGVDQGVRPHODUJH residential area, there are physical fences make the space inaccessible and cut down the interaction with the periphery.

45


CBD

Village

Scale and composition with variation from public city square to private residential area High Consumption Low Consumption

Suitable for migrant workers

180m

Spect-Actor: Residential Area and Commercial Street and S

Semi-public open space better to foster sense of ne Iconic Lowrise lifestyle

Horizontally high density and vertically proximity to g

Low Interaction of Community and High Efficency

High Interaction of Community

Exterior Space of City Square

Now

Semi-Private

Public

Private

Goverment Plan

Exterior Space of City Square

Public

Public

Public Actor: Commercial Estate

Spectator: Residen

180m

Large open space good for sense of field in public space

Low Interaction of Community and High Efficency

A Diagram for Comparison of Urban Image, Function and Social Interaction between Government Plan and Current Situation of the City Village(pros and cons)

Horizontally: Excessive open space and disturbe sense of neighborhood and ac Vertically: Highrise tower isolate interac

Low Interaction of Community and High Efficency


Consumption Level

Low Consumption facilitate Migrant Workers, while migrant workers contribute to the city with labour

Small Coutyard Average 90m Average 18m

Spatial Dimension and Distribution of Commercial Estates

ighborhood

ground maximize interaction

Lowrise housing and high density distribution of city village integrated with its neighborhood lifestyle could become icon in Guangzhou compared with highrise tower in CBD Semi-public open space better to foster sense of neighborhood

Circulation system and Interaction in it Low Interaction of Community and High Efficency

Staircase and small courtyard produce more opportunity for interaction and semi-puble place for rest compared to the open and noicy city space

Section of current situation Strong Sense of Field

Branch of Spatial Dimension

Section of Government Plan Little Sense of Field

Branch of Spatial Dimension

c

ntial Area

Average 90m

Spatial Dimension and Distribution of Commercial Estates

d rigid traffic tracks ccessibility of them cton

Space becomes similar to other area in CBD, which loses its iconic quality and special life styles of neighbourhood

Excessive open space and elevator in high buildings disturbe sense of neighborhood, interaction between people but offer open space

Circulation system and Interaction in it Low Interaction of Community and High Efficency

Consumption Level

High income consumption refuse migrant workers’ life as price of economic development

47


Social Concerns on Citytown Redevelopment Safe Problems in Citytown Buildings in the town have a very short interval with each other, which is illegal. The arrangement of wires is irregular. In this case, it is easy WRSRVHD¿UHDQGLWVSUROLIHUDWLRQLQ such narrow spaces. The stair in each building is illegally too short and stuck by residents’ piles of substances, which is harmful for evacuation. There are many small lanes with a short distance as 2 meters and the place accommodates people from different province, in which the composition of communities is complex. Hence, personal and possession safety is a problem. Therefore, the town needs staffs of a modernisation administration from redevelopment and built space in a legal way. (Figure 49)

Figure 49 Senitation Problems in Citytown The sanitation is bad in Xian village, the arrangement of laneways is not organised resulting in many corner pockets with few people being where there is a poor maintenance of environment. It needs a new plan of road constitution improvement which enhances people’s interaction of these spaces. (Figure 50)

Figure 50

Social Ecology in Government Plan The new plan destroys the original neighbourhood in the town and this can decline communication of residents and the outside-coming people. High-technology provides more and more convenience on human communication, especially on digital conservation. Furthermore, the tower is high and programs stack vertically ZLWKSHRSOHFRQ¿QHGLQGLIIHUHQWOHYHOV without a horizontal interaction with GLIIHUHQWFRPPXQLWLHV7KHWUDI¿FVDUH busy and disconnect into the sidewalk. Space is too large and lack of infrastructure to keep neighbourhood. It changes so fast for locals to drop their conventional life style, not knowing how to get used to, because function is not designed for transition of their previous life into a new one. “We don’t need a big and luxurious water-pool and an LQDFFHVVLEOH*UHHQ¿HOG:HMXVWQHHG a shade of tree and sit under to rest, look around and talk about trivia with the neighbours and the shop runner who is familiar”, as a senior villager says in the town. Thus, people become less communicative and life becomes stranger. And this is a victim as society keeps developing. A new way for the residential area design is in-need. City Sprawl and Social Marginalization by Government Plan Programs in the new plan are of high-income consumption, not for migrant workers’ accommodation. They are imposed to leave the town and seek for a new house in another city town or urban fringe where is still undeveloped for a low rent. This makes a messy sprawl of city. As a result, the modernization development will never complete. Migrant workers are low-level staffs in urban industry and service economy, who dedicate their labour to sustain the superstructure of social economic development. It is marginalization for the new plan to eject them out off the inner city. Problem of homeless, discrimination and hatred psychology will make our society inharmonious.


Relation between patterns and social interaction/behaviors, forms, programs. Useless Grass Field

Useless Grass Field

Useless Grass Field School

1

3

5 Office

Residential Area Mainroad

N

Office

Office Office

Office

Mall Office

Hotel Residential Tower

Mainroad

Residential Area

Residential Tower

2 future plan

4

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

6 Referencing Picutre

Figure 51. Images 1~4 UHÀHFWSK\VLFDOSDWWHUQVDVWKHVSDWLDOFRPSRVLWLRQV and programmatic arrangement; Images 5,6 represent the different behaviour phenomena(perception patterns) as results. If the spatial morphology and programmatic arrangement reveal and provoke special behaviors and interaction between local people, what is the relationship as principle among them? what kind of strategy of this relation(patterns) could be applied in retaining quality of the city village for cultivation of neighborhood and integrate with government’s demands in the redevelopment project?

49


First Exploration of Patterns through De Platforms The design intends to introduce different platforms (Figure 52, c&b)to connect the original buildings into a series of units as refurbishment. These platforms include visual interaction(Figure 52, a) and encounter(Figure 52,c) for communication to cultivate sense of neighbourhood, at the same time, this connected network )LJXUH FDQIXO¿OOWKHGHPDQGVRI urban program as government state and enrich programmatic usage and interaction between inner people and those from the outside. But the problem is how can I link the buildings with these platforms? My intention is to put the Stevens patterns studied from nature into the connection for encouragement of human interaction to maintain chances of local people’s neighbourhood.

b

c


esign

Figure 53. Beijing CBD Area Design by OMA ³&%'FRUHHYROYHGWREHFRPHDORZULVHQHWZRUNRIGLVSHUVHGFRUHVDQGÀH[LEOHRI¿FHFRXUW\DUGV combined with commercial and recreational activites that not only maximize interaction, but also offer the opportunity for a CBD with a 24-Hour urban life.

Figure 52. Platform to Connect Different Buildings with New Programs in the Town a. visual interaction; E¿UVWGUDIWRISODWIRUPFRQQHFWLRQ c. improved draft of platform connection.

a

51


Connection of Platforms by Patterns I use the explored spatial qualities of Stevens nature patterns to create different connections of the buildings. They can affect people’s path generating semiprivate spaces and the sinuous corridor, in order to introduce more interactions and chances for co-operation between different programs. This low-rise network of different units with inner courtyards provides semi-private space and fertile activities for city life and local community conversations. Different programs in units and outdoor activities are diffused maximize encountering and attraction of usage. The inner courtyards among different units aside from the public places and main roads can make semi-private space for outdoor activities and continuum of the behaviors of villagers in existing small courtyards of the site.(Figure 54) This is not Pattern! Formalism and Out of Consideration of Local Interaction The design is not a usage of patterns. The patterns here are not principle of behaviors, rather they are primitive geometries to create spatial forms and then affect behavior. They are more like Rossi’s prototype. Thus, it is formalism which does not consider the ORFDOEHKDYLRXUV$ÀH[LEOHSDWWHUQVKRXOG be generated from the local programmatic arrangement, spatial morphology and their interaction with domestic people. They should be of process, not static. I should QRWFRQ¿QHP\VHOILQWKHIRUPRIEXLOGLQJV instead, I should pay most attention of the system, the arrangement of objects and the human interaction as well as a process about how these human and entities behave along spatial-chronological process. And also I should make sure of the relation between existing programs, domestic behaviours, existing daily routine and the new programs and behaviours IURPJRYHUQPHQWGHPDQGVLQRUGHUWR¿QG out new modes of their reciprocity in timespace variation; rather than using a form/a primitive shape of pattern to conduct the design and function zoning in an unchanging plan, which is only a single thought from myself not integration with the collective intelligence from the site and the behavior of natural patterns. I should not begin the

design from forms and programs like most of architects do, but from behaviours and interaction between people movement and spatial arrangement and should put them into process as a system.

N

Mainroad

Public Park

Figure 54 The Network of Connected Units and Outdoor Activities Arranged Among the Network in Diffused Small Inner Courtyards

)URPHIÂżFHQF\ to Interaction

Total Length used to occupy space . From short to long

Distance from commencement to Destination. From short to long

From Directness and Uniform to Turbulance

Grids

Spiral

Meandering

Comparison of Grids and Stevens Nature Patterns


Existing Structure of Builidings in the Town

A New Unit

View

Keys Platforms as direct connections to provide shortcut pathway.

Platforms as a corridor linking different programs accommodate people daily communication and provide chances for interaction and co-operation.

+

+

+

Platforms for people to look around

Meandering can provide a turbulant parthway for more interaction and encountering; Grid creates short breaks on the way and provides the people on platform with direct visual interaction.

Spiral as a stair is uniform and RFFXSLHVVSDFHHI¿FHQWO\E\XVLQJ less materials. It is circuitous for opportunities of encountering; Grids provide many shortcuts to the space as assistance horisontal connection .

Grids arrange the commercial programs in an uniform way which is easy for people to read; Spiral JHQHUDWHDLQWHUDFWLYHDQGHI¿FHQW way (a shorter length to occupy a larger space) for visitor’s travel. View

Composition

53


A Need for Theory of Human Interaction The Theory of Human Interaction--- Social Theatre It is neccessary to learn about Augusto Boal’s theory on social theatre in order to think about how to increase human interaction in particular spatial arrangements and cultivate sense of neighbourhood in a landscape architect way. Augusto Boal is an avid supporter of utilizing interactive techniques, especially in the context of theatre. The soical theatre is created from his theory of theatre of oppression which is the mechanism of social theatre. The creation of the Social Theatre is largely based on the idea of dialogue and interaction between audience and performer.Moreover, these ideas have served as a framework for the development and evolution of stronger ideas. The Social Theatre [14]describes theatrical forms that the Brazilian theatre SUDFWLWLRQHU$XJXVWR%RDO¿UVWHODERUDWHG in the 1960s, initially in Brazil and later LQ(XURSH%RDOZDVLQÀXHQFHGE\WKH work of the educator and theorist Paulo Freire. Boal’s techniques use theatre as means of promoting social interaction and political change. In the Social Theatre, the audience becomes active, such as “spect-actors” they explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living.(Figure 55) Every one could project own emotion and guide own action, without oppression by conventional form of theatre which FRQ¿QHLQWHUDFWLRQRIDXGLHQFHDVDWRXJK boundary. [15] [14]: Theatre of Oppressed, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_the_Oppressed. [15]: Jackson, Z. Vance, A Social Psychology Perspective Social Psychology and the Theatre of the Oppressed, Ball State University.

Figure 55 Different Roles of “Actor” in Different Venues

Neutral Party (“Social Theatre” --- Invisible Theatre) Joker in CityVillage Why neutral, because a neutral activity let people feel free to participate. This freedom attract and encourage them to interact and notice the activity.

Less Restriction

Restriction

(Convention Theatre)


n Study Social Theatre

Spect-actor

Joker Provide Freedom

Active People recreate environment

Spectator = actor: The audience are active as they both observe and create dramatic meaning and action in any performance.

Neutral Party as center without intervention to content of performance as facilitator to the process of performance

Neighborhood with more osmosis of interaction between each other to let everyone feel and be

in group --- Interactive, Sense of Neighbourhood

Interaction Spect-actor

Spect-actor

VS Convention Theatre Spectator

Spectator is passive to performance, as they are just observers

Actor contol the whole performance

Actor Restriction

Passive People Oppressed by conventional stereotype of environment

Social Separation by stereotype makes people out

group --- Separative

Conduct instead of interaction Spectator

Actor

Outgroup

Comparison between Social Theatre and Convention Theatre

Spect-actor Spectator or Actor Outgroup Conduct Soft boundary of Neighborhood with max interaction between different group and individuals A missing center Social Separation with tough boundary

55


How to make sense of neighbourhood? The system to make people feel in-group. Social Theatre--- Invisible Theatres --- Encouragement of Human Interaction The intension of social theatre is to create a series of invisible theatres. There are two main systems of invisible theatre: Image Theatre and Forum Theatre.

Invisible Theatre

Participation Participation

Participation

Participation

Ice igloo art installations at the Rios Clementi Hale Studios on Larchmont

7KLVÂżJXUHVKRZVRQHRIWKHHYHQWVRI+DSSHQLQJVE\$OODQ.DSURZ “Allan Kaprow’s Happenings are events that occur for a brief moment of time and are planned out. They are used to create awareness about an issue without the audience knowing what is happening. The events usually take place in lofts, streets or alley ways. The events are usually scripted but the audience is unaware of this.â€? ---- Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invisible_ theater) “The performers attempt to disguise the fact that it is a performance from those who observe and who may choose to participate in it, encouraging the spectators to view it as a real event.â€?---Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invisible_theater)This type of theatre is performed in public with unexpected bystanders, whom the actors will try to get unknowingly involved in the scene. Invisible Theatre is all about showing oppression in everyday life, in an everyday setting, without the audience or Spec-actors knowing. The bystanders are unaware that they are part of a theatrical production, but nevertheless contribute to the discussion. This theatre enhance human interaction by encouraging bystanders’ observation and even participation in a daily event to let people feel in-group.

Observation 1.2m~

Field Condition

In the research, I use the psychological theory of interpersonal distance to conduct the invisible theatre (Left Figure). Inside the ÂżHOGFRQGLWLRQE\VWDQGHUVWHQGWR be easier to join the activity, while outside it, people tend to have more privacy and observe the event. Within 0.45m, bystanders cannot pass and a crowd is made. No matter at what distance, people are attracted through observation and participation by a daily event which is attractive and oppressing such as trading in stalls and chess playing in parks.

Bystanders being Attracted

0.45m~1.2m <0.45m

People in Attractive/ Oppressing Event in Dailylife

Uncomfortable Interactive Observation to join to pass. The crowd

Perception of Invisible Theatre

Two Systems of Invisible Theatre (Figure 56) Image theatre: Who, upon viewing the Dominant:Laugh LPDJHFUHDWHGPD\DOWHULWWRUHĂ&#x20AC;HFWWKHLU Outreaching for Laugh own ideas.Each word has a denotation common for all as well as a connotation that is unique for each individual. Ease of Outreaching for Laugh enactment and its remarkable capacity of Outreaching for Laugh portraying thought in a concrete form due to the absence of language idiom. a

:

Forum theatre The whole process is designed to be dialectic, coming to a conclusion through the consideration of opposing arguments.Through this process, the participant is also able to realize and experience the challenges of achieving the improvements he/she suggested instead of one-sided control from actors.

Outreaching for Laugh

Swit c a ste h in turn s ady mod instead e of

Stage is Interface for Switchment

Exchange from Audience to Actor

Figure 56 Analysis of Image Theatre(a) and Forum Theatre(b)

b

Exchange from Actor to Audience


Relationship Assortment of Outreaching Behaviours

Image Theatre Participation (Direct Interaction) Invisible Theatre Observation( Indirect Interaction)

Opposite Behaviours Transition

Forum Theatre

Spatial Mechanism of Design

Sharing Behavior: One program with different expressions/outreach behaviors ---- people have more freedom in implenmentation of this program.

Co-operation Behavior: Transprogram design made by mutual cooperation between countering behaviors from opposite programs.

Further Exploration

Behaviour/Program Assortment Assortment of outreaching behaviour Share a same Dominant Program ( In the research, it is laneway )

Behaviour/Program Transition Negotiation and switchment in turns are two steps of Cooperation between opposite Programs or behaviours. Negotiation means to communicate and understand each, thus, it makes a transition. Switchment is to give RSSRVLWHSURJUDPVRU多HOGVDQLQWHUIDFHWR exchange during this transition. 57


Translation Theory into Relation between 6SDWLDO&RQ¿JXUDWLRQDQG+XPDQEHKDYLRXU Theory of Social Theatre

Mode of Theatre: Joker Interaction Spect-actor

Relation between VSDWLDOFRQ¿JXUDWLRQDQG human behaviour

Spect-actor

Joker: 6SDWLDO&RQ¿JXUDWLRQ 3K\VLFDO3DWWHUQ

Invisible Theatres

Human behaviour(Perception Pattern) People Landscape

Triangle Relationship Pattern ( Mechanism) 5HÀHFW

Indicate

Physical Patterns

Respond Affect

6SDWLDO&RQ¿JXUDWLRQ6SDWLDO)RUP and Program Arrangement

The intention of the following design is to create different systems of invisible theatres in the redevelopment project to enhance human interaction and the sense of feeling in-group and create neighbourhood, through design of spatial programmatic arrangement. Finally, it is anticipated to have a result, in which a fusion of landscape and people is make. In this case, it is not a passive environment that tells what the users should do, instead, it is the users who are encouraged actively to observe and SDUWLFLSDWHLQWKLVVSDWLDOFRQ¿JXUDWLRQWKDW describe an ever-updating, active and tolerant society, a collective impression of harmonious neighbourhood.

Perceptional Patterns

People Behaviors and Interaction


Where is Invisible Theatre in Xian Village?

59


Minimal Invisible Theatre/Component and Local Interaction Some behaviors in the town is very special and convey sense of neighborhood.

Flexible Component

Mechanism

Invisible Theatre

Home

Vision

Vision

Here, the program of selling clothes need high circulation linear space such as a long part of a laneway for showing more clothes to more customers.

Clothes Selling

Snack Stall

Vision

CBD

Vision

Home

Passager with long stay, the program just serve single person

Tailer

Vision

Vision

Home

Stall on the corner beside mainstreet has more opportunity to atract costumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; notice.

Haircut Legend

Main Street Person

Spect-Actor --- Behavior in Static Condition: talking, trading, service, sitting together to eat.... or Field Condition when people participate in an activity, which is GHÂżQHGE\,QWHUSHUVRQDO'LVWDQFH ZLOOEHWDONHGLQWKHIROORZ

Observation by Activities of Attraction Passager Behavior: passing by, moving closer to crowd, being attracted visually and getting rid of the crowd/ obstacle....


,QĂ&#x20AC;H[LEOH&RPSRQHQWV

Mechanism

Invisible Theatre

Fasion Model

Extension Stall

Catering

Passager with long stay for eating, which is countering to the high circulation of street

Path Remained for Entrance

Stall On Ground

61


,QÀH[LEOH&RPSRQHQWV

Mechanism

Invisible Theatre

Playing Cards

Chatting in Group Rest

Before 9:00 AM Rest

Chatting in Group Rest Rest

10:00 AM

After 9:00 AM Before 6:00 PM

Playing Cards

12:00 AM

Chatting in Group Chatting in Group

Watching Movie

6:00 PM

8:00 PM

Outdoor Theatre

After 6:00 PM

Legend

Main Street Person

Spect-Actor --- Behavior in Static Condition: talking, trading, service, sitting together to eat.... or Field Condition when people participate in an activity, which is GH¿QHGE\,QWHUSHUVRQDO'LVWDQFH ZLOOEHWDONHGLQWKHIROORZ

Observation by Activities of Attraction Passager Behavior: passing by, moving closer to crowd, being attracted visually and getting rid of the crowd/ obstacle....


1

3

2

5

4

6

7

8

9

Residential Area Mainroad

Grass Field

1

7 2 8

4

6

Grass as ss s Field F

9

N

3

School

River

5

Foodcourt

Foodcourt

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Locations of Invisible Theatres and Their Relation to the Site These Behaviours are allocated adjacent to open air, commercial area, small courtyards and scenery spots like traditional temples ....

Business Apartment

2I多FHH

Hotel

Commercial Usage

*UHHQ多HOG6PDOO&RXUW\DUG

Local Shop

Apartment for Migrant Workers Long Term Stay

Residential Area

Apartment for Migrant Workers Short Term Stay

63


Further Exploration of Patterns, Simulation, Redevelopment There are 3 steps of the following design iterations to each pattern, patching, meandering and spiral. 7KH多UVWRQHLV to explore these patterns through relating each to a detial natural phenomenon LQRUGHUWR多QGRXWDPHFKDQLVPRIWKH pattern. Secondly, I will simulate the mechanism to generate a relevant design principle for landscape behaviour system (Circulation system and masterplan design in the Town) in order to produce invisible theatres for neighbourhood. Finally, I will, typologically, redevelop different vocabularies of the mechanism/ the prototype and translate them into physical design work through exploration in scale( materiality, infrastructure and terrain design) and process(spatial and chronological).

Diagram and Terms of the following context on Patching Explore Patterns Natural Phemomena Patching

Patches in Matrix

Components Activator, Patch, Matrix + Species

Simulate Patterns Circulation System and Masterplan in City Town

Masterplan

Components in Citytown Redevelopment Project Activator 1: Ratio of Programs Patch: program Matrix: Land use Activator 2:Legislation Patch: Land form Matrix: Site + Consumers and Resident


The First Pattern:Patching >>> Mechanism of Pattern

Behaviour of Pattern

Activators from affection of human or nature create Changes/Patches to disturb the Matrix and isolate some of Patches, which allow more interaction and generation of different species.

Landscape Fragementation

Mechanism

Physical Pattern

Perception Pattern: Social Theatre

Spatial Process Insertion: Activators, Different Ratio of Programmatic Distribution and Legislation on Overshadowing, Fire Distance and Hieght of Lowrise Buildings, affect Arrangement of Programs and Morphology of Exterior Space which produce chances for human interaction by inserting opposite program into the main one. Insection: The opposite programs as patches inserted into the dominant one as matrix which render the place different interaction.

Programmatic Fragmentation (Programmatic Redistribution) Programmatic Fragmentation --Negotiation between Designer, Local People and Government, activator becomes the interface for spatialprogrammatic transition between different usage like consumers and resident

Forum Theatre ( Behaviour Transition)


Patching: Forum Theatre Explore Patterns Mechanism

Simulate Patterns Mechanism

Activators

Local Interaction

Proportion of Program

Legislation 90degree Joint

120degree Joint

90degree Joint in Rock

120degree Joint in Peat

Patches

Distinct Land Form

Opposite Programs and Social Group

Landform

Insert and Disturb

Insert and Disturb

Integrated by Activators in Transition

Integrate in Transition by Program Proportion and Legislations

Fragmentation in a Matrix Transition between Species Enriched for Interaction

Programmatic-Spatial Fragmentation in a dominant land use Transition between Social Groups Enriched for Interaction

Diagram of Translation What is Patch? Patching ---- Fragmentation by particular activator. Patch is product through process of fragmentation in which the matrix of landscape is disturbed by activators from human action or natural change, isolating area of the matrix into patches, and the transition between different material is enhanced in this fragmentation, which allow more interaction and generation of different species. Matrix means a landscape condition as

dominant land use and habitat type; Patch means distinct landscape forms in a matrix of a relatively homogeneous landscape condition. Activators from affection of human or nature create Changes/Patches to disturb the Matrix and isolate some of them, which allow more interaction and generation of different species. Different join points

in different material such as rock and peat identify them in the earth as distinct species to others, therefore, join point is activator. The earth is the matrix, with this activator, different material are made in a landscape RIIUDJPHQWDWLRQZKLFKDOORZGLYHUVHĂ&#x20AC;RZRI species and energy


Residential Area Mainroad

Grass Field

N

Office

Opposite Patches in One Matrix

Grass Field School

River

Well Transition Foodcourt

Foodcourt

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Plan of Existing Condtion Programmatic Fragementation in Existing Town programs in the existing town are rich and diffused. The programmatic transition from local shop to residential area is helpful to create human interaction. The relation between migrant workers and domestic villagers cultivates the neighbourhood and interaction. Residential Area Mainroad

N

Office

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Government Plan Matrix in Government Plan of Program Arrangement which donot have enough interaction The government plan is comprised RIPDWUL[HVLQZKLFKHYHU\SURJUDPLVFRQ多QHGE\DVLQJOHWRZHU or a single landuse such as residential area and commercial zone which are totally seperated from each other, therefore, there is no transition between. The towers release many room for open space DUURXQGWKHJUHHQ多HOGVDUHVRXVHOHVVEXWODUJHDQGLQDFFHVVLEOH to the pedestrians; the elevators in towers vertically seperate human interaction. Many residential districts are too large and encompassed by fence, so that residents are isolated from outside. Especially, migrant workers are out of group in government plan, as no program is allocated for their accomodation. In a word,spatial separation of human interaction and the lack of community diversity are due to the rigid programmatic arrangement.

Multi-Matrix with No Patches No Transition

Legend

Business Apartment

2I多FHH

Hotel

Commercial Usage

*UHHQ多HOG6PDOO&RXUW\DUG

Local Shop

Apartment for Migrant Workers Long Term Stay

Residential Tower

Apartment for Migrant Workers Short Term Stay

Comparison Between Existing Condition and Government Plan in Program Arrangement The joint angle here is one of the activators. In this logic, if activator can be a factor

to enhance ecological diversity, what about ratio of program arrangement or legislation are the activators? I am concidering a way of programmatic distribution which can enhance diversity of human interaction through transition of different inserted patches of program.

67


Activator 1: Ratio of Programmative Arrangement

Program Arrangement negotiation with Government, Local people and designers who consider about migrant workers.

Existing Condition Population/Amount

30%

8%

8%

Indigenous Villagers

8000

Migrant Work Who stay

2000

Migrant Work floating population (1-2year’s living)

21,000 ~ 28,000

Shop in village

2400 * 20m2

8000Villagers

25,000Migrant Workers

54%

(Some shops are more than 80m2, some are 7-10m2, some are 100m2, but most in the town are 20-30m2.)

Proportion of Program in Area The replacement just need one third the area of original government plan.

Village 5floor 14% 60m2 Host 5people in total

Shops

300m2

Host 5people in total

4floor 9%

Program Arrangement in Existing Condition

20~m2

240m2

20~m2

6floor 40% 360m2

20~m2

7floor 37%

20~m2

Type 1 27units in total in town

420m2

Type 2 46units in total in town

8000 villagers in 1421units, 5persons/develling, average floor size for net area is 60m2, replacement include circulation area. Living Space 60*2=120m2

1 unit = 2880 square metres

Existing Residential Condition in Main Types of Buildings in Xian Village

Government Plan( Disappear of Migrant Workers and Local Shops) Rental of Shop (60m2 56000RMB/month)

Commercial Usage

Business Apartment

8% Business Run

Village Own (70-60)m2 on average

19%

)XO¿OO*RYHUQ Hotel

4%

2I¿FH

10%

Program Arrangment in Government Plan

Residential Replacement

Replacement Room: House to House including exchange original shop into residential area

Original Plan by government is so rigid, each building has single program, the site is separated through these single matrixes without interaction; All of the area of original building transfer into residential replacement in a single compensational plan of government without consideration of migrant workers. Office

59%

just for villagers Office

Residential Area Mainroad

N

Office

Office

Office

Mall

Office

60m2

5people 120m2

Hotel

Totally Switch

Residential Tower

Mainroad

Residential Area

Residential Tower

Plan 1:4000

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Type 1 Type 2 Current Situation

Govenment Replacement

Proportion of Program in Area


Proposed New Plan for Replacement/Programmatic Insertion

View Direction

Residential Towers Being Built

Overview of Arrangement of Program Rental of Shop (3000RMB/month or through negotiation)

Rental of Shop (60m2 56000RMB/month)

Business Run

8%

Village Own (70-60)m2 on average

19%

QPHQW3ODQ 4%

10%

Migrant

Exchange

Migrant

Local Shop

3:1 ratio from residential area to commercial area

Proportion of Program in Area Insert Patches(Programs: local shop, migrant workers rental) into Replacement

Swithch To

Villagers

7%

3XEOLF(VWDWHV)XO多OOHGLQ'HVLJQ Refurbishment on the Old Buildings 59% - 7% The Total Area of Residential is cut down to get Room for High Density of Lowrise Buildings

New design makes patches instead of single unit with single program, arrangement of each building and small courtyard are homogeneous but different. This mixture of program contributes to DXQL多HGPDWUL[ODQGXVHDVDQHZ residential area integrated well with commercial development. The switchment of local shop can make the plan to build less to comfort the QHHGVRIUHSODFHPHQWDQGIXO多OOWKH same economic programs.

69


Manipulation of Programmatic Insertion in Proposed Plan of Replacement Existing Condition

Proportion of Program

60m2

Design

New Buildings

30%

Plan 1

8%

8%

5.4units Saved

38%

3:1 R to S 30%

Plan 2

8%

2.7%

54%

0.9units Saved

3:1 S to S

Shop Seperated From Buildings

30%

8%

8%

Plan 3 2.7units Saved

46%

2:1 R to S 46%

Plan 0 54%

&DQQRW)XO¿OOWKHDUHD for the whole short tearm migrant workers

Legend

Local people can changes the plan they like according to different spatial quality of advantages. Migrant workers are considered.

Apartment for Migrant Workers Long Term Stay

Local Shop

Business Apartment

2I¿FHH

Apartment for Migrant Workers Short Term Stay

Residential Area

Hotel

Commercial Usage

1 unit = 2880 square metres *UHHQ¿HOG6PDOO&RXUW\DUG

Samples of Proposed Building To use 6Floors Building as Unit is according to Chinese legislation: ³%XLOGLQJVEHORZÀRRUVKHLJKW do not have to have elevators.”

Elevator

12~18 Floors Buidling

6 Floors Building


Location of Dwelling

Location of Shop

Spatial Advantage Residential Area

Office

Mainroad

25.6units

2.7units

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

T C emp arp o ark rary /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

O

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Office

Kids Play Mall

Of

Kids Play Office

Furniture

Kindergardern

Trac Car -way One

k Residential Towe

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Mainroad

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential Are Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Area

Office

Mainroad

5.4units

0.2units

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

T C emp arp o ark rary /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Office

Commercial

Kids Play Mall Kids Play

Office

Furniture

Kindergardern ack

Tr Car -way One

Residential To

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Mainroad

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground

Residential Area

Office

Mainroad

15units

1.4units

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

T C emp arp o ark rary /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Office

Commercial

Kids Play Mall Kids Play

Office

Furniture

Kindergardern

ack

Tr Car -way One

Residen

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Mainroad

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground

Residential Area

O

Mainroad

Mall

27units

Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

T C emp arp o ark rary /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall Kids Play

ack

Tr Car -way One

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court Mainroad

l

Office

Furniture

Kindergardern

School

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad

1 unit = 2880 square metres

71


Spatial Advantages The spatial advantages include the ancient commercial street, old temples and natural resource such as the lake in original site. These qualities give WKHSODQVGLIIHUHQWEHQH多WV Residential Area

Offic

Street Market

Mainroad

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad Cinema

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B al lC ou rt

ffice

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall Kids Play

ack

r ar T yC -wa One

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Re School

Old Temple Lake Kids Play

Mainroad

Hotel

Office

Furniture

Mall

Kindergardern

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground

Rebuilt Commercial Street in Design Residential Tower

Residential Tower

R

Lake and Courtyard Beside Scenery in Existing Condition

Residential Tower

Design Plan Spatial Advantage Maintianed in Design 1:12000 Residential Area

O

Residential Area

Office

Mainroad Mainroad

Mall Mall

Mall

Mall

Commercial Street

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Public Sport

Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Mall

Kids Play Mall

ck Tra Car

Kindergardern ck Tra Car -way One

Lake

Mainroad

Mainroad

Kids Play

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Foodcourt

Public Museum

Residential To School Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Office

Furniture

Office

Furniture

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

l

Food Court Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground

Mainroad

Rental Priority Adjacent to the surrouding main road and public transport

Cultural Scenery Priority Adjacent to Lake and Small Courtyard

_ +

_

Office

Kids Play

Kids Play Kindergardern

y -wa One

Commercial

Commercial

Kids Play

Mainroad

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Mainroad

Mainroad

Mainroad

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

+


Night Market

Residential Area Mainroad

Grass Field

N

e

River

Foodcourt

Foodcourt

Mainroad

Traditional Commercial Street

Existing Condition Spatial Advantage Maintianed from Existing Condition 1:12000 Residential Area

Residential Area

Office

Office

Mainroad

Mainroad

Mall

Mall Mall

Mall

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Commercial

Commercial Street

Public Sport

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark

Mainroad

Cinema

Mainroad

Mainroad

Mainroad

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Office Kids Play Mall

Office

Kids Play Furniture

Office

Furniture

rack ar T yC -wa One

Kindergardern ck Tra Car -way One

Residen

Lake

Mainroad

Mainroad

Kids Play

Residentia School Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Office

Kids Play Kindergardern

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad

Mainroad M

l

Masterplan of Program on the Ground

fP

h G

Resident

d

Commerce Priority Adjacent to Traditional Commercial Street and the new Commercial Area

+

Commercial Income

_

Scenery

_

Rental Income 73


Design in Towers(12 - 18 Floors Height)

14th~ Floor

Shop

Cafe

13th and 19th Floor

8th~12th Floor

20 m2

20 m2 40 m2 60 m2

Restaurant

Shop

7th Floor

Cardgame

80 m2

2nd - 6th Floor

One Building

ÀRRUV Long Term Migrant Worker Dwelling

ÀRRUV

ÀRRUV

60m2

ÀRRUV

Highrise in Design

Existing Condition

Villagers Dwelling

Shops Run by Migrant Worker

Short Term Migrant Worker Dwelling

House Types and Program in High-rise Building of Proposed Plan In high-rise buildings, I design to enlarge staircase as a public space and arrange facilities including tables for card games,shops, restaurant for eatting tea and kindergardern for more interaction. And this FRQ¿JXUDWLRQLVGHVLJQHGRQ HYHU\ÀRRUVWRHQKDQFHXVDJH of stairs.


Tower in Goverment Plan ( 30 ~ Floors Height) 80 m2 80 m2

80 m2 80 m2

80 m2

60 m2

60 m2

80 m2

80 m2

100 m2

100 m2 70 m2 60 m2

80 m2 80 m2 80 m2

80 m2 80 m2

100 m2

100 m2

Villager Replacement

House Types and Program in Towers of Government Plan

This Small Shop could be slotted inside the tower.

Playing Cardgame by Migrant Workers

Ground Floor

75


The Social Construction Dwellings and Shops in Proposed Plan The new design has a vertical fragmentation and this maintain the verticle social construction in city town in low-rise Building. This behavior will help to keep a nice relationship between new commers. The relatively higher building is aggregated on the north-east because of the distance between the surrounding building due to the over shadowing legislation forbidding shadow cover the building behind.

Long Term Migrant Worker Dwelling

Original Social Construction of the Village Buildings

Rental by Cash

Work Outside the village Rent Shops creating diversity of commercial estates

Villagers Dwelling

Shops Run by Migrant Worker


Dwellings and Shops in Government Plan In the Government Plan, because of the missing of migrant workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; accomodations, the social relationship and construction is broken down. The programs in replacement do not allow interaction between different neighbourhoods. Social interaction is minimal.

Villagers Dwelling

High Consumption Commercial Shops

Rental for room Original Relationship of Neighborhood Mantained

Long Term Migrant Worker Dwelling

Villagers Dwelling

Work outside

Rental for shop

Shops Run by Migrant Worker ( Low Consumption)

77


Activator 2: Legislation Legislation of Lowrise Buildings to Enhance Usage of Stair

%HORZĂ&#x20AC;RRUVLVORZULVH builidng which can be built without elevator.

Spring Festival Cleaning

15-21m Feel easy to get down to ground , unlike high tower

Existing Condition

Design The low-rise building legislation encourage usage of stair where people are easier to encounter and talk. As a result, human interaction is enhanced. The usage RIĂ&#x20AC;RRUVORZULVH building in the design is to respond to this intention.


'LDJUDPDERXW/HJLVODWLRQRI2YHUVKDGRZLQJ7R&RQ多UP%XLOGLQJ$OORFDWLRQ The shadow of buildings at noon in winter cannot touch the buildngs behind.

24F

24F 24F

4F

18F 4F 12F 4F 6F 4F 18F 4F 6F 6F 4F 18F 6F 6F 6F 4F 6F 6F 5F 6F 12F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 18F 6F 6F 18F 6F 12F 6F 18F 12F

30 15 0 Sunshine Direction

Angles to Horizon

79


Diagram of Legislation of Firedistance 0LQLPDOGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWZREXLOGLQJVLQFDVHRI¿UH

ÀRRUV ÀRRUV

ÀRRUV

Lowrise

Lowrise

Laneway 4m

ÀRRUV

Lowrise

Laneway 6m

4m Laneway in Existing Condition

ÀRRUVa

ÀRRUVa

Highrise

Highrise

Laneway 8m

Laneway 13m

6~8m


A network of Laneway and Small Courtyard Office Mainroad

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad Cinema

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B al lC ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court Temporary Carpark

Office

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Office

Office

Kids Play Office

Furniture

Kindergardern

y -wa One

ck Tra Car

Residential Tower

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground

1:20000 Residential Tower

Residential Area Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Behavior in Small Courtyard of Existing Condition Small courtyards in the proposed plan are more accessible and available for communities to use than the large green 多HOGLQJRYHUQPHQWSODQLV

Fire Distance Makes Different Laneway. Transposition Arrangement of Shadow Makes Small Courtyards. They are More Accessible and useful than the Over-excessive Large Road System and Green Field in Government Plan. 81


Residential Are

Final Result by the two Activators Mainroad Programmatic Fragmentation of Proprosed Design Masterplan Negotiation between Designer, Local People and Government, activator becomes the interface for spatial-programmatic transition between different usage like consumers and resident.

Mall

Bike Track Local Villagers Residential Replacement

Office Speed Reduction

Commercial Street

One-way Car Track

Temporary

Carpark

Ball Court

Cinema

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B al lC ou rt

Small Courtyrads

Mainroad

Tricycle Hammal Station

Mall

Kids Playing

Traditional Temple

Commercia

Public Sport

Business Apartment Hotel 2I多FHH Commercial Usage

Mall

)XO多OOHG3URJUDP

Apartment for Migrant Workers Short Term Stay

Mall Local Shop

Inserted Program

Kindergardern ck Tra r a ay C w One

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Legend 1:10000

Mainroad

Hotel

Furniture

Apartment for Migrant Workers Long Term Stay

Kids Play

Public Museum

Mainroad


ea

Office

Mainroad

y Carpark/Ball Court Temporary Carpark

al Street Commercial

Kids Play

Office

Kids Play Office

n

Residential T School Residential Tower

Lake

Foodcourt Food Court

83


Local Shop Commercial Usage

=/ Activator 1: Proportion of Program (according to different spatial advantages)

Local Villagers Residential Replacement

=/

Apartment for Migrant Workers Short Term Stay Apartment for Migrant Workers Long Term Stay

Activator 2: Legislation Laneway + Road

=/ Courtyards Note: “=” / means “is Opposite to”

Interface Stage

Opposite Behavior

Diagram of Relationship between Patching and Forum Theatre

Programmatic Fregmentation--Mix Social Structure Programmatic Fragmentation is the result of negotiation Proposed Design between Designers(who consider migrant workers’ interest), Local People and Government( stands for high-income 6 units Business Apartment Citizen), the ratio of program arrangement Hotel 14 units and legistlations as activators become an interface for spatial-programmatic transition 2I¿FHH 14 units between different usage like consumers and 11 units resident. The arrangement of local shop, Commercial Usage villager replacement and migrant worker Villagers Replacement 41 units dorm results from differen spatial quality such as location of scenery resource(such Short-term Migrant Workers 22 units as lake, temples, small courtyards), location of commercial estate; local legislation on Long-term Migrant Workers 10 units height and interval of buildings; and the individual decision of local villagers ( on 1 unit = 2880 square metres what plan they would like to select). Thus, )LQDO&ULWHULRQ)XO¿OOHG 7KHGHVLJQFDQIXO¿OOPRVWRIWKHQHHGVIURPGLIIHUHQWVRFLDO this fragmentation of landscaope becomes groups and programs. But some programs such as business a forum theatre of smart interactive coDSDUWPHQWVFDQQRWEHIXO¿OOHG7KHPDVWHUSODQQHHGV improve. There is still not enough room for short-term operation between different and countering to accomodation of migrant workers, eventhough they are highsocial groups in a large spatial scale. circulation population.

Government Plan Demands

8QIXO¿OOHG

28 units

22 units

14 units

0units

14 units

0units

11 units

0units

84 units (41units wanted by villagers, 102units wanted by short-term migrant workers, 10units wanted by long-term migrant workers)

13 units


Office Mainroad

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Office

Commercial

Kids Play Mall Kids Play

Office

Furniture

Program Patches

Kindergardern

rack ar T yC -wa One

Residential To

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Mainroad

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad

Insert,Negotiate and Redistribute

Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential A Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Office Mainroad

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Spatial Patches

Temporary Carpark

Office

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Office

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Office

Kids Play Office

Furniture

Kindergardern ck Tra Car -way One

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Mainroad

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential Area Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Switchment in Transition

Residential Area

Office

Mainroad

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad Cinema

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Office

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court Temporary Carpark

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Office

Kids Play Kindergardern y -wa One

ck Tra Car

Residential T School

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Hotel

Office

Furniture

Mall

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential otel

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Program Fragmentation Enhances Human Interaction between different Social Groups in Transition Generated from A New Redistribution

Forum Theatre Program/Behavior Transition 85


Two Design in Spatial Patches

Office Mainroad

Mall

T C emp arp o ark rary /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Office

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Office

Totel

Sitting

Office

Pavillion

Kids Play Office

Furniture

Kindergardern

ck r Tra ay Ca One-w

Residential Tower School

Static Behaviors/Semi-private

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Office

Mainroad

Mainroad

7KHUHDUHWZRVSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQJHQHUDWHG which are small courtyards and laneways for human interaction, conducted by the prototypes of spiral and meandering.

Mall

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Spiral

Mainroad Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential Area

Mall

Residential Tower

Mall

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Small Courtyard

Mainroad

Mainroad

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Office

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Office

Office

Kids Play Office

Furniture

Kindergardern ck Tra Car -way One

Residential Tower

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential Area Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Spatial Patches --- A Network of Small Courtyards and Laneways.

Diagram and Terms of the following context on Meandering Explore Patterns Natural Phemomena Meandering

Stream Dynamics

Components Block + Transfering Fluid

Simulate Patterns Circulation System and Masterplan in City Town

Laneway

Components in Citytown Redevelopment Project

Facilities( Active Centre and Neutral Centre) + Pedestrians


Office Mainroad

Mall Mall Mainroad

Mainroad

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B all C ou rt

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Cinema

Temporary Carpark

Office

Commercial Street

Public Sport

Commercial

Kids Play Mall

Office

Office

Kids Play Office

Furniture

Kindergardern Car -way One

k Trac

Residential Tower

Meandering

Mainroad

Residential Tower

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

School

Lake Kids Play

Foodcourt

Public Museum Food Court

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground Residential Area Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Laneways

The Second Pattern:Meandering >>> Mechanism of Pattern

Behaviour of Pattern

Interval Between Different Blocks and Relative Positions of Them affect Distance, Interaction, Quantity of the Fluid.

Turbulant Transportation

Mechanism Spatial Extrusion: Arrangement of Facilities extruding programs from walls to exterior laneway space as blocks, active centres can produce narrowness and void(neutral centre) which affect the spatial volume through thier interval and relative position. This spatial morphology generates active and neutral edges for human interaction, at the same time, routes of pedestrians are affected too.

Physical Pattern Process

Gallery with Varying Volume (Programmatic Assortment)

Perception Pattern: Social Theatre Image Theatre (Behaviour Assortment)

Gellery: People can observe or take part in activities during their journey of transportation. All behaviours facilitate one dominant program (laneway for pedestrian transportation). Varying Volume made by Programmatic Extrusion from walls of laneway/road Multi-programmatic Laneway

87


Previous Exploration and Simulation Meandering in Laneways: Compact Space for Interaction Encouragement in the Existing Laneway Space +HUH,ÂżQGRXWGLIIHUHQWYRFDEXODULHV for the pattern of meandering from the existing laneways in Xian village in order to simulate different principles to create invisible theatres.

Lane Way

Street Market

2m 4m

2m

Street Market

6-8m

4m

Night Market

Outskirt


Pedestrian Street

Looking at Product

Buying food Talking with shop host Buying food

Talking with shop host Buying food Looking at Product

Passage

Chatting Buying food Looking at Product Talking Talking with shop with shop host host Passager with transient stay

Image Theatre Made in the Laneway One Program with Different Outreach Behaviors

Legend Spect-Actor --- Behavior in Static Condition: talking, trading, service, sitting together to eat....

Field Condition when people participate in an activity, which is GH多QHGE\,QWHUSHUVRQDO'LVWDQFH ZLOOEHWDONHGLQWKHIROORZ

Person or

Observation by Activities of Attraction Passager Behavior: passing by, moving closer to crowd, being attracted visually and getting rid of the crowd/ obstacle....

89


First Redevelopment of Meandering The spatial psychological theory of personal distance is introduced into the experiment below. In the experiment, I test different laneways with different width such as 4metres, 6metres and 8metres. And then, I increase amount of people inside the lanes, some of which are purchasing with others passing through. As a result, the spaces are compressed and interpersonal distance varies. These distance refer to peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s different spatial perception from feeling very too tight to interactive and then, alone. I adjusted the amount and arrangement of the VWDOOVWRÂżQGRXWWKHEHVWZD\IRUDFFRPRGDWLRQPRUHSHRSOHZLWKLGHDOGLVWDQFH of interaction in the sections and plans. The result of the best distance in every ODQHLVWKHVDPHPHWUHVDQGWKHEHVWVSDWLDOFRQÂżJXUDWLRQVIRUHDFKODQHDUH highlighted by a red square.

0.56m

6m

Too tight

0.05m 0.05m

0.3m0.3m

0.475m 7.5m

1m

0.45m

1m 0.45m

0.9m 1m

1m

0.475m

0.45m

0.9m

1m

1m

1m

0.27m 0.27m 0.27m

Too tight

1m

1m

0.25m

0.25m

0.23m

0.08m

Too tight

1m

0.27m

0.23m

1m

1m

0.187m

1m

1m

0.187m 0.187m 0.187m 0.825m

1m

1m

0.9m

0.45m 0.8m

1m

1m

0.9m

0.9m 1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

0.9m

0.45m 0.8m

0.825m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

0.8m

0.45m 0.45m 0.45m

0.45m 0.45m 0.45m 0.45m

0.9m

1.25m

0.45m 0.45m 0.45m 0.45m

0.9m

0.5m

0.45m0.45m

0.45m

0.45m

1.00m

0.45m 0.45m0.45m 0.45m

1.25m

1.25m

0.45m

1.19m

1.00m

0.45m 0.45m

1.19m

Alone 1.6m

1.6m

8m

Semi-public Section

Alone 1.36m

1.36m

6m Semi-private Section

Arrangement in Plan

Arrangement in Plan


4m

0.15m

0.45m

Too tight 0.299m 0.299m

0.45m 0.5m

0.45m

0.5m

0.38m

0.15m

Too tight

0.425m

The best distance for human interaaction of the Field Condition of a Stall

0.45m 0.85m

Many People 0.825m

0.825m

2m

1.125m

Average Condition(Used in the Diagram) 1.8m

1.125m

1.2m 0.95m

Few People 1.5m

1.2m

0.95m

Field

Field

Field

0.725m 0.45m 0.725m

0.65m 0.45m 0.45m

Field 1.125m

Field

Field

1.125m

Alone 1.5m

1.5m

4m

Private Section

Interpersonal Distance Intimate Distance:0-0.45 m (Too Tight) Personal Distance(Interaction):0.45-1.20m Social Distance(Alone):1.20-3.60m

Suitable Mode of Arrangement Arrangement in Plan

The Best Distance Between 2 Stalls is 4 Metres 91


Generation of Meandering in the design The Volume( Interval) Between the Buildings 4floors 4unit/buidling 13m 0.9

12floors 4units/B

6floors 4unit/buidling

14.4m

11m

1

0.8

21m 1

19m 0.9

17m 43m 1 0.8

38m 0.9 13m

4m

34m 0.8

Angle According: 0 - 15 = 1; 15 -30 = 0.9; 30 ~ 45 =0.8; 45 ~ 60 = 0.9

19m

4m 4m

19m

4m

6m

17m

4m

19m

11m

19m

11m

6m

17m

4m

4m

4m

6m

4m

6m

19m

4m 19m

4m 19m

4m 19m

19m

19m

4m

4m 4m 19m

4m

60 30 15 0

19m

4m

4m

19m 19m

19m 6m

6m

4m 38m

19m 6m

6m

Diagram of Building Orientation in Design

38m

Legislation of Overshadowing and Fire Distance

4m Lane

6m Lane

8m Lane

Different Interval of Layway between Buildings in the design


8m Lane

6m Lane

4m Lane

93


Further Exploration of Stream Dynamic in Meandering and Simula From Logic to Detail Design of meandering in Laneway Previous Research The research about meandering up till now is about relationship between human interaction, arrangement of infrastructure as stalls and building interval. A particular distance between two stalls as 4 metre can be more easy to generate human interaction in a comfortable way before the space become too crowded. Through using this distance between each two stalls as a unit, arrangement of these units into different grids with different joint angles is found suitable for human interaction in laneway with particular width. (Figure M 01 A,B,C) However, I found it is limited and ULJLGWRFRQÂżQHWKHGHVLJQLQDVLPSOHDUUDQJHPHQW of stalls with a series of angles and distance.And the relationship between meandeing system and spatial design, human interaction is not so obvious. The research about meandering system is not enough.

A

8m

I should consider more on relationship between spatialprogrammatic arrangement and human behavior. Therefore, I try to explore more about the inner relationship of these spatial morphology through do more detail design such as pavement, canopy of the street DQGLQWHJUDWHZLWKGDLO\URXWLQHLQRUGHUWRÂżQGRXWVRPH quality beyond the rigid physcial dimensional placement. ,KRSHLWFDQEHVRPHRIĂ&#x20AC;H[LEOHUHODWLRQFurther Exploration I reconsider basic aspect in meandering, from its components to local interaction then to a further exploration on object arrangement which is not just FRQÂżQHGLQWKHRULJQDOJULGVZLWKPHWUHOLQHV$QG found a series vocabularies of prototype to conduct the detail design. Components I related the components with the objects and particles in natural meandering system. Some new components or those which were not noticed in previous research are found.( Figure M 01 F)

6m

4m

A unit

B

Degree of Angle on the Joint

90

90

90

90

90

90

90

90

60 60 60 60 60 60 90 90 90 90

C

Figure M 01 Research of Meandering Outcome A: Spatial Morphology B: Concept of Arrangement in Meandering Mode C: The grids inside the arrangement which act as spatial relationship between different stalls. D: Natural Phenomena of Meandering E: My Meandering System. F: Components G:Local Interaction


ation to Design Principles Local Interaction Relation of attraction and repulsion is local interaction between different centers or different persons, this relation as the basic interaction is conducted by the patterns I have researched into a complex system. The lateral force in natural meandering is equal to my meandering systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s program attraction and replusion. (Figure M 01 G) Programmatic extrution (Figure M 01 E) makes stall compress space of passway of pedestrians and affect. As a result, the stall attracts participation or while there is too crowded, it

becomes a replusion to passer-by, which affect passway of pedestrians. The same to neutral center where provide privacy to who stay inside to observe surroundings. It also could repulse pedestrians by visual intervention from inside or room is full inside. (Figure M 01 G)When stalls are arranged in the best distance of interaction, they are easy to attract participation or provide sense of neighbourhood.

Semi PrivateS

emi Private

Relatively Active More Private

Private

More Private

D Interval between different blocks and relative positions of them affect passway, interaction, quantity RIWKHĂ&#x20AC;XLG

E From left to right: Symmetry, Horizontal Transposition, Verticle Transposition.

Particle: Transfering Fluid

Passway of Pedestrian Physical Structure Wall...

4m

6m

8m

Active Center Programed Infrastructure where provide attraction to people to participate particular activities

Object: Block Topography, obstacles

Average Range of interaction Average inteactive range at which a group of human affect passer-by The Program(Here is Stall)

Neutral Center Unprogramed Space for people to stay and provide privacy for people observe activities arround( activities in active center)

F Components in Natural Phenomena and Meandering System( The Right )

Attraction

Absorption

Radiation

Attract pedestrian to participate

Attract pedestrian inside to observe surrounding

Repulsion

Lateral Force Passing away Best Distance of Interaction in Passway

G Local Interaction

Hierachy: Participation

Passing away

Observation

95


Result of Simulation and Further Redevelopment Vocabularies of Programmatic Extrusion Mechanism of meandering system is programmatic extrusion. Arrangement of Facilities extruding programs from walls to exterior laneway space as blocks, active centres can produce narrowness and void(neutral centre) which affect the spatial volume through thier interval and relative position. This spatial morphology generates active and neutral edges for human interaction, at the same time, routes of pedestrians are affected too.

S

Symmetry One of the 3 basic composition of meandering system, and S mode is the origin of V mode and H mode.

H

Horizontal Transposition One of the 3 basic composition of meandering system

Horizontal Transposition

Horizontal Transposition

Private

V

Relatively Active

Vertical Transposition One of the 3 basic composition of meandering system

Vertical Transposition

Vertical Transposition

Legend

The Shortest Passway

Best Distance of Interaction in Passway

Hierachy: Participation

Observation


Semi PrivateS

Private

In relative position of S mode, centers with same quality are arranged face to face which makes an equivalence condition. The opposite active/neutral centers are easy to join in a group and have direct interaction. The arrangement of things does not affect the passway so that people pass the lane easily.

emi Private

Relatively Active

In relative position of H mode, the arrangement of active centers has the most efficency in interaction. The opposite centers have direct interaction. The opposite centers have competition and the movement of passway makes different quality in privacy between the two competitional neutral centers which respond to each other and tends to take up the other, due to arrangement of active centers disturbs passway which makes people more difficult to pass. The curve passway in the middle is the icon of horizontal transposition.

Horizontal Transposition

In relative position of V mode, the arrangement of centers has indirect interaction. The opposite neutral centers have more privacy in this mode. This less interactive arrangement does not affect passway and good for observation between neutral centers.

More Private More Private

Vertical Transposition

Average Range of interaction Average inteactive range at which a group of human affect passer-by The Program(Here is Stall)

Neutral Center 4m6

m8

m

Physical Structure Wall...

Active Center Programed Infrastructure where provide attraction to people to participate particular activities

Unprogramed Space for people to stay and provide privacy for people observe activities arround( activities in active center)

97


S-HV

Synthetic Transposition developed from S mode

S-H-V

Equal Situation

Semi Private

Different depth of distance from passer-by on horizon.

Semi Private Private

Relatively Active

Same depth on vertical direction.

Horizontal Transposition

More Private

S-V-H

Equal Situation

Semi Private

Semi Private More Private

Vertical Transposition Here, vertical transposition gets the peak, because the neutral centers get the most privacy

Legend

The Shortest Passway

Best Distance of Interaction in Passway

Hierachy: Participation

Observation


Different depth of distance from passer-by on horizon.

Direct Interaction Between Active Centers

Private Different depth on vertical direction.

Has quality of the 3 basic mode at the same time.

Relatively Active

More Private

Indirect Interaction Between Active Centers

Vertical Transposition

This mode is the synthetic mode of the former 3. The centers have more complex quality of interaction. Composition become more complex in human interaction diversity.

Horizontal Transposition More Enclosure by Active Center to push out the passway Much More Private More Private

Relatively active Private Closer to Passway and Less Depth

Horizontal Transposition

Depth Enhanced

This mode creates an interesting unbalanced privacy variation in the two neutral centers. The upper one has more enclosure by horizontal transposition of active centers, while this movement presses and make the lower neutral center smaller by the curve passway so that the center becomes less private but more directly comunicative with pedestrians and activities in the opposite active center. As a result, variety of interaction in the laneway is much enriched.

Average Range of interaction Average inteactive range at which a group of human affect passer-by The Program(Here is Stall)

Neutral Center 4m6

m8

m

Physical Structure Wall...

Active Center Programed Infrastructure where provide attraction to people to participate particular activities

Unprogramed Space for people to stay and provide privacy for people observe activities arround( activities in active center)

99


S mode Laneway1 This mode is used in public space. The face to face allocated stalls, chairs and pavement type give more chance for direct interaction. The arrangement of stalls keep the passway straight and the pavement responds to this. I use different pavement in different TXDOLW\WRGHÂżQHSRVLWLRQIRU different usage. I give blue stone WRWKHPDLQD[LVZKLFKLVĂ&#x20AC;DWDQG encourage pass. Brick pavement Site LVĂ&#x20AC;DWEXWZLWKGLIIHUHQWWH[WXUH thus, I give brick pavement to where stalls are for identifying the spatial devision. I give cobble stone to where people would like to stay such as a chair, a table on wall, the entrance of shop, because cobble stone is rough and has an irragular surface,which is against the movement of the moveable stalls. In the chair area, people is easy to have a visual interaction which might be disturbing for privacy, which gives the reason to allocate a road lamp to moderate this clash.

Mainroad

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Mall

Office

Mix-Used

Commercial/Office

Laneway 1 School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Plan 1:100

Semi PrivateS

emi Private

S mode on Laneway1

Commercial Street


Legend

101


In meandering ,two centers with the same quality in a short distance in symmetry condition are easy to combine into a unit psychologically. Different centers combination has different result.

Section D-D 1:100 In the neutral center, direct visual interaction always disturbs privacy and a post between the two centers could create a psycologic boundary to solve this problem.

A unit


Section C-C 1:100 In the active center, this face to face position is help to enhance visual interaction and communication. The interaction extend out of shop in normal time. A unit 103


Image Theatre/Behavior Assortment in Laneway 1 This laneway is on the fridge of the residential area, many shops sells commodity and are run by local people. It is easy to know each other. The allocation of stalls keep pedetrians a straight passway, when they get through, they can observe atmosphere of local life interaction without having any turning to avoid the crowd. The opposite shops create more oppotunity for shop owner to know each other through observation and conversation directly from each shop.

Queuing and Look Around

Reading Fruite Shop

Vegetable Shop

Snack Stall Buying Food

Talking about Price

Talking about Price Shop Allocate

d Face to Fac

/RD多QJDQG/RRNLQJ$UURXRQG

Shop Allo

cated Fac

Section A-A 1:130

e to Face

e


Buying Food From A Familiar Store

Snack Stall

Talk about Trivia Fruit Shop

Buying Food Meat Shop

Eatting at the Corner Talking about Price

Watching Staff Cutting Meat

Queuing and Watching TV Obsrevation/Visual Interaction

Section B-B 1:130 105


H mode Laneway2 Mainroad

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Mall

Commercial Street

Office

Laneway 2

Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

This mode use two canopies to compress the space, with clothes hung on it. The clothes act as a series of billboards at the same time they create interesting small paths for experience. This extrusion of fasion attract kids to go through. When people purchase clothes, they contribute to the generation of active centers under the canopy. These active centers are guided by the canopy and arranged in H mode. The passway is pushed by the active centers to the right and pedestrians slow down. A private area for rest is enlarged by the passway and compress the opposite space. (see section G-G)The space compressed is designed as a news reading spot due to lack of privacy. The pavement also respond to this mode by using cobblestone as the groud to block the way of blue stone. Due to texture of cobblestone pavement is more exquisite than the blusestone one, it feels more comfortable as some where to stay.

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

Horizontal Transposition

Private

Relatively Active

H mode in Laneway2

Legend

Table and Chair in Neutral Center

Table

Interaction Range Compress Reading News

Gravel

Cobble Stone

Blue Stone

Playing Check

Average Range of Interaction

Section G-G 1:130 With pedestriansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; route is pushed aside, the neutral centers become different in privacy, because when the pedestrians get closer, there will be higher circulation, which create a relatively active space while the other side become more private. The news reading spot is one kind of these semi-active space.

Observation

Canopy

People

Small Path through Clothes

Neutral Center Best Distance of Interaction

Clothes Hanged

Passway


News Reading

Area of Rest

Plan 1:100 107


Image Theatre/Behavior Assortment in Laneway 2 H mode produces an extruded canopy with hanged clothes which encourage pedestriansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; participation. The clothes attract behavior of watching and experience inside, these behavior creating active center to grant privacy for people playing check or sitting in the rest area and attract their observation . As pedestrians being much closer to the news reading spot, there will be more circulation on the space. It produce more way for communication between different people when they are reading and talking about local news.

Loaf Arround Purchasing Clothes Fasion Shop

Watching Product

Reading News Reading News

Bag Shop

Section E-E 1:130

Relatively Active

Pedestrian


Sitting in the Openair

Play under the clothes canopy

Playing Check

Watching Product

Section F-F 1:130 Private

Area for Rest

Purchasing Clothes

Obsrevation/Visual Interaction

109


V mode Laneway3

Mainroad

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Mall

Commercial Street

Office

Laneway 3

Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

This mode create vertical transposition to the positions of balcony. The site is designed as a dorm for migrant workers or other tenancy from outside the town. V mode is used to create such balcony in which people feel free to observe the surrounding, at the same time, it has oppotunities for interaction. Thus, the vertical transposition offer the people with indirect visual interaction, which takes a balance between privacy and interaction. This is the quality of V mode distribution. To the people who pass the small lane, this arrangement of balcony will not affect the passway. The pavement respond to this I use a S mode composition to generate a symmetry relationship between the two bands with cobble stone pavement aside the road, which emphasize the direction of the mainroad paved by stone which is more simple and bigger to create the sense of transportation.

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

More Private More Private

More Private More Private

Vertical Transposition

V mode in Laneway3

Legend

Passway

Balcony

Observation and Conversation Stone Pavement

Average Range of Interaction

Neutral Center

Cobble Stone

Brick

People Grass


Shop

J

Room

Shop

Livng Room

K

K

Room

Room

Room

Room

Small Courtyard

J

111

Plan 1:100


Image Theatre/Behavior Assortment in Laneway 3 have chance for communication by chance to enhance a sense of neighbourhood. Different conversation and visual interaction by them will create image theatre to enhance the mutural interaction.

In d

ire

ct Vi su

al C on In te ve ra rs ct at io io n n

7KLVPRGHFUHDWHVDSRUOL多FDWLRQRQYLVXDO interaction indirectly from the ground to the veritcal facade of building. People who stay in the room too long need to have some semi-open space to relax. The balconies serve this demand and create indirect visual interaction to let people

Communication Indirect Visual Interaction

Section K-K 1:100

Observation and Conversation


Balcony

Section J-J 1:100

113


S-V-H mode Laneway4

Mainroad

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Mall

Commercial Street

Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

This mode refers to local people daily routine of planting. The pavement is designed to allow local people to enlarge their out-door area for the behavior of planting. These out-door area can draw communication and interaction through the planting. They attract participation and become active centers. As their planting behavior expand both vertically and horizontally, the passway become curved (next page) and the neutral center(the bench) on the right in plan becomes from semi-open to semi-private, which is suitable for observation. Conversely, the left one becomes relatively active, due to the planting area grows towards it where people will be easy to have conversation face to face in a short distance. The planting behavior will attract more participation from the local villagers for communication of plant, especially kids playing through this area. The image theatre will enhance, as more and more outreaching behavior happen in the transportation .

School

Laneway 4 Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

More Private

More Private

Vertical Transposition Here, vertical transposition gets the peak, because the neutral centers get the most privacy

Section N-N 1:130 (First Year)

S-V-H mode Laneway4


H

H Visual Interaction

Plan 1:100 (First Year) 115


S-HV mode Laneway4 As time goes by, the space becomes a small gallery of planting, attracting more interaction between different local people. It changes the passway from straight to curved, where people have more interaction.

Horizontal Transposition More Enclosure by Active Center to push out the passway Much More Private More Private

The seat on the left is face to face to the plant area where active center is. It is a direct place to receive communication, so that this seat area become semi-active.

Relatively active Private Closer to Passway and Less Depth

The plant begin to shroud the place and provide privacy for the seat behind.

Section N-N 1:130 (Years Later)

Horizontal Transposition

Depth Enhanced

S-V-H mode Laneway4


H

H

Visual Interaction

Plan 1:100 (Years Later) 117


Image Theatre with Light in laneway 4 The laneway locates in the heart of the residential area on design, where local ownership convey a strong sense of occupation. In this case, the local behavior of people hanging their clothes can affect the pass of sunlight. Therefore, I integrate the sunlight at noon with this behavior, in order to create a special light-shadow effect.

Movement of Sun Sunlight at noon in Summer Solstice Sunlight at noon in Winter Solstice

Section I-I 1:130 (Years Later)

The design use the rack to hang clothes as the strucutre to affect the sunlight. When people hang their clothes to dry at the same time , their clothes are arranged in a horizontal transposition way to cut the sunlight evenly. This enhance the interaction between the vertical behavior and the behavior on the ground, which attract peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s observation and perception.


For the light condition, people in the laneway have a comfortable light-shadow environment. When they sit on the bench, they cover by shadow at noon without burnt by the sun. When they get through the lane, they experience the variation of light and shadow, which is interesting and attract their obervation upwards where the arrangement of clothes create a scenery.

Section H-H 1:130 (Years Later)

Integrated with the children running through the plant gallery, the conversation happening between local people about planting and the obervation from others who is sitting, this area become a 3 dimensional image theatre assorting many behavior as some one passing the space.

119


Meandering System Active Centers offer programs for peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation. This direct interaction gain peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attraction, thus generate privacy to the space adjacent to it where a unprogramed and semi-private neutral center makes, such as a bench. At the same time, people in neutral center have unpreditable behaviours such as chatting, playing check and reading. At this time, activities in active centers granting views for observation by people in neutral center. Therefore, these mutural compensational relation between participation and observation create a series of invisible theatre of human interaction. ( Figure M 02 ) In this process, behaviours in active or neutral centers are outreaching in the dominant program as transportation, thus, meandering is a kind of image theatre, which is an assortment of behaviours. ( Figure M 03 ) The laneway act as a gellery where people can observe or take part in activities during their journey of passing.


View

View

View

Privacy

View

View

View

Privacy

View

View

View

Privacy

View

Privacy

View

Observation

View

Participation

Figure M 02 Compensation Relation In Meandering Dominant:Laugh Outreaching for Laugh View

Privacy

View

Privacy

View

Outreaching for Laugh

Outreaching for Laugh

View

Outreaching for Laugh Outreaching Behaivor

Dominant Behavior

Figure M 03 Meandering System is Image Theatre

Figure M 04 Concept of Image Theatre

121


Diagram and Terms of the following context on Spiral Explore Patterns Natural Phemomena Spiral

Vortex

Components Center + Rotational Fluid

Simulate Patterns Circulation System and Masterplan in City Town

Small Courtyard

Components in Citytown Redevelopment Project Landscape Sign/Landmark ( Active Centre and Neutral Centre) with Transitional Boundary ( Boundary and In-between Zone )+ Pedestrians


The Third Pattern:Spiral >>> Mechanism of Pattern

Behaviour of Pattern

Variation of Speed Proportion to Distance Towards or From Centre; Direction of partical follow that of the Centre, so the centre can repulse or attract particles .

Center absorbing Particle in Varying Speed

Mechanism Interfacing: Intensity of participation and observation varies along from centre and create hierachy, as a result, different behaviours DUHFODVVL多HGZKLOHSHRSOHDUH attracted by centre and these opposite programs or behaviours can integrate with each other into DQXQL多HGFRQGLWLRQE\DQLQ between interface.

Physical Pattern Spatial Process

Attractive Centre Enclosed by Transitional Boundaries(Programmatic Transition)

Perception Pattern: Social Theatre Forum Theatre ( Behaviour Transition)

Multi-programmatic Courtyard

123


Previous Exploration and Simulation

Spiral in Spatial Morphology of Small courtyards in Xian village. A

Totel

Tornado: Center Remains Stable as a Park with more fluctuation and heterogeneity of interactive behaviour (different trading here) moving towards but only around it on outside fridge

Sitting Pavillion

A Static Behaviors/Semi-private High Circulation Behaviours/ Semi-public

Program Arrangement/ Different Types of Interaction Space A Stable Center

Movement of Particle

First Exploration on Spiral

A Spiral

Behaviour Principle in the Small Courtyard

A Stable Center: Park

High Circulation

First Simulation on Spiral


21m Boundary: Under the Tree or The Fence

Visual Direction

A-A Section1:500 Width : Height = 1:1 A-A Section1:500

23m

Tree for Attracting People to Rest

Park Fence

Pavilion

Tricycle Hammals

Shop

Catering Service

125


A

A

A

A

Plan 1:500

Behavior Activated by Form and Program

Catering Purchasing

Chatting Sitting Purchasing Chatting Chatting Purchasing

Chatting Chatting Playing Chess

Purchasing Purchasing

Chatting Chatting Chatting Purchasing Playing Chess Purchasing

Purchasing Catering Catering Catering

Pattern of Field Condition(Sense of Neighborhood Created)

Interaction between Behaviors


Other Small Parks in Village

Spatial Morphology Creating “u” and “L” shape of Edge: Need for Open Space, People could feel Psychological and Visual Safety and Curiosity Encourage People gethoring 127


Spatial Morphology

Mall Mall

Outdoor Theatre

ema

ublic Sport

Shop

Public Sport

Outdoor Theatre

ture

ture School

niture School ibition

hibition

xhibition

River

Public Museum

Food Court Food Court


129


Encompassed by Behavior

Mall

Cinema

Extensive Space for Exhibition Outdoor Campaign

Encompassed by Spatial Morphology

Extensive Space for Exhibition

Outdoor Campaign

Encompassed by Programs

Public Sport

Public Sport

Furniture

Furniture

Furniture

Exhibition

Exhibition

Exhibition

Outdoor Campaign

Public Museum

Mainroad

Masterplan 1:700 Special Pavement3 Special Pavement2


Mall

N

Outdoor Theatre

S

Outdoor Theatre

School School

River

Food Court Food Court

Ball Court

Temple

Special Pavement1

Temp Square Temp Road

Temp Carpark and Ball court Tricycle Hammal Station

Car Park

Shops Social Welfare

Kindergarden Community Care

Kidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Playground Small Courtyard

131


Further Exploration of Spiral and Simulation to Design Principles From Logic to Detail Design of spiral in Small Courtyard Previous Research The research about spiral up till now is about relationship between different attractive centre enclosed by transitional boundaries. In the design, these transitional boundary including spatial morphology design and program/behavior. This boundary has act as fence to provide privacy but also produce visual LQ¿OWUDWLRQIRUREVHUYDWLRQ%XWWKHNQRZOHGJHLVTXLWH limited that I stop on this general design stage which does not explore to a further stage as detial design. And I think it is not enough to just consider that spiral system is a center with varying boundaries and the boundaries vary from stable/private/relax to high circulation/public/ opposed. Some concept about the component still remain There should be more composition and the concept model should be more interactive. I should consider more on relationship between spatialprogrammatic arrangement and human behavior.

Further Exploration I reconsider basic aspect in spiral, from its components to local interaction then to a further exploration on object arrangement which can get rid of FRQ¿QHRIVSDWLDOIRUP ³/´VKDSH $QGIRXQGDVHULHV prototype to conduct the detail design. Components I related the components with the objects and particles in natural spiral system. Some new components or those which were not noticed in previous research are found. I rename the stable center as neutral center. And I found it is not dynamic to consider only one center existing on site. The activities and behaviors on site should be the result between two or more centers with different or opposite quality in privacy and interaction. Therefore, I create another center named active center which is oppostie to neutral center. This active center radiate the boundaries of what I call high circulation boundary before.

A

B High Circulation Boundary

Buildings

Grass Fence

Stable Center/ Tree in Park

Behavior and Program

Figure S 01 A Small Courtyard Design; B Mechanism:Transposition spatial morphology and Boundary with program and behavior C Natural Vortices; D Design Mechanism of Vortices; E Components

The program is unclear and too general. More clear? And I can see some transpositional relationship among the buildings arrangement morphology. Can these relation be transplanted into programmatic arrangement through some detial design on facilities? Is there any relationship of transposition between these and those of meandering? The fence is still too rigid and substaintial, can it be invisible? Can the mechanism not just have one center? High circulation boundary can be more complex, can’t it? Yes, they can ... through more detail design.....


Local Interaction Relation of attraction and repulsion is local interaction between different centers or different persons, this relation as the basic interaction is conducted by the patterns I have researched into a complex system. Because Spiral/Vortex is enlargement of meandering(see following page), thus, mechanism of Vortices is synthetic and complex result of these local interaction. (Figure S 01 D) Active Vortex attract participation and neutral vortex attract people go inside and observe surrounding. These are how the vortex attract people. It is attraction. Difference to meandering is that there is a heirachy towards the center of each vortex. There will be a decrease or increase of privacy in it, which connects two opposite centers through a in-between zone. These just simulate the hierachy of speed variation and exchange zone in the natural spiral vortex. When it absorbs or repulses things, this indicate attraction and repulsion of pedestrians in my spiral system. )LJXUH6&' ,QP\VSLUDOV\VWHPLWLVWRÂżQGLQEHWZHHQ]RQH as interface for programmatic transition between centers. Thus, mechanism of spiral is interfacing the opposite vortices.

In-between zone is very important, which means a zone near dominant programs both provides non-dominant activities for participation and semi-private space for observation as an interface. Paricipation and Observation are two opposite behaviour which are provided in this zone at the same time. Thus, it is semi-programed design on terrain, form, program arrangment and pavement. It acts as a connection and fence to combine and ,at the same time, seperate active center and neutral center. (Semi-programed: This word means the area has a quality between multi-programmatic and unprogramed. These are non-dominant programed. It is resilient and usually has a weak form.)

Absorption

1 Irrotational Vortex

Radiation Attract pedestrian inside to observe surrounding

Attract pedestrian to participate

2 Rotational Vortex 3 Partical Spinning Arround Center

Active Vortex

Neutral Vortex

Exchange zone 4

In-between Zone

C Natural Vortices.

Interfacing D Design Mechanism of Vortices ( If these vortices of spiral as simple systems can be seen as components, these mechanism can be seen as local interaction or upper-local interaction)

1 and 2 are two are two kinds of vortex in the nature. They have variation of speed proportion to distance towards or from centre, thus, hierachy in speed. Each kind has relative hierachy as shown above. 3 Direction of particle follow that of the Centre, so the centre can repulse or attract particles. 4 Exchange Zone to combine vortices. Low Speed

High Speed

Observation Unprogramed Privacy

Hierachy

Participation Programed High Interaction

Hierachy of Intensity of Interaction

Object: Center

Active/Neutral Center:

Vortex Center

Particle: Rotating Fluid

Vortex Line Active Boundary

Neutral Boundary

Note: Active Center/Land Mark or Building such as a traditional temple or multi-function square where provide dominant programs and scenery to attract peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; participation and absorb observation. Neutral Center/Landscape Sign/ It could be a tree with a big canopy where people enjoy the shade and feel relax to do any behaviour unprogramed on the site. Thus peple can be free to observe the surrounding for scenes.

E Components: left: components in natural vortex; right: components in design spiral system

In-between Zone Exchange zone

Passway

133


From meandering to spiral Spiral(Vortex) is Enlargement of Compensation Relation Meandering creats mutural compensational relation between participation and observation create a series of invisible theatre of human interaction. In spiral, this relationship becomes complex and complicated, when is enlarged in spatial scale from laneways to courtyards. Therefore, it need transition and in-between zone is an interface to connect and seperate the two enlarged centers through generation of a non-dominant programed area. Spiral talk about compensational relationship between 2 centers active and neutral and generation of in-between zone to connect them for more interaction.Due to scale enlargement, the space no longer has too much room to have many centers and the space is no longer linear, instead, more complicated. A center in spiral has a larger and more complicated boundaries. Thus, the competition between active vortex and neutral vortex becomes intense. They are opposite and muturally intervenient. Thus, an interface to moderate is necessary.

Observation Passway


Active Vortex

Active Center

Neutral Center

Active Center

View

Privacy

View

Privacy

View

View

Active Center

In-between Zone

Neutral Center

Neutral Vortex

Active Center In-between Zone

Laneway Active Vortex

Courtyard

135


Result of Simulation and Further Redevelopment Vocabularies of Programmatic Interfacing Programmatic Interfacing is mechanism of Spiral Intensity of participation and observation varies along from centre DQGFUHDWHKLHUDFK\DVDUHVXOWGLIIHUHQWEHKDYLRXUVDUHFODVVLÂżHGZKLOHSHRSOHDUHDWWUDFWHGE\FHQWUHDQGWKHVH RSSRVLWHSURJUDPVRUEHKDYLRXUVFDQLQWHJUDWHZLWKHDFKRWKHULQWRDQXQLÂżHGFRQGLWLRQE\DQLQEHWZHHQLQWHUIDFH The 3 basic composition found in meandering and used in spiral become more complex and integrated with more spatial structure such as roads and buildings. Same depth of distance from passer-by.

SF

Further Development of S, symmetry is basic mode to the other two(V and H mode), which develop from it.

Active

Same depth on vertical direction.

Semi Private

Active

Active

Semi Private

Active

Same depth of distance from passer-by on Horizon.

VS

From symmetry to vertical transposition, this mode is mainly development of V mode.

Relatively Active Different depth on vertical direction.

Semi- Active Semi- Private More Private

Legend

Active Vortex

The Shortest Passway

Neutral Vortex

Active/Neutral Center in Vortex

Best Distance of Interaction in Passway

Active Center in Vortex/ Land Mark or Building such as a traditional temple or multi-function square where provide dominant programs and scenery to attract peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; participation and absorb observation.

Hierachy: Participation

Neutral Center in Vortex/ Landscape Sign/ It could be a tree with a big canopy where people enjoy the shade and feel relax to do any behaviour unprogramed on the site. Thus peple can be free to observe the surrounding for scenes.

Observation


Relative position of SF mode, the large distance between two symmetry active centers can give privacy to generate a neutral center in the middle of the space. Through buildings and roads, this neutral center connects the two active centers through two in-between zones. In meandering ,centers with short distance in symmetry condition combine into a unit. Here, I use one unit to analyse

In Spiral, distance between them is larger, and centers seperate each other creating gap where neutral center happens naturally.

Relative position of VS mode between two centers can change the quality of a neutral center into an active one by compressing the space through buildings and roads, where generate a condition with an in-between zone embracing the bigger neutral center to extend the band of interaction.

Connection of interface is too short, thus, it is needed to have it extended

Extended Interface

Average Range of interaction Average inteactive range at which a group of human affect passer-by The Program(Here is Stall)

Neutral Center 4m6

m8

m

Physical Structure Wall...

Active Center Programed Infrastructure where provide attraction to people to participate particular activities

Unprogramed Space for people to stay and provide privacy for people observe activities arround( activities in active center)

137


Different depth of distance from passer-by on horizon.

HS

From symmetry to horizontal transposition, this mode is mainly development of H mode. Same depth on vertical direction.

Private

Relatively Active

Legend

Active Vortex

The Shortest Passway

Neutral Vortex

Active/Neutral Center in Vortex

Best Distance of Interaction in Passway

Active Center in Vortex/ Land Mark or Building such as a traditional temple or multi-function square where provide dominant programs and scenery to attract peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; participation and absorb observation.

Hierachy: Participation

Neutral Center in Vortex/ Landscape Sign/ It could be a tree with a big canopy where people enjoy the shade and feel relax to do any behaviour unprogramed on the site. Thus peple can be free to observe the surrounding for scenes.

Observation


Relative position of HS mode between two centers can change the quality of a neutral center into an active one and enhance competition between them, where generate a condition with an in-between zone pushing the smaller center and extend the control of bigger one. The small one have more circulation and interaction due to its size, which naturally becomes an active center. Conversely, bigger one provide more privacy, so it is neutral center.

Here, I just look at the interaction between the middle two centers and surroundingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; affection to them, because this reflects most quality of the spatial arrangement of SH mode

Average Range of interaction Average inteactive range at which a group of human affect passer-by The Program(Here is Stall)

Neutral Center 4m6

m8

m

Physical Structure Wall...

Active Center Programed Infrastructure where provide attraction to people to participate particular activities

Unprogramed Space for people to stay and provide privacy for people observe activities arround( activities in active center)

139


SF mode in Small Courtyard 1 Mainroad

Office

Commercial Street

Commercial Center

Mainroad

Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

The lake and the old temple are two existing scenery in the city town. In the design, these two elements are places of interest and important centers of two active vortices in the city town. Some dominant behaviours are there. On the square in front of the old temple, local people dine togather in Traditional Festival. Other people visit the old temple as a historical heritage. Children play games on the square. Some local people play ball games in the temple.These dominant behaviours make the old temple an active center providing many activities for different peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation. Therefore, a ball court area arround it for people to play badminton is designed through pavement in order to enhance this active vortex.The lake, as the unique broad veiw in the town, not only provide dominant landscape of the site but also offers a sinuous path for jogging and leisure walking along the waterfront. It obtains potential for provision of activites which People do with water such as playing motor-ship tool on the lake.

School

Courtyard 1 Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

Bicycle Track Oneway Car Track

Old Temple

Temporary Ball Court

U

Storage Room

Shop

Shop

Meeting,dating,visiting Playing Badminton

Prototype

Adults Observing + Children playing Ball Games on the square Observing Pavement

Design Plan 1:200 Legend Seat and Long Bench

People Table for Catering

Oneway Car track

Magnolia Tree

Curve Path

Stall Road Lamp Cycle Track

Paulownia Tomentosa (Transplanted)

Bush


V Inner Waterpool

Slope

Square

Curv

V

e Pa

Grassfield

rth

U

Lake

Catering Eating Out Sit and Rest during/after ball game Looking After the children and Chat. Watching ball games on the ball court

Leisure Walking Playing on the slope Jogging

Watching Children Playing with water and chasing each other, when lying on the slope

Playing with Water

Brick

Grass

Bluestone

Gravel bonded witn Resin

Jogging Talking under the tree

Leisure Walking

Playing motor-tool ship

Circulation Zone where Children Chase and Play In-between Zone Active Vortex

Observation on Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone

Cobble Stone

Concrete Block

Neutral Vortex

Passway

141


SF mode in Small Courtyard 1 Due to the relative position of the two active vortices is symetry and there is a distance between them, when the two vortices attract peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation, there is not enough private space and spatial transition, which makes less interaction in the middle of the courtyard. (Figure S 02 A) As a result, a neutral center between them is necessary to adjust the problem. (Figure S 02 B) Mainroad

Office

Bicycle Track

Commercial Street

Commercial Center

Mainroad

Mall

Oneway Car Track Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used School

Courtyard 1

Old Temple

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

Temporary Ball Court

U

Storage Room

Prototype

Shop

Shop

Meeting,dating,visiting

B Plan of Concept Design1:200

Adults Observing + Children playing Ball Games on the square Observing Pavement

Playing Badminton

Bicycle Track Oneway Car Track

Old Temple

V Slope

Square

V Temporary Ball Court

U

Lack of Interaction withGrassfield a Long Distance

Inner Waterpool

Curve

Parth

U

Lake

Storage Room

Shop

Shop

Catering Eating Out Meeting,dating,visiting Playing Badminton

Adults Observing + Children playing Ball Games on the square Observing Pavement

Jogging Leisure Walking

Playing motor-tool ship

A There is No Design on Neutral Center in Existing Condition Figure S 02


V Inner Waterpool

Slope

Square

Curv

V

e Pa

Grassfield

rth

U

Lake

Catering Eating Out Sit and Rest during/after ball game Looking After the children and Chat. Watching ball games on the ball court

Leisure Walking Playing on the slope Watching Children Playing with water and chasing each other, when lying on the slope

Jogging

Jogging

Playing with Water

Talking under the tree

Leisure Walking

Playing motor-tool ship

Legend People

Circulation Zone where Children Chase and Play

In-between Zone Observation on Active Vortex

Table for Catering

Observation on In-between Zone Stall

Neutral Vortex

Active Vortex Passway

143


SF mode in Small Courtyard 1 A big canopy of Paulownia is designed to provide a neutral center where people can sit and observe others playing on the square in front of temple and ball court. A slope near the tree provide place for people lie and observe on the grass. A curve water pool is designed to introduce lake into the land, which provides children with an edge of inner water pool to play with. The canopy of Paulownia creates shade partly on ground of sqaure which becomes a semi-private space for observation. The square in front of the temple with varying pavement produces fun to children and even adults who is on the square and observe the ball games. Finally, a path connects the square,slope and water pool into an interesting circulation encouraging chasing of children between each other, which produces enjoyable Site experience for different people.This circulation enlarges the experience both of observation and participation and generates two in-between zones to connect the vortices. On normal day, Badminton playing, temple visiting,observation under the Paulownia and walking along waterfront are the dominant programes, and the circulation zone as in-between zone, facilitates some non-dominant behaviours such as children chasing each other through the path, having fun by observing the pavement, watching ball games on the square,playing with water, people lying and observing on the slope.These behaviour interconnect with each other through peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation and observation, centers become an entire unit with human interaction. Mainroad

Office

Commercial Street

Commercial Center

Mainroad

Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used School

Courtyard 1 Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Bicycle Track Oneway Car Track

Old Temple

Temporary Ball Court

U

Storage Room

Shop

Shop

Meeting,dating,visiting

Prototype

Playing Badminton

Adults Observing + Children playing Ball Games on the square Observing Pavement

Design Plan 1:200 Legend Seat and Long Bench

People Table for Catering

Oneway Car track

Magnolia Tree

Curve Path

Stall Road Lamp Cycle Track

Paulownia Tomentosa (Transplanted)

Bush


V Inner Waterpool

Slope

Square

Curv

V

e Pa

Grassfield

rth

U

Lake

Catering Eating Out Sit and Rest during/after ball game Looking After the children and Chat. Watching ball games on the ball court

Leisure Walking Playing on the slope Jogging

Watching Children Playing with water and chasing each other, when lying on the slope

Playing with Water

Brick

Grass

Bluestone

Gravel bonded witn Resin

Jogging Talking under the tree

Leisure Walking

Playing motor-tool ship

Circulation Zone where Children Chase and Play In-between Zone Active Vortex

Observation on Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone

Cobble Stone

Concrete Block

Neutral Vortex

Passway

145


SF mode in Small Courtyard 1 Mainroad

Office Commercial Center

Mainroad

Commercial Street

Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

On special day, such as Qingming Festival and Spring Festival, traditional routine that people eat togather around the old temple will happen on the square. The temporary ball court convert to serve this behaviour. The crowd of dining people RQVTDXUHFUHDWHVD多HOGFRQGLWLRQDVDQDFWLYH vortex to occupy the square therefore, less people do other activities or observe on it, which come back to the curve parth. The boundaries of neutral center is pressed and pushed toward the water front. As a result of this competition, the circulation zone shrink and in-between zone switch position simultaneously towards to the lake and become smaller.

School

Courtyard 1 Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

Bicycle Track Oneway Car Track

Old Temple

S

U

Storage Room

Shop

Shop

Walking and Observing Traditional Dining

Prototype Design Plan 1:200 Legend Seat and Long Bench

People Table for Catering

Oneway Car track

Magnolia Tree

Curve Path

Stall Road Lamp Cycle Track

Paulownia Tomentosa (Transplanted)

Bush


Playing motor-tool ship

Playing with Water

V Inner Waterpool

Slope quare

Curv

V

Jogging

e Pa

Grassfield

rth

U Lake Lake

Catering

g the Dining Chatting

Rest and Chatting about Importancy

Chasing Leisure Walking

Observing the Dining

Observing

Leisure Walk, Jogging

Playing with Water

Brick

Grass

Bluestone

Gravel bonded witn Resin

Circulation Zone where Children Chase and Play In-between Zone Active Vortex

Observation on Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone

Cobble Stone

Concrete Block

Neutral Vortex

Passway

147


SF mode in Small Courtyard 1 Design of Pavement Texture can indicate different usage. Competition between Behavior of catering and playing badminton compress the in-between zone.

In-between zone

Children Playing and Running

Section U-U 1:200 (Normal Day)

Section U-U 1:200 (Qingming Festival)


Bicycle Track Oneway Car Track

Old Temple

V

Ball Court

Inner Waterpool

Slope

Square

Curve

V Grassfield

Temporary Ball Court

U

Parth

U

Lake

Storage Room

Shop

Shop

Catering Eating Out Meeting,dating,visiting

Sit and Rest during/after ball game Looking After the children

Leisure Walking Playing on the slope Watching Children Playing with water and chasing each

Jogging

Jogging

Grid for placement of Table

149


HS mode in Small Courtyard 2 Mainroad

Office

Commercial Street

Commercial Center

Mainroad

Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Courtyard 2

Mix-Used

Shape of Avenue provokes competition between the two different Vortices(Sand Playground as active center and Inner Square as neutral center) in a horizontal transpositional way. The avenue provides corridor and seating for passer-by and parents who look after their children, check playing. These behavioiurs compress the space of sand playground and create an in-between zone connecting the inner square and offering more room and facilities for observation such as the ORQJEHQFKZLWKDJUDVV¿HOGDVZHOODVFDWHULQJ tables in the open air, which enlarges the neutral vortex and makes the inner square as a dominant program. In the active vortex, the sculpture has two functions as a scenery and a facilitity for accomendation of some special stalls(including haircut and snack selling) which are the existing behaviour by local people or migrant workers. These stalls enhance the trading activities and SUHVHQWVLQWKHVFXOSWXUHÀH[LEO\DVSDUWRILW7KH other side of sculpture integrates with the sand playgroud so that they attract children to play inside. In comparison, the inner square with a JUDVV¿HOGDQGELJFDQRS\IURPWKHWUHH3DXORZQLD Tomentosa, provide comfortable space for sitting and observation. The behaviours in the in-between zone and their loose distribution transfer visual LQ¿OWUDWLRQIURPLQQHUVTXDUHWRVDQGSOD\JURXQGRU farther as an interface.

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

Prototype

Long Bench

Plan 1:200 Legend People

Sculpture/Structure to Play by Children Magnolia Tree Hair Cut Stall Tables and Chairs

Stall

Snack Stall

Road Lamp

Paulownia Tomentosa (Transplanted)


Concrete Block Concrete Brick

Sand

Active Vortex

Observation on Active Vortex

Brick Neutral Vortex

Timber Grass

In-between Zone

Observation on In-between Zone Passway

151


HS mode in Small Courtyard 2 The sinuous in-between zone â&#x20AC;&#x153;protectâ&#x20AC;? the inner square from the active center the sand playground. The movement of the in-between zone enlarge the inner square/ the neutral center as it does in the prototype.

In-between Zone

Haircut

Playing Playing Watching

Section Q-Q 1:200

S

S R

R

Detial Plan of Sand Playground with material 1:200


Catering Reading

Section R-R

Chat

Section S-S

153


VS mode in Small Courtyard 3 Mainroad

Office Commercial Center

Mainroad

Commercial Street

Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

The horizontal passway and buildings compresses space of exercise zone on the left and expand the inner park on the right. Thus, more privacy is created to the park which become a neutral center of a neutral vortex; in comparison, the left courtyard with less depth from passway is relatively open, which is suitable to be an active center of an active vortex for attracting activities. People exercise on equipments and walk on the foot massage path.In terms of the park, due to the L shape of spatial morphology, it has more privacy, which has little interaction to the exercis zone. Because of the surrounding shops and stalls integrated with the passway, it can be considered that these areas become boundaries of two active vortices ( by imagination) which introduce an extended in-between zone longer than the vertical one as shown. This extended zone is comprised of a extension of the foot massage path and a slope with grass encompassing the park.

School

Courtyard 3 Foodcourt

Mix-Used

Shop

Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site

Bicycle Park

T

Foot Massage Path Exercise Zone

More Depth to Provide Privacy

Plan 1:200 Legend Cobblestone Foot Massage Path Timber

Slope of Grass Active Vortex

Neutral Vortex

In-between Zone Observation on Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone Passway

Doing exercise

Walking on Cobblestone for Massage of Foot The passway compressing space


Shop

Pedetrian Passway

Imagination of Two More Active Centers

Prototype Shop

Shop

Shop

T Foot Massage Path

Slop

Small Inner Park

Rest on the fridge of slope Playing Check

of active vortex

Playing with the slope Walking on Cobblestone for Massage of Foot Reading

On the top of Slope to have a broad view

155


VS mode in Small Courtyard 3 Peopls in the extended zone have many behaviours such as walking along the path, climbing the slope, playing on it, having a broad veiw on the top of the slope, take a seat and observe the people moving on the grass as well as lying on the slope. These behavioiurs create a boundary to provide privacy to the park and connecting the two vortices, which enhance the behaviours of observation and being observed. The slope is a good place for attracting participation on climbing it and provide more chances for interaction and communication.

In-between Zone

Section T-T 1:200


157


Spiral System In the spiral pattern, active center provides dominant programs for participation which facilitate the need of observation for those who sitting in neutral center where provide privacy. Intensity of interaction increase from neutral center to active center. In the middle of this process, there is an in-between zone to connect the opposite centers into a united area. In other word, this zone acts as interface of programmatic transition between two space with opposite function, which provides oppotunities for more “observe and being observed” relationship between two centers and generates more chances for human interaction. And usually, in this in-between zone, there are DOZD\VVRPHÀH[LEOHVSDFHRIVHPLSURJUDPHGGHVLJQIRUQRQGRPLQDQWEHKDYLRXUVWR enhance human interaction and attract observation. At the same time, the behaviors in this zone provide privacy to neutral center as a fence to encourage observation. The zone itself also provides semi-private space for observation. Thus, strategy of spiral is to produce this in-between zone by drawing in interaction between these two kinds of centers which have opposite qualities on site in order to enhance programmatic transition for diverse human interaction. And in-between zone is interface where opposite programs switch with each other, which means it is a way for switchment between opposite behaviours in spatial process. The outcome of spiral is programmatic transition. 3URJUDPPDWLF7UDQVLWLRQ2SSRVLWH¿HOGV SURJUDPHGYVXQSURJUDPHG  spread, communicate and switch to each other through in-between zone as interface which connect them into an unit enhancing human interaction by the relationship between participation and observation. Therefore, Spiral produces forum theatre. ( Figure S 03 )As people observe in the site or move in the site to participate some programs, spiral system performs a transition between active center to neutral center in this spatial process.


Swit c a ste h in turn s ady mod instead e of

Exchange from Audience to Actor

Exchange from Actor to Audience

Stage is Interface for Switchment

Active vortex In-between Zone

Neutral vortex

UnProgramed

In-between Zone

Active vortex

Programed

Observation

Non-dominant Program/semi-program Interface

Participation

Figure S 03 Forum Theatre Concept and Spiral System

159


Ob ser vat ion

Participation

Participation Participation

n atio erv s b O

Obse rvatio n

Participation

Where invisible theatre is ---- Compensation of Observation and Participation This is where invisible theatre is. During this relationship between observation and participation, people feel free to have optional chance to join in the social interaction. They can choose participation in active centers to interact directly and also can satisfy their need for privacy by choosing observation in the neutral centers to enjoy the view from active center while active center provide privacy to neutral center by attracting peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention. Two kinds of centers exist simultaneously, one(active/neutral) happen other(neutral/ DFWLYH IROORZV7KLVFRH[LVWLQJUHODWLRQUHĂ&#x20AC;HFWSHRSOHQHHGERWKGLUHFWSDUWLFLSDWLRQDQG indirect observation. Thus, a good space for human interaction should have these two centers ,otherwise it cannot be completed.( Figure S 04)


View

Privacy

View

Privacy

View

View

Active vortex In-between Zone

Neutral vortex In-between Zone

Active vortex

Observation

Participation

Figure S 04 Spiral system(Bottom) and Meandering System (Top) both create invisible theatre.

161


Slow

Spatial Process--- Explosion: Variation of System Behaviours in Spatial Sequence--- Complex Image Theatre; Chronological Process--- Superimposition: Variation of System Behaviours in Time Sequence--- Forume Theatre with Time as Interface.

163


Spatial Process: Explosion A complex image theatre

The Spatial Process of arrangement of laneways and small courtyards is according to the principle of explosion, in which the variation of intensity declines from the center to the vary end of the line. The design uses the logic of explosion to arrange different behaviours in laneways and small courtyards to create a variation of intensity on spatial perception from public space to inner neighbourhood. Finally, it results in a complex system of assortment of invisible theatres with similar dominant programs as laneways and small courtyards.

Public

This variation in a global scale is used to replace the original physcial fence and rigid programmatic zoning in government plan and distinguish different areas from public to private by human behaviours instead of physcial construction.


Neighbourhood Private


Chronological Process--Superimoposition

Mainroad

Invisible Fence

Mall

Tempora

Cinema

Mall

Gateway Courtyard

Furniture

Mainroad

Hotel

Commer

Public Sport

ay

-w One

Temporary Carpark/Ball Court

Superimposition is a chronological process. Now, I am trying to make more complex Office Office design in time. As I research the three main patterns patching, spiral and meandering in spatial process. From the total programmatic arrangement to spatial morphology, patching creates basical spatial form and program arrangement for small courtyard and laneway, while spiral and meandering deal with the detial design through infrastrucutre, pavement, terrain design. Spatially, it is a process from large spatial quality to small, laneways and courtyards are distributed in different places according to relevant ratio of program arrangment and legislation. But I think,now, I am trying to make more complex design in time. Superimposition is a parallel concept. Material exist in the same place but change in different time. It talks about alternative systems overlapping into one complex Mall system. When the activator become time, patching makes superimposition. To meandering, this creates a series of different condition in one laneway appearing in different time, which can combine opposite programs such as traffic track and pedestrianized commercial street through a harmonious transition with time as interface. The same to small courtyard. Thus, superimposition combine patching with meandering and spiral to create forum theatre to let more opposite behaviour have chance to communicate through time which enhance the chance for interaction.

T C emp ar o pa ra rk ry /B al lC ou

rt

Mainroad

Patching in Time

Mall

ack

Tr Car

Kids Play

Public Museum

Figure I 01.

Mainroad Masterplan of Program on the Ground

Hotel

Bicycle Track

Tricycle Hammal Stantion

Residential Tower

Speed Reduction

Kindergarde


Office

Mainroad

ary Carpark/Ball Court Temporary Carpark

Invisible Fence is comprised of superimposition of behaviour. Office The design of superimposition in the site create a road system and a courtyarrd as gateway integrating daily routine in local street market, catering, nightmarket, clothes drying, tricycle hammal with resilient design in terrain design, pavement, canopy, infrastrucutring. The design includes a circulation of bicycle track, Office a courtyard design as iconic gateway of the residential area and a temporary pedestrianized road as well as a series of tricycle hammal stations along the road system.(Figure I01) My intension is to let the local behaviours appear in turns on the Office road system in different time to create an ever-updating forum theatre as boundary to define the ownship of local neighbourhood.

Temporary Pedestrian Road for Commercial Usage

rcial Street

Commercial

Kids Play

Kids Play

Office

ern One-way Car Track

Residential Tower School Residential Tower

Lake

Foodcourt Food Court

Residential Area Turning Design to Reduce Speed

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

167


Residential Area Special Local Behaviour in the Invisible Fence

Mainroad

Mall

Mall Mainroad

Night Market with Moveable Stalls Run By Migrant Worker

Office

Office

Cinema

Street Market with Stalls run by Migrant Worker

Public Sport

Mall

Furniture

Mall Catering in Local Style Restraurant

Mainroad

Hotel

Public Museum

Figure I 02. Openair Theatre in the Evening

Mainroad Masterplan of Program

Bicycle Track

Hotel

Tricycle Hammal Stantion

Site of Temporary Pedestrian Road

Speed Reduction

Local Shop

Office

Short term Rental Long term Rental

Commercial Estate

Villager Replacement

Residential Tower

Re


a

Office The cycling Behavior exists in the whole system

Mainroad

Bicycle by Local People

Office

Tricycle Hammals

Commercial

Office

Office

Office Residential Tower School Residential Tower

Clothes Drying

Foodcourt Food Court

Morning Exercise According to the program arrangement, I found out some special behaviors in the invisible fence.They are unique which acts as a specialty in the site.(Figure I 02) Some of them are co-existng with other, while some resist others. Like the clothes drying on the square where peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seats are taken place. Or some of the activities need to behave in shadow or sun light, and this discrepancy makes a chance for improvement on spatial usage and chances for hunman interaction. Invisible fence is to combine these opposite behaviours through Activators( it will be talked about in following pages) as interface which are time and element relative to time like shadow, therefore they help to create a forum theatre as they switch along time making a superimposition to define an spatial ownership for local people at the same time enhance interaction.Residential Area

esidential Tower

Residential Tower

169


Negotiation with Daily Routine The invisible fence depends on superimposition of opposite local behaviours(Figure I 02). The table (T1) lay out timing of the daily routine of local behaviours in this road system and courtyard. Some of them are opposite to each other, some of them can co-exist. Thus, ,KRSHWRDFKLHYHDKDUPRQLRXVÂżQDOUHVXOW in each design. I assort them into different group according to the activator/interface of their negotiation: Time and Shadow, relevant to road system and courtyard respectively. ,QWKHWLPHJURXS,ÂżQGRXWSULRULW\ transiportation mode for each local behaviour which I pick from the site of the road system and try to reassort these behaviour according WRZKHWKHUVLPLODUPRGHWKH\KDYHÂżQDOO\LW comes out a series of overlapping group with the same mode(T2 and T3). Then, I begin the negotiation of these group through different WLPHSHULRGLQRQHGD\DQGÂżQGRXWEHWWHU way for the design. In terms of the shadow group, I attach different behaviour to its relevant shadow-light condition. (T1)These behaviours rely on light or shadow/darkness seriously, due to peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily routines. Due to shadow in one day changes from long to short and back to long, it compete with sun. Some of the special behaviour goes with sun such as morning exercise and clothes drying, some goes against such as senior citizens stand in park with many activities(like playing check, dancing...) nearly whole day, where they need canopy for shade against the sun at noon. They can resist each other or co-exist. Thus, the design is a reaction TF to enhance the interaction between these muturally overlapping behaviours in the same TF place through analysis the interaction of shadow,light,space and behaviour(T4).

Road System Activator: Time Small Courtyard Activator: Shadow

6am

7am

Drying Clothes

Street Market Local Shop Working Catering Staff Lunch Time off work traffic on work traffic

Night Market School Commute /After School

Tricycle Hammals Work Time Openair Theatre Morning Exercise

Villagers Rest in Courtyard

Dailyroutine

Traffic Free

Catering

Traffic Free

Night Market

TF

Traffic Free

Staff Lunch Time

CB

Car+Bicycle

School Commute /After School

CF

Car Free

Street Market

CB

Car+Bicycle

LocalShop

B

Bicycle

CB

Car+Bicycle

off work traffic on work traffic

SU

Sunshine

(Morning) Exercise

CB

Tricycle Hammals Work Time

SU SD+

Shadow+ (Dark)

Openair Theatre

SU+

Sunshine+

Drying Clothes

SD

Shadow

Villagers Rest in Courtyard 6am

7am


m

m

9:30am

8am

10:00am

11:00am

12:00pm

TF

2:00pm

4:00pm

6:00pm

7:00pm

TF

8:00pm

TF

TF

TF

10:00pm

TF

10:30pm

11:30pm

6:00am

TF

TF

TF CB

CB

CF

CF

CB

CF

CB

CB

CB

B

B

CF

CF

CF

CB B

B

SU

CB

CB

SU SD+

SU+ SD

SD 8am

SD 9:30am

SU+

SU+ SD

10:00am

CB

B CB

SU

CB

CB

CB

SU

SU

CF

B

B CB

CF

CB

SU+

SD 11:00am

SU+

SD 12:00pm

2:00pm

SD+

SD+

SU+ SD 4:00pm

6:00pm

7:00pm

8:00pm

10:00pm

10:30pm 11:30pm

6:00am

171


6am

7am

Activator: Time TF

Traffic Free

CF

Car Free

CB

Car+Bicycle

School Commute /After School

B

Bicycle

Tricycle Hammals Work Time

Catering Night Market Staff Lunch Time Street Market LocalShop

off work traffic on work traffic

CB

CB CB

CB

Outcome

CB

Traffic Priority

T2.Temporary Pedestrianized Road System

6am

7am

Activator: Time CB

Car+Bicycle

School Commute /After School

B

Bicycle

Tricycle Hammals Work Time

LocalShop

off work traffic on work traffic

CB

CB

Outcome

CB CB

CB

Bicycle Priority Desig

T3.Bicycle Track

The Road System Strategy Activator: Time Time and Daily Routine This negotiation is about the daily transportation routine on a temporary pedestrianized road and a bike track system. The temporary pedestrianized road has many local behaviours to affect the outcome RIQHJRWLDWLRQRQWKHWUDIÂżFFRQGLWLRQVIURP WUDIÂżFIUHHSHGHVWULDQSULRULW\WRWUDIÂżF priority, which are opposite to each other. Thus, it is a trans-programmatic design with many alternative system being exerted in turn according to different time. Each alternative system stands for synthetic result of negotiation between different local behaviour in particular time,as every local behaviour has a priority transportation mode.

This negotiation depends on comparison of intensity. If one mode of transportation has more behaviour to support in a time, it wins priority at that moment, as shown on table(T2). Through usage of pavement, facilities arrangement on ground as well as canopy design to realize this complex switchment. The bicycle track in the other area of the site is mainly a project of bicycle priority design through a series of speed reduction and turning on car tracks where cars and bikes can have permanent passage but there is a large affection on speed of cars with less intervention on that of bikes. At the same time, it facilitates human circulation in these inner residential area( See Figure I 01).

Note: These behaviors happen in the same place but different time. They are dominant in particular time but not the whole day. Thus, they are opposite but united. The design is to respond to this, creating a system with opposite modes in a dynamic system.


9:30am

8am

B

10:00am

11:00am

12:00pm

TF CF

CF

CB

CB

B

B

B

CF(B)

CF(B)

CF CB

CB

B CB

Carfree StreetMarket

2:00pm

4:00pm

7:00pm

TF CF

CF

CB

CB

CF(B)

TF

Trafficfree Catering

10:00pm

TF

TF

10:30pm

TF

TF

TF

TF

CB CBCB

CB

CB

9:30am

CB

B CB B

10:00am

11:00am

CB

CB

B

B

B

CB B

CB B

CB

CB B

12:00pm

B

CF(B) CB

TF

CB

Carfree StreetMarket

CB

2:00pm

4:00pm

TF

CB CB B

CB

CB B

B

CB B

CB

Trafficfree Night Market

6:00pm

CB

6:00am

CB

Traffic Priority

Traffic Priority

8am

11:30pm

CF

CB CB B

8:00pm

TF

TF

B

TF

6:00pm

7:00pm

CB CBCB

CB

8:00pm

CB

10:00pm

10:30pm

11:30pm

6:00am

CB

B CB B

CB B

CB B

CB

CB

CB

gn

173


$OWHUQDWLYH6\VWHP7UDIÂżFIUHH3ULRULW\0RGH (11:30pm---6:00am---9:30am) note: This page shows the

Mainroad

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Temporary Pedestrian Road System Activator: Time

Mall

Commercial/Office

Stall

Mix-Used

7KLVPRGHFDOOVIRUKLJKHIÂżFHQF\IRUWUDQVSRUWDtion when people commute for work or go school. 7KHSDVVZD\LVFRQÂżQHGE\VLGHZDONWUDIÂżFWUDFN And the stalls and shops are not open, which means there is no programmatic extrusion. Human LQWHUDFWLRQLVPLQLPDOEXWHIÂżFHQF\RIWKHURDGLV high in transfering people. During this time, tricycle hammal, local student and some villagers ride their bike for work or school, invisible fence begins.

Office

situation from 6:00am to 9:30am.

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site in Temporary pedestrianized road

Average Range of Interaction

Table of Catering or Leisure Use

Bench

Table

Road Block

Neutral Center

Light on Wire People

Observation

Pedestrian

L

Car

Bike

Concrete Pavement

Post

Cobble Stone

Bicycle Track with Green Resin and Aggregate

Shop Shop Shop

Red Brick

Sh

Brick Speed Reduction

Traffic Track with asphalt(um) (Temporary)

Lower Car Speed

Concrete Pavement Type 2

Legend Section M-M 1:200

Plan 1:200 Section L-L 1:200

Villager Cycling Tricycle Hammal

Tricycle Hammal


p

Shop

Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

L

Shop Catering

M

Shop Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

Catering Car

M

Bike Pedestrian Shop

hop Passway

Fast Way to Get Rid Of Traffic Pedestrians Confined By Traffic

Villager Cycling to school Migrant Worker Cycling

Migrant Worker Cycling Villager Cycling to school

175


Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Table of Catering or Leisure Use

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Stall

Mainroad

Mix-Used

Alternative System 1:CarfreeStreet Market Mode (9:30am- 11:00am/2:00pm---5:00pm) 7KLVLVWKH多UVWV\VWHPIRUKXPDQLQWHUDFWLRQLQ a day time. Through a simple block integrate with the red brick pavement crossing the track to refuse passage of cars. Passway of pedestrian becomes free and loose, which reveal a time after commuting. Vertical Transpositional Stalls and tables of catering aggregate many people to create a series of active center to attract obervation and participation, a V mode meandering is made.

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site in Temporary pedestrianized road

Average Range of Interaction

Bench

Table

People

Post

Road Block

Observation

Neutral Center

Concrete Pavement

Pedestrian

Bike

L

Bicycle Track with Green Resin and Aggregate

Cobble Stone

Shop Shop Shop

Brick

Red Brick

Speed Reduction Traffic Track with asphalt(um) (Temporary)

Concrete Pavement Type 2

Legend Section M-M 1:200

Sh

Due to Tricycle Hammal has slow speed, I allow this behaviour continue interacting with pedestrian on the pedestrian priority mode

Plan 1:200 Section L-L 1:200

Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers

Local Style Restaurant Run by Villagers

Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers Tricycle Hammal

%ORFN7UDI多F


Shop

Shop Shop

Shop L

Shop Shop Catering

M

Shop Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

Catering Bike

M

Pedestrian

Shop

Passway

op

Road Block

Temporary Neutral Center/ Waiting for or Fast Way to Get to Target Chatting with or Running into someone More Relax and Interactive Pedestrian Released from Traffic

Stall Run by Migrant Workers %ORFN7UDI多F

Tricycle Hammal Stall Run by Local People

Stall Run by Local People

177


$OWHUQDWLYH6\VWHP7UDIÂżFIUHH&DWHULQJ&HQWHU0RGH (11:00am-2:00pm) In this system, the catering behavior of the restaurants pack the space with table(container of program) and attract people, which is one kind of programmatic extrusion. They are active centers. I design another pack of table in the middle area GHÂżQHGE\WKHUHGEULFNSDYHPHQWWKHSRVWDQG some cuboids for seat. Cuboid attracts peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sitting on it. At the same time, these public use tables provide unprogramed space and privacy for peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Site in Temporary pedestrianized road eating, sitting or some other non-dominant activities as a neutral center between the two restaurants. 7KHSDVVDJHRISHGHVWULDQVLVGLYLGHGLQWRWZRĂ&#x20AC;RZ like a braid by different centers, which makes more complex quality in privacy for the neutral centers. Observation from the middle area creates new interaction. Mainroad

Office

Commercial Center

Mainroad

Mall

Office

Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used

Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Table

Bench Stall

Table of Catering or Average Range of Interaction Leisure Use

Observation

Neutral Center

Pedestrian

People

L

Car

Bike

Concrete Pavement

Post

Cobble Stone

Bicycle Track with Green Resin and Aggregate

Shop Shop Shop

Brick

Red Brick

Sh

Speed Reduction Traffic Track with asphalt(um) (Temporary)

Concrete Pavement Type 2

Block Traffic Track (Cuboid for Seat)

Legend Section M-M 1:200

Plan 1:200 Section L-L 1:200

Public Use Table and Umbrella provide privacy for observation

Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers Enlargement Cuboid

Post

Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers Enlargement Cuboid

Post

Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers


Shop Shop

Shop

L

Shop Shop Catering

M

Shop Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

Catering

M

Shop

hop

Public Use Block Cycle Track (Cuboid for Seat) Post

(Cuboid for Seat)

Stall Run by Local People Stall Run by Migrant Workers

179


Mainroad

Office Commercial Center Mainroad

Mall

Office Commercial/Office

Mix-Used

$OWHUQDWLYH6\VWHP7UDI多F3ULRULW\0RGH SPSP

7KHWUDI多FLQWKLVV\VWHPPDNHVWKHSDVVZD\RI pedestrians more simple and seperated. Less interaction is made. The pattern is a V mode meandering with a wide passway, interaction between centers become more indirect. At this time, local villagers leave after school cycling home. Integrated with tricycle hammal, they offer a iconic scenery to enhance sense of nighbourhood.

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site in Temporary pedestrianized road

Average Range of Interaction

Neutral Center

Bench Stall

Table

Table of Catering or Leisure Use

Observation

People

Post

L

Pedestrian

Car

Bike

Concrete Pavement

Bicycle Track with Green Resin and Aggregate

Cobble Stone

Shop Shop Shop

Brick

Red Brick

Speed Reduction Traffic Track with asphalt(um) (Temporary)

Sh

Concrete Pavement Type 2

Legend Section M-M 1:200

Plan 1:200 Section L-L 1:200

Villager After school Tricycle Worker

Villager After school

Migrant Worker Cycling Off Work


Shop

Shop Shop

Shop

L

Shop Shop Catering

M

Shop Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

Catering Car

M

Bike Pedestrian Shop

hop Passway

Villager Cycling After school Tricycle Worker Villager Cycling After school

Tricycle Worker Villager Cycling After school

181


$OWHUQDWLYH6\VWHP7UDI¿FIUHH1LJKWPDUNHW0RGH (7:00pm-11:30pm)

Commercial/Office

Table of Catering or Leisure Use

Neutral Center

School

Foodcourt

Mix-Used Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Site in Temporary pedestrianized road

Light on Wire

Stall Moveable Stall

Mall

Office

Bench

Mainroad

Table

Office Commercial Center

Mix-Used

This system use canopy to affect behaviour on ground. The allocation of lamps on the canopy indicates position of moveable stalls and routes of pedestrians integrated with the pavement on the WUDI¿FWUDFNV0RYHDEOHVWDOOVLVSODFHGIROORZLQJ principle of S mode meandering face to face to the stalls from local shops, sothat they combine into unite.Stalls take up the middle car tracks ZKLFKPDNHVWKHÀRZRISHRSOHEUHDNLQWRGLIIHUHQW smaller banches to reduce the distance between active centers and give more privacy to neutral centers in order to enhance interaction.

Mainroad

Observation

Average Range of Interaction

People

Post

L Pedestrian

Car

Bike

Concrete Pavement

Bicycle Track with Green Resin and Aggregate

Cobble Stone

Shop Shop Shop

Brick

Red Brick

Sh

Speed Reduction Traffic Track with asphalt(um) (Temporary)

Concrete Pavement Type 2

Legend Section M-M 1:200

Block Tracks

Plan 1:200 Section L-L 1:200

Moveable stalls

Moveable stalls

Moveable stalls


p

Shop

Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

L

Shop Catering

M

Shop Shop Shop

Shop

Shop

Catering

M

Shop

hop

Lamps on canopy

Moveable stalls

Moveable stalls

Moveable stalls

183


Alternative System

Pavement

Infrastructure/The Road Block

L

L

Mechanism(Programmatic Extrusion) Physical Pattern (Programmatic Assortment)

6SHHGRISDUWLFOHRQWUDIÂżFWUDFNSDYHPHQWIHHOVIDVWSHGHVWULDQ sidewalk second, while the pavement of the crossing is exquisite and with small scale which gives a perception of slowing down DQGVWRS,QWKHGHVLJQWUDIÂżFWUDFNSDUDOOHOZLWKVLGHZDONDQG their pavement are both simple and with a large size, thus, they convey a vigorous sense for pedestrian. However, a crossing with small size red brick pavement covering the two, which generate a casual feeling with its exquisite image to intervene the tracks for pedestrian.

The Infrastructure in site can be arranged differently. This simple arrangement can let people easily go across the road. Attraction of the stalls on opposite road enhance. The human interaction DQGEHKDYLRUEHFRPHFRPSOH[IURPDULJLGWUDIÂżFURDGWRD pedestrianized street, just by arranging a small blockers(Blue One) on the crossing.

Perception Pattern Image Theatre(behavior assortment) in each mode

L

L

People with higher speed, less chance for interaction.

Contain More People People with low speed ( With larger space, the speed of pedestrians is higher than that of catering center mode) More chance for interaction. People Attracted by Stall

No Interaction

Relevant Period in meandering

Smooth

Turbulant

Figure I 03 Synthetic Analysis of Temporary Pedestrian Road System and Meandering Pattern

30$07UDIÂżF3ULRULW\

Turbulance of Meandering in Temporary Pedestrianized Road The programmatic extrusion in this road introduce a consisting turbulance of meandering pattern on passage of pedestrian and cars. 7KLVYDULDWLRQRIĂ&#x20AC;RZDIIHFWVKXPDQLQWHUDFWLRQDQGHIÂżFHQF\RIWUDIÂżF along time. The pavement, infrastructure,programs and canopy are seperated alternative system in this process of time. They change function of the road to adapt to different behaviour in different time, instead, they just overlap each other when the behavior is overloaded to the previous one. This creates ever-switching image theatres, they are opposite and they appear in turns. This switchment with time create a large and complex forum theatre. ( Figure I 03)

9:30AM---11:00AM/2:00PM---5:00PM Street Market

Legend Stall Table of Catering or Leisure Use

Table

Average Range of Interaction

Bench Road Block

Light on Wire


Programs

Pavement

The program of catering has a way to expand from its original VLWHWRWKHURDG7KLVUHĂ&#x20AC;HFWVSURJUDPPDWLFH[WUXVLRQZKLFK compress the street to generate enlarged active center group. At the same time, a large neutral center group is made as a complement.

Canopy and Pavement

6SHHGRISDUWLFOHRQWUDIÂżFWUDFNSDYHPHQWIHHOVIDVWSHGHVWULDQ sidewalk second, while the pavement of the crossing is exquisite and with small scale which gives a perception of slowing down DQGVWRS,QWKHGHVLJQWUDIÂżFWUDFNSDUDOOHOZLWKVLGHZDONDQG their pavement are both simple and with a large size, thus, they convey a vigorous sense for pedestrian. However, a crossing with small size red brick pavement covering the two, which generate a casual feeling with its exquisite image and slowly block the road for pedestrian.

The light on canopy hung by wire is a normal settng. However, position of the lights could indicate a lighting arrangement which provide a route for pedestrians as guidance. The FDQRS\DOVRLQWHJUDWHVZLWKWKHSDYHPHQWRQJURXQGWRGHÂżQH space for stalls. People are guided by the lamps to the stalls, which is one kind of attraction. At the same time, stalls arrange in the sequence indicated by the lamps, which makes stalls compress the road. It is a special way for programmatic extrusion.More interaction is made.

3HRSOHZLWKORZHUVSHHG ZLWKVPDOOVLQXRXVĂ&#x20AC;RZRISHGHVWULDQ

More chance for interaction. Place both for stay and go --- Multi-behavior Obvious

People with higher speed Still have chance for interaction.

3HRSOHZLWKORZHUVSHHG ZLWKVPDOOVLQXRXVĂ&#x20AC;RZRISHGHVWULDQ

More chance for interaction. Place both for stay and go --- Multi-behavior Obvious

Both Program Attraction and Program Compression

Both Attraction and Program Compression

Both Attraction and Program Compression

Very Turbulant

Smooth

Very Turbulant

11:00AM- 2:00PM Catering Center

30307UDIÂżF3ULRULW\

7PM---11:30PM Night Market

Concrete Pavement

Cobble Stone

Traffic Track with asphalt(um) (Temporary)

Bicycle Track with Green Resin and Aggregate

Neutral Center

Pedestrian

Red Brick

Brick

Concrete Pavement Type 2

Observation Bike

People

Post

Car

Speed Reduction

185


Superimposition of Meandering --Behavior Transition/Forum Theatre in Temporary Pedestrian Road System After negotiation between daily routines, different modes of the road are generated to affact human interaction. Through arrangement of infrastructure, pavement design, canopy design. These physical SDWWHUQVDIIHFWWKHÀRZRISDUWLFOHVXFK as cars, bikes and people, which create a variation of meandering. Different conditions of meandering stand for different image theatres. That is to say each mode in particular time generate particular behaviour assortment. These VHSHUDWHDVVRUWPHQWPRGHVDUHXQL¿HG through the time/the activator which patches them into a chronological transitional superimposition. As a result, an ever-changing forum theatre is made to enhance interaction between people, at the same time, the road acts as a linear behaviour boundary to emphasize spatial ownership by local neighbourhood with the special particle passing by such as tricycle Hammal or the local shop running.

Sections L-L 1:200

Sleeping Time

11:30pm --- 6:00am

7UDI¿F3ULRULW\

Villager Tricycle Hammal

6:00am --- 9:30am

7UDI¿F3ULRULW\ Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers %ORFN7UDI¿F

Tricycle Hammal

9:30am --- 11:00am/2:00pm --- 5:00pm

Carfree Streetmarket Local Style Restaurant Run by Migrant Workers

11:00am --- 2:00pm

7UDI¿FIUHH&DWHULQJ&HQWHU

Migrant Worker Cycling Off Work

5:00pm --- 7:00pm

Moveable stalls

7:00pm --- 11:30pm

7UDI¿F3ULRULW\

Moveable stalls

7UDI¿FIUHH1LJKWPDUNHW


Cycling to school

Migrant Worker Cycling Villager Cycling to school

Migrant Worker Cycling

Stall Run by Migrant Workers Tricycle Hammal Stall Run by Local People

Stall Run by Local People

Stall Run by Local People Stall Run by Migrant Workers

Villager Cycling After school

Moveable stalls

Tricycle Worker

Moveable stalls

Tricycle Worker

Moveable stalls

187


Gateway Courtyard Activator: Shadow Shadow and Daily Routine Through analysis of shadow movement (Figure I 05) in summer and winter solstice in the design, I put the relevant shadow-light condition into the table(T4), LQRUGHUWR¿QGRXWWKHEHWWHUWLPLQJIRUSDUWLFXODU activities. According to this, I reallocate the form and function to the space. In winter, before 9:30am, the shadow covering the whole site which doesnot offer a good light environment for morning exercise.When it is summer solstice, the courtyard has a good light condition in the middle square after 8:30.

Therefore, on average, from 8:30am to 9:30am is WKHÀHGJLQJWLPHRIDVXLWLEOHFRQGLWLRQIRUPRUQLQJ exercise in the site; from 9:30am to 11:30am is the ideal time for both (morning) exercise and having rest in site when,before 11:30am, the sunshine is still not too harsh and shadow remains enough to sustain a comfortable space for playing checks, talking, playing cards these leisure activities. During this time, clothes drying begins on the slope beside the square. 6am

Residential Area

Office

SU

Sunshine

Office

SD+

Shadow+ (Dark)

Openair Theatre

Resident

SU+

Sunshine+

Drying Clothes

SD

Shadow

Commercial Center

(Morning) Exercise

Mainroad

Mainroad

Mall

Office Foodcourt

Mix-Used

Residential Tower

Commercial/Office

Mix-Used School

7am

Activator: Shadow

Office

Mainroad

SU

S

Villagers Rest in Courtyard

Commercial/Office

Mainroad

Mainroad Masterplan 1:1785 Residen Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Residential Tower

Figure I 04 Site of Gateway Courtyard Light-Shadow Condition in Site

SD+

SD+

Fledging time for on square

T4.Small Courtyard Figure I 05 Analysis of Shadow Movement in Design of Gateway Courtyard Note: I select 3 periods to examinate the movement. First, 8:30 AM to 9:30 AM, due to the sun begin to shine the square between these two time. Second, 11:30 AM ~ 3:30 PM, because this duration has more heat in the square of courtyard, which is relevant to behavior of clothes drying.

Summer Solstice

Finally, arround 6:00 PM, it is the time migrant workers or others have been off work and they begin to aggregate in the courtyard, when the openair theatre is needed. The red area below is one of where the square has the longest sunshine during a day’s time.

Slope square

6:00m, 1:400

8:30AM --- 9:30AM 8:30AM The shadow begin to shrink away from the red area, where suitible for morning exercise.Thus, a grid will be designed for exercise in this area by pavement.

11:30AM --- 12:30AM --- 3:30PM

6PM

12:30AM The shadow disappear as altitude of The shadow cover the whole place, (migrant) the sun is 89~90degree. The square and the worker have been off work now. slope is dedicated to dry clothes now. The slope can enhance the surface area for sunshining and people seldom walk through it, thus it is a good place to dry clothes. Square when it is at noon and no body walk through it too, is can be another place to dry clothes in particular time at noon.


as the shadow extends obviously. People begin to pick up their clothes at this moment. After 6:00 pm, the site is taken over by the shadow and migrant workers leave off work, the site switch into a openair theatre, outdoor projector light up the site with a screen a wall of the old temple. Here, the night life of locals begins. The following design will take summer solstice as condition.

This takes up the space when it comes to 11:30am and continue by 3:30pm, due to the altitude of sun hit the peak during this period. The usage of the square in middle become the least, which is suitible to dry linen. The shadow nearly disappear, therefore, the design transplants some existing Paulownia on the fridge of the courtyard in order to compensate shadow for continue the usage of the courtyard. After 3:30, people begin to retreat to site and have a rest in the courtyard, 9:30am

8am

SU

SU

10:00am

SU

11:00am

SU

12:00pm

2:00pm

4:00pm

6:00pm

7:00pm

SD

+ SD

SD

SD SU

SD

SU+ SD

10:00pm

10:30pm

11:30pm

6:00am

SU SD+

SU+

8:00pm

SU+

SU+

SU+

SD

SD SU SU+ SDSUSU+ SU SU+

SU+

SD+

SD+

SU+

SD

SD

SU SU+

SD SU

SD+

SD+

SD+

SD+

SD+

SD+

Morning Exercise Ideal time for Morning exercise and Rest, Clothes Drying on slope

Clothes Drying occupying whole square Clothes Picking Openair Theatre up, return to Rest

Unprogramed

Winter Solstice

8:30AM --- 9:30AM ,WLVKDUGWR多QGVXQVKLQHLQPLGGOH square of the courtyard before 9:30AM

11:30AM --- 12:30AM --- 3:30PM 6PM In winter, the altitude of the sun at noon is In winter, the altitude of the sun at noon is arround 43~45 degree. The shadow keep in arround 43~45 degree. The shadow keep in the courtyard, therefore, complexity of behavior the courtyard, therefore, complexity of behavior becomes higher than that in summer. becomes higher than that in summer.

189


Plan 1:200 of Gateway Courtyard in 8:30AM --- 9:30AM In the Morning,some local senior citizens do exercise RQWKHĂ&#x20AC;DWVTXDUHZKHUHVXQVKLQHFUHDWHDQDFWLYH and bright area. Most people harry for work or school without time to observe them, thus, there is not enough behaviour to sustain generation of neutral vortex and in-between zone is unclear.

Timber

Paulownia Tomentosa

Legend Bluestone Cuboid Brick Grass Grass Bonded Grid

Local Temple P

Steps

O

Slope

Local Shop

Local Shop

Mix-used Building Local Shop


Observation on Active Vortex

AM

Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone

8:30 Neutral Vortex

AM

In-between Zone

9:30 Shadow

People

Morning Exercise

Preparation for Exercise; Square

Morning Exercise on Cuboid; Chat O

Eating Breakfast

Going to Work P

Steps Hurry for School

191


Traffic Free Commercial Street

Plan 1:200 of Gateway Courtyard in 9:30AM --- 11:30AM When it is 9:30AM to 11:30AM, it is peak time for Legend commercial street and the shopping mall in the mixused buildings.The site is full with people and visitors. Thus, neutral centers(trees) can been a good place for stay, at the same time, many people gather in the square dancing, playing games, doing exercise, which contribute to a scenery for observation.The local people having their clothes dried on the slope and the people having different activities in the cuboid zone who observe the activity on square at the same time are part of the scene in the site, which become DQLQEHWZHHQ]RQHWRGH多QHWKHVSDFHDQGHQKDQFH participation of people. At this time, a biggest inbetween zone connect the surrounding vortex intoLocal a Temple unit.

Paulownia Tomentosa

Timber Bluestone

Cuboid Brick Grass Grass Bonded Grid

P Visit the local Temple

Steps

O

Waiting

Go Shopping

Slope

Dryin

Local Shop

Local Shop

Mix-used Building Local Shop


Observation on Active Vortex

AM

Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone Neutral Vortex

Clothes being Dried

In-between Zone

9:30 AM

11:30 Shadow

People

Exercise Dancing and Singing Square Playing Check

O Group Meeting

Chatting

P

Watching Dance

ng Cloth

Steps

Having a Rest

193


Plan 1:200 of Gateway Courtyard in 11:30AM --- 3:30PM From 11:30AM to 3:30PM, the solar altitude becomes largest and shdows of building become less, which gives a good condition to dry clothes and conversely a harsh condition for people gathering in the courtyard. Many people decide to hide in the shade of tree and buildings. Some of the cuboids can be moveable for user to adjust their positions, sothat people can do more activities in the shade and the edge of the courtyard. At this time, the in-between zone becomes small and neutral vortices shrink with the shadow. And the clothes being dried become a scenery to attract observation, which become dominant element of the active vortex.

Paulownia Tomentosa

Timber

Legend Bluestone Cuboid Brick Grass Grass Bonded Grid

Local Temple

P

Steps

Slope

O


Observation on Active Vortex

AM

Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone Clothes being Dried

Neutral Vortex

Mat Being Dried

11:30 PM

Mat In-between Zone

3:30 Shadow

People

Clothes Being Dried

Looking arround; Having a Rest

Square

O Sleeping Chatting, Having a Rest

Eatting Lunch, P

Steps Hide in Shadow

195


Plan1:200 of Gateway Courtyard in 3:30PM --- 6:00PM Traffic Free Commercial Street(2:00PM-5:00PM) Traffic Track (5:00PM-7:00PM)

From 3:30PM to 6:00PM, as the temperature gets cooler and the shadow comes back to the courtyard, people begin taking back their clothes and mattress. This behaviour becomes the dominant scenery. With other people getting back to the courtyard to do, the activities on the fridge of courtyard are enriched again. Thus, in-between zone returned to big.

Timber

Paulownia Tomentosa

Legend Bluestone Cuboid Brick Grass Grass Bonded Grid

Local Temple

P Leave Off Work

Steps

Sitting and Watching O

After School

Waiting

Go Shopping

Taking back Clothes Slope

Local Shop Local Shop

Mix-used Building Local Shop


Observation on Active Vortex

PM

Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone Neutral Vortex

Clothes being Dried

3:30 PM

Mat In-between Zone

6:00 Shadow

People

Taking back Mat Square Playing Check

O Group Meeting

Chatting

P Observing poepleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s collecting clothes

Steps

Having a Rest

197


Traffic Track (5:00PM-7:00PM) Traffic Free Night Market(7:00PM-11:00PM)

Plan 1:200 of Gateway Courtyard in 6:00PM --- 10:00PM From 6:00PM to 10:00PM, outdoor theatre in the square becomes the dominant program. When the clothes and mattress are taken back, migrant workers leave off work and gather in the courtyard for their leisure time as daily routine. The slope acts as the seat for them and the wall of the old temple offer a screen as well as the square in the middle sustain any performance space. People can not only watch movies, but also do other activities on the slope and cuboid zone. These behaviours can attract people including local residents and visitors to join and the participation create a special scenery being observed by others, therefore, an in-between zone is made.

Timber

Paulownia Tomentosa

Legend Bluestone Cuboid Brick Grass Grass Bonded Grid

Local Temple

P

Steps

O

Slope


Observation on Active Vortex

PM

Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone 6:00 PM

Neutral Vortex

In-between Zone

10:00 Shadow

People

The Temple Wall Refurbishment as projection Screen

The square can act as a stage for performance Observed the people on Slope Square

O Playing Games

Watching Movie Chat P Having a nap

Off Work Migrant Work Gathering and Play Cards Steps Leave Off Work

After School

199


Superimposition of Vortices --- Behavior Transition/Forum Theatre in Gateway Courtyard In the design, spatial composition follows peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s diverse need according to variation of shadow. The physical patterns are comprised of slopes, square with grids, two Paulownia( one is transplanted from original courtyard), moveable facilities and steps. The former two is designed for sunshine, while the last three is for shade. They are relative to particular behavior such as drying clothes, exercise, performing, having rest, playing check and so on. These behaviors generate different centers active or neutral, at the same time, in-between zone. The movement of the fridge between shadow and sunlight is that of in-between zone.

The variation of in-between zone offers an interface for WKHVHRSSRVLWHEHKDYLRUV0RUQLQJH[HUFLVHLVWKHÂżUVW behavior on the square, when the shadow gets short, the clothes drying behavior takes over the place from the slope where enhance area of surface exposure to the sun. After 3:30 pm, as shadow extend, clothes start being pick up. When it is 6:00 pm, shadow takes up space, workers off work sit on the slope, the square becomes a stage for the show on the wall of temple. During this period, the three dominant behaviors take turns to provide participation and attract observation as three different scenery along time. They are active vortices.

Paulownia

Morning Exercise

Section P-P 1:300 6:00AM --- 9:30Am In 2035

Cuboid Zone

Paulownia Clothes Drying

Check Playing Shopping

Section P-P 1:300 9:30AM --- 11:30Am In 2035

Shopping

Group Dance

Cuboid Zone

Paulownia Chat Shopping

Section P-P 1:300 11:30AM --- 3:30PM In 2035

Having a Nap

Moveable Cuboid

Space Taken up by Clothes


Behaviors of people under the tree in the cuboid zone like playing checks, talking, having a nap, become a part of the scenery. These people also oberve the dominant three as audience. They are on the in-between zone. They exist the whole day as shadow accompanying with the three active vortices. This programmatic transition among the three behavior provides forum theatre through shadow as interface, while they are opposite to others. Because all of the three are behaviors special and local to the site, each of them create a relevant forum theatre and they take turns along time, this will generate an ever-updating complex forum theatre, which is iconic enough as a gateway at the same time maximise the interaction arround the site.

Legend Observation on Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone In-between Zone

Paulownia(Transplanted)

Hurry for Work

Hurry for Work

Morning Exercise

Section O-O 1:300

Paulownia(Transplanted)

Shopping Shopping Clothes Drying Group Dance

Section O-O 1:300

Paulownia(Transplanted)

Clothes Take up Square and Slope

Having A Rest

Attracted by the Clothes

Eating Lunch

Section O-O 1:300 201


Paulownia Picking up the Dried Mat

Playing Check

Leave off work

Group Chat

Shopping

Picking up the Dried Clothes

Section P-P 1:300 3:30PM --- 6:00PM In 2035

Having Rest

Paulownia Playing Card

Leave off work Leave off Work

Chat

Section P-P 1:300 6:00PM --- 10:00PM In 2035

Commute Back Home

Section P-P 1:300 10:00PM --- 6:00AM In 2035

Paulownia

Cuboid Zone

Watching Movie Projector

Screen On Wll

Watching Movie


Legend Observation on Active Vortex Observation on In-between Zone

In-between Zone

Paulownia(Transplanted)

Picking up the Dried Clothes

Going Home After School

Picking up the Dried Mat

Leave off Work

Section O-O 1:300

Having A Rest Watching Movie and Playing Card Game Paulownia(Transplanted)

Watching Movie and Chat Playing Card Game

Shopping Leave off Work

Section O-O 1:300

Paulownia(Transplanted)

After Staying Up

Section O-O 1:300 203


Conclusion •Resilient

Patterns as prototypes conduct behaviours of a landscape system for resilient usage of urban space. Resilience requires us to exert ourselves to make good use of the already and limited sources from the original constitution to their utmost, instead of rebuilding a total new construction. To reuse the pattern is to absorb the regulation of domestic behaviours and conventions to transform and integrate with the new programs and needs. This aggregation of people’s collective intelligence of life is better way to find inspiration of design.

•Behaviour-scape

It is tired to see many designs showing their peculiar forms and special materiality without accommodation of people. We build forms, insert programs and use materials in order to respond the local context such as daily, culture, recreation, social and economic events; we also use our architecture and landscape design to engage with a particular environment which is an spatial arrangement with interaction of people or other organisms, not materials and programs. Therefore, we build because of behaviours. Landscape architecture does not stand still. Designs should be derived from behaviours, integration between new and local behaviours, rather than forms and programs. This is the primitive way how we understand things. We, from behaviours, find out dynamic patterns, a relation of culture, an intelligence of people’s daily life, a vivid spatial specialty and sense of belonging when we perceive it. There will be one day, maybe when we get tired off forms and programs, all our memory about enjoyment of a place is what people do and interact with the circumstance under these spatial entities.

•Potential to Improve

The design has some flaws on failure to completely fulfill demands of government plan on amount of business apartments. Therefore, it should be solved through adding more high-rise buildings and a balanced combination of high-rise and low-rise constructions. Through the network of small courtyards and laneways on the ground and the enlarged stair cases for recreation activities in highrise buildings, neighbourhood can be maintained and diverse human interaction can be maximized in a new and developed condition of the project.

•The Role of Pattern

In my design, pattern is an intermedia. Normally, bottomup is asserted by some designers as a commencement of design. The progress of design is a process from bottomup to top-down, instead of a merely top-down process by a designer’s single scenario. But, what I want to emphasize is the middle part of the design, which is patterning. During the research, I cannot represent the logics of local interactions in an accumulative result, until I found Stevens’ natural patterns. It is undeniable that we begin to design with consideration of local contents in site; however, we cannot proceed if we do not have a reference as what Plato says “model” to translate these local interactions in to a visually behavioral principle. Nevertheless, pattern is not totally Plato’s “model”, because it is not static. Pattern can

be reproduced by designers’ autonomous imagination through analysis of these local interaction and their relation with landscape design. Thus, it is appriciatied that a pattern as a media of design is an inspiration and a resource of transformation. In my design, I found it easier to design with the process that I firstly analysize local interactions integrated with a relevant natural pattern and design theory for a new pattern, after which I simulate the result and transform into different homological vocabularies of the primitive pattern in order to respond to diversity of needs and programs. Eventually, different specific landscape forms are created through using these vocabularies(sub-patterns) as design principles. Therefore, usage of patterns is a rethink on the middle transition in design progress. It is from bottom-up to middle transition to top-down.

•Summery of Methodology

The design strategy of slow pattern is based on the understanding of landscape behavioral system. It attaches importance to local behaviours of the domestic people/organism in existing neighbourhood of site as well as their interaction with the relevant environmental configuration. Firstly, after learning from natural phenomena, I found out some principles of movement of particles and arrangement of objects and simplified them into different patterns; Secondly, I explored the logics and regulations of local behaviours of people from existing neighbourhood in site and their interaction with circumstance; Thirdly, I tried to find out similarity between principles of natural phenomena and behavioral regulations of local people in order to translate natural patterns into patterns of human interaction in site, through using environmental psychology such as interpersonal distance. After then, I found out what kind of system of invisible theatres is created in this human patterns and how are components arranged in this system. Further more, in the process of simulation, I found out what kind of spatial forms and programs can be the components in each of the patterns. Moreover, I redeveloped these patterns into their sub-types and translated them into physical design detailed in different scale in order to find out their integration of programs and forms. Finally, I explored their variation in chronological and spatial process for a more complex system. Eventually, I found different patterns have different quality on programmatic arrangement ( masterplan, courtyard, laneways) and generation of different kinds of neighbourhood systems( forum theatres and image theatres.). Patterns here are neutral containers, which contain a principle to indicate integration between new programs arrangement and ways of human interaction. ( For Diagram of summerized design methodology? Please to see Page 11)


Direction â&#x20AC;˘Patterns in Other Design Projects

Landscape Behaviour system with patterns as prototypes not only can be used in remaining human interaction in urbanism, but integrating urban development with natural environment including ecological design, resilient rebuilding of brown fields.

Photomontage of Integration of Natural behaviours with Urban Activities

205


Passion What is my original intention? My initial intention is to research behaviors fromsociety (especially economic activities and community)and nature (eco-system) in order toexplore a design methodology based ontypologyof behavioral system which could activate innovative landscape performance dealing with the clash of urban economic development, natural and social ecologic problems in current urban.The methodology will be illustrated byseveral types of behavioral systemswhich are generated in DFFRUGDQFHZLWKPRYHPHQWRIQDWXUDOĂ&#x20AC;RZ OLNHZDWHUDLUHQHUJ\ DQGVRFLDO DFWLRQVRUFXOWXUDODFWLYLWLHV FRPPXQLW\LQWHUDFWLRQWUDIÂżFV\VWHPWRXULVPDQG VKRSSLQJWUDGLWLRQDOSKLORVRSK\ 7KHÂżQDOIRUPDWRIWKHUHVHDUFKZLOOEHSUHVHQWHGWKURXJKDVLWHVSHFLÂżFGHVLJQZKLFKWUDQVODWHVWKHVHEHKDYLRUVLQWRD SUDFWLFDODQGXQLÂżHGODQGVFDSHSURMHFW7KHVLWHLVLQWHQGHGWREHDGHYHORSLQJ location in an Asian city(Shanghai or Guangzhou) with an ancientarea redevelopment program. The local people, potential exotic consumer/invasion as well as domestic environmental attachment/factors are the essences counted for consideration. Therefore, I would wonder whether behavioral systems could be invited into landscape architecture as design prototypes? If so, is there a single behavioral V\VWHPRUDW\SRORJ\RIWKHVHV\VWHPVE\ZKLFKVLWHVSHFLÂżFFXOWXUDODQGHFRQRPLFHOHPHQWVLQDSDUWLFXODUORFDWLRQFRXOGEHXQLÂżHGLQWRDFRKHUHQWODQGVFDSH architectural design? How many types of typical behavioral systems should be summarized? How to moderate and coordinate relationship of different systems into a united mega-system? Where is ideal occasion for assessment of this research?

Evolution of Research Title, Subtitle and Questions Diagraming the Design Process Flocking Behaviour and Its Process in Diagraming Process of behavioral system design in Flocking Research Flocking --- diagraming the design process of local behavioural system Process of local community sensitive design Process of local community revitalization design Diagraming the Flock Measure of Flock Behavioural Strategy A Measure for Community Revitalisation in Urban Redevelopment Community Behaviourscape To design strategy of behavioral system in Urban Redevelopment From Crowd to Community A strategy for behaviorial system in Urban Redevelopment Measure on Community A Strategy for Behavioral System in Urban Redevelopment From Flock to Community A strategy for Behavioral System in Urban Redevelopment


Design With Slum How could we export new model of urban design through an understand and appriciation of the existing human relation in site? How could a design prototype be generated for urban revitalization through the research of community? How could landscape designer generate a design prototype/dynamic model for typology of local community behaviour? 'HVLJQZLWKĂ&#x20AC;RFN A strategy of Community Diversity in Urban Redevelopment Outside the Object Strategy of Neighbourhood Diversity in Urban Redevelopment How could landscape designer generate strategy for Urban Redevelopment through understanding relationship between spatial arrangement and behaviour in site? Design from Outside Strategy of Neighbourhood Revitalization in Urban Redevelopment What landscape strategy of neighborhood revitalization in urban redevelopment could be generated from outerior space through urbderstanding the relation between community behaviour and spacial composition as well as arrangement? Design with Exterior Patterns Strategy for Social Communication How could Landscape Design generate strategies of exterior platform connection in order to solve the problem of social division in urban redevelopment for neighborhood revitalization through application of mosaic landscape patterns as design prototype?

Slow Patterns Transitional Strategy for a of city village against the rush of urban redevelopment What a slow organic strategy of refurbishment in city village could be generated to reconnect the circulation system integrated with new urban program for social interaction through understanding of relationship between pattern, program arrangement and behavior?

Strategies for Human Interaction in Asian Urbanism

207


Why the questions about pattern, behavior are so important?

'HVLJQIURPEHKDYLRUVFRXOGPDNHHIÂżFLHQF\IRURSWLPL]LQJUHODWLRQVKLSRIGHYHORSPHQWWRVRFLHW\DQGQDWXUHDV a new way of urbanism. The difference between landscape architecture and architecture is that the former looks into systems while the latter focus on objects. Architecture thinks about programs and forms of an object. However, WKHVHDUHVWDWLFDQGWKHUHIRUHLWLVLQĂ&#x20AC;H[LEOHWRDFKLHYHDSRHWLFFRQVHTXHQFH0RGHUQLVPLQVVSURYRNHG a severe clash with public life and natural environment, because it failed to consider social and natural systems, focusing on detached criterion such as practical functions, high productivity and renovated forms instead. Thus, LWLVLQHIÂżFLHQWWRSXUVXLWDVLQJOHPRGHRIHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQWZLWKOHVVRUHYHQZLWKRXWUHODWLRQWRLWVDWWDFKment ----- community and nature. Only can understanding and exertion of systemmodify this paradox in economic development and provide a coherent and synoptic perspective to a more context sensitive, community and ecologyharmonious urban space. Natural and social ecology are two different systems resulting in a global and complex system. A system consists of components, connectivity (rule of connection of components) and behaviors. BehavLRUVH[LVWZLWKLQORFDOLQWHUDFWLRQRIFRPSRQHQWVDQGVSUHDGRXWWRHDFKRWKHUDÂżQDOUHVXOWRIZKLFKFRPHVWRDQ XQFRQVFLRXVO\EXWUHJXODUO\FRQQHFWLYHERG\DVHQVHRIÂżHOGDV\VWHP,QWKLVWHUPHYHU\V\VWHPLVDEHKDYLRUDO V\VWHPIXUWKHUEHKDYLRUVDVTXDQWXPDUHLGHQWLWLHVRIDV\VWHPDQGUHĂ&#x20AC;HFWHGRXWFRPHVRIFRQQHFWLYLW\RIWKH components. From behaviors, we could have a direct view of similarity or clash between different systems and moderate them into an incorporated one by generating a complex behavior. In this case, research of behavior (or behavioral system) could confer landscape architecture a closer consideration on the interaction of local users and LQĂ&#x20AC;XHQWLDOIDFWRUVLQDV\VWHPDVZHOODVSRWHQWLDOUHODWLRQVKLSRIGLIIHUHQWV\VWHPVLQRUGHUWRSURPRWHKDUPRQLRXV intergrowth of the three systems: economic development, social community harmony and natural environment. This could make sense to the development in modern Asian Urbanism, in which economic construction pose detrimental affection to conservation of local community and culture as well as a wholesome natural circumstance.

Why use Euclidian Natural Patterns in Local Scale as Prototype? Human Nature(XFOLGLDQ*HRPHWU\ DQG&DUWHVLDQJHRPHWU\ UHĂ&#x20AC;HFWVKXPDQQDWXUHE\ZKLFKZHWHQGWRSURGXFH simpler, abstract and bigger picture/patterns before developing into complex one in the progress of perception. Middle and Modest: As popular way of human construction and landscape planning and traditional way of reducing the complexity of nature, pure Euclidian Geometry(human patterns like grids, radian center, axis) tends to oversimplify what nature provides --- heterogeneity and its complex interaction as what chao theory states; However, Nature LVLQKXPDQIRUEHLQJWRRFRPSOLFDWHGWRXQGHUVWDQGZLWKRXWVLPSOLÂżFDWLRQEXWLWLVDSHUIHFWFRPSOH[V\VWHPZKLFKLV FRQVWDQWO\G\QDPLFĂ&#x20AC;H[LEOHDQGVHOIRUJDQLVLQJ7RGHYHORSFUHDWLYHSRVVLELOLW\DVGHVLJQHULVWRJHWPRUHIXOO\XQGHUstand about the structure of the world, the nature, however, to design is same time to simplify this complexity to some H[WHQWIRUUHFUHDWLRQ7KHUHIRUH,KDYHWRÂżQGDFRQGLWLRQRILQEHWZHHQ2XU/DQGVFDSHGHVLJQLVWRGHVLJQSDUWLFXODU human patterns in the world and integrate with other natural patterns to comprise the whole world. Thus, Human and these Nature patterns are in the same origin --- the world/the entire nature, which means they are homologue in topological process of the world. As what Stevens said the range of various possibility of patterns is limitated by the restriction of spatial dimension in the world and the degree of similarity is greater than that of difference in the same tree, could it means there is similarity between human and other nature patterns more than difference, due to human and other nature has a same origin --- whole nature? If so, the way human deal with landscape complexity ( landscape design) has something in common with those of other nature dealing with complexity. In this case, it is feasible to deal with our landscape design by inspiration of these similarity from other nature patterns as compensation to modern human pattern(especially urban). Thus, Natural patterns such as spiral,branching,meandering,explosion,packing and cracking extracted into a Euclidian way by Peter Stevens could reveal these similarity and ,through analysis of their origin and mechanism, be suitible prototypes as well as beginnings to supplement for a complex landscape system in human landscape development, which is both legible and completed. Some similarity to the natural patterns can be found in the village outerior spatial pattern such as branching, cracking and explosion in which sense of neighbourhood is found and messy irregulation is presented; while the new plan of redevelopment is too rigid to simplify these interaction by Euclidian patterns. Thus,a third type of complex system is the main theme of this research and in-need, through the the usage of Stevens Natural Patterns integrated with Human Patterns as Prototype.


5HĂ&#x20AC;HFWLRQ What was discovered? The most important thing discovered is the location point from which I began to know to explore the complex system. It is patterns that locate at the middle of the process that a complex system is made from. At the start point, I got VRPHWURXEOHLQÂżQGLQJKRZWRUHVHDUFKDEHKDYLRUDOV\VWHP6KRXOGLWVWDUWZLWK components, interaction between them? or it should begin from a top down way? Neither is correct. It should start from patterns. These patterns is a middle condiction of the whole process. They are system of components, but at the same time are the components of the more complex system. Beside, it is good to discover the relationship between pattern, spatial form and human interaction/behavior. And the usage of interval between different buildLQJVDFFRUGLQJWROHJLVODWLRQRIRYHUVKDGRZLQJDQGÂżUHGLVWDQFHLVLQWHUHVWHG besides, this method do create sense of neighborhood. What I think about landscape design is the one in which designers do not have to explore very complicated forms but complex logic. This logic do not have to lei on the form it self, but even a simple aspect, it could become great as long as you keep on.

What was problem? The problem I could not solve is that to balance government demand for economic development and usage of low-rise housing. This will be one of the way I focus on next semester. Projection? The major projection is that I will explore more prototypes of patterns in city village or somewhere has a similar condiction about neighborhood and economic, urbanism.

209


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