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RE-CENTERING

DELHI The University of Virginia School of Architecture


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RE-CENTERING DELHI Research Project & Visionary Masterplan

The Yamuna, tributary of the Ganges, is one of the sacred rivers in India; it’s an essential part of its culture, history, economy, and environment, a fundamental resource in its region of the subcontinent. Furthermore, it is the river of the settlement of the capital, Delhi, and other relevant cities as Agra. At the same time, it is most polluted of the main rivers in the world in its January 2016 Report

urban transect of Delhi, which demonstrates the state of urban crisis that the capital city of the biggest democracy in the world

The University of Virginia School of Architecture

is facing nowadays.

with the support of

The XXI century has been described as the century of the cities. Among them, the challenges of the megacities are probably the most urgent ones due to its exponential daily growth.

Embassy of Switzerland in India Sheldon and Audrey Katz Foundation Embassy of Spain in India

With 23 million inhabitants, Delhi is the second biggest city in the world, or better, the world’s second biggest urban conglomeration after Tokyo, and the first in the developing world. Delhi has the Yamuna River as its backbone, the reason for the mogul settlement and development for eight centuries. The construction of the British capital started to

Pankaj Vir Gupta Iñaki Alday Eric Barr Megan Suau Matt Pinyan

Shure Professor Quesada Professor 2015 Research Director 2014 Research Director 2013 Research Director

change the relation between the river and the city until the contemporary dramatic situation of a sacred river of poisonous waters crossing a forgotten floodplain, cut and encroached by infrastructures, illegally occupied and exploited, towards which the city offers its back. Currently, the cleaning of the rivers and the transformation of 100 river cities are one of the main social and political priorities of the country.

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The understanding of the numerous and urgent challenges that Delhi and the Yamuna face through the urban approach allows to frame it as an interdisciplinary research endeavor in which every physical aspect – water quality, infrastructures, air pollution, human health, soil contamination, architecture, planning, public space, landscape ecologies, river flows...- are intertwined and combined also with every nonphysical system – economics, social justice, history, anthropology, literature, politics... As a complex urban dilemma, only the understanding of the multiple layers of the urban phenomena and their interaction would allow for an effective transformation. While deeply specific, this project is a typological research project to inform the transformations of many other similar challenges in India and around the world. It develops deeply the concept of “smart city”: a good city, healthy, technologically furnished, intelligently planned, in harmony with the natural elements, culturally vibrant, economically thriving, ecologically sustainable and focused in the citizen well-being. Re-Centering Delhi focuses in the redesign of the relation between the Indian capital city and the Yamuna river, fertile and productive for centuries and lost and misunderstood since the British arrival. This design research is independent, non-profit and open source, and has benefited from the collaboration of local independent environmental agencies, academics, professionals, and institutions. The first phase will be completed during the spring of 2016 with a publication and an exhibition that explains the vision – a draft of a Master plan – including a number of strategic urban projects (architecture, landscape architecture) that shows tangible options for its implementation.

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DELHI 7


RESEARCH Academic & Professional Collaboration

Confronting reality is the initial step to re-imagining a transformation. How do we select, analyze, represent and integrate data in the design process? This investigation focuses on the river, the city, and the many opportunities latent in the space of their intersection. The Yamuna is accepted as a living entity, owner of its own demands, logics, and rights. This research analyzes the river’s dynamics and floods, as well as agriculture and other occupations of the floodplain. Within the complexity of the city, the critical shortage of housing, and the malfunctioning system of water treatment and distribution are among the most pressing issues demanding resolution. Finally, the intersection of the river and the city amplifies the most pressing conflicts: the articulation of the riverbanks, the encroachments and infrastructural dams, and poor water quality that results in a highly compromised ecology. In almost every case, water emerges as the most precious and challenged resource.

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HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

The rapid urbanization of Delhi has resulted in a critical housing shortage within the city, especially for lower-income groups. There are four built residential typologies: the informal self-constructed pucca house, a builder flat of 2-5 stories, a villa or bungalow, and a tall apartment of 6 or more stories. These housing types correspond to real estate values of neighborhoods and demographics. The characteristics of each typology often determine the development of the surrounding land in terms of open and commercial spaces, and as a result of the lack of open space most families live and work in the same building. Almost 60% of Delhi residents own the houses which they live, while others rent flats or live illegally on land that is owned by the government. The average persons per household average 4.47, although many live in a home of less than 450 square feet making poor living conditions. Housing typologies and building densities have a direct impact on allotted public space. Parks, commercial areas, schools, recreational spaces, and ritual spaces are active hubs within the city of Delhi, but are not distributed evenly in relation to population density causing areas of cultural disparity, specifically east of the Yamuna. Real estate values have a direct correlation to floodplain uses – slum dwellers and lower income groups live closer to the river’s edge, occupying a space unwanted by residents of the city.

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HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

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HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

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WATER QUALITY 172.00 CR

/ 100mL of water TOTAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

183.00 CR

/ 100mL of water TOTAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

1800%

ABOVE ACCEPTABLE LEVELS

Delhi’s segment of the Yamuna stretches a mere 1.6% of the full of the river. This map indicates toxicity levels measured at

ABOVE ACCEPTABLE LEVELS

D

8.40 CR various water treatment facilities in Delhi. Coliform bacteria, / 100mL of water FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

A

including E. Coli, are used as indicators of sanitation in food B readings also show a subdivision which W A andA water. The coliform R I Z

0.0mg

GEETA CO are nearly 10x the acceptable amount. Coliform levels in the

/ 1000mL of water DISSOLVED OXYGEN

measures the amount of fecal matter in the water. All areas of the city test positive for fecal matter, and coliform readings 186.00 CR

0.0mg

/ 100mL of water TOTAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

/ 1000mL of water DISSOLVED OXYGEN

Yamuna, measured at these locations in the city, are at toxic levels.

163.00 CR

/ 100mL of water TOTAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

Undocumented potable water sources (i.e., personal wells) overtax the wastewater treatment facilities, which are only

ABOVE ACCEPTABLE LEVELS

the untreated 9.30 CRsewage is released into the Yamuna. This water

IN

/ 100mL of water FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

is used to irrigate the crops grown informally on the floodplain, 5.20 CR

/ 100mL of water FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

DD

which then make their way into city markets. Stormwater

U M NI Z A

drains - which catch human waste washed from the streets - are

0.0mg

DISSOLVED OXYGEN

/ 1000mL of water DISSOLVED OXYGEN

observed values

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ABOVE ACCEPTABLE LEVELS

O

wholly untreated before reaching the river. 0.0mg / 1000mL of water

1700%

LA

water in the city). When2000% treatment facilities are over-burdened,

KH

designed to treat water that the city provides (40- 60% of the

liquid acidity (pH) al hardness (mg/l) gen demand (mg/l) gen demand (mg/l)

NT

1900%

Y

length of the river; however, this is the most polluted transect

FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA

LO N

7.80 CR / 100mL of water

reported values

Wazirabad

Geeta Colony

Nizamuddin

Okhla

CPCB 2009

7.63 206-282 29 64

7.99 208-281 62 76

8.01 282-284 56 72

8.21 280-293 47 36

7.99 208-281 62 76

sewage treatment plant

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WATER & SEWAGE TREATMENT

NAJAFARGH DRAIN SYSTEM Kharol Barg West Delhi Civil Line Zone

The city of New Delhi has four primary sources for drinking water supply: the Ganges River, the Yamuna River, the canals from Tajewala Headwaters, and pumped groundwater. After traveling 224 km to the city, the Yamuna water is filtered using activated charcoal in seven water treatment plants: Haider Pur, Wazirabad, Bhagirathi Vihar, Sonia Vihar, Shahdara, Chandrawad, and Nangloi. 822 million gallons of drinking

SHAHDARA DRAIN SYSTEM Rural & Urban Sources

water is distributed daily through 9000 km of pipes, 550 pumping stations, and stored in 61 underground reservoirs. Approximately 40% of this water is lost during distribution. The measurable sewage output of Delhi is 600 million gallons per day, excluding surface defecation that never is captured and treated. Sewage is treated in the 23 Sewage Treatment Plants; however these plants often function at 50% capacity because of inadequate supply and flow, treating only 321 MGD of black water sewage. As it is released back into the drains to make its way into the Yamuna, it is re-contaminated with the untreated water from surface runoff. As the drains and the water supply mains run parallel through the city, the sewage seeps into the leaking water pipes. This results in unsafe levels of E.Coli and Salmonella in the drinking water supply to the city. BARAPULLA DRAIN SYSTEM South Delhi

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1 : 30000

drainage network

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WATER TREATMENT

alluvium make-up and yield of tubewells Loni

Najafargh Drain System Kharol Bargh West Delhi Civil Line Zone

RE-CENTERING DELHI Anna Cai

Sahibabad

Seelampur

plant

recyclying plant to O

Najafgarh

KachaJanakpuri Canal, Delhi Branch

Ganga Bhakra Yamuna

Munak Canal Upper Ganga Canal Delhi Cantonment

Dwarka

Ankhir

Mayur Vihar II

Kakrala

sewage treatment plants Noida Special Economic Zone

Sarita Vihar

Vasant Kunj

plant millions of gallons per day Keshopur Phases 40% Okhla Phases WATER TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS Kondli Phases Rithla total current outflow 833 MGD Yamuna Vihar total demand 1166.2 MGD Vasantkunj Coronation WTP Pillar effectiveness833 40% MGD treated Narela 1166 MGD untreated Nithola Najafgargh 10 m Papan Kalan Sen Nurshing Home SEWAGE PLANTS sewage tre Delhi G. Nalla TREATMENT sewage treatment plants uncovered Mehrauli plant millions of gallons per day covered dr Keshopur Phases Rohini Okhla Phases renovation Ghitorini Kondli Phases Rithla Kapashera Yamuna Vihar Commonwealth Games Vasantkunj Coronation Pillar Bakkarwala Narela Molar Bandh Nithola Timar Najafgargh Pur Oxidation Gejah Talattulabad

Mehraull

Anna Cai

Allahbas

Nagil Sakpur

226 MGD

Sant Nagar

Badkhal Village

Jasola

RE-CENTERING DELHI

Indirapuram

10 million

RK Puram

Barapulla Drain System South Delhi

DRAINAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT

Kaushambi

l current outflow 833 MGD l demand 1166.2 MGD

Hari Nagar

P effectiveness 40%

Chandrawal Wazirabad Haiderpur Nangloi Okhla* Dwarka Bawana Bhagirathi Sonia Viihar Bhandwari

Wazirabad Pond

Rajeev Nagar

Vasundhara

millions of gallonsKakarduma per day

Karol Bagh Vikaspuri

lake

WATERplants TREATMENT PLANTS water treatment

Paschim Vihar Lok Nayak Puram

Isharheri

historical wa

delhi quartzite: limited yield Shahdara Drainage System Gurukul Basti rural Shahdaraand urban sources Dayal Basti

Buhadurgarh

Chandu

Garhi Harsaru

water treatm

young alluvium: large to very large yield Yamuna Floodplain old alluvium: moderate yield City Line Zone fringe area: low yield

Rohini

Shahdara

Garhi

Gurukul Basti

Chandu

Dayal Basti

141 MGD

SONIA VIHAR

Garhi Harsaru

Badauli

Kambakashpur

million

135 MGD

Jhatta

Rajeev Nagar

Ankhir

107 MGD

BHAHGIRATHI (N. SHAHDARA)

DRAINAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT RE-CENTERING DELHI

12 MGD

Anna Cai

BAWANA

Sant Nagar

Bhandwari

recyclying plant to Okhla lake

DWARKA

10 million

total treated 825.8 M total current outflow STP effectiveness 66

young alluvium: large to very large yield old alluvium: moderate yield fringe area: low yield delhi quartzite: limited yield

20 MGD

s of gallons per day

Papan Kalan Sen Nurshing Home Delhi G. Nalla Mehrauli Rohini Ghitorini Kapashera Commonwealth Games Bakkarwala Molar Bandh Timar Pur Oxidation

ent plants

94 MGD

GD

Badkhal Village

historical water tank

water treatment plant

um make-up and yield of tubewells

1:175000

10 MGD

OKHLA

total treated 825.8 MGD total current outflow 1245.84 MGD 66% STP effectiveness 66%TREATMENT SEWAGE EFFECTIVENESS

825.8 MGD treated

420of MGD untreated 59% drains are covered

59% of drains are covered 20

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WATER & SEWAGE TREATMENT Plant Locations

WAZIRABAD WTP 135 MGD

SONIA VIHAR STP

CORONATION PILLAR STP

141 MGD

64.144% UTILISATION

CHANDRAWAL WTP 94 MGD

BHAHGIRATHI WTP 107 MGD

DELHI GATE STP 108.9% UTILISATION

SEN NURSING HOME STP 107.55% UTILISATION

OKHLA WTP 96.71% UTILISATION

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water treatment plants

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ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

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CONCEPTUAL FRAME A city reoriented towards the Yamuna

Good cities do not come about by accident. The prerequisites

1. THE SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL FLOODPLAIN

for a good city are broad community consensus, long-standing

A floodplain that understands the river as living system, with

political determination and sound urban planning which, over

space for ecology, food production, and public space for the

the course of time, engender urban environments that can

citizens.

provide well-being and security to their inhabitants, guarantee the supply of water, energy and food, and promote a compact and diverse urban structure in which innovation, trade and

2. E - W URBAN CONNECTIONS: HYBRID BRIDGES

economic prosperity are encouraged.

Bridges that include multiple functions and programs, allowing floods to pass along the entire floodplain, and that arrive to the

IT DEFINITIVELY PROTECTS THAT URBAN COMMUNAL SPACE

city creating neighborhoods instead of infrastructural barriers.

IN WHICH INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES ARE MOST RESPECTED. 3. N - S URBAN CONNECTIONS: HERITAGE AS STRUCTURE JOAN CLOS

The heritage sites along the former banks of the Yamuna

(Executive Director of UN Habitat, Mayor of Barcelona (1997-2006)

connected, programed and part of a civic-cultural corridor.

4. MOBILITY, ACCESSIBILITY AND TRANSPARENCY The Yamuna and its floodplain accessible and transparent to the citizens, instead of being the backyard where the city dumps its hard infrastructures. Mobility and public transportation as a democratic right and ecologic need.

5. STRATEGIC REDEVELOPMENT Infra-utilized, lost land isolated by infrastructures, temporary used pieces, etc, as vital portions of urbanity and opportunities of improvement.

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MASTERPLAN Proposed Interventions 1

1 Interchange Housing : Living with Infrastructure 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

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Yushan Du East Delhi Recycle Park : Decentralized Waste Management Marissa Sayers The New Baoli : A Constructed Wetland and Arts Center Sam Manock Daryaganj Park Community : Old Quarter Facade Ben DiNapoli East Delhi’s Urban Facade : Housing on the Riparian Edge Sean Sullivan Feroz Shah Kotla Community Center : On Knowledge and History Gabrielle Rashleigh Vikas Marg Pedestrian Bridge : Accessing the Yamuna Phil Chang Intermodal Housing Network : Housing in the Railway Corridors Andrew Shea Indraprastha Cremation Grounds : Recovering the Floodplain Shannon Ruhl Drainage Greenways : Pedestrian Corridors along Drains Stephen Hobbs Urban Acupuncture : Community Centers for Public Health Chloe Voltaire Yamuna Mandi : Hybrid Food Infrastructures for New Delhi Aaron Bridgers Pragati Maidan College : Investing in Public Education Fuhou Zhang Pragati Maidan : A New Landscape for the Public Bonnie Kate Walker Re-Centering Delhi : Cultural Transect for Contemporary India Joe Brookover Public Library : Adapting Purana Qila Joseph Laughlin Indraprastha Housing : Redeveloping Delhi’s Brownfields Cristina Castillo Trans-Yamuna Housing : Hybrid Infrastructures Eric Barr Nizzamudin Station : Intermodal Connection Hub Michelle Stein Shahadra Drain Mandi : Market over the Sewage Drains Brittany Duguay Kalindi Colony Housing : Living with the Flooding Maddy Partridge Madanpur Khadar : Living with the Flooding Allie Iaccarino

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A

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9 10 13

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12 16

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B 18

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C

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ZOOM B Proposed Interventions

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12 15 16

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RE-CENTERING DELHI Cultural Transect for Contemporary India 15

Re-CenteringRe-Centering Delhi Delhi

Brookover Cultural Transect for Independent Cultural Transect Indiafor IndependentJoeIndia

Joe Brookover

The explosive development of Delhi after Imperial British The explosive development zones are divulged of Delhi retroactively, after Imperial stitching British together the zones city are divulged retroactively, stitching together the city rule began a process of development away from the river rule began a process and creating of development new relationships away from and thememories. river and creating new relationships and memories. highlighted by a frayed urban fabric and lack of a shared highlighted by a frayed urban fabric and lack of a shared social identity. Lutyens’ Plan epitomizes this physical social and identity. Lutyens’ A new cultural Plan epitomizes forum is founded this physical by stitching and togetherA new cultural forum is founded by stitching together psychological divide; it is the continuation of a political psychological power divide; existing it is fabric the continuation and creating of new a political adjacencies: power a Cultural existing fabric and creating new adjacencies: a Cultural structure which resists moments of reflection and shared structure whichTransect resists moments for an Independent of reflection India. and Independence shared is aTransect march. for an Independent India. Independence is a march. identity necessary for the development of a cohesiveidentity society, necessary A march for the from development oppressionoftowards a cohesive transcendence society, in which A march from oppression towards transcendence in which leading to issues of growth, waste, water, health, war,leading and to issues history of growth, and identity waste, water, is constructed health, war, through and a sequence history of and identity is constructed through a sequence of oppression. oppression. events; a progression of ancient forms and landscapesevents; found a progression of ancient forms and landscapes found across the many diverse regions of India. This sequence across the many diverse regions of India. This sequence The urban project looks to create a situation in whichThe a shared urban project creates looksato network create between a situation the inpast, whichpresent, a shared and future; creates a network between the past, present, and future; identity can emerge. It analyzes the city by transect, not identity zones, can emerge. natureItand analyzes city; culture, the cityeducation, by transect, the not arts, zones, creating nature a shared and city; culture, education, the arts, creating a shared and seeks to reveal the latent identity and memory ofand theseeks to reveal democratic the latent space. identity The project and memory allowsofidentity the to emerge democratic space. The project allows identity to emerge urban fabric shared by its people. New transects and urban fabric shared through by its moments people. New of recognition transects and shared urban experience. through moments of recognition and shared experience.

1 Water Remediation System 2 “Forest” - Manas Wildlife Sanctuary 3 Cultural Center 4 “Mountains” 5 “Wetlands” - Keoladeo National Park 6 “Plains” 7 “Desert” 8 “Lakes” 9 Cultural Center 10 “Plateau” - Kass Plateau 11 Flower Field

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12 Orchard 12 Orchard 1 Water Remediation System A India Gate India Gate L Pragati MaidanAExpo Center B Hyderabad 13 Cultural Center 2 “Forest” - Manas Wildlife Sanctuary 13 Cultural House Center M Craft Museum B Hyderabad House 3 Cultural Center 14 “Mountains” 14 “Mountains” C Government C Center Building Government Building N National Science Museum D Bikaner15House D Cetner 15 Cultural Center 4 “Mountains” Cultural Center Bikaner House O Performing Arts - Joey Laughlin E Park National Park National “Wetlands” - Keoladeo Mangrove Tank - Sundarbans National ParkMaidanECommunity National of National Art National Gallery National Art 16 Mangrove Tank - 5Sundarbans 16 Gallery Collegeof - Fuhou Zhang P Pragati 17 Pragati Maidan Market 6 “Plains” F Delhi High 17 Pragati F Delhi Court Maidan Market High Court- Cristina Castillo Q Indraprastha Housing Community G Major 18 18 “Coast” “Coast” 7 “Desert” Dhyan Chad National Stadium Major- Eric Dhyan R Trans-Yamuna G Housing BarrChad National Stadium “Lakes”Use Development 19 New Expo Center8& Mixed 20 Urban Forest 9 Cultural Center Ghatts - Kass Plateau 21 “Wilderness” - Western 10 “Plateau” 22 Cultural Center 11 Flower Field

Expo Center & Mixed UseSDevelopment H Old Gate Puran Qila Old Gate of Puran 19 ofNew Yamuna TowerHHousing - Donna Ryu Qila Urban Forest Khairul Manzil Mosque Khairul Manzil Mosque I Masjid20 I Masjid Redevelopment - Abby Sandberg T Yamuna Floodplain Qila 21 “Wilderness” - Western Ghatts U Yamuna Floodplain J Puran Qila J Puran Redevelopment - Aaron Bridgers Center Commision India Trade Commision K India Trade 22 Cultural Center V Pragati MaidanKExpo

L Pragati Maidan Expo Center M Craft Museum N National Science Center Museum O Performing Arts Cetner - Joey Laughlin P Pragati Maidan Community College - Fuhou Zhang Q Indraprastha Housing Community - Cristina Castillo R Trans-Yamuna Housing - Eric Barr S Yamuna Tower Housing - Donna Ryu T Yamuna Floodplain Redevelopment - Abby Sandberg U Yamuna Floodplain Redevelopment - Aaron Bridgers V Pragati Maidan Expo Center

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RE-CENTERING DELHI Cultural Transect for Contemporary India 15

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INTERMODAL HOUSING NETWORK Housing in the Railway Corridor 8

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INDRAPRASTHA CREMATION GROUNDS Recovering the Yamuna Floodplain 9

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ZOOM A Proposed Interventions

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DARYAGANJ PARK COMMUNITY Old Quarter Facade 4

Remnant of a European planning movement in the 1930s and a great wall that protected the old city from the floods of the Yamuna act now as barriers between dense pockets of residential and commercial districts and an unused strip of land that runs alongside the wall. The demand for affordable housing causes new developments to move upwards, restricting the many side streets to daylight and creating extreme congestion. The Daryaganj Park Development not only assists in moving residents outwards to the new edge of the city through affordable housing, but also mitigates street traffic, implements water management, and meets public and commercial spatial needs.

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FEROZ SHAH COMMUNITY CENTER Celebrating Knowledge and History 6

By constructing a community center within the walls of a 14th century monument, the Feroz Shah Kotla Fort, intends to reconnect the city through its past. While currently under-appreciated by most of Delhi, the site is still very much alive and animated by the Muslim community that finds solace in and around its walls. Through restrained and sensitive architecture, this project respectfully asserts that a monument is not a curious novelty from the past, but the foundation of a city.

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VIKAS MARG PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE Accessing the Yamuna 7

The Vikas Marg pedestrian bridge serves as an east-west connection piece of the larger studio narrative and redefines the common bridge infrastructure. Much more than just a mere transition from one riverbank to another, the project introduces new ways in which Delhi’s citizens can engage and access the Yamuna River. The project combines both functional and leisure components that cater to the experience and safety of the pedestrian. Paths allow bikers to bike safely off the main motorway, which is currently one of the aspects the city lacks. Informal market spaces and seating areas enliven the atmosphere within to mimic what already happens on the streets. Programmatic docks open the opportunity for boat rentals, outdoor pools, island accessibility, and ceremonial practices. Additionally, a covered canopy structure isolates the pedestrian space from the two motorways that flank it.

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ZOOM C Proposed Interventions

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SHAHADRA DRAIN MANDI Markets over the Sewage Drains 20

Today, Delhi’s sacred river –The Yamuna—is completely lifeless and toxic. Due to this ecological condition, the Shahadra Drain has become a barren wasteland of black-water, sewage, contaminated soil, and trash. The Shahadra Park serves to bring life back to the site. Situated in ¬between the dense, urban fabric, this highly vegetated, open space offers an escape from Delhi’s over-congested lifestyle.

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TRANS-YAMUNA HOUSING Hybrid Bridges with Housing, Water Treatment, Market, & Agricultural Facilities 18

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The University of Virginia School of Architecture Spring 2016

January 2016 Report: Re-Centering Delhi  

A summary of the work of the Re-Centering Delhi studios at the University of Virginia's SoA, up until Fall 2016.

January 2016 Report: Re-Centering Delhi  

A summary of the work of the Re-Centering Delhi studios at the University of Virginia's SoA, up until Fall 2016.

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