Annual Report 2009 place stamp here
Name and Address here
Systems Annual Report 2009
Policy & Outreach
Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering Yale University 225 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520
Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale
Letter from the Director The past year has been remarkable for the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale and for all of its hard working members. We are proud to announce that the U.S. Senate has confirmed Paul Anastas’ appointment as the new Science Advisor and Assistant Administrator for Research and Development for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. While adjusting to the change the Center has continued to progress in its’mission to advance sustainability by catalyzing the effectiveness of the Green Chemistry and Green Engineering community. The Center has continued to expand its focus on the need for innovation in the area of sustainability, specifically concentrating on innovative research in bioenergy, water purification, chemical design for reduced hazard, greener materials and plastic, and green nanotechnology. To facilitate these developments, Dr. Evan Beach has been named the Program Manager for the Center. Dr. Beach has been a member of the Center’s core team since 2007 and currently serves as an Associate Research Scientist. His research focuses on polymers, fine chemicals, and other useful materials from renewable feedstocks, with an emphasis on productive use of byproducts generated in biofuel production. The Center plans to expand its outreach through collaboration with industry and continue the advancement of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering through education. The Center has continued to focus on the achievement of the core goals: • • • •
Advancing the Science Training the Next Generation Catalyzing Implementation Raising Awareness
The members of the Center have developed new research initiatives resulting in several patents, informed design and policy reform, presented their research throughout the U.S. and internationally, and established invaluable partnerships throughout the world. We are looking forward to building on last year’s success as we continue to make progress towards a more sustainable future through Green Chemistry and Green Engineering. Sincerely,
Julie B. Zimmerman Acting Director Assistant Director, Research Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale
Managing Directors Paul T. Anastas, PhD Director, Currently on Public Service Leave with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Teresa and H. John Heinz III Professor in the Practice of Chemistry for the Environment Paul T. Anastas has recently been appointed by President Barack Obama to serve as the Science Advisor and Assistant Administrator for Research and Development for the US EPA. Dr. Anastas is the Teresa and H. John Heinz III Professor in the Practice of Chemistry for the Environment. He is the Professor in the Practice of Green Chemistry with appointments in the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Engineering. In addition, Dr. Anastas serves as the Director of the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale. From 2004 -2006, Paul Anastas served as Director of the Green Chemistry Institute in Washington, D.C. He was previously the Assistant Director for the Environment in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy where he worked from 1999-2004. Trained as a synthetic organic chemist, Dr. Anastas received his Ph.D. from Brandeis University and worked as an industrial consultant. He is credited with establishing the field of green chemistry during his time working for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the Chief of the Industrial Chemistry Branch and as the Director of the U.S. Green Chemistry Program. Dr. Anastas has published widely on topics of science through sustainability, such as the books Benign by Design, Designing Safer Polymers, Green Engineering, and his seminal work with co-author John Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. Photo: Harold Shapiro
Julie B. Zimmerman, PhD Acting Director Assistant Professor of Green Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Dr. Julie Beth Zimmerman is an Assistant Professor of Green Engineering jointly appointed in the School of Engineering and Applied Science (Environmental Engineering Program) and the School of Forestry and Environment at Yale University. Dr. Zimmerman also serves as the Acting Director of the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale. Her research interests include green chemistry and engineering, systems dynamics modeling of natural and engineered water systems, environmentally benign design and manufacturing, the fate and impacts of anthropogenic compounds in the environment as well as appropriate water treatment technologies for the developing world. She also conducts research on corporate environmental behavior and governance interventions to enhance the integration of sustainability in industry and academia. Dr. Zimmerman previously served as an Engineer in the Office of Research and Development at the United States Environmental Protection Agency where she managed grants to academia and small businesses in the areas of pollution prevention and sustainability. She received a joint PhD from the University of Michigan in Environmental Engineering and Natural Resource Policy.
Evan Beach, PhD Program Manager Associate Research Scientist Dr. Evan Beach joined the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale in 2007. He has worked in green chemistry academic research labs for more than 10 years. He received his BS and PhD in Chemistry from Carnegie Mellon University, where he researched environmentally benign catalytic oxidation systems for water cleaning applications. His current research focuses on polymers, fine chemicals, and other useful materials from renewable feedstocks. Dr. Beach has been a guest lecturer for the Yale University course “Introduction to Green Chemistry,” lecturing on topics including alternative solvents and renewable feedstocks. He organized a “Training the Trainers” workshop to train educators how to conduct their own workshops on green chemistry within their own organizations. Evan has spoken on topics of sustainability, green chemistry and engineering, and environmental aspects of plastics for Canisius College, the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, the NIEHS Worker Education and Training Program, and the Erice International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies. He serves as an associate editor of the journal Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews.
Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale September 2009
Center Members Administrative Staff:
Senior Administrative Assistant
PhD Candidate, Forestry and Environmental Studies
Amanda Chavez Kupp
Master of Environmental Engineering Candidate
PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering
Lauren Martini PhD Candidate, Chemistry
Laura Brentner, PhD Postdoctoral Associate
Sarah Miller PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering
Zheng Cui, PhD Postdoctoral Associate
Leanne Pasquini PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering
Matthew Eckelman, PhD Postdoctoral Associate
Lindsay Soh PhD Candidate, Environmental Engineering
Kira Matus, PhD Senior Policy Analyst
Fuzhan Nasiri, PhD
Master of Environmental Science Candidate
Toby Sommer, PhD
Associate Research Scientist
Master of Environmental Science Candidate
Adelina Voutchkova, PhD
Master of Environmental Management Candidate
Ranran Wang Master of Environmental Science Candidate
Kyle Williams Master of Environmental Science Candidate
Overview of the Center The Mission of The Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale is to advance sustainability by catalyzing the effectiveness of the Green Chemistry and Green Engineering community. Green Chemistry and Green Engineering represent the fundamental building blocks of sustainability. Working in these disciplines, chemists and engineers are creating the scientific and technological breakthroughs that will be crucial to the future success of the human economy. The Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale works to stimulate and accelerate these advances. The Center is Guided By Four Core Operating Principles... • Insist on scientific and technical excellence and rigor. • Focus on generating solutions rather than characterizing problems. • Work with a diverse group of stakeholders. • Share information and perspectives broadly. We Seek To Accomplish Four Key Objectives... • Advance the science. • Prepare the next generation. • Catalyze implementation. • Raise awareness. The Focus Areas for the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Include:
Research The Yale Center supports and advances research in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, a critical
component to building the community, designing and discovering innovative solutions, and achieving a sustainable future. The Center serves as a catalyst to both Yale and the greater Green Chemistry and Green Engineering communities for discipline-specific and cross-disciplinary research collaborations focused on key areas of GC&GE within science, technology, and policy for sustainability.
Policy & Outreach The Center engages in policy, communication, and outreach initiatives that raise awareness of - and support for - GC&GE. In this dialogue the Center engages with a wide network of stakeholders, including NGOs, industry, academia, and government, as well as local communities and the general public. Education A robust educational program is an essential element of the Center. Center activities are focused on educating undergraduate and graduate students in the principles and practice of GC&GE. The Center also serves the wider academic community by providing opportunities for faculty training and by developing and disseminating GC&GE curriculum materials. International Partnerships GC&GE are rapidly spreading through both industrialized nations and the emerging
economies. In all regions, the Center engages with the network of scientists, engineers, policy-makers, business people, and public health and environmental experts focused on sustainability science on behalf of the greater good.
Industrial Collaborations GC&GE can only provide meaningful impact on the challenges of global sustainability
when implemented on a large scale. For this reason, collaboration with industry is a key part of the Yale Center’s work. Direct engagement creates a dialogue that informs industry of the latest research breakthroughs in the field of sustainable science and technology. Likewise, such engagement informs academic researchers on industry’s most important concerns. This dialogue facilitates a direct line for implementation of these innovations.
Accomplishments 2008/2009 The Center hosted a workshop with the Green Electronics Council (GEC) to develop a vision and roadmap for sustainability in the electronics sector. The workshop was attended by senior leadership from leading firms and resulted in guiding documents for future research and development in the sector. The Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering hosted the “Train-the-Trainers Workshop in Green Chemistry” with the Labor Institute and United Steelworkers Union. The Center trained union educators to implement green chemistry workshops for their members, highlighting the connections between safer chemicals, green jobs, worker health, and U.S. competitiveness. The 2nd International Symposium on Green Processing in the Pharmaceutical & Fine Chemicals Industries hosted by the Center was held May 29-30, 2008 at Yale University. The purpose of this workshop was to exchange leading research advances in the design, synthesis, and production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In pursuit of transformative innovations in green building and green building materials, the Center has launched a partnership with a leading global architecture firm, Perkins + Will. VeruTEK Technologies, Inc. and the Center partnered to promote the use of green solutions in industry and develop greener chemical syntheses and processes, focusing on bio-based materials and surfactants. The Center participated in several books this year including a textbook on sustainable engineering published by Wiley and Sons, a book discussing integration of Green Chemistry into the chemistry curriculum, and a multi-volume collection covering scientific advances in the various aspects of green chemistry— the first three volumes released focus on homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, and biocatalysis.
Michael Marsland/Yale University
Focus 2009/2010 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Workshop Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Workshop: Guiding Principles for Reform and the Innovation Agenda. The Center hosted a workshop that brought together leaders from academia, industry, government, non-governmental organizations, and citizen groups to discuss lessons from the past three decades of regulation under TSCA, and what these imply for the future of chemicals policy in the US. The product of this workshop is a set of recommendations for TSCA reform focused around how Green Chemistry and Green Engineering innovations can be integrated into the regulatory framework as a tool for fundamentally reducing chemical hazards, while protecting the innovative capacity and economic competitiveness of the chemical industry.
Green Chemistry Collaborations In 2008, the Center established a collaboration around research and education in Green Chemistry with two leading institutions, Waseda University (Japan) and Monash University (Australia), targeting areas of mutual scientific interest. In 2010 the Centers will meet at Yale University to formalize their collaboration.
Green Building Conference This conference will gather a broad audience of scientists, architects, urban planners, and policy experts to focus on topics such as innovations in “smart” materials that are responsive to environmental stimuli, green nanotechnology, and the role of buildings in larger sustainable systems.
The Next Generation of Green Scientists The Center will present a multi-faceted program to develop, promote, and sustain the next generation of Green Chemistry leaders. An initial meeting of Green Chemistry pioneers will convene at Yale to develop ways of identifying next generation of leaders in Green Chemistry, classify the key strategies to support the next generation, and plan implementation strategies.
Center Member Participates in SEAS Advanced Graduate Leadership Program The Center’s Sarah Miller, PhD Candidate in Environmental Engineering, has recently been accepted for the School of Engineering and Applied Science’s Graduate Leadership Program in the K-12 education track. As part of this program, she will design and implement a program to match engineering graduate students with local public school teachers. This program should begin Fall 2010.
Center Intellectual Property Green Design of Novel Chemical Entities In an effort to design biodegradable, non-toxic, and sustainable new chemical entities, the Center has developed a class of proprietary surfactants, after receiving provisional patents, that can be produced using minimal resource inputs in a safe and elegant synthesis. These surfactants are currently being explored for use in a variety of applications, including soil remediation and industrial cleaning in collaboration with several industrial partners. TiO2-impregnated Chitosan Bead A biopolymer-based sorbent material has been synthesized that can remove arsenic, a common and highly toxic metal, from drinking water sources. A provisional patent has been acquired for this novel sorbent material.
Research: Materials A One-Pot, Multi-Component Synthesis of Arylnapthalene Lactone Natural Products This research involves the development of a one-pot, multi-component synthesis of arylnaphthalene natural products through use of a silver catalyst and carbon dioxide. Arylnaphthalene lactones are a class of naturally occurring molecules associated with the lignan family of natural products. Many of these arylnaphthalene natural products are of interest due to their medicinal properties which include anti-tumor, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties. This research led to a one-pot, multi-component synthesis of arylnaphthalene lactones starting with phenylpropargyl chloride, phenylacetylene, and carbon dioxide as precursors with a catalytic amount of silver iodide present to promote the desired reaction. This approach has been applied successfully to the synthesis of a variety of naturally occurring arylnaphthalene natural products. Bio-Based Surfactants Synthesizing novel, environmentally benign surfactants from carbohydrates and biologically familiar lipids, and exploring industrial applications. Green Packaging Materials Based on Chitosan Exploring the use of the renewable resource chitosan as a feedstock for functional materials. Physicochemical Characterization and Toxicity Evaluation of Functionalized Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) Determining whether surface functionalizations decrease both environmental and human toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs).
Designing Safer Chemicals This project aims to derive empirical rules that can be used by chemists and engineers to guide the design of chemicals with reduced toxicological, environmental, physical and global hazards. Today the goal of being able to design molecules from first principles with controlled biological activity is still viewed as an immense challenge. With the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of toxicity, new strides in the field of molecular design can be made. This research seeks to address the current situation through the systematic development of a cohesive molecular design strategy for hazard reduction that can be applied directly by chemists and engineers at the design stage of a commercial chemical. In addition to the obvious environmental benefits to the development of such a set of design principles, there is also tremendous commercial benefit to chemical manufacturers, thereby aligning health and economic goals. These design tools will be applied to the estimated 99% of molecules invented that are not intended for pharmaceutical use.
Research: Energy Extraction of Algal Lipids for Use in Biodiesel Production The objective of this research is to contribute to the development of algal lipids as a viable biofuel energy source by optimizing lipid extraction techniques for efficiency, sustainability, decreased hazard, and selectivity. Due to the growing demand for energy and the depletion of non-renewable sources, alternative fuel sources need to be researched and brought to the level where viable implementation can occur. The objective of this research is to develop the potential of algal lipid for use in biodiesel production by optimizing lipid extraction techniques for efficiency, sustainability, decreased hazard, and selectivity. In particular, extraction improvements will include cell disruption, greener solvent systems (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction), selective extraction, and simplified extraction-fuel conversion processes. Further research will be conducted on algae cell optimization as a starting material as well as on potential end-use applications for unused bio-mass.
Biodiesel From Algae in Uganda Investigating algae strains obtained from salt lakes in Uganda for their potential in biodiesel production. Biohydrogen Production in Reverse Micelles Understanding why fermentative bacterial hydrogen production is enhanced in reverse micelles, in order to find green alternatives for the surfactant/solvent mixture conventionally used. Visible Light Sensitization of TiO2 Semiconductor Surfaces for Use in Solar Cells This research focuses on the visible light sensitization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor surfaces with metal complexes and their applications to solar energy conversion in sensitized solar cells and catalysis. Metal complex thin films are used in several organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as fluorescent, electron transport layers. An OLED produces light by electron-hole pair recombination. A solar cell operates in reverse by absorbing light to induce electron-hole pair separation via interfacial electron transfer between a light-sensitive complex and an electron-accepting surface. Metal complexes are being synthesized and covalently bound to TiO2-anatase thin-film semiconductor surfaces in order to study this photoabsorption process and the interfacial electron transfer between the metal complex and TiO2.
Research: Systems Perkins + Will Sustainable Laboratory Initiative Applying the Principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering to the design and operation of more sustainable laboratory facilities. Algal Biodisel Life-Cycle Analysis Using life-cycle analysis tools to evaluate design considerations for optimization of biodiesel production from algae. LCA of Modular and On-site Construction Methods Comparing modular construction and site-built methods on the basis of life-cycle analysis. Improving the Life-Cycle of Biodiesel in Uganda Through Green Chemistry This research studies the industrial life-cycle of biodiesel production in East Africa from non-food oilseed crops, with an eye toward producing valuable co-products from the biomass residues. For example, candlenut shells contain high levels of lignin, a biopolymer with potential applications in consumer products and fine chemicals. Extraction of lignin from nutshells using an environmentally benign process was developed, and current work is aimed at investigating applications. Center affiliates in Africa are also carrying out a life-cycle assessment of a biodiesel production project in Uganda and Ethiopia, in order to identify promising new research areas that could improve the projectâ€™s sustainability.
Research: Water Candlenut Shell in Point-of-Use Water Treatment This project is investigating the ability of candlenut shells, a waste product of biodiesel production, to bind contaminant metal ions in drinking water supplies.Candlenut shell is an abundant agricultural waste material that could potentially be used to remove harmful metal ions from drinking water supplies where modern treatment methods are not available. Preliminary results show that the material can eliminate a number of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Our current work is aimed at understanding the mechanism of removal and designing methods for practical use.
Biopolymer Sorbents for Arsenic Removal Developing biopolymer-based sorbents for removal of arsenic from water. The Fate of Sucralose through Water Treatment and Environmental Processes Filling data gaps on an abundant natural sweetener and any of its degradation products that humans and the environment are exposed to continuously at low levels. Sustainable Water Allocation in The Great Lakes Modeling and analyzing the use, efficiency, value and governance of water as a material in the Great Lakes region through an integrated approach.
Research: Education Yale University Courses Teaching undergraduate and graduate level courses in Green Chemistry and Green Engineering.
High School Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Course Center graduate student teaching summer Green Chemistry / Green Engineering courses for 10th graders in New Haven. A green chemistry and engineering course was designed for rising sophomores and taught summer of 2009. This course was offered through Yale’s SCHOLAR program, where Career High School Students live and study on Yale’s campus for a period during the summer.
“Learning Green” Website The Center is collaborating with the Institute for Green Science at Carnegie Mellon University to provide free online learning modules on Green Chemistry, Green Engineering, and sustainability topics. The site may be accessed at http://www.greenscienceinstitute.net.
Translation of “Designing Safer Polymers” Translating Dr. Paul Anastas’ 2000 book Designing Safer Polymers into Chinese. Designing Safer Polymers gives examples of Green Chemistry principles applied to polymer science and discusses the advantages of introducing greener polymers to the US market. By translating the book into Chinese, the message can be delivered to a wider audience in China where much polymer R&D and manufacturing aimed at the US market is taking place.
Research: Policy & Outreach Peabody Exhibit Center graduate students are working with high school students in the EVOLUTIONS Program to develop exhibits on the environmental impact of chemical technology.
TSCA Reform Working to identify the role the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering can play in modern US chemical policy. Key questions include: 1) How does policy impact innovation in the chemical industry (both positively and negatively), especially in the case of GC&GE? 2) What are some of the key challenges that will emerge in the next 1-2 decades as a result of advances in science and technology, how can regulation be shaped in order to adapt to these, and other unforeseen challenges, and what role will GC&GE play in mitigating potential future hazards that could result? 3) How should resources be directed towards GC&GE innovations as part of a long-term, systemic, life-cycle based approach to reducing hazards to human and the environment that are the result of chemical production, use, and disposal? Green Building Conference Gathering a broad audience of scientists, architects, urban planners, and policy experts to focus on topics such as innovations in â€œsmartâ€? materials that are responsive to environmental stimuli, green nanotechnology, and the role of buildings in larger sustainable systems. The Next Generation of Green Scientists Establishing a multi-faceted program to develop, promote, and sustain the next generation of Green Chemistry leaders.
Publications IN REVIEW Anastas, P. T., The Future of Chemistry: Sustainable Innovations. Nature. Foley, P. M.; Eghbali, N. D.; Anastas, P. T., A Silver-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Arylnapthalene Lactone Natural Products. Journal of Natural Products. Cui, Z.; Beach, E. S.; Anastas, P. T., Modification of Chitosan Films with Environmentally Benign Reagents for Increased Water Resistance. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. Miller, S. M.; Ghebremichael, K. A.; Amy, G. L.; Zimmerman, J. B., Use of Natural Materials for Drinking Water Purification. Water Research. Miller, S.; Zimmerman, J.B., Novel, bio-based, photoactive arsenic sorbent: TiO2-impregnated chitosan bead. Water Research. Voutchkova, A. M.; Osimitz, T. G.; Anastas, P. T., Toward a Comprehensive Molecular Design Framework for Reduced Hazard. Chemical Reviews.
2010 Vanasupa, L. S.; Burton, R.; Stolk, J.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Anastas, P. T., The systemic correlation between mental models and sustainable design: Implications for engineering educators. International Journal of Engineering Education, in press. Foley, P. M.; Eghbali, N.; Anastas, P. T., Silver-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Arylnaphthalene Lactones: Optimization and Application to the Synthesis of Dehydro-dimethylcondidendrin. Green Chemistry, in press. Brentner, L. B.; Peccia, J.; Zimmerman, J. B., Challenges in Developing Biohydrogen as a Sustainable Energy Source. Environmental Science and Technology, in press. Voutchkova, A. M.; Ferris, L. A.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Anastas, P. T., Towards Molecular Design for Hazard Reduction - Fundamental Relationships Between Chemical Properties and Toxicity. Tetrahedron 2010, 66 (5), 1031-1039. Anastas, P. T.; Eghbali, N., Green Chemistry: Principles and Practice. Chemical Society Reviews 2010, 39 (1), 301-312. Anastas, P., 2020 visions. Nature, 2010 463 (7277), 26-32. Anastas, P. T., Preface. In Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries, Vertes, A.; Qureshi, N.; Yukawa, H.; Blaschek, H., Eds. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 2010. Anastas, P. T., Perspective on Green Chemistry: The Most Challenging Synthetic Transformation. Tetrahedron 2010, 66 (5), 1026-1027.
2009 Zimmerman, J. B.; Anastas, P. T., Integrating Green Engineering into Engineering Curricula. In Green Chemistry Education: Changing the Course of Chemistry, Anastas, P. T.; Levy, I. J.; Parent, K. E., Eds. American Chemical Society: 2009; pp 137-146. Milhelcic, J. R.; Zimmerman, J. B., Environmental Engineering: Fundamentals, Sustainability, Design. Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated: New York, 2009. Beach, E. S.; Cui, Z.; Anastas, P. T., Green Chemistry: A design framework for sustainability. Energy & Environmental Science 2009, 2, 1038-1049. Anastas, P. T.; Beach, E. S., Changing the Course of Chemistry. In Green Chemistry Education: Changing the Course of Chemistry, Anastas, P. T.; Levy, I. J.; Parent, K. E., Eds. American Chemical Society: 2009; pp 1-18. Anastas, P. T., The Transformative Innovations Needed by Green Chemistry for Sustainability. ChemSusChem 2009, 2, 391-392. Anastas, P. T., Foreword. In Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies, Hรถfer, R., Ed. The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 2009; Vol. 4, pp v-vi. Anastas, P. T., Levy, I.J., Parent, K.E., eds. Green Chemistry Education: Changing the Course of Chemistry. American Chemical Society: Washington, 2009. Anastas, P.T., Crabtree, R.H., eds. Green Catalysis: Volume 3: Biocatalysis. WILEY-VCH: Weinheim, 2009. Anastas, P.T., Crabtree, R.H., eds. Green Catalysis: Volume 2: Heterogeneous Catalysis. WILEY-VCH: Weinehim, 2009. Anastas, P.T., Crabtree, R.H., eds. Green Catalysis: Volume 1: Homogeneous Catalysis. WILEY-VCH: Weinehim, 2009.
Publications 2008 Zimmerman, J. B.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Smith, J. A., Global Stressors on Water Quality and Quantity. Environmental Science and Technology 2008, 42 (12), 4247-4254. Miller, S.; Fugate, E.; Craver, V.; Smith, J. A.; Zimmerman, J. B., Toward Understanding the Efficacy and Mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a Natural Coagulant for Potential Applications in Water Treatment. Environmental Science and Technology 2008, 42 (12), 4274-4279. Eghbali, N.; Eddy, J.; Anastas, P. T., Silver-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Arylnaphthalene Lactones. Journal of Organic Chemistry 2008, 73, 6932-6935. Eckelman, M. J.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Anastas, P. T., Toward green nano. E-factor analysis of several nanomaterial syntheses. Journal of Industrial Ecology 2008, 12 (3), 316-328. Eckelman, M. J.; Anastas, P. T.; Zimmerman, J. B., Spatial Assessment of Net Mercury Emissions from the Use of Fluorescent Bulbs. Environmental Science & Technology 2008, 42 (22), 8564-8570. Clarens, A. F.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Keoleian, G. A.; Hayes, K. F.; Skerlos, S. J., Comparison of life cycle emissions and energy consumption for environmentally adapted metalworking fluid systems. Environmental Science & Technology 2008, 42 (22), 8534-8540. Anastas, P. T.; Beach, E. S., Green chemistry: the emergence of a transformative framework. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews 2008, 1 (1), 9-24. Anastas, P. T., Fusing green chemistry and green engineering: DesignBuild at the molecular level. Green Chemistry 2008, 10, 607.
2007 Ramaswami, A.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Mihelcic, J., Integrating Developed and Developing World Knowledge into Global Discussions and Strategies for Sustainability. Part II: Economics, Commerce and Governance. Environmental Science and Technology 2007, 41 (10), 3422-3430. Mihelcic, J.; Zimmerman, J. B.; Ramaswami, A., Integrating Developed and Developing World Knowledge into Global Discussions and Strategies for Sustainability. Part I: Science and Technology. Environmental Science and Technology 2007, 41 (10), 3415-3421. Horvath, I. T.; Anastas, P. T., Introduction: Green Chemistry. Chemical Reviews 2007, 107 (6), 2167-2168. Horvath, I. T.; Anastas, P. T., Innovations: Green Chemistry. Chemical Reviews 2007, 107 (6), 2169-2173.
COVER PHOTO (Materials) *Vanasupa, L.S.; Burton, R.; Stolk, J.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Anastas, P.T., The systemic correlation between mental models and sustainable design: Implications for engineering educators. International Journal of Engineering Education submitted 2009.
Annual Report 2009 place stamp here
Name and Address here
Systems Annual Report 2009
Policy & Outreach
Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering Yale University 225 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520
Center for Green Chemistry & Green Engineering at Yale