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Name (maiden name) [A Miner] Abbley, M.

Size of living sibling group Year (deceased Father occupation and other of birth Location siblings) details (author’s age at event) 1845 Yorks. min? Miner. Out of work prospecting for a ing district year, plunging the family into poverty 1894 Not stated 3 Sailor

Notes about household Mother paid work and other details arrangements (author’s age (author’s age at event) at event) Not stated Died (teens) Matchbox maker. ‘Thoroughly worn out’ by her anxious life, had no ‘tender love’ for her children

[Acorn, George, pseud.]

1880s

London (Southwark)

Several (1)

Adams, W. E.

1832

Cheltenham

4

Adnams, Nora Isabel (Brazier) Adsetts, Ernest

1901

London (Hampstead) Sheffield

7 (2)

Aldred, Guy

1886

London (Clerkenwell)

1

Absent since birth

Allaway, John

1902

Sheffield

4

Storekeeper, died (15). ‘He spent more Took in lodger, part-time cleaner, partthan he should have done on beer and time kitchen worker cigarettes, and thus forced my mother to pinch and scrape’

1905

5

Not stated. Gave his wife 18s/week at the start of their marriage, less when work was slack, and this sum never increased. ‘When work was plentiful and overtime was the order of the day he would have days off, spending the extra money in drink’ Plasterer but absent

Laundry worker

Absent (3–10). Family broke up when Absent (3–10) father broke arm and was unable to work Foreman at steelworks, shop owner, Not stated died (7) Parasol maker. Remarried bigamously following husband’s disappearance

Published (P) or Unpublished (U) P

Left home to live with grandparents following father’s remarriage An impoverished home with considerable domestic conflict

U

Author’s mother and siblings lived with her mother and sisters and worked in their laundry Placed in an institution with her siblings (3–10); family home was then re-established Mother maintained her own household; author subsequently sent to live with his uncle Raised with mother and grandparents from birth, and largely remained with grandparents following his mother’s remarriage

P

P

U

P

P

P


Ambrose, Ernest Ammon, Charles George Anderson, Isaac Anderson, J. R. Andrews, Elizabeth (Smith) Anthony, Francis Armstrong, Chester Arnold, William

1878

Melford, Suffolk London (Southwark) Prittlewell, Essex Gateshead

4?

Near Aberdare, Breconshire 1896/7 Not stated

1873

1833

5

Foreman at mat factory – ‘we weren’t Not stated what you would call poor’ Cutler and toolmaker. Died (14) after Needlework after husband’s death several years of ill health

P U

9

Farm work

Not stated

P

3

Not stated

Not stated

U

1881

11

Miner. Tended an allotment. A devout Not stated. She was ‘a good needle Christian and politically interested woman and a good cook’

1868

None known 6 (1)

1892

Absent from a young age None. She was a ‘great housekeeper’ and ‘made home a paradise’ Hayfields and other harvest work

Raised in an orphanage without knowledge of his birth family

P

Ash, Dorothy L.

1899

London (Fulham)

5

Smelt-mill worker, worked overtime to help augment the family’s income Rural shoemaker, earned little more than 12s/week. A ‘splendid craftsman’, though also a ‘hasty man’ Kitchen clerk and storeman. Died (7)

Ashby, Joseph

1859

3

Absent (illegitimate)

Ashdown, Eli

1831

6

Farm bailiff

Not stated

P

Ashley, James ‘Autobiography of an Ordinary Man’

1833 1834

Tysoe, Warks. Mayfield, Sussex Wrexham Rural Scotland, not specified

Midwife after her husband’s death but that proved incompatible with her own childcare, so worked as a daily char for 2/6 a day Harvest work

? 3

Bakery business, silk-hat finisher Farm labourer

Not stated None, invalided after the birth of her last child – ‘A simple and well meaning woman’

P U

1860

Nenthead, Cumbria Everdon, Northants.

Absent from a young age

P

14

P P

Chose to keep her family together after her husband’s death and work as a cleaner rather than disperse the children to relatives Mother raised him alone

P

P


Bacon, Charles

1871

Baldry, George

1864

Balne, Edward

1895

Barber, George H. Barclay, Thomas Patrick Barker, Lottie

1860 1852

Newbold Verdon, Leics. Ditchingham, Norfolk London (Southwark) Tunstall, Staffs. Leicester

11

Waggoner on farm – ‘worked on the land all his life’

Hosiery work. She was ‘a good mother to us all’

U

3

Shoemaker and farm worker

Not stated

P

[5]

Absent since birth

Absent since birth

2

Not stated, absent, seeking work

Died (5)

4 (1)

Rag-and-bone man

Rag shop, chopped wood and sold it

P

Head furnaceman, but the work was often hard and he would ‘break out’ drinking Iron works

Until her death (10), she would do lace- Following mother’s death, work after she had ‘done the housework’ author’s elder sisters took turns in running the household Not stated

U

‘Monthly nurse’ (helped women give birth and stayed with them for a month afterwards). She was ‘very strict … we didn’t dare defy her’ Not stated. Died (16)

P

1899

Beeston, Notts.

5 (2)

1850

Bolton

2

1890

Charing, Kent

8 (1)

Farm worker

Barnes, Annie (Cappuccio)

1887

London (Stepney)

6 (6)

Fruit shop owner

Barnes, George Nicoll

1859

Barlow, Richard Gorton Barnard, Hilda (Clifford)

Barnet, Mary (King)

Lochee, Scotland; Ponders End, Middx. 1850s? Navestock, Essex

Raised in workhouse (completely estranged from birth from living parents and four living siblings) Raised in workhouse and foster care

Annie took responsibility for her several younger siblings on her mother’s death

U

P

P

P

5

Mill mechanic, mill manager, engineer Not stated in jute mill

P

3?

Farm labourer – a ‘kind and loving father’

U

At ‘farmer Brown’s’ twice a week – churning, cleaning, preserving


Barnetson, Madge Barr, David

Barrett, Walter Henry Bates, Herbert Ernest Bates, Joe

Baxter, Andrew Bayes, John

1905 1831

1891 1905 1869

1872

London

?

Wood End, 8 Fillongley, Warks. Fens, ‘Fair sized’ Cambs. Rushden, 3 Northants. Burnley 7 (1)

Bayley, Stanley James

1901

Bell, Joseph

1846

Bell, Rosa

1902

Aberdeen (Footdee) Sywell, Northants. Ewyas Harold, Herefs. Turvey, Beds. Doncaster

Bell, Thomas

1882

Glasgow

6

Bell, William

1896

West Carr, Co. Durham

10

1904

8 6 (1)

Not stated

Not stated

P

Village shoemaker, also kept garden, cows, farm work

Ribbon weaving

P

Not stated, but likely farm work

Not stated

P

Shoemaker in boot factory

None

Foundry engineer – a ‘painstaking crafts- None. A kind mother ‘like Queen man’, work was ‘life to him. It engaged Victoria’ ninety per cent of his conversation.’ ‘Earned well’ but ‘doled out money in a niggardly fashion’ Fisherman Fisher work

A comfortable, rural childhood

P

Considerable domestic conflict between all family members. Regular ‘scenes’ in the home, kind words would have been thought ‘namby pamby’

U

U

Stockman and other farm work

Not stated

U

10

Grocer

None

P

4

Builder but died when author was six months old Clerical job in mines – a ‘lovely man’

Lacemaking. Died (12)

U

7

Dressmaking, not clear whether for the family or for pay. ‘Mother was so kind’ Stonemason – ‘aristocrat of labour’ – Spun cotton and silk on a spinning jenny but long spells of unemployment were in the home when husband was out of work common None, she ran the home Miner. ‘His heavy drinking meant there was not enough housekeeping money for mother’

U P

P


Bellamy, Harry

1892

Elliots Town, Caerphilly Tavistock, Devon

12/14?

Bellan, Joan (Kellaway)

1903

Benjamin, Harry Bennett, Herbert John

1896

London (East End) London (Walworth)

3

Benson, Ernie

1906

Leeds (Hunslet)

4

Bentley, Mary (Wilson)

1896

Manchester (Clayton)

4

Bertenshaw, Mary (Flood)

1904

Manchester

4 (1)

Beswick, Wilfred

1873

6 (3)

Betts, Frank

1885

Bickerton, Fred Blackburn, Elizabeth K.

1879 1902

Manchester (Prestwich; Heaton Park) Unspecified market town Oxford Blackburn

1902

6

7

Pit worker

Not stated

Horseman. Earned a pound a week Washing for Major Philips in the village (‘good pay in those days’) but also liked his drink and tobacco. ‘I think Mam had what she was supposed to but … it wasn’t very easy’ Master tailor, periodic unemployment Blouse saleswoman after her husband’s death (21) Docker, fitter’s mate for lift company. None, looked after the family including Earned 30s/week. ‘Heavy drinker and a son with additional needs frequenter of pubs’ Boilermaker. Spendthrift, liked ‘gam- Took in lodgers bling and whoring’, ‘mother got her part of his wages very irregularly’ Foreman cooper. Earned 28s/week – None – she was ‘houseproud’ and ‘a ‘slightly more than average’ – and ‘a good manager’ making all the family’s little extra’ through a part-time job for clothes, meals and bread a local doctor Door keeper at a theatre. Had an injured Fancy ironer in laundry leg and was unable to do heavy work. Died (15?) Not stated Not stated

U

U

P P

Father living apart from the family by author’s teens. One sibling boarded with grandparents

P

P

Mother remarried an abusive drinker; author left home and made her own way

P

P

9

Not stated

Not stated – ‘good at housekeeping’

U

8 1

Commercial traveller Cotton weaver, overlooker

Not stated None

P P


Blake, John

1899

London (Poplar)

7

Plumber’s mate

Blatchford, Robert Bodell, James

1851

2

Strolling comedian, died (2)

1831

Bold, Edna

1904

Maidstone, Kent Arnold, Notts. Manchester (Beswick)

Bond, Alice

1896

Bondfield, Margaret

1873

Boughton, Fred

1897

Bowen, Jack

1893

Bower, Fred Bowles, Minnie Bowyer, William

‘Some’

Stocking knitter

No, her work was to keep the family de- ‘They brought us up with love cent and clean on a small wage. She was and care’ ‘the main saviour, the most important person’ Travelling actress Single-parent household maintained by mother’s earnings Not stated

P P

4 (1)

Ran his own bakery business

Brantingham, Yorks. Furnham, near Chard, Somerset Harrow Hill, Gloucs. Kirby Wiske, Yorks.

11 (1)

Farm hand, market gardener

No. She was ‘always delicate’. Institutionalised ‘suffering a severe mental breakdown’ following the death of a baby Helping run the farm

11

Foreman, lacemaker in a factory

None, minded the house and garden

P

10

Miner, smallholding

None – attended to the domestic work only

P

?

Harvest work

P

1871 1903

Liverpool London

8 8

Farm labourer, 12s 6d in money a week plus a cow, twenty poultry and a pig – ‘made it possible for us to live fairly well for the times’ Stonemason Foreman at Crosse and Blackwells

Not stated Took in lodgers

P U

1889

London (Battersea)

2

None. ‘Her bouyancy was severely Ironmonger, kept small shop. Gave tested by the experiences of her married wife a ‘miserable allowance’; family life’ were ‘constantly in fear’ of him; he kept a mistress, abused his wife, eventually committed suicide

Cared for by a ‘brittle’ aunt during mother’s breakdown

P

U

P

P


Box, Muriel (Baker)

1905

Braddock, Bessie (Bamber) Brady, James

1899

New Malden, Surrey Liverpool

3

2

Clerk at Waterloo Station. Kept a mistress, earned quite a good income, but refused to share it with his wife Bookbinder for a newspaper, earned 27s 6d/week – ‘a decent wage in those days’ Clog-iron maker, and several second jobs. ‘A proud, caring, responsible family-man … only happy when he was working’ Worked ‘long and hard’ and was never unemployed, but occupation is not given

Not stated

P

Not stated

P

No – ran the home

P

Only during WWI

U

No – domestic work only. Hardworking but ‘we never got the love from her’

P

Washing

P

1898

Rochdale, Lancs.

5

Brain, Norah

1906 (?)

8?

Brand, E. P.

1903

Rural Northants.; Kilkishen, County Clare Warboys, Hunts.

Brearley, Harry Bright, Ben

1872 (?) 1896

Sheffield

8

Llanllechid, Carnarvon

4

Farm labourer. A ‘fine’ and ‘kind’ man, fond of children, with many hobbies Steelmaker. ‘Expert steel melter and also an expert ale-supper’ Quarry man, coal-miner. Died (6)

Broadhurst, Henry Brockhurst, Alan Brooks, J. Barlow

1840

Littlemore, Oxon Walsall

12

Journeyman stonemason

Not stated

P

3

None

U

1874

Unsworth, Lancs.

2 (1)

Aberdeen; Dundee

10

Absent during early years, took custody Raised in grandparents’ home until reunited with mother of her children following their father’s death. Worked as a weaver in the mill In jute mills. Mother and eldest daughter worked alternately in the jute mills and as family housekeeper

P

1897

Not stated, described as ‘tailor foreman’ in census Grocer and bookkeeper. Drinker; absent and died young from ‘debt and dissipation’ Docker, often unemployed

Brooksbank, Mary (Soutar)

1896

6

Not stated

Mother maintained the household with her own earnings until her sons could start work

P

P


Broomhill, Leily

1901

London (Shoreditch)

4

Brown, Edward

1880

Bromley, Kent

1 (2)

Brown, Harold Brown, Percy

1906 1885 (?)

Silverdale, Staffs. Near Shrewsbury, Shrops.

1851

Blackburn

1 (1)

Miller

1894

Margate; London Dundee

6 (1) 9 (1)

Plumber. ‘Hard, selfish, dark, ominous. I hated him’ Book-keeper in shipyard; failed business; precarious income from bookkeeping and writing Absent (in prison)

Brown, Sir Edward Brown, W. J.

French polisher. Alcoholic who refused to give money to his wife

Boxmaker

Sailor, army, brewery. Absent from young age

Absent and working in service and as nursemaid (1-6)

8

Miner

Not stated

P

1

Absent (illegitimate)

Absent (in domestic service) during au- Author was raised by his grandthor’s early years; dressmaking following parents from birth. Following his her return grandfather’s death, the author’s mother came to live with him and her mother Not stated

P

No – ‘a harassed poverty-stricken life’ caring for the family Gave piano lessons after husband’s business failure

Bryson, Elizabeth

1880

Bull, John

1899 (?) 1885

London

3

London

2

Bullen, Frank Thomas

1857 (?)

1

Bullock, Jim

1903

London (Paddington) Allerton Bywater, West Yorks.

Book folder, but the work was seasonal and she was often out of work Dock labourer, wharf foreman – earned None 35s/week rising to 45s/week, so ‘there was always a little money in hand’ Absent Absent, possilby an alcoholic

12

Miner, 25s/week

Bullard, Sir Reader

Author’s mother separated from her husband and set up a new household when her children were in their teens Following his parents’ marriage breakdown, author was raised by relatives (1–6), then reunited with his mother

Not stated

P

U

P P P

Single-parent household

U P

Lived with an aunt until age 9 then lived with ‘a laundress’

P

P


Burchett, George Burgess, Joseph Burke, Mick

1872

Brighton

9 (3)

Shopkeeper

Not stated

P

1853

Failsworth, Lancs. Manchester (Ancoats)

3 (3)

Mill worker, pub owner (failed) returned to mill. Sometimes unemployed Father: worked at a tramshed ‘on the electrical side’, died from drunken binge on Christmas Eve (0). Stepfather: not stated Died (0)

Husband’s irregular earnings caused her to return to mill work ‘Worked hard all her life doing washSingle-parent household until the ing, office-cleaning – anything’, street mother’s remarriage trading fish and rabbits and dinners from home Dead or absent since birth Raised by an uncle until age 10 and then placed in an orphanage Nurse in a workhouse for 14s a week Single-parent household until the before her remarriage mother’s remarriage

P

1898

3 (1)

Burke, Thomas Burkin, Henrietta (Davison) Burnett, Al

1886

Burrows, Mrs

1840s

Burt, Thomas

1837

Burton, H. M.

1890s

Buss, Phyllis L. (Driver)

1898 (?)

Northampton

6 (2)

Bustin, Percy

1894

11

Cain, Edward

1891

Cameron, Clare

1896

London (Bermondsey) Seaham, Co. Durham London

1904

1906

London (Poplar) London (Stepney)

1

London (East End) Croyland, Lincs. Northumberland London (Fulham)

4

1

Several 2 (2) 5

8 (2)

2

U

P

Father: lighterman on Thames, died before author’s first birthday. Stepfather: foreman for electricity company Trouser presser, died (12) Midwife before father’s death; afterwards Single-parent household main‘had to go out full-time to keep us’ tained by mother’s earnings Farm worker, invalid Not clear

U

Miner, some unemployment

P

None

Housepainter, often out of work. Not stated Mother must have found ‘his fecklessness and his unreliability infuriating’ Motorman, and worked a second job None for the department – ‘we seemed to get pleasures that lots of children did not’ Compositor, local councillor Music hall singer of some repute

P P

P

U

U

Miner. Often ‘mad drunk’, his drinking made their lives ‘miserable’

Not stated

U

Blacksmith

None

P


Campion, Sidney R. Carbis, Nellie

1891

Card, Albert

1902

Cardus, Neville Carley, Gauis

1888

Carnegie, Andrew Catling, Thomas Thurgood Causer, S. T. (Sid)

1904

1888 1835 1838

1897?

Coalville, Leics. Newtonle-Willows, Lancs. Bedford Manchester (Rusholme) Arlington, Sussex Dunfermline Cambridge

5 6 (2)

9 1 ? 3 ?

Chadwick, Alice

1897

London (Bermondsey) Guildford

4

Chaplin, Charles Spencer Chapman, Anne (Griffiths) Chase, Alice Maud (Moody)

1889

London

2

1905

Manchester

9

1880

Portsmouth

9 (7)

6

General labourer

Went out washing

P

Printer, job at the locomotive works

No, kept the house

P

Worked in a factory

No, ‘busy all day long with the housework and shopping’ Father: absent (illegitimate). Grandfa- Home laundry with her mother and ther: retired policeman sisters Farm bailiff Not stated

U Raised in grandparents’ home, latterly without mother present

Linen weaver, lost livelihood with rise Ran a small shop of power looms Gardening business Not stated

Retired boxer, publican. Heavy drinker, ‘always very busy and had no time for us children’ Baker, earned £2 10s/week ‘very good wages at the time’, then became a publican. Began drinking and gambling after taking on the public house leading to domestic conflict Music hall singer. Absent (2), died from cirrhosis of the liver (12)

P P P P

Presumably helping in the pub

U

Kept a lodger; helped in the pub

U

Stage, needlework, sweated needlework Frequent stays in orphanage and at home workhouse owing to mother’s deteriorating mental health Iron and steel dresser. ‘Off work quite Not stated a lot … with asthma’, which made it ‘hard at times for my mother’ Builder, ran a timber yard, steady Kept up her tailoring and put her income earnings in the PO savings bank

P

U

U


Chew, Ada Nield Chinn, Walter

1870 1898

Hollin, Staffs. Birmingham Kilmarnock London (Battersea) Liverpool

13

Brickmaker

Not stated

P

3 (2)

Not stated

Second-hand clothes dealer

U

3 ?

Owned ironmonger’s business Postman

Not stated No – ran the home

P P

6

Sailor, dock work. Heavy drinker, ‘care- Not stated less with money’ but with ‘long periods of sobriety’ Carter Not stated

Christie, A. V. Church, Richard Citrine, Walter

1875 1893

Clark, Elspeth

1844

Clarke, Maud (Mills)

1887

[Clerk, Andie] Cliff, James Henry Treloar Clifford, John

1897 1858

Clunie, James

1889

Clynes, J. R.

1895

Ireland; Oldham

7

Cocking, George [Coe, Mary]

1862

Redruth, Cornwall Isleham, Cambs.

6

1887

1836

1889

Elgin, Moray West Bromwich (Tipton) Liverpool Falmouth, Cornwall Sawley, near Derby Largo, Fife

11 6 (1)

P

P

Plumber, kept inn for few years, shopkeeper

None

3 2

Absent Not stated, died (2)

Not stated Not stated

7

Engineer and manager at Goodfellows Millhand before marriage, unclear if she worked afterwards Fisherman, died (young) Kept a little shop in the front room Single-parent household maintained by mother’s earnings Farm worker in Ireland; millworker in Not stated Oldham; labourer for corporation. ‘A fine worker’ Foreman in tin mine Not stated

7 (2)

4

‘Just a landworker’, 10s/week, later 12s. He ‘gave it [wages] all to Mum and got a shilling back’

‘Didn’t go out to work’, but did pick roots and stones and did seasonal weeding for local farmers

U

Mother raised her children alone Following father’s death, the whole family lived with author’s grandfather

P P

P P P

P P


Coleman, Elizabeth (Holder)

1900

Abercynon, Glamorgan

5

Traffic manager at coal-mine then retired to smallholding

Not stated; refused to move with her husband to help work the smallholding and lived independently from him

Collinson, Arthur T.

1893

London

2

Coach builder, lost his sight (6); later became a newspaper seller

Collis, Alice

1894

London

?

U

Collison, William Colman, Belding Confessions of a Dancing Girl

1865

London (Stepney) Tattersett, Norfolk London (Camden)

12

Office worker, frequent unemployment causing severe poverty Policeman

Office cleaner/char when father lost sight; she gave up when his newspaper selling picked up Not stated Not stated

P

12

Farm manager

U

3

Kept a public house. Remarried but abandoned his second wife

9

Building trade – a ‘moderate drinker’

None, ‘slaved all day’ at housework and meal preparation Died (young) Peripatetic childhood spent with a father and stepmother and (subsequently) with several other relatives Reeler in mill three days a week

?

Worked in chalk pit

Not stated

U

9 (3)

General labourer, stone-breaking, draining and hedging, ‘any job that came along’, gamekeeper’s helper

Took in washing, worked in the fields, ‘anything for a few shillings’

P

?

Weaver ‘in her spare time’

P

1

Bombazine weaver, lost livelihood with rise of power looms Absent (illegitimate)

6

Worked in a tailor’s shop

1901 1887

Conway, Michael Cook, Richard Cooke, Isabella

1904?

Cooke, Noah

1831

Cookson, Catherine (McMullen) Cookson, Doris

1906

1832 1890

1907?

Stockport (Portwood) South Ferriby, Lincs. Great Strickland, Westmorland Kidderminster Tyne Docks Burnley

Worked outside the home (unspecified), took in washing, housework for family home. An alcoholic Not stated

Parents separated when husband retired to a smallholding and the author was summoned from service to be his housekeeper

P

U

Initially raised by grandparents; her ‘elder sister’ (mother) later joined the home

P

P

P

U


Coombes, Bert Lewis

1893

Coward, Sir Henry

1849

Madley, Herefordshire Folkestone, Kent London (Westminster) Hove, Sussex Village near Southend, Essex Liverpool

Coppard, A. E. Cotton, Billy

1878

Cowper, Agnes Cowper, Daisy

1874

Liverpool

9

1890

Liverpool (Toxteth)

9

Cox, Alfred

1866

Darlington

8

Cox, Idris

1899

Maesteg Valley, Glamorgan

2

Cottrell, Gertrude Mary Cowan, Gibson

1899

1887 1903

1

Grocer, smallholder. Had a limp that slowed him down

Worked on the family farm

Family rented their own farm and considered themselves better off than farm labourers

P

3

Tailor. Heavy drinker, died (9)

P

10

Turncock for fire department and for the water board

Twelve-hour days at laundry following father’s death for 2s 3d/day later 2s 6d/day Not stated An illegitimate daughter of the father was raised in the household

8 (1)

Coachman to aristocracy, they had ‘little money’ but laid it out carefully Driver/chauffeur

Not whilst father was working; during a period of illness she ‘had to go out cooking’ Not stated

Father: cutler turned singer and banjo player, kept a hotel, drinking ruined his health, died (8). Stepfather ‘did not take to persistent regular work, but liked a job or post . . . that he could do when and how he liked’ Seaman. Affectionate, but also a strict disciplinarian Sailor. Fond of whisky and consequently an unreliable breadwinner. Died (5). ‘Harsh … to both his crews and his children’ Ironworker, foreman in local bridge yard; the family would have resented being called poor Miner, coal hewer, timberman, roadman at mine. Unable to work full-time owing to ill health. The family’s fortunes improved considerably when he took the pledge and joined the chapel

Singer, landlady of hotel before her remarriage, dressmaking thereafter

?

4

P

P P

Single-parent household until the mother’s remarriage

P

No – fully employed with seven children

P

Not stated

U

None – an excellent housewife

When father was out of work she worked at a farm house, later at a tinplate works

Several of the eight children born passed away in childhood

P

P


Cox, Ruth

1890

Hyde, Cheshire Cambridge (Shelford)

7 (2)

Crane, Robert

1831

Crawford, James

1896

Maybole, Ayrshire; Glasgow

6

Crawfurd, Helen (Jack)

1877

Glasgow (Gorbals)

6 (1)

Crittall, Francis Henry

1860

Braintree, Essex

11

Cullwick, Hannah

1833

Shifnal, Shrops.

3

Cummins, Jack Cutts, Mabel

1891

London

4

1894

5

Darby, Aubrey S.

1905

Healing, near Grimsby, Lincs. Luton

5?

‘Labourer in Saw mills’ (census). Absent – ‘He hopped it before I was old enough to recognise him’

Hat trade, took him with her while too young for school

Dark, Mrs M. M.

1897

Bristol

5

Farm worker, died (15)

Working on the ‘food side’ at the Castle; she ‘used to go out to the Big Houses to Cook if they had company’; sold eggs

6

Engineer and manager at Goodfellows Worked ‘for the family’

Respectable, chapel-going family

U

Out of work (probably farm work) owing to failure of employer, so ‘our position was very lowly’ Hand finisher for shoes, earned 28s/ week in a good week but often less when work was slack. Set up a bootrepair business Master baker; ‘charge-hand in large factories’. A good worker, also a churchgoer and politically active Ironmonger. ‘My father was not a poor man’ but the large family necessitated the ‘plainest of living’ Saddler, died (14)

Two siblings boarded with relatives owing to family hardship

P

Not stated

Not stated

None

P

‘We were never rich, but we never lacked, and my father was the provider’

None

Died (14)

U

P

Although young at the time of her parents’ death, and devastated by their loss, Hannah was already living away from home as a domestic servant. Her orphaned younger siblings were boarded with aunts

Hansom cab driver, guillotine cutter in Not stated printing trade Fish auctioneer Not stated

P

P U

Although the author indicated his father was absent, he appears to have been present when the author was five at the time of the 1911 census

P

U


[David]

1880s

Glasgow

7

Ran warehouse and store

Died (7)

Davies, David Richard

1889

4

P

1906

2

Hartlepool

7

Caretaker tenant. She lived ‘a life of unending toil’ Cleaning, washing and decorating Single-parent household until the people’s houses – she ‘had to keep us’ mother’s remarriage owing to stepfather’s meanness. ‘Mother was as hard as nails’

P

1906

Davies, William Henry

1871

Newport

3

Miner until ill health retired him (back accident left him unable to work for ten years); weigher and choirmaster at £2/week Underground measurer in colliery, clerk, cashier Father: plater, bookie’s runner, dead before author’s birth. Stepfather: foreman in shipyard – he earned ‘good money’ but never gave wife ‘more than £1 a week’ Father: iron-moulder, died (3). Grandfather: owned a public house

Kept three lodgers and a shop of sweets and fruit whilst husband didn’t work

Davies, G. Henton Davies, Mrs G.

Pontycymmer, Glamorgan Aberdare

Davis, Charles

1905

London (Putney)

5

Davis, Isabella (Piper) Davis, Joe

1894

London (Peckham) Whitwell, Derbys. London (Peckham)

3 (2)

1901

Davis, Mrs A. C.

1898

Dayus, Kathleen

1903

Dellow, James

1848

Birmingham (Hockley) Barking, Essex; near Newcastle

5 (1) 7

6 (7)

11

Basketmaker

P

U

Absent; remarried shortly after first hus- Raised with his two siblings by band’s death leaving her three children maternal grandparents following with her parents his father’s death and mother’s subsequent departure None before WWI

U

My parents were ‘good and kind’

U

Not stated, described as ‘carpet planner’ in census. The family were better off during the war as this brought a steady income ‘paid to … wife’ Blacksmith Kept a sweetshop Miner until author was 2, then a publican Not stated, described as ‘bricklayer’ in census. He did not drink or smoke and his pleasures were few ‘Job at the casting works’, sometimes unemployed

An elder sister ran the household after mother’s death

P

Worked in the public house

P

At one point kept a lodger

U

Not stated. She was ‘very cruel and spiteful towards us’

P

Not stated

P


Dollar, Robert

1844

Falkirk

2

Dorrell, Harry Downer, Mrs R. (Hackett) Doyle, Charles Drawbell, James Wedgwood

1903

London

6 (2)

Horsham, Sussex 1904? Coatbridge, Lanarkshire 1899 Falkirk

Dunn, James

1835

Eacott, Bill

1900

Easter, Mr E.

1895

1884

Edwards, Fred 1870s Edwards, George Edwards, Huw T.

1850 1893

2?

Manager of timber yard. Took to drinking to ‘drown his sorrow’ after wife’s death Tobacco factory. Worked hard and tended an allotment Not stated (‘coachman’ in census)

11

‘Skilled shoemaker’

6 (1)

Charley Forest, Leics. London (Brixton)

2

Eynesbury, Hunts. Bosworth, Leics. Marsham, Norfolk Pen-yFfridd, Llandudno

8 (1)

5

3 7 7

Died (12)

Single-parent household

P

Not stated, she created a ‘loving home’

U

Not stated

U

None, she ran a ‘well-ordered and disciplined home’ Variously teacher, librarian, wareAfter separation from husband, worked Mother established a separate houseman, clerk. A drinker with as an overnight nurse household with the help of her an ‘uncertain temper’ and erratic older children following the provider, cast out of the family by the breakdown of her marriage author’s older siblings Miner. He became an ‘inveterate ‘Plied her needle’ Mother managed to maintain her drinker’ and died (young) own household following her husband’s death Absent (0), he ‘had left’ while the Mother ‘went out to work’ (unspeciSingle-parent household author was an infant fied) and ‘me eldest sister, Violet, she mothered us’ Farm hand, 9s/week in winter, 11s in Not stated summer Stationmaster Not stated An ‘intensely happy childhood’ thanks to ‘parental love and care’ Soldier, agricultural labourer (7–8s/ Loom weaver week), brickmaking (13s/week) Granite quarryman Died (8) Father remarried shortly after mother’s death and the family was ‘completely scattered’. Only the youngest (the author) remained at home with father and stepmother

U P

P

U

U P P P


Edwards, Kate

1880

Lotting Fen, Cambs.

3 (1)

Edwards, Mildred (Curtis) Edwards, R. H. (Bert) Edwards, Wil Jon

1889

Carlisle

7 (3)

1896

Liverpool

12 (1)

1888

4

4 (2)

Edwards, William Henry

1870

Unspecified Welsh mining village Romsey Heights, Fens, Hunts.

Edwin, John

1893

London

2

Eldred, John

1885

London

4

Elliot, Nora

1903

Annesley, Notts.

5 (4)

Elliot, Walter (WJE) Elliott, William George Ellis, Albert

1890

Unnamed Kent village Plymouth

Ellisdon, Leonard

1893 1898 1885

Bolton; Blackburn London

Higler, but irregular worker. Heavy drinker; violent and abusive to wife and children – we were ‘terribly afraid’ of him Engine driver on railways Boilermaker in docks, frequently out of work Miner, but died before author’s birth

Worked ‘at the big house’, made butter, sold goods at market

P

None

P

Sublet rooms

U

Made and sold non-alcoholic beer, buns, Household kept together by taffy and faggots earnings of older brothers and mother’s small food business In the brickyards

P

P

?

Fen labourer (11s/week in winter, 18s/week in summer), sometimes a fortnight’s work at brickworks (12s/ week). We thought ourselves ‘well away’ because farm labourers earned only 8s/week Horseman in various capacities. Alco- When matters ‘got bad’ she was a collar holic, ‘frequently losing his means of machinist at home livelihood’ and ‘oftentimes unfaithful’ Stonemason. Heavy drinker None, ‘proud of her skill and efficiency in her own line [housework]’ Insurance agent, miner. Died (10) Not stated. Suffered a mental breakdown Spent three years in the work(13?) house; adopted (13) following mother’s breakdown Grocer and draper Not stated

U

5

Marine recruiter, dock worker

Not stated

U

6

Not stated

Not stated

U

8

Compositor in Fleet Street

Ran a tobacco shop

U

P

P U


Emsley, J. W.

1850s

Haworth

3

Evans, Leslie

1898

Rotherham

10

Ezard, 1900? Edward Fagan, Hymie 1903

London (Battersea) London (Stepney)

2

Fagg, Len

1896

Ramsgate, Kent

3

Fairhurst, Zoe (Cowley)

1887

W. Yorks.; Brighton

2

Father: absent (illegitimate). Stepfather: hotel waiter. He loved a gamble and a drink but ‘my material needs were cared for’

Farndon, Reg Farningham, Marianne

1900s 1834

London Farningham, Kent

6 5

Not stated Postmaster

Ferris, Minnie

1906

9

Fielden, Samuel Fields, Gracie (Stansfield) Finch, Harold

1847

London (Hackney) Todmordon, Lancs. Rochdale Barry, Glamorgan

1898 1898

3

Various forms of mill work, including Died (13) as overlooker, though often falling out with employers and out of work Miner. Family consider themselves None better off than most Bank employee, died (6) Worked after husband’s death, what she did is not stated Tailor, died (6) After father’s death works as daily help, selling cakes and rolls, selling haberdashery Navvy, but usually absent and not Took in lodgers, worked in hotel sending money home. A heavy drinker kitchen, cleaning

Single-parent household until father’s remarriage. Author sometimes lodged with grandparents

P

U Single-parent household

P

Single-parent household

P

U

Builder, ‘in and out of work’

Single-parent household. His family ‘did not live a normal happy life together’ None. ‘I cannot remember much affec- Illegitimate, raised with grandpartion … [she] instilled into me that I was ents until the age of 3, then reunited neither clever nor in any way attractive, with mother and ‘strange man so I realised I had a long way to go to called Father’. Registration data be loved’ suggests he was not her biological father Not stated Died (12) Following mother’s death, father maintained the household and recalled author from school to ‘do the “housekeeping’’’ Not stated

4

Mill foreman

Died (10)

P

4

Engineer

Took in washing

?

Worked for railway company

Not stated

Single-parent household until father remarried (12)

U

U P

P

P His parents provided ‘a good home’

P


Fish, Margaret (Wheeler) Fletcher, Cheetham William Fletcher, Harry

1901

London

12 (4)

1894

Bradwell, Derbys.

3 (2)

1899

Thorne, South Yorks.

3

Flint, Elizabeth

1905?

London (East End)

5

Foakes, Grace

1901

London (Wapping)

5 (9?)

Foley, Alice

1891

Bolton

6

Foster, Ethel

1906

6

Fowler, Hilda Rose (Hancock)

1890

Earl Shilton, Leics. Cheltenham

Fowlstone, W. R. Fox, John D.

1870 1849

Fish curer, earned ‘a good wage in those days’. ‘We were considered very well off ’ Joiner, wheelwright, had his own business; a ‘harsh man’ and difficult to please Keelman, never owned his own boat; earned £1/week – ‘a good wage compared to farm labourers’

‘Jobber’, i.e. bought vegetables and sold them to barrow boys

Ran multiple businesses: selling bloaters, small shop, money-lending, coal-selling, chip-shop Not stated

U

Her husband’s ‘purchase man’ until author was 12 and took over, ‘strenuous, grinding toil, which gave her a strangulated hernia’; she gave up when a third child was born None. An indifferent housekeeper, not fond of dusting and cleaning, but full of ‘love and true kindliness’ None, a great housekeeper but a chronic Single-parent household folinvalid by the author’s teens lowing mother’s death with the author taking over as the family housekeeper

P

P

Docker, often did night work. ‘Earning quite good money’, but kept it locked in a drawer rather than turn it over for housekeeping. ‘Unsociable’ and ‘grumpy’ Intermittently employed at mill. ‘We were brought up mainly on her Heavy drinker, bad-tempered and washtub earnings’ erratic. When he died in the home, the family felt ‘shock’ and ‘relief ’ Not stated Not stated

5

Metalworker, gasfitter; died (8). ‘A good father … although we saw so little of him’

Night nursing after husband died

Sheffield

5?

File manufacturer (employer)

Assisted husband’s business

Harden, W. Yorks.

?

Absent or dead

Not stated

P

P

P

P Autobiography ends with father’s death. Census indicates mother remained with her children by quickly remarrying

U

U Raised with grandparents until 12, then returned to mother

P


Frame, W.

1848

Fraser, John

1860

Fraser, Lionel

1895

London

4

Freer, Walter

1846

Glasgow

18

Freeston, Eliza (Noble) Frisby, Minnie (Jones)

1871

Maidwell, Northants. Worms Ash, Worcs. Sherborne, Dorset Copt Hill, Co. Durham Paisley

Large

Grazier, listed as ‘shepherd’ in census Rented out her mangle

U

10 (1)

Nailmaker, smallholder – ‘always jovial’

U

6

Worked on the Sherborne Estate

4

Railway worker

7

Not stated. Died (7) after mastering his ‘booze craving completely’

Wembley, Middx. Tiverton, Devon

7

Not stated. ‘A brute and hypocrite’

5

Hall porter on estate; died (5)

Birmingham

8

Glassblower. Inveterate gambler, ‘violent’ and ‘sadistic’ towards the children

Fudge, Dorothy (Park) Gair, Arthur

1877

1901 1894

Gallacher, William

1881

Gape, William Garnett, Jim

1900

Garratt, Vere W.

1894

1892

Glasgow (Partick) Ayton, Berwicks.

?

Printworks

Not stated

2

Gardener, moved and rose to coachman gardener; moved several times as gardener, then became carter for potato firm Butler for £65 a year – ‘good by the standards of the day but still a struggle for mother’ Handloom weaver

None

P

None – she ‘devoted herself to our interests’

P

Died (young)

Family was ‘poor but respectable’

Unhappy relationship with stepmother, ran away from home at a young age

Worked on the smallholding, sold produce at market and was in great demand as a midwife Occasionally helped at the castle when they were busy Died (11) Author’s grandparents lived next door; his grandmother ran the home after mother’s death Went out washing after husband’s death; Single-parent household mainshe had also worked prior to this owing tained by mother’s washing until to his ‘over-addiction to alcohol’ sons were old enough to work Not stated Author ran away from unhappy home (14) Weaver, lodge keeper Single-parent household maintained by widow’s pension and older sons’ earnings None. Latterly unable to do the work of Author eventually ran away from the house through ill heath and died (13) an increasingly unhappy home following mother’s death

P

P

P P

P

P U

P


Garrett, Kay

1899

London (Kensington)

‘Some’

Gawthorpe, Mary

1881

Leeds

4 (1)

Gibbons, John

1903

Renton, near Glasgow

7

Gibbs, Florence (Mitchell) Gibbs, Rose

1904

Manchester

1

1892

3

Gilchrist, Alfred Gill, Arthur

1880s

London (East End) Glasgow

10

1887

Leeds

4 (4)

Gill, Ellen (Calvert)

1888

9 (1)

Goffin, Arthur Frederick

1879

Leeds (Woodhouse) Beccles, Suffolk

Gold, Olive Doris (Cottingham) Gomm, Amy Frances

1897

Ringstead, Northants.

5 (2)

1899

Charlbury, Oxon

8

3

Invalided out of army; heavy drinker

Not stated. Also a heavy drinker who ruled the home with ‘solid, terrifying discipline … when she was drunk I was terrified’ Leatherworker. Gambled and fathered None. Never wanted to undertake paid an illegitimate child work after marriage following hard years at the mill – she thought ‘home was heaven’ Not stated. Died (14) Died (6) Father maintains the family until joining up for WW1, at which point author (11) is sent to Ireland to live with grandparents Storekeeper for railway company, Died (5) Lived with father and grandparchief clerk ents following mother’s death

U

P

P

U

Soldier, wounded in Boer War, out of Works as maid for old employer when work for nearly eight years husband is too ill to work Stonemason Not stated

P

Boot and shoe repairer, had his own None - she was ‘a good mother and business and employed two men. Gen- thought a lot about her children’ erous and kind, a ‘grand chap’ Leatherworker, work was sometimes Not stated slack. Teetotaller

U

Printer’s reader, earning ‘good money’ for those days. A staunch abstainer, but very short tempered and ‘did not enter much into our lives’ Farm work, sometimes did a night shift at the furnaces Electrician, engineer, removal man

P

U

Took in lodgers. Worked hard but home was a ‘miserable place … I was not wanted’ Not stated

Worked two days a week ‘at the big house’; ran a large home laundry

U

One sibling raised at grandparents

U

U


Gompers, Samuel

1850

Goodwin, Albert

1890

Goring, Jack

1861

London (Kensal Green)

6 (1)

Gosling, Harry

1861

London (Lambeth)

2

Goss, Frank

1896

5

Gould, F. J.

1855

London, lots of moves, short stint in Enfield Brighton; London

3

Jeweller with a ‘passion for the operatic stage’

Gould, Ronald

1904

3

Goulden, Ethel Graham, Marjorie

1906

Midsomer Norton, Somerset Penketh, Cheshire Edinburgh

Bootmaker. Earned £1/week, ‘we were better off than most of our neighbours’ Toolmaker

Gray, John

1904

1901

London (Spitalfields) Caverswell, near Stoke

London (Finchley)

5

Cigar maker

Not stated

2

Potteries work, also worked several additional jobs. A good provider but also ‘boastful’ and ‘obnoxious’ Porter – earnings unknown: ‘I don’t think he ever handed over more than a pound.’ Additional income from singing was ‘not really to the advantage of the family’ Waterman. A ‘model father and husband and did everything in his power for us all’ Piano maker, skilled work but irregular employment

Not stated

U

Ran a dame school. Her ‘allowance from my father [looked] ridiculously small’. A ‘lovely, kind mother’

U

6 1

3

Accountant. He ‘went all wrong with drink’, ended up ‘incarcerated somewhere in Kilburn’ Ran a public house

Family emigrated to US (12)

P

Teacher. Died (7)

Single-parent household following mother’s death

P

Dressmaking, took in washing

Household included one cousin

U

Dressmaking because husband’s wage was ‘all too dubious’; shopkeeping with husband (failed) Not stated

P

None

U

Dressmaking ‘in a big way’

P

Mother: taken to an asylum after his birth. Stepmother: worked in the pub, also an alcoholic

P

Father initially maintained the family by employing a housekeeper. Soon entered a relationship with his barmaid, who became as a mother to the children

P


Greenwood, Joseph

1833?

Greenwood, Walter Gregory, George

1903

Gresswell, Fred Griffin, John Barrett Griffiths, James

Griffiths, Mrs James (Rutley) Grimshaw, Miss M.

Wadsworth, near Hebden Bridge Salford

1888

Hamlet outside Radstock, Bath 1890s Digby, Lincs. 1900 Barnoldswick, Lancs. 1890 Bettws, Ammanford, Carmarthenshire 1895 Overton, Hants.

3

Weaver, out of work through rise of power looms

2

Hairdresser, died from alcoholism (9) Waitress in a café

Single-parent household

P

Miner

Both parents did all they could ‘to promote the comfort and wellbeing of home and family life’

U

5 (1)

7

Not stated

P

Agricultural labourer then smallhold- Helped with the farm, postmistress er, spent very little money on himself Weaver, 33s/week Weaver, earning the same as her husband

P

8 (2)

Blacksmith

None

P

2 (2)

Paper mill

None

P

Worked as a spinner in the day and ‘chucker out’ in evenings at Pavilion Pictures Tailor – ‘his temper was not of the best’

Died (5)

Helped husband with tailoring

P

Farmer, hotel-keeper, day labourer, engineer Farm work

Worked on farm; helped run the hotel

P

3

1907

Burnley

7

[Grossek, Mark]

1888

?

Grundy, Anthony George Gwyer, Joseph

1879

London (Southwark; New Cross) Stoke-onTrent Redlench, Wilts.

1835

Handloom weaver

11 8

Died (8)

P

Not explained who ran the home following death of the mother: ‘we were a wild bunch of kids’

Raised by grandparents following death of mother

U

P


Haddow, William Martin Halward, Leslie Hamm, Beatrice

Hammond, Albert Hammond, Allen Hampton, Nora

1865

Large

Grain merchant; kept grocery store

Worked in the family grocery store

5

Butcher with his own shop, died (2)

3

Miner

Managed the butcher’s shop after his death None – ‘mother did everything’ in the home

1902

Glasgow (East End) Birmingham Shankhouse, Northumberland Guildford

5

Absent (5)

Absent (5)

1894

Liverpool

3

Seaman. He ‘used to drink a lot’

Worked at laundry, took in washing

U

1895

Dudley (Netherton)

3 (1)

Not stated

U

5 (2)

Shoe-repairer, set up his own shoe business – ‘we never thought of ourselves . . . as poor’. Liked to play the piano for the children in the evening Sailor in navy

None

U

7 (2)

Bricklayer, often unemployed

Washing

P

2 (1)

Father: publican, absent (10), died (16). Stepfather: bricklayer

Not stated

4

A few casual jobs’, ‘loafer’. Deserted the family (young)

Matchbox making. Alcoholic

7

Landworker, 18s/week

None

1905 1983

Hannan, Dora 1905? Portsmouth R. (King) Hannington, 1896 London Wal Hansford, 1902 BrockCharles Lewis enhurst; Southampton, Hants. Harding, 1886 London Arthur

Hardy, George

1884

Woodmansey, Yorks.

P Single-parent household

P

‘Wonderful parents’

P

Placed in an orphanage with siblings for reasons unknown (5)

P

Mother left her husband (10) and cohabited with another man until her husband’s death (16), at which point they married Sister tried to run the home in face of paternal absence and maternal drinking. Author placed in a Dr Barnardo’s home (10–12) owing to neglect

U

U, P

P


Harris, H. J.

1903

Birmingham

5

Not stated. Absent (3)

Harris, Harry

1880

7

Waterman, £2.10/week. Did not drink or smoke

Harrison, E. (Twist)

1902

London (Southwark) Preston

Harrison, Rosina

1899

Aldfield, Yorks.

4

Harrison, Ted

1902

4

Harvey, Bessie

1874

Harwood, Cecil George Hawke, James (Major)

1894

London (Hoxton) Walshamle-Willows, Suffolk Welwyn, Herts. London

Hawker, Henry Edward Hawker, James Heard, P. A.

1870

Heaton, Martha

1889

1836 1883

1896

4 (1)

7 (1)

7 2

Schoolmaster, tobacconist. A ‘comfortable [childhood] compared with [others] in the neighbourhood’ Stonemason (£1/week); gravedigging and caretaker for church (30s/year); scything Roadsweeper. Heavy drinker Horsekeeper

Absent. Author was revealed as a ‘natu- Placed in the workhouse (3) with ral child’ (illegitimate) at age 3 leading four siblings, several of whom to the break-up of the home (though not the author) were later retrieved by the mother Not stated

U

Ran a tobacco shop

U

Ran a domestic laundry – she ‘didn’t just “take in washing”; it was much more like a full-time job’ Sweated homeworker, made artificial flowers Not stated

P

Gardener, 18s a week, 2s 6d taken out Not stated for rent Absent from young age – author has Street-seller, abandoned both her chilno recollection of him dren (6?)

P

P P

U Raised by single-mother; grandmother; in Leavesden orphanage (8–12); and grandmother again

P

South Brent, Somerset Daventry

4

Coachman to manor house

Not stated

P

7

Tailor

Assisted husband’s tailoring work

P

London (Bermondsey) Oxenhope, W. Yorks.

10

Tanner

Ran a small business when ‘tired of rearing and minding children’

P

8

Tenant farmer

Worked on the farm

P


Heaton, Richard Hemmens, Harry Lathey Heslop, Harold

1901

Salford

6

1884

Sidcot, Somerset New Hunwick, Co. Durham Frimley, Surrey Leighton, Hunts. Hardwick, Bucks.

6

1898

Hills, Miss Daisy Hills, Mrs

1899

Hillyer Richard [Charles James Stranks] Hilton, Jack Hilton-Foord, Kathleen (Chatwin) Hoare, Nellie (Barter)

1901

1893

1

Coal carter, frequent unemployment and ill health Journeyman baker, never earned more than £2/week Miner, preacher. He ‘had a very hasty temper and was very violent towards the children’ Farm work

Died (10)

?

Horsekeeper

Not stated

U

4

Cowman, 15s/week. ‘He gave her his wages, the full fifteen shillings a week he earned . . . and she gave him back a shilling for himself ’ Not stated Taxidermist. A very elderly father – ‘age crippled his business’

None. Despite being ‘The pivot on which the family turns . . . it wouldn’t be right to say I loved her’

P

6

1900 1903

Rochdale Dover, Kent

6 5

1898

Bournemouth

8 (1)

Hocking, W. J. Hodge, Herbert

1864

4

Hodge, John

1855

Hodges, Adeline

1899

Treworth, Cornwall London (Paddington) Muirkirk, Ayrshire; Glasgow Dawdon, Co. Durham

1901

2

4

9

Not stated

P

Helped run the bakery, the ‘business manager’ None, she ‘provided the family comfort’. Died (15)

P

Not stated Absent

U

Following mother’s death, father’s sister moved into the home

Raised by grandmother, separate from parents and siblings. Five much older half-siblings

P

P U

Outdoor worker. ‘Not fair with my mother’ with respect to sharing his wages Carpenter. ‘Very hard working and industrious’ Upholsterer. Heavy drinker, went to prison for assault (11) subsequently lived apart from family Puddler; retired and ran a grocer’s shop

Not stated

P

Not stated

P

Took in lodgers; when husband was in prison she did charring but ‘was secretive about it’ Worked in grocer’s shop

Single-parent household after father’s imprisonment

Miner. He didn’t drink or gamble; he liked to tell stories to the children

None

One cousin raised in the household

P

P

U


Hodges, Frank Hodgkinson, George

1887

Holborow, Lizzie

1888

1893

Woolaston, Gloucs. Beeston, Notts.

6

Agricultural work, miner

Not stated

P

4

Industrial chimneysweep; when employer failed he was reduced to odd-job man Coal-miner, died (5)

Not stated. Died (14)

P

Ran a smallholding with one cow and several chickens

U

Not stated Father: died (3). Stepfather: ‘turned out to be a very drunken man’. No employments stated Farmer

Not stated When widowed, worked with mangle

Holland, John Holloway, Henry

Waunarlwydd, Swansea 1905? Stalybridge 1840 Birmingham

7

Holt, J. A.

1870

Turton, Lancs.

1

Holt, William

1897

Todmorden, Yorks.

4

Coal merchant, had a small business (drinks maker) which failed

Home, Michael [pseud. of Christopher Bush] Honeyford, Tom

1885

Great Hockham, Norfolk

5

1891

Salford

6 (4)

Horne, Eric

1830s

Southampton

4 (1)

Horner, Arthur

1894

Merthyr Tydfil

6 (11)

Farm work. A teetotaler and nonsmoker but also strict disciplinarian – ‘today it might be considered inhumane’ Spinner, set up a shop which failed, Not stated factory work. Stints of unemployment, during one of which ‘we were very poor indeed for quite a long time’ Printer ‘for same employers for Swept and cleaned schools ‘for a few twenty-five years’ shillings’ and worked at the vicar’s one day a week Railwayman, kept books for mother’s Kept a shop which she looked after ‘as shop. ‘Always had a very high sense of well as the family’ responsibility and of devotion to his family’

? 3

Worked on the farm. She was always busy and had no ‘time or inclination to coddle’ None (author’s father had vowed he would never allow his wife go out to work) Not stated

Living with grandparents Homeless from a young age following breakdown of relationship with stepfather

U P

P

P

Boarded with relatives until age 6 then returned to the family home

P

U

P

P


Horner, C. V.

1897

Horrocks, Bill 1900?

Swinthwaite, Yorks. Bolton

9 (2)

?

Howard, Rev. J. H. Howell, Annie

1875?

Wales

3

1903

3 (1)

Howitt, Mary

1888

Howlett, John

1883

London (Bermondsey) New Herrington, Co. Durham Grantham; Thetford

Hughes, Anita Elizabeth Hughes, Edward

1892 1856

Hughes, Henry Humphreys, Charles

1833

Humphries, Edward S.

1889

1851

Accrington, Lancs. Berthengam, Flintshire Tredegar Chorleywood, Herts.; London Exeter; Plymouth

12 (1)

7

6 (1) 7

5 (1)

Gamekeeper – a ‘very amicable man’

Died (3)

Father: foundry worker, died (4). Stepfather: not stated Not stated. Died (2)

Not stated

Engineer ‘who had regular work, so compared to lots of others . . . we weren’t all that poor’ Foreman carpenter in mine

Died (3)

Father kept the home together by remarrying

P Raised by relatives and then placed in an orphanage

P

Office cleaning

U

Kept fifty hens and two pigs

U

Made threshing machines, wheelNone – she ‘lived through her husband wright and carpenter, 28s/week rising and children’ to 30s. ‘Very gentle’ Gardener – ‘First class man at his job’ Took in washing during occasional hard times Agricultural labourer, earned about Not stated 8s/week and his food Miner

U

Mother: died (5); stepmother: none

5

Farm labourer, driving team of horses, ‘Made platt’; during husband’s 13-week cowkeeper, gasworks. When he started illness ‘went charring’; let out a room at gasworks ‘mother had £1 a week’

1

Foster father: ran greengrocer’s. Father (absent until 8): retired and invalided sailor

Foster mother: ran a succesful domestic servants’ register office. Mother: occasional lodgers

P

U U

Father kept his home together by remarrying

U P

Raised by foster parents until retrieved (9) by parents: ‘in retrospect I can now see that my childhood days ended . . . when I elected [to return to parents]’

U


Humphris, Ted Hunt, Doris

1901

Hunt, T. J.

1854

Hurcomb, William Edward Hutchinson, Ada [mother of Elsie Osman]

1863

1900

Aynhoe, Northants. Manchester

8

Sawyer, worked on the estate

Not stated Dressmaking during husband’s illness and after his death, helping second husband’s wine sales

?

Father: manager in textile mills, died (10). Stepfather: salesman for tonic wine company; he became a heavy drinker and deserted the family Foreman at paper mill, 40s/week

Died (young)

P

4

Policeman

Not stated

P

Clerk in a solicitors office

Mother: died in childbirth. Stepmother: Widowed father kept his daughter pastry cook at Queens Hotel, also baked and ‘left [her] with anyone he could cakes at home for sale persuade to take her’ whilst he went to work. Set up a new home (4) with a ‘widow’ with two children None. Died (16)

P

4 (1)

1889

Dartford, Kent Lymouth, Devon; London Salford

8 (7)

Iles, Percy

1878

Bristol

7

Inman, Philip

1892

4

Ireson, Alfred

1856

Irving, Thomas

1842

Jackson, Thomas Alfred Jaeger, Annie (Day)

1879

Knaresborough Whittlesea, Cambs.; Oundle, Northants. Newbiggin, Cumberland London (Clerkenwell) Manchester

1875

‘Prominent position’ in Ashton Vale rolling mills Died (2)

Did neighbours’ laundry, cleaned a school on Saturdays Net-making

P Single-parent household before the mother’s remarriage and after her second husband’s desertion

Single-parent household maintained through mother’s work

U

P P

4? (2)

Stonemason, earned 5s a day

Large

Farm labourer; small bacon curing business

Family bacon-curing business

U

Compositor

No, she ‘literally loved housework for its own sake’

P

Ran the hat-making business, initially with Hat-making business, job in a hat factory. Heavy drinker but ‘signed the husband, latterly alone. ‘Overwork and pledge . . . and became a changed man’ strain made her became harder and harder’

P

4

5 (1)

P


James, T. H.

1898

Rotherham

10

Ironworks, miner (absent during author’s early years)

Jarrett, Rebecca

1846

London

8

Jasper, A. S. [Albert Stanley] Jefferis, Ada M. (Knight)

1905

London

6

1884

3 (2)

Jermy, Louise (Withers)

1877

Bill Hill, near Wokingham London

Not stated. Alcoholic: abandoned wife and eight children including a baby in arms Delivery man. His ‘main object in life was to be continually drunk’. Worked irregularly and refused to share earnings Farm worker

Jex, Frederick Jobson, Allan

1886 1899

Norwich London (Penge)

12 2 (2)

Joel, Clayton Edward John, Tabitha (Jenkins)

1906

London (Southwark) 1893 Llanelli, Carmarthenshire Johnston, 1835? Hamilton, Ellen Lanarkshire Johnstone, 1899 Beds., variMargery ous villages Jones, Abel L. 1878 Rhymney, Caerphilly; Rhondda, Glamorgan

2

5 6

1 Several 4

Absent during author’s early years

Spent early years in the workhouse, later reunited with parents and siblings Sex work Single-parent (and barely functioning) household following father’s desertion Dressmaking when times were particu- Considerable marital discord and larly hard. ‘We knew we were safe [from violence father] when she was around’ Not stated

Variety of small businesses; only gave Mother: died (1). Stepmother: homehis wife a very small allowance based laundry business

Grocer’s shop Shoemaker. Illness left him with a chronic cough which ‘made our poverty so pressing’ Father: electrical engineer, died (8). Stepfather: labourer in warehouse Rollerman at tinworks but not always in work – ‘Your father doesn’t believe in work if he’s got money’ Father: stonemason, absent. Stepfather: mill work Farm worker. Frequently got the sack through drinking and quarrelling Tailor who owned a small business

Difficult relationship with father and stepmother, spent parts of childhood living with grandparents and other relatives

U

U

P

U

P

Not stated Charring during husband’s pneumonia

U P

Seamstress, charring in city offices morning and night Not stated

U

Dressmaking to support herself and daughter Not stated Not stated

P

Mother (and daughter) lodged with her parents until she remarried

P U P


Jones, Jack

1873

Jones, Jack William (Bill) Jones, John Joseph (Jack) Jones, May

1900

Jones, Mrs Nora Jones, Sir Henry

Jones, Thomas Jordan, Charlotte (Marr) Jordan, Thomas Jowett, Frederick William Keating, Joseph Keen, Molly Kelly, Henry Warren

1892

Liverpool from 11; born in Ireland London (Brick Lane) Merthyr Tydfil Cheshire, unidentified village Marston, Cheshire Llangernyw, Denbighshire Rhymney, Caerphilly Newcastle upon Tyne Durham

1864

Bradford

1884 1893

1900 1852

1870 1894

1871

Mountain Ash, Glamorgan 1903 London (Hounslow) 1880s? London

1

Died (young)

Worked in both Ireland and Liverpool (no occupation given)

Single-parent household. A ‘particularly rough’ childhood with ‘many trials’

P

5

Dairyman. Heavy drinker, unfaithful, deserted leaving debts (12?) Miner. ‘We didn’t know our dad very well … he seldom spoke to us’ Carpenter, second-job teaching carpentry, self-taught electrician. A ‘very patient man’ Salt-rock miner

After the desertion, worked the night shift at railway goods depot Rented out her furniture in return for tickets to the theatre Not stated

Single-parent houeshold

U

9 (6) 4

5

P U

Not stated

U

Rural shoemaker, never made £1/ week

Not stated

P

9

Manager in grocery shop

P

2

In a foundry. One eye was injured by an accident at work, died (16) Coal-miner; army; deputy overman at mines Cotton-warp dresser

None. Babies ‘arrived with disturbing frequency’ Not stated

U

None

P

Not stated

P

Not stated

P

4 (1)

6 5 (3) 7

Navvy, docker, often working away from home

5

Master sign writer

None known

None, a charwoman came once a week to help No known family, author didn’t know Absent his own name

U No family, earliest memories are of being on the streets in London

P


Kemp, John

1850

Flattenden, Sussex

8 (1)

Not stated. Died (8). Stepfather: a publican who ‘became a hardened drunkard’

Housekeeper at inn after death of husband

Kenney, 1879 Springhead, Annie Lancs. Kenney, Row- 1883 Shelland (younger derslow, brother of Lancs. Annie Kenney) Kerr, James 1899? Paisley Lennox Kerrigan, 1903 Falkirk; Rose (Klasko) Glasgow

11 (1)

Cotton operative

None

P

11 (1)

In cotton factory; retired from ill health, got a pony and set up a newsround. Frequent ‘drinking sessions’ whilst working at the mill

None

P

Several

Ship engineer

Weaver

Tailor. ‘Easy going’ and sometimes struggled to find work

None. Often ill owing to pregnancy and miscarriage; ‘I loved my mam and had a happy home life’ Died (9) The household was run by an older sister following mother’s death Factory job, sweated labour Single-parent household. Author’s sister became ‘the mainstay of the home while my mother was working’ After husband’s death ‘she had to go Lived with an uncle following back to her needle’ father’s death No – ‘her husband and her children were Raised with one adopted sibling her portion. In them and through them she lived’ Single-parent household Following husband’s death, two days’ work a week at the big house, sold teas, took in needlework

4 (2)

Kibblewhite, F. H.

1898

London (Catford)

11

Railway inspector

Killian, Jack

1894

Walsall

4 (2)

King, Ernest

1890

Barnstaple

2?

Kirkwood, David

1872

Glasgow (Parkhead)

1 (1)

Labourer, mill worker (28s/week)

Kitchen, Fred

1891

Edwinstowe, Notts.

4

Cowman, 17s/week and house and garden. Died (11)

Invalided and died (young)

Carriage smith, died (11)

Mother remarried a man with with several children; some of her children are reabsorbed into the new household and others dispersed to relatives

Parents separated (15?); author initially lived with his father

P

P P

U

U

P P

P


Landymore, Sarah (Churchman) Langdon, Ellen Langley, Amy

1894

London (Stratford)

10 (1)

Railway foreman

1857

7

Railway worker

1896

Durston, Somerset Portsmouth

9 (4)

Langley, John

1905

Hove

4

Lanigan, Jack

1890

Salford

2

Lansbury, George

1859

9

Lauder, Harry

1870

Rural Suffolk; London (Greenwich) Musselburgh

Lawson, Jack

1881

Lay, Alfred George Henry

1869

Layton, Mrs

1855

None

Ran a small school, later worked out as schoolteacher In marine artillery; on his return kept a Ran a shop. It was a ‘poor, muddled pub then several small shops home’ Carpenter, but out of work and depen- Died (5) dent on charity. Died (9)

Our parents ‘took a real interest in us’

U

P Two siblings boarded with relatives Home had been unhappy and desperately poor. Taken in by aunt with one sibling (9) following father’s death Taken in by an older married step-sister after mother’s death

U P

Skilled engraver. Died (7) from alcoholism: ‘poor father died thinking he was Billy Gladstone’ ‘Railway timekeeper’: organised and supervised gangs of navvies

Took in washing, died (10)

Not stated

P

7

Potter, died (11)

P

Kells, Cumbria; Boldon, Co. Durham Aylesbury

10

Merchant navy, coal-miner – ‘An experienced pitman of the first rank’

‘Worked at whatever odd jobs she could Single-parent household get’ after husband’s death, took in washing, rope-cleaning Not stated

P

5?

Coach painter, absent (6)

Died in childbirth (6)

U

London (Bethnal Green)

14

‘Government situation’

None – father left ‘the responsibility of the whole family to my mother’ rendering her a ‘perfect slave’. She became an alcoholic

Father placed at least five children in the orphanage following mother’s death and they never heard from him again

U

P


Lea, Emily Gertrude (Maycock) Lee, Jennie

1899

1904

Lewis, Rosa (Ovenden) Lewis, Taffy

1867

Lewis, Thomas

1859

Ley, Ethel Mary Ellen

1890

Ley, John Carter

1892

Lidgett, Thomas Laming Linnett, Lucy

1844

Lipton, Sir Thomas Llewelyn, Michael Gareth

1850

1902

1891

1888

Wellingborough, Northants. Cowdenbeath, Fife Leyton, Essex Radnor, Herefs.; Birmingham Whitland, Carmarthenshire Plymouth

South Heasley, Devon Rothwell, Lincs. Great Billing, Northants. Glasgow Llanabryn, Carmarthenshire

2

2 (2)

9 2 (6)

Not stated, described as a ‘Shoe clicker’ and ‘Boot Upper Cutter’ in the census Miner, hotelier

Not stated

U

Worked in mother’s hotel and ran it after A ‘comfortable home’, good food her death and ‘special set’ of clothes for Sundays Watchmaker. Extravagant with money None and ‘kept another lady’ Driver. His pay ‘was good for the None time’, we were ‘fairly well off ’

P

P P

4

Farmer, blacksmith

Worked on the farm

5

Porter at market. Absent (2); died (8)

Died (2)

2

Tenant farmer. Died (1)

Worked on the farm

7?

Not stated

Not stated

P

7

Farm worker

Took in washing

U

In Glasgow mills (earned up to 20–25s/week); kept small shop Blacksmith

Worked in the family shop

P

Schoolmistress, worked throughout marriage

P

3 (2) 7 (1)

P

Following mother’s death, lodged with grandparents, from there went to an orphanage – ‘The Home for Friendless Girls’ (6) Following father’s death, mother moved in with her uncle

U

P


Lloyd, George

1865

5 (2)

1890s

Pembroke Dock, Pembrokeshire London

Lord, Annie Luby, William

1883

Manchester

4

Luck, Lucy (Marshall) Luty, Mary (Ramsbottom)

1848

3 (1)

Macadam, John MacLellan, Angus Mallard, George

1903

Tring, Herts. Edenfield, Lancs.; Rawtenstall, Lancs. Greenock Uist, Outer Hebrides Rural Northants., not specified Coventry

1886

1869 1835

13

2

?

Sailor

Died (11)

Not stated. An unhappy home where both parents drank heavily Absent. An ‘absolute drunkard’ living Not stated, described as ‘cloth stitcher’ apart from the family in census. Unable to provide food and lodging for her children ‘Experienced bricklayer by trade’ but Chronic invalid unable to work also ‘a drunkard and a brute’; deserted (3) Absent (young) Worked on the family farm, mill work

Author and siblings abandoned by father (11), father prosecuted for child neglect, ‘Poor Law stepped in’ and found new homes

Not stated

U

U Homeless from a young age (9)

P

Father’s departure forced the family into the workhouse Following marriage breakdown, returned to parents’ farm, then set up her own household with children and worked as a weaver

P P

Not stated

P

8

Lathe operator, earned one and a half sovereigns [30s]/week Landless cottar

Farm work

P

10

Not stated

Not stated

U

8

Clerk at coal-mine

Died (2)

None Domestic work for the farmhands. ‘She was always busy’, she ‘just lived for her family’ Kept a small shop in Brixton following husband’s death, caretaker

Mann, Tom

1856

Mannin, Ethel Markham, Alice M. (Gardner) Marrin, Mrs P.

1900 1903

London Paull, Yorks.

3 7 (1)

Postal sorter Farm manager

1890

London (Walworth)

7 (3)

Compositor, died (16)

Maternal aunt moved into the home and married author’s father (7)

P

P P

U


Marsh, George

1834

Penistone, Yorks.

11

Not stated. Died (4)

Died (13)

Martin, David R. Martin, E.

1895

Glasgow

4

Sewing shirts at home

1907

Rochdale

?

Martin, Grace

1903

Lorry man for timber merchant, promoted to foreman, £1/week Father: absent since birth for reasons unexplained, likely illegitimate. Stepfather: cotton mills Kept village store (failed); hotel waiter. He was ‘a shadowy sort of figure’ Coal-miner. Violent drunk, wifebeater. When he left ‘the financial side was much worse … [but] we did not have the slightest regrets at my father leaving us’

Martin, Jack

Furze Platt, Berks.; London 1893? Little Lever, near Bolton

12

19 (?)

Massey, Bill

1905

Glasgow

9 (?)

Matthews, Ada

1902

5

May, Betty (Golding)

1893

London (Shepherds Bush) London (East End)

McGeown, Patrick

1897

Craigneuk, Lanarkshire

3 (1)

McGovern, John

1887

Coatbridge, Lanarkshire

6

4

Boilermaker – ‘a skilled craftsman’

Various, often short-lived home-based catering enterprises

Single-parent household maintained by elder sister following mother’s death

P Author appears to be illegitimate but this is not discussed in the autobiography

Helped run the store

Took in washing; hawking

Not stated

Groom working night shifts for bus Not clear company. Redundant for 18 months when they took horses off the buses Mechanic, ran a brothel. Separated Full-time work in a chocolate factory from author’s mother. ‘Naturally cruel and a fiend when drunk’ Steel furnaceman – ‘a good man’ None

Steel smelter. Worked hard and drank Not stated. She was ‘a simple woman who devoted herself to the care of her hard, much of his income went on husband and children’ ‘drink and company’

U

P

U

A very unhappy home owing to father’s drinking and domestic abuse so extreme the police were regularly involved. Unspecified number of the nineteen children in his family did not reach adulthood Unspecified number of the nine children in his family did not reach adulthood

P

U

P

Unstable childhood spent with mother; father; grandmother; and two different aunts Parents had a ‘huge fount of goodwill towards us’, ‘they didn’t express affection outwardly. They hadn’t the training, the vocabulary, or desire to do so’

P

P

P


McGuigan, John

1863

McKenzie, James H.

1862

McLouglin, Catherine

1889

Mead, Isaac

1859

Meader, Ivy

1897

Meadowcroft, Charlotte

1901

Meads, Richard James Meek, George

Whithorn, Wigtownshire London (‘one of the worst districts’) Oswaldtwistle, Lancs.; Manchester High Easter, Essex London (Peckham)

13

Stage-coach driver

Not stated

1

Died (young)

Died (young)

Stoker in foundry

Died (10)

Farm labourer

Not stated

Builder, also kept three horses and vans. He was ‘an excellent worker’

Died (6)

5 (1)

2?

8 (2)

2

Navvy, a soldier ‘somewhere abroad’ (10)

Took on a small shop, took in lodgers

1904

Rural Derbyshire (frequent moves) London

4

Not stated

1868

Eastbourne

4 (4)

Building labourer, gardening for neighbour for extra money Father: plasterer, absent (young), died (8). Grandfather: ploughman, 16s/ week and rent free house – ‘ensured us a regular, if plain, living’. Died (9)

Grandmother: odd days of washing. Mother: dressmaking, but ‘did not prosper’

P

Following both parents’ deaths, raised by grandparents until their deaths, then various other relatives Author took over the running of the home on mother’s death

U

U

P

Father remarried ‘which did not work out for us’. Author taken in by an elder sister, who ‘made a happy home for us’ Single-parent household

U

U

P Parents migrated to US leaving author with grandparents. On father’s death, mother returned and lived with son and parents before becoming pregnant and cohabiting with another man (12). Author ran away from the new household shortly thereafter

P


Mellor, Gertie (Slack)

1906

New Barns, Staffs.

7

Middlebrook, Wilfred Miles, William

1899

3 (2)

1883

Miller, Lucy

1903

Nelson, Lancs. West Mills, Berks. London

Mitchell, Hannah (Webster)

1872

Hope Woodlands, Derbys.

6

Mitchell, Tommy Moffat, Abe

1833

Bristol (St James) Lumphinnans, Fife Hethersgill, Cumbria Southampton

Large

Not stated. Died (15)

11 (3)

Broughton, Hants. Aberdare

3 (2)

Miner. A staunch teetotaler and ‘very careful husband and father’ Country joiner, also kept pig and cow, 15s/week Postman (17s/week) and helping in the garden at Tower House (15s/ week), other jobs. ‘Worked very hard to keep us at a reasonable standard of living’ Butcher with his own shop

Moffitt, William Moody, Bob

Morgan-Hinwood, T. G. Morris, Bronwen (Lewis)

1896 1852 1906

1893 1896

3 6

11 5

9

Gardener (£1/week), casual farm work, ambulance work. Rent was 7s 6d Weaver. Second job playing the cornet in evenings Journeyman bricklayer. A violent alcoholic Engine driver. Defaulted on a loan causing the family extreme poverty. He was ‘not a spiteful man’ but ‘his behaviour [unpaid debts] adversely affected our happiness’ Small farmer

Miner. ‘A wonderful father’ who didn’t drink

Took in washing; cheese-making for market

P

Ran a cookshop (10)

U

Not stated

P

Rarely left the home at all – ‘shut up in the house with six children to care for’. Took in a lodger following father’s insolvency. A ‘very unhappy woman’, there was ‘no love’ from her and ‘nothing was ever right’ Worked on farm, milking, feeding calves, poultry and pigs. A good housewife but with a violent temper – ‘it was not a good atmosphere to grow up in’ Yes, but not specified

U

U

None

P

Helped in the garden

P

Not stated

P

Helped in the butcher’s shop

P

Not stated

U

P


Morris, R. W.

1895

Morrison, Herbert Morton, Alfred

1888 1854

Moss, Les

1901

Muckle, William

1900

Muir, Edwin

1887

Mullen, Alice (Green)

1879

Mullins, Lily (Astell)

1901

Mullins, Tom

1863

Murdie, Robert Kerr

1895

Newfield, Co. Durham London (Brixton) London, born Birmingham London (St Pancras)

Harton; Cramlington, Northumberland Orkney; Glasgow

10

6 (1)

Miner

Not stated

Police constable, a ‘respectable’ job

None. A good cook, ‘stout, comfortable-looking’ Not stated

7

Bricklayer, mostly on railways

2

Cabinet maker, also ran a book for None. Marital discord stemming from Prudential and played the flute in the father’s drinking music halls, earned over £3/week – ‘a hell of a lot of money in those days’, but spent most of it on drink Horsekeeping, first on farm later in a Not stated coalpit

4

6

Tenant farmer. Died within a year of the family’s move to Glasgow (14)

Worked on croft before the move

London (Tooting)

4 (4)

At a laundry, ‘mother had to work’

London (East Dulwich) Wincle, Staffs. Threestone Burn, Northumberland

5 (1)

Gardening, carpentry; described as a ‘general labourer’ in 1891 census. Absent during the author’s teens Drove a horse and cart delivering meat to butcher shops, 18s/week. A ‘cheerful man’ Raised by stepfather, employment not stated. ‘A hasty-tempered man’ Farm work, shepherd, kept geese

? 3

U

Our home ‘was the envy and admiration of the neighbours’

P U

P

P

Moved from the Highlands to Glasgow (14), followed rapidly by deaths of father and brother Father worked away from home and parents separated during the author’s teens

P

P

Ran a café with husband

U

Not stated

P

Died (0)

Father kept the family together following mother’s death with help of a housekeeper and by undertaking some domestic work himself

P


Murison, Alexander

1847

Murphy, J. T.

1888

Murphy, Molly (Morris)

1890

Leyland, Lancs.

7

Murray, Joseph Narrow Waters Newbery, Maggie (Lount) Newton, Arthur

1896

Durham

1876

London (Hackney) Beverley

Nicholls, Dora Adeline (Kerby) Noakes, Daisy (Hook) Noakes, George Nuttall, Samuel

1901

Walhowe, Aberdeenshire Manchester (Gorton)

4

Carpenter

Not stated

P

3

Blacksmith striker. Drinker, overtime money did not ‘bring many blessings’ as it just increased his drinking Factory worker; helped (unwillingly) in wife’s baking business; insurance agent. Deserted family (15)

Kept lodgers, baked and sold bread and cakes, ran a small shop (failed)

P

Managed a dairy; home-made cake and pastry business; needlework; a health officer

2

Miner

Not stated

P

5

Not stated. Absent (5)

Not stated

P

12

Farm labourer in rural Yorks.; carter for Bradford mill Street lamplighter

Single-parent household following father’s desertion Always busy on the farm in Yorks.; work Family migrated from rural Yorknot mentioned in Bradford. ‘None of her shire to Bradford (8 or 9) children should be called lousey’ No paid work. ‘Her whole world was We were ‘loved and cared for Hackney, Bethnal Green and her family in a simple sort of way by good circle’ parents’ Worked in the shops

1902

London (Hackney)

2

1881

Portsmouth (Southsea)

6 (2)

1908

Brighton

10

Milk roundsman

1906

Rural Sussex; Lewes Ysceifiog, Flintshire

2

Farm work, stable-hand

Took in mangling and washing. Very strict: ‘she kept us clean and tidy and fed us and that’s about it’ Cleaned stable lads’ quarters

1

Farm work, but absent

Absent

1833

Tobacconist, had three shops

‘Personal relations between my parents were anything but happy’. The marriage broke down during the author’s teens and mother became the breadwinner whilst the author minded the home

P

P

P

U

P

P Raised by aunt and uncle

U


O’Mara, Pat

1901

Liverpool

2 (5)

O’Reilly, Septimus

1883

London (Battersea)

11 (2)

Oakley, Elizabeth (Green)

1831

Witton, Norfolk

7 (3)

Okey, Thomas

1852

5

Oliver, Thomas Oman, Elsie (Dutton)

1830 1904

London (Spitalfields) Ludgvan, Cornwall Salford

Osgerby, Faith (Campey)

1890

Beverley

[Otterspoor, Gladys] Owen, May

1892

Isleham, Cambs. 1896 London; Sheffield village Page, Ethel 1890s? London (Poplar) Palmer, Lilian 1901 London (Islington)

Large 2

7

‘Plenty’ 7

Docker, casually employed. Irregular worker, domestic abuser, alcoholic, imprisoned briefly for abuse Blacksmith for a railway company’s smithy shop. Heavy drinker, had ‘a terrible temper’, the children were ‘scared stiff of ’ him

Charring at the Emigrant House, sewing Obtained formal separation factory from husband for cruelty during author’s teens Not stated – ‘my mother was a whiner Father absconded with author and a nagger’ (10) following brutal assault on his wife – ‘he pasted into her until he’d kicked and punched all the sense out of her’ Worked in the fields when unable to get One sibling was boarded out money from husband

P

P

Agricultural labourer. A ‘hard-working man’ who ‘earned good wages’, but sometimes refused to give them to his wife Basketmaker None

P

Tin-miner

P

Not stated

Sailor in Royal Navy

Mother: envelope-making factory before Raised (unhappily) by an aunt her death (7). Aunt: home laundry and following mother’s death worked in bakehouse Stonemason. Described as ‘cowkeep- Not stated. ‘I can never remember in er’ in census all my life being cuddled or kissed’ by mother; her childhood was ‘ruled by FEAR’ Cowman Worked hard enough in the house. ‘No going out to work’; gleaning Not stated Miner. Alcoholic, frequently out of work, some periods of sobriety

P

P

P

P U

1

Tram conductor

None

P

4

Bootmaker

Not stated

P


Palmer, Margaret (Muggridge) Parker, Mrs L.

1904

Rye, Sussex

4

Policeman

Hop-picking

P

1900

3 (1)

1886

Virginia Water, Surrey London (Bromley by Bow) Portslade, Sussex Aberdeen

Gateman on country estate

Not stated

U

4

Died (1)

U

6

Building trade

Not stated. An alcoholic. The parish Raised by single-mother then in removed her children and placed them in two different orphanages an orphanage (6) Not stated

3

Father: master baker, deserted (2). Grandfather: night shift labourer

Mother: scrubbing office floors. Grandmother: kept a shop

Patterson, John Edward

1866

Deepcar

3

Colliery official

Died (young)

Paul, Albert

1903

Brighton

8 (2)

Paynter, Will

1903

3

Pearson, Kay (O’Loughlin)

1896

Whitchurch, near Cardiff Hull

Penn, Margaret

1896

Parrish, William

1898

Passiful, Annie Elizabeth Paton, John

1895

Perry, Doris

1890s?

Hollins Green, Lancs. Walsall

8 (1)

Builder’s labourer, out of work for up Laundry work to three months a year Coal-miner, had lost an eye and could Washing and ironing for the big house only do light work Seaman. Deserted (10?)

4

Father: absent (illegitimate). Foster father: farm labourer

1

Absent (illegitimate)

Took in washing; sold general goods, home-baked breads, pastries and midday meals. ‘’I felt unloved, but after deep thought realised that no one in our house showed affection’ Died (0)

Mother: worked away in service. Grandmother: took in washing and went cleaning

Raised with mother in grandparents’ home following father’s desertion Raised initially with grandparents, then returned to live with his father

U P

P

P Parents ‘cared and did their best’ for their family

P

Father’s desertion was never admitted or discussed, author was in her teens before she was aware of it. Even before the desertion, ‘I was from a family limited financially’ Raised in a foster family following death of her mother; taken in by husband’s relatives (teens) ‘Granny reared’

P

P

U


Philips, Irene

1901

Cranfield, Beds. Fitz, Shrops. Halifax; Warley

13 (1)

Gamekeeper

Domestic lacemaking

U

Phillips, John

1850

5 (1)

Gardener

Not stated

P

Pickles, Wilfred

1904

3 (1)

1898

Bolton

2 (1)

Stonemason. Preferred to spend his None. She was ‘home loving’ evenings at the pub than with the family, particularly after the death of his youngest child Journalist, died (7) Dressmaking. Died (7)

Pidgeon, Alice (Hodson) Plastow, William Plummer, John Pointer, Thomas Pollitt, Harry

1839

Haddenham, Bucks. London

1

1831

1830

Birchington, Kent Droylsden, Lancs. Cinderford, Gloucs. London

Powell, Margaret (Steer) Pratt, Edith (Frost)

1907

Hove

7

1897

Finchingfield, Essex

6 (3)

Preston, Raymond

1861

Yeadon, Yorks.

10

Powell, Eric F. Powell, J. H.

1837

2 (1)

1890 1898

5 4 (2) 2 (1) 2

P

Raised in an orphanage following death of both parents Raised by grandparents

U

Died (0)

Died (0)

U

Stay maker (own business), worked in factory Farm work

Middlewoman for London warehouse

P

Not stated. Died (15)

U

Blacksmith’s striker. Fond of drinking and gambling Kept a boot and shoe shop, leather repairs Engineer. A drinker, our poverty was ‘aggravated by the glass . . . for years we all suffered’ Decorator suffering from seasonal unemployment. ‘Other children seemed to be better off than we were’ Farm worker – ‘ploughing sowing, harrowing and all as they came in season’ for 12s/week and an extra 2s/week for looking after the horses Not stated, described in census as ‘watch man in a mill’. Heavy drinker, died (13)

Mill work

P

Not stated

U

Not stated

P

Went to char every day

P

Occupation not given, but she returned home at four in the afternoon (likely from estate house)

P

Not stated

P


Price, Edith Primmer, Jacob Pritchett, V. S.

1896 1842 1900

Pugh, Albert

1867

Purkiss, Edwin

1881

Purvis, Lily

1898

Randall, Arthur

1901

Ratcliffe, George Rawlings, Joe Rayment, Frank Raymont, Thomas Reader, Ralph

1863 1894 1903 1864 1903

Walsall Edinburgh (Leith) London

? Some 4

Ginger-beer maker Father: sailor, died (3). Stepfather: respectable joiner (Unsuccessful) itinerant salesman. Sometimes flush, sometimes insolvent, but either way mother ‘couldn’t get a penny out of him’

Wigan (Pemberton) London (Marylebone workhouse) Lancs. Town not specified Wiggenhall St Mary Magdalen, Norfolk Leeds (East End) Willington, Co. Durham Ulverston, Cumbria Tavistock, Devon Crewkerne, Somerset

7

Railway foreman, foreman platelayer

2

Absent (illegitimate)

9

Not stated

10

Molecatcher and gravedigger

8

Labourer, 26s/week

3 10 8 (5) 1

Not stated Kept a small shop

U P

None, she ‘cooked, cleaned, made our clothes and her own’. Father ‘sumptuous as a millionaire’; mother ‘worn down. It was like a marriage of the rich and poor’

P

Frequently lodged with relatives in Yorkshire and Suffolk owing to father’s business failures and marital discord – ‘I was glad to be rid of the family’ Selling garden produce Considered themselves ‘gradely folk’ because they drank from cup and saucer Absent (0) Married with a family after Placed (with an elder brother) in the author’s birth the workhouse by his unmarried mother and raised without contact with her and her other children Not stated Lived with grandparents from age 9 to ‘run errands and help in the house’ Harvest work. ‘Always at work – I never Kind and patient parents heard her say she was tired’

P

U

U

P

Occasional washing for neighbours. ‘She was the best of mothers’ Father: coal-miner, killed before author’s Not stated birth. Stepfather: brass moulder, navvy Printer Not stated

P

U

Farrier

Not stated

U

Small shopkeeper. Died (8)

Died (3)

U

Born into the ‘poorest of families’. Raised by aunt and father (until 8); by aunt (until 13); then by an uncle

P


Reakes, George L.

1889

Bath

Redfern, 1875 Leicester; Percy London Reffold, 1901 Driffield, Harry Yorks. Reilly, John 1870s? Sheffield Edward Rennie, James 1851 Kincardineon-Forth, Fife Rennie, Jean 1906 Greenock

4

Carpenter

1

Draper

2

Farmhand, railway worker in Leeds. Absent throughout author’s childhood Absent – vague memories of a drunken father from early childhood Maltster. Took to drinking and deserted

None known 8

In clothing ‘sweat’ shop. Absent throughout author’s childhood No memories or knowledge of his mother Employed but unknown

P

An illegitimate child raised by his father with no contact with mother Raised by grandparents Placed in a workhouse at a young age Single-parent household

P P P P

Rice, Stanley

1905

London

5

Richards, Daniel Rigby, F. R.

1892

Pennant, Dyfed Chapel Brampton, Northants. London

11

Riveter, 30s/week, ‘maybe more’ but None spent most of his earnings on drink – ‘my mother never got it’ Milk roundsman, long spells of unem- Took in mangling. Domestic conflict ployment. Bad-tempered drunk owing to husband’s drinking but a ‘splendid mother … [who] really did a fine job’ Farm labourer Not stated

13

Carpenter, ‘very strict . . . very hasty’ Did a day’s washing for 1s sometimes

U

4

Painter decorator

Took in lodgers

U

Cabman, minded the horses and cleaned the cabs

None – ‘She was just an ordinary Mum. She looked after us all, fed us well’

U

Furniture-maker, worked for railway company. ‘He was a good man my father’

Not stated

P

1887

Rignall, Elizabeth Roberts, Florrie

1894

Roberts, Fred

1884

1902

London (Camberwell and Walworth) Manchester, Miles Platting

2

Not stated. ‘Mother made the best of things . . . My upbringing . . . was very severe’ Absent (0)

8 (4)

2

P

U

P


Roberts, Mr Roberts, Robert

1890 1834

Roberts, Robert

1905

Robinson, E.

1894

Rogers, Evan

1897

Rogers, Frederick

1846

Rolph, Cecil Hewitt

1901

Rooney, Ralph

1862

Rose, Amy Grace (Andrews) Rowles, George Rowley, Charles Rowse, A. L.

1877

Salford Llanddewi, Denbighshire Salford

3 (10) 11

London (Camberwell) Brimsop, Herefs.

4

7

Miner, 30–35s week Tenant farmer

None Worked on the farm

U P

Kept a shop

P

Not stated

U

London (Whitechapel) London

5

Mechanic/engineer. Given to ‘drunken roaring’; often sacked through ‘over-drinking’ Kept small shop which failed, cab driver. Didn’t drink or smoke, his life was ‘just work’ Rented a small farm. Worked hard, drank seldom, but ‘we was all afraid of him’ Sailor, docker, 15s/week

3

Police sergeant – ‘we were never poor’ Died (9)

4

Foreman at print works, 28s/week. Unlike most families, they could afford to buy toys

Not stated

P

9 (2)

4

Farm labourer, invalided – given 2s 6d/week and two loaves of bread from the parish. Kind to his children Worked in grocer’s shop

Seamstress, baby minder for 5s/week after husband’s accident. A ‘severe kind of woman . . . not kind and gentle’ Not stated

U

1884

Tottington near Manchester, Lancs. Great Shelford, Cambs. London

1839

Manchester

13

Not stated

Not stated

P

1903

St Austell, Cornwall

3

Shopkeeper

None

P

5

Made cheese, kept poultry. ‘A loveable old soul … always gentle’

One sibling was boarded with grandparents

She added to father’s wage by ironing. Home was ‘a happy one’

P

P

Mother’s sister moved into the home following mother’s death, subsequently married author’s father

P

U


Royce, James

1890?

London

3

[Rushmer Alice]

1890

Isleham, Cambs.

6

Rymer, Edward Allen

1835

4

Stone cutter, ganger for railway cutting, agricultural work. Deserted (6)

Agricultural work

P

Saggers, Esther (Fenwick) Scott, Mrs Nellie (Cartledge) Severn, J. Milliot

1901

Boldon, Co. Durham London (Islington)

Several

Putting out the market stalls, 2s/day

Not stated

P

Sexton, Sir James Seymour, Arthur

Sharman, Jessie Ravenna (Jones)

1871

Stockport

1860

Codnor, Derbys.

2 (2)

1856

6

1879

Newcastle upon Tyne London (Hampstead)

1892

Norwich

5

Absent (young). ‘It was always a Not stated mystery to me why he didn’t live with us . . . he didn’t count’ Father ‘ran away from us . . . we were Invalid and unable to work until her all young’ death (13)

Not stated Kept a draper’s shop

3

Helped work in the shop

Spent three years working as ‘head nurse Bag-hosier (i.e. middleman) for silk firm. ‘Rather better paid than the other for a well-to-do family’ (3–6) workmen, yet the monetary problem at home was always a difficult one’, would work ‘tremendously hard’ for two to three months then for two weeks would ‘drink to excess’ Hawker and umbrella mender Pack hawker, knitted women’s woollen caps, took in lodgers Plasterer, sometimes out of work Not stated in winter. Author could not wear a clean white collar to school because of father’s irregular work Worked in starch mill Not stated

Single-parent household

P

Workhouse; home kept together by parish dole and siblings’ earnings; author ‘had to stay at home’ following mother’s death

P

Parents were kind but neither had ‘a business mind’

P

An unhappy marriage: following death of two children, the mother left the home to work in service leaving the author and his sister with his father, who boarded them with different relatives

P

P U

U


Sharpe, Joseph

1859

Coal Aston, Derbys.

6

Shaw, Charles Shaw, Sam

1832 1884

Tunstall Birmingham

8 8

Shepherd, A. E.

1872

Loughborough

7

Shervington, Jesse Shinn, John

1840

Peopleton, Worcs. London (Clerkenwell) London; Glasgow

2

1837

Shinwell, Emanuel

1884

Shotton, Ernest Richard Silvester, Susan (Pittaway) Skargon, Charles

1878

Sladen, Edward Slate, Ruth

1878

1895

1889 1884

2

13

Miner. Drinker and gambler – ‘we were certainly not poor but had the appearance of poverty because of the money that father spent on drink and dogs’ Painter and guilder, but his business failed Electro-plate polisher. A heavy drinker and often out of work, later committed to an asylum

Tailor. Worked hard, earned little, tended an allotment and always saw that the children were fed Agricultural labourer, carter, carrier

Not stated

P

Not stated Sweated labour when husband was out of work

P P

Not stated – ‘A very good cook and was able to make the best of very little’

P

Not stated

U

Cabinet maker. Business failure and Not stated mental health breakdown caused the family ‘great privations and hardships’ Seaman’s outfitter (i.e. tailor), some- Cook in soup kitchen times out of work and consequent ‘bouts of poverty’ Iron foundry, then a coal business Helped in coal business, ‘sold crocks’

Birmingham Minworth, Warks.

12 4

Agricultural labourer, wagoner, then ‘got a better paid job at waterworks’

Harwick St Nicholas, Essex Bacup, Lancs. London

9

Seaman, £1/week

4

Cotton mill mechanic in regular work, Not stated earned up to 36s/week Commercial clerk Did ‘blouse work sometimes’ at home for a friend

3

Spent two happy years with aunt and uncle; imprisoned for working underage, removed from parents and placed in Feltham Industrial School (10)

Occasional dressmaking, mangling for her neighbours, haymaking in summer, potato picking in autumn, gleaning Took in washing to mangle

P

P

Both parents showed ‘selfless devotion’ to their children

U U

U

U P


Smillie, Robert Smith, Deborah (Greenwood) Smith, Emma

Died (young)

Died (young)

Quarry-worker, stone-breaking during winter unemployment

Not stated

2

Absent (illegitimate)

Absent (0)

2?

P

Not stated

U

Smith, John Henry

1902

Bristol

3

Not stated. Invalided for last nine years of his life Gardener. Regularly came home drunk and ‘created scenes’ with mother In prison for deserting army; worked in coal-mines on his release

Possibly handloom weaving

1893

Industrial town Hampshire

P

Smith, Mrs F. H. Smith, Sam

1885

Cardiff

?

Tailoring at home, factory work. It was Following a difficult start, the ‘a hard struggle’ during father’s absence family fared better after the father’s return from prison Not stated

1884

Macclesfield, Lancs.

1

Snell, Henry

1865

Suttonon-Trent, Notts.

5

Snowden, Mrs (Dickinson)

1902

Manchester

10 (1)

Smith, [Father] Smith, Henry F.

1857

Belfast

2

1858

Nelson, Lancs.

3 (12)

1894

Redruth, Cornwall

1853

4

Not stated, but he was ‘not in regular employment’ Dyer’s labourer, 18s/week. Good Spinner dyer, but a heavy drinker who went on ‘monthly dissipations’ Father: absent (illegitimate). Seasonal farm work Stepfather: farm work

Packer for printing firm, 24–30s/ week. ‘Drank a lot, very often hitting my mother’

Took in washing

Author and brother raised by grandmother

P P

Early years spent in the workhouse and by grandparents with an illegitimate brother. Her brother was then reabsorbed into their mother’s new household and family, whilst author moved between foster carers and various institutions

P

P U

Illegitimacy not mentioned in the autobiography. Raised by mother and stepfather along with younger half-siblings ‘We weren’t happy but we were a family’

P

U


Snowden, Philip Viscount Snowman, Hilda (Snape)

1864

1900

Cowling, North Yorks. Bolton

3

Weaver in mill (15s/week), superintendent of the Sunday school

4

Father: died five weeks after author’s birth. Stepfather: carter – had a limp and suffered bad health Quill-pen maker. Liked a drink and to ‘treat his friends’, haggled with his wife over the housekeeping money ‘which he never did when treating his friends in the pub’ Manager in tobacco firm. Died (11)

Southgate, Walter

1890

London (Cambridge Heath)

4 (3)

Soutter, Francis William

1844

London (Lambeth)

2

Sparkes, J. H.

1900

Grimsby

9

Spencer, F. H. Spring, Howard Sproson, Emma (Lloyd) Squires, Dorothy (Sewell) Stallan, Beatrice Stamper, Joseph Stanley, Sir Henry Morton

1872 1889

Swindon Cardiff

4 7 (2)

1867

West Bromwich Waltham Cross, Herts. Sawston, Cambs. Lancs. town Denbigh

7

1897

1873 1886 1841

Spinning on handwheel at home; returned to mill as weaver once eldest daughter could keep the house Cake-making when single, after marriage took in washing, including of lace curtains Working in laundry, charring

Died (11)

7

Labourer in brickfields; millworker. He would save up a pound and ‘go off on on his own and leave us all to our own resources’ Factory mechanic, 30–40s/week Gardener and ‘such jobs as any labourer might do’. Died (12) Canal-boat builder. Alcoholic whose drinking left the family impoverished Rifle factory

8

Skin splitter in the Sawston skin yard

3

Moulder in iron foundries, occasion- Dressmaking when husband was out of ally out of work but mostly doing well work Absent (illegitimate) Absent (0)

1

Washing for ‘posh folks’

None Scrubbing, charring and laundry after husband’s death Not stated

P

U

P

Live-in employment found for the author following the death of both his parents (11) Never lived with most of his siblings – ‘I didn’t know what family life was’

Single-parent household Escaped a difficult home by finding a live-in service position (9)

Not stated

Glove-making at home

P

P

P P U U

One sibling living with grandparents

P P

Deposited with grandparents; moved to foster care; subsequently placed in the workhouse

P


Starn, Dot (Clark)

1899

London (Hackney)

5

Steel, Frank

1860s

London

3 (1)

Stephen, Jessie

1893

Edinburgh; Dunfermline; Glasgow

11

Stevens, W. H.

1895

2

Stewart, Robert

1877

Stibbons, Fred Stokes, Rose Pastor (Wieslander) Stonelake, Edmund Storey, John

1872

Market Harborough; London Balgownie, Fife; Dundee Rural Norfolk London

Stride, Louie

1907

1879

1873 1900

Pontlottyn, Caerphilly Clowne, Derbys. Bath

Worked for Gas, Light and Coke Company, working up to head wages clerk. Gave wife £1/week housekeeping Failed draper’s businesses ending in debtor’s prison, clerk’s auctioneer, ‘occasional jobs’. Preferred reading books to working, his ‘miserable failures’ caused the family ‘terrible hardships’ Set up small shop (failed); journeyman tailor (winter unemployment); worked for the Co-Operative Society. Worked extra hours at the Co-op to ‘boost his earnings’ Coach-making, bike-making

None. ‘Very Victorian’ and hearing impaired

Respectable family: ‘parents were very strict in my day’

P

Not stated

P

None, fully occupied with her ‘many domestic duties’

U

Died (8). ‘We children never got over it. Father kept the household My father did his best, but nothing like a together by employing domestic mother’s love’ helps

P

P

12

Farm forehand; carter (18s/week) in Dundee. Didn’t drink ‘fortunately’

6

Farm foreman and horsekeeper

Harvesting, weaving, domestic work. She ‘had a hard struggle to make ends meet’ Not stated

2

Father: tailor, separated (young). Stepfather: tailor

In small tailor’s shop before her remarriage

10

Not stated, absent from home at census points. Possibly a navvy Butcher, colliery horsekeeper

Not stated

P

Not stated

U

Father: absent (illegitimate). Stepfather: irregular worker and alcoholic

Cleaning and charring (but stole from employers), sex work

10 1

P Mother remarried and family emigrated to US (11)

Mother’s petty crime, mental ill health and drunken husband combined to create an extremely impoverished and unstable home

P

P


Sturgess, Arthur

1905

Loddington, Northants. Heanor, Derbys.

6

Sutton, William Harry Sykes, John

1890

1859

Slaithwaite

3

Taylor, Allan K.

1890

Glasgow; Arbroath

1

Absent, described as deceased though Millworker both at Glasgow and Arauthor was likely illegitimate broath

Taylor, Bernard

1895

4

1839

Horseman and farm work, 18s/week – a ‘poor wage’ even for the times. A ‘good man … doing the best for his family’ Died (young)

Not stated

Taylor, John

Mansfield Woodhouse, Notts. Ross-shire

Taylor, Kate

1891

Pakenham, Suffolk

15

Not stated

P

Taylor, Peter Templeton, Isabel Molison

1837 1887

Paisley Dundee

6 7

Agricultural labourer (seasonal not regular); odd jobs. ‘Very strict, but not too severe or unjust’ Railway work, brewery Clerk. Earned good wage but mother’s ill health added to the expense of the home

P P

Thomas, Averill

1893

4 (1)

Thomas, James Henry

1874

Melton Mowbray, Notts. Newport

Not stated None. She fed us ‘plainly and wholesomely’ despite the ‘low income’; ‘I look back and wonder . . . why on earth Mama went on producing more babies and making things worse’ Not stated

5

2

1

Steam-digger driver for an iron and coal company. He earned a ‘little above the average’ for the village Miner. We were ‘far better off than the families whose bread winner spent so much on drink’ Cotton weaver. Died (young)

Picture-framer

Absent (illegitimate)

Not stated

P

None. The ‘leader, the organiser of the family … Her self sacrifice was wonderful’ Returned to mill after husband’s death, also died young

U

Not stated

Mother: absent. Grandmother: took in washing

Following husband’s death, mother returned to her father’s home with children and he raised them after her death Mother returned to live with her parents and her eighteen younger siblings

P

P

P

Raised by grandparents following father’s death

P

U

Raised by grandmother

P


Thomas, John Birch

1860

London (Peckham)

1

Thomas, John Miles

1889

2? (1)

Thompson, Bonar

1888

Thompson, Flora (Timms) Thompson, T.

1876

Maes y Munydd, Wrexham Carnearney, County Antrim Juniper Hill, Oxon

1880

4?

Thorne, Will

1857

Unnamed Lancs. mill town Birmingham

Thornton, Bertha Tibble, Anne

1889

3

1900

East Ham, Essex East Rounton, Yorks.

Tiffy, R. A.

1897

Till, Winifred

1896

Devonport, Devon London; villages in Hants.

1

6 (4)

4

3 (1)

4 (1) 1

Shopkeeper. ‘He earned quite good Helping in the shop wages when he stuck to work, but he got tired of it rather soon and wanted a rest or a change’ Farm labourer Harvest work, kept a cow, domestic work

Business failiures caused the break-up of the home. Author lived with parents; with his Welsh granny; with his father

Father: absent (illegitimate). Stepfather: plumber who drank heavily

Raised by unmarried aunt as a child. Summoned to his mother in Manchester when old enough to work (13)

Aunt: sold eggs; mother: sold clothes

Stone mason. Earned good wages but Not stated kept most of them back to spend on drink Absent Weaver in a factory

Father: brickmaker, heavy drinker died (7). Stepfather: carpenter/joiner and ‘even heavier drinker’ Journeyman bricklayer but often out of work during the winter Coachman, earned £1/week when he married, free cottage, pint of milk and manure Bricklayer and mason, seasonal unemployment Machinist at locomotive works

After father’s death, she took any work she could get: sweating, sewing hooks and eyes onto card Childminding for family member, mangling None

P

P

P

P

Father’s absence is not discussed or explained

P

Single-parent household until the mother’s remarriage

P

U P

Not stated

P

One cousin raised in the None – she married and ‘devoted the rest of her life to the management of the household home, and the needs of her husband and children’

U


1860

Bristol

1

Labourer, heavy drinker

Died (0)

Tobias, Wilhelmina

1904

2

On shipyard

Not stated

Todd, Marjory

1906

Wallsend, Northumberland Not stated

5

Boilermaker. Ungenerous with house- None, died (12) keeping money following mother’s death

Tomlin, Laura

1904

6

Horsekeeper and caretaker at ‘Fat Wharf ’, later foreman

None

U

Tomlinson, G. A. W. Tomlinson, H. M. Toole, Joseph

1906

?

Coal-miner

Not stated

P

4

Docker, died (13)

When husband died, machine-sewing at home Not stated

P

1873 1887

London (Bermondsey) Worksop, Notts. London (Poplar) Salford

7 (6)

Tremewan, Tom

1888

Penvenen, Cornwall

4

Triggle, Mary Laura (Sutton) Turnbull, James B. Turner, Ben

1888

Heanor, Derbys.

6

1846?

Mosston, Angus Holmfirth, Yorks.

1

1863

5

Worked on the trams, 19s/week in a good week (better off fathers in the neighbourhood earned 30s/week) Carpenter, suffers chronic ill health

Not stated

Coal-miner, suffered from bronchitis ‘so of course we were not very well off ’ Died (1)

Cleaner and caretaker for chapel

Mill weaver – ‘One of the sweetesttempered men I ever knew’

Not stated

Died (2)

Unhappy childhood with two stepmothers and step-siblings. Father was ‘absolutely at a loss in meeting his domestic responsibilities’. Author ran away from home (young)

P

Tillett, Ben

U

Home life detoriated after mother’s death. Unsuitable housekeeper, then author ran the home but left as soon as she was able

P

P

Mother returned to her father’s home with the children when husband was unable to work

P

U

Raised in an institution (3–8), then taken in by grandparents

P P


Turner, Henry

1902

London (Hackney)

10

Turner, James

1857

Manchester (Salford)

6

Uglow, Jim

1906

Chatham, Kent

4

Vandome, Minnie (Baynton) Vose, John

1905

London

1

Wood carver, made extra income by teaching carving at a night school

1900

1

Walker, Laura Maple Wall, Percy

1896

Unnamed village, Cheshire Staveley, Derbys. London

Wallace, Edgar

1875

London (Greenwich)

1

Wallis, Bessie

1904

West Melton, Yorks.

3?

Farm work, left to fight in First World Described by the author as the ‘village War (returned an invalid) prostitute’. She ‘seemed to spend most of her time in taking her spite out on me’ Watchmaker and jeweller. Died (14) Turned husband’s watchmaking shop into a sweet shop Cement worker, builder’s labourer, Not stated railway worker, casual labour, kept paper shop. Union member and ‘loved reading aloud’ to the family when home Father: absent (illegitimate). Foster Absent (illegitimate) father: fish porter – his ‘drinking bouts’ were few and usually lasted less than a week Helped her parents in their shop on Head rope splicer in mine, a ‘tradesFridays man’, ‘a very skilled’ job, singing engagements in pubs. Better off than most – ‘we were one of the luckier families’

1893

8 ? (?)

Lamplighter and window-cleaner. ‘My childhood was pretty poor; there were ten of us kids . . . I was fortunate in that my father had regular work’ Boot and shoe shop, grocery shop. ‘A heavy drunkard’; deserted (5) and died of delirium tremens aged 50 Sailor

None, ‘enough to do with looking after us kids’

P

Kept a shop, dressmaking

P

Abandoned eldest three children (11), left with an infant in arms to establish a home with the baby’s father

A chaotic home following mother’s departure, with housework and childcare devolving to housekeepers and the author, who ran away to sea as soon as possible

None. Kind and ‘always ready to have fun with me’

P

U

P

Single-parent household

P

Family size not given beyond noting that several children were born and several died

U

Raised by foster parents (and their two children) who kept him when mother’s payments stopped

P

U


Wallis, Pearl R. (Bowerman)

1900

Surrey, unnamed village

1

Father: absent (illegitimate). Grandfather: described as ‘plate layer for railway company’ in census

Absent (0)

Walsh, Jane

1905

Oldham

6

Not stated

Ward, Harry

1864

Charing, Kent

2?

Iron dresser, 23s/week. A heavy drinker and unsteady worker Bootmaker, living apart from author

Ward, Vera

1905

Lancs. town

3

Pattern maker

Warr, Thomas Warren, Jane

1880

London

7

1901

?

Wasson, May (Tree)

1890

London (Bermondsey) Foots Cray, Kent

Watchorn, Robert Watson, Lewis

1858

Alfreton

6

1868

Several

2

Worked nights at a power station

?

Lithographic printer

Watson, Margaret

1906?

Long Bennington, Lincs. Paisley

Watson, William Foster

1881

London

8 (1)

Absent, possibly dead

Raised by grandparents. Mother lived locally and remarried but author remained with grandparents

U

P For unexplained reasons, the author was raised by his grandparents

P

P

Hammerman on railways

None, had asthma and bronchitis and was unable to attend to all the domestic duties Not stated

Had a ‘job at the wharf ’

Not stated

U

Own basketmaking business; left the Helped husband’s business, tried to carry family three times to fight in Boer it on when he left but failed and First World Wars and to pursue a work opportunity in South Africa Coal-miner Not stated

P

Although ostensibly a two-parent household, the father was frequently absent causing hardship to the family

Agricultural labourer; engine operator Not stated

Mother: died (6). Stepmother: cook but Father tried to keep home together she frequently lost jobs for drinking and following mother’s death, but children were neglected; lived stealing briefly with grandparents and in an institution before his remarriage ‘Busy all day at the machine’

U

P U

U

P


Watt, Christian

1833

Wearmouth, Robert F.

1882

Webb, William

1830

East Kennett, Wilts.

8 (4)

Welch, Charles Henry Wellock, Wilfred

1880

London (Bermondsey) Nelson, Lancs.

7

Wells, Herbert George

1866

Bromley, Kent

4 (1)

Welsh, James C. Wensley, Frank

1880

Large

Westall, Lilian (Mara)

1893

Haywood, Lanarkshire Morchard Bishop, Devon London (Kings Cross)

1879

1887

Broadsea, Aberdeenshire Oxhill, Co. Durham

8

Fisherman

Helped him with fisher work

P

10

Miner. Came home worse for drink ‘practically every Saturday night . . . sometimes helpless’ Tradesman – ‘As a tradesman with a fair connection [we were able] to live in comfort’ Leather bag industry, rising to be the head of the department

Mother: died (0); stepmother: not stated. Father kept household together Author did not get on with his stepthrough remarriage mother: ‘happiness was not my lot’ Not stated

P

U

At silk works in early years of marriage

P

A taper in cotton mill – ‘one of the rather better paid jobs’. Outside interests such as secretary of his church and sitting on the school management board Shopkeeper, but neglected the shop for cricket-playing. Cricket gave him income but led to neglect of the shop and insovlency; when he broke his thigh his cricket-income also failed Miner

Not stated

‘My home life was happy’

P

Ran husband’s shop; following insolvency, she left the home to become a paid housekeeper

Author lodged with various family members following mother’s departure from the home (13)

P

4

None

P

Not stated

U

5

Head horseman, 12s/week, rent-free cottage, cheap milk and butter

8

None Occupation not stated. Often drunk and ‘that meant violence’, though even when sober ‘the slightest irritation could cause him to explode with rage’; ‘there were many times when most of his money had gone by Saturday night’

P/U


Westwater, Thomas Arthur Wheway, Edna (Wright) Whitlock, John Whittaker, James Wilkinson, Ellen Williams, Albert Williams, Edith A. (Parker) Williams, Emlyn

1888

Spennymoor, Co. Durham London; Dorset

2

Signal box railway worker, 23s/week

None, she ‘went out very little’

3

Not stated; died (3)

Not mentioned; separated (3)

1 (8)

Joiner and undertaker

Died (age not stated)

1906

Blisworth, Northants. Edinburgh

3 (1)

1891

Manchester

4

1901

Bolton

10 (1)

Cooper, regular periods of unemploy- Suffered ill health but took in washing ment when necessary and able. ‘Gentle hearted’ Cotton worker Suffered ill health, no employment mentioned Joiner Not stated

U

1899

Merthyr Tydfil Wales, various pit villages

8

Miner

Not stated

U

Pit stoker, labourer, publican. He was a heavy drinker and ‘would never disclose the amount of his weekly pay-packet’ ‘Ripper’ and ‘packer’ (skilled mining), up to 45s/week – ‘A very regular worker’ Ship-breaking yard, died in accident (2)

Kept a shop briefly, helped to run the pub and became ‘a scolding and overworked figure in the background’

P

Not stated

P

1903

1873

1905

3 (2)

Williams, Thomas

1888

Blackwell, Derbys.

11 (3)

Williamson, Joe

1895

London (Poplar)

8 (3)

Williamson, John Willson, Robert

1903

Glasgow

1

1838

Huttoft, Lincs.

9

P

Placed in orphanage following father’s death whilst two elder sisters stayed with mother; ‘I think I was the luckiest of the three’

Took in washing, childminding. ‘There Single-parent household was no cruelty in her’. Suffered from bouts of depression Marine engineer. Hospitalised follow- Selling tea and coffee door to door after Single-parent household ing an accident (3), died (8) husband’s accident, took in boarders Miller Always took an active part in the trade’

P

U P P

P

P U


Wilson, John

1837

Greatham near Hartlepool Great Horton

3

Navvy, died (11)

Died (4)

Wilson, Joseph

1833

Wilson, Joseph Havelock Wincott, Len

6

1858

Sunderland

7

Wool-comber; ‘farmer’s man’; carrier with horse and cart; small business owner. ‘A steady, hard-working man’ Draper. Died (3)

Charring, took in washing, returned to the mill when the author was old enough to keep the house When widowed opened a general store, Single-parent household then a hotel

1907

Leicester

8

‘Slaving over a washtub of other people’s dirty linen from morning till night’; local birth assistant

P

Wolfit, Donald Wood, Bert

1902?

5

Not stated

P

1905

Newark, Notts. Walsall

3

Employment not stated. An ‘illiterate, drunken bully’; ‘how much he really earned neither mother nor any other member of the family knew’ – he gave her £1/week Clerk for brewery. A regular worker, we were ‘never impoverished’ Miner, died (11)

Wood, Bertha (Whittle)

1902

Bolton

3

Wood, George

1898?

Jarrow

1

Woodward, Kathleen Wright, Joseph

1896?

London (Peckham) Idle, near Bradford

5

Wright, Vera

1907

Frisby, Leics.

8

1855

4

Not stated

Mill overlooker, then ‘promoted to the None – she was ‘a real homemaker . . . position of Inside Manager’ a marvellous cook and always at home when we came from school’ Pawnbroker, owned grocery. Always Not stated neglecting the business and running up debts Printer but invalided Took in washing Charring and taking in washing Odd jobs – he ‘never wanted to work’ – largely absent during author’s childhood Journeyman bricklayer. He was kind Laundering the underwear of women and hard working – ‘always seemed to who came in for the hunting season be at work’

Worked and travelled with father following mother’s death, whilst two sisters were placed with relatives

Lived with an aunt following father’s death

P

P

P

U U

Parents divorced (8), author stayed with mother

P

P A brief stay in the workhouse as a child after which the mother raised the children alone

P

P


Wright, William Wrigley, Ammon

1836 1860

Wrigley, Mrs (Jones) Wynne, Frederick Yates, Mrs

1856

Yearn, Mrs [Fanny] (Rivett) Young, Harry

1897 1882

Keighley, Yorks. Millcroft, Castleshaw, Yorks. Cefn Mawr, Wrexham Portsmouth

2? 2 (3)

5 2 2 (2?)

1875

Unnamed Lancs. mill village Oldham

1901

London

1

6 (8)

Weft manager

Weaving

P

Spinner, weaver first in the home and then in a rural mill. Worked hard, earned £1/week Shoemaker, 12s/week

Spinner on 50 spindle jenny, but gave up millwork once her sons were of an age to work Went out sewing for 1s/day

P

Soldier in South Africa, pensioner running a small shop In cardroom, 20s/week

Not stated

U Mother and children lived with her parents whilst husband was away

U

In the cardroom; ran a creche in her own home; took in laundry

U

Brick-setter, often unable to find work ‘Had to go to the mill’ because of father’s during bad weather unemployment

P

Kept a bike shop but was ‘the world’s worse businessman’ with a ‘positive genius for making the wrong decision’. Also suffered from ill health

U

‘At a loss as to how to assist in a cycle shop she would dutifully and conscientiously run the usual working-class wife’s routine’. She was ‘resourceful and cheerful’

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Bread Winner: An Intimate History of the Victorian Economy - by Emma Griffin [APPENDIX]  

'Bread Winner' by Emma Griffin is the overlooked story of how ordinary women and their husbands managed financially in the Victorian era – a...

Bread Winner: An Intimate History of the Victorian Economy - by Emma Griffin [APPENDIX]  

'Bread Winner' by Emma Griffin is the overlooked story of how ordinary women and their husbands managed financially in the Victorian era – a...

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