YOUTH SEXUAL AGGRESSION AND VICTIMIZATION IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC STAKEHOLDERS’ PERSPECTIVES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE Principal Authors: Maria Papadakaki and Joannes El. Chliaoutakis Department of Social Work School of Health and Social Welfare Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece and Gabriel Bianchi, Slovak Academy of Science Heraklion, Greece December 1, 2012
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The repo ort is informe ed by person nal interactioon with repre esentatives of the scientiific communitty, public authoritie es, non-goverrnmental orga anisations and d the civil society, conduc cted betweenn June-Decem mber 2012. Informatiion was appro oved by repre esentatives off the followin ng organisatio ons: The Slovaak Academy of o Science (Gabriel B Bianchi), Slovvak Family Planning Associaation (Lenka Rovňanová), R Ch hildren of Slovvakia Foundattion (Dana Rušinová,, Karin Vaňattková), Iuventta/Slovak Youuth Institute, Department of Youth Woork Developm ment (Jana Mihálikovvá), UNICEF ch hildren-helplin ne (Gabriela K Krupčíková, Katarína K Trlico ová), Linka-Lieenka helpline e (Katarína Fujeríkon ná, Dana Lovaššová), Student Council for SSlovakia Highe er Education (Katarína Stolláriková).
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1. Intro oduction Slovakia is thought to t have a relatively good d rating on th he European map of sexuual health. In fact, the country has the low west figure off frequency of sexual in ntercourse in n 15 years olld girls (11% %) and boys as well as on ne of the lowest inciden nces of indu uced abortio ons in teenagge girls. On the other (13%), a hand, du ue to a low frequency of o contracep ptive pill use e (3% and 9% %) and condoom use (67% % and 65%) among yyoung girls and boys re espectively, there is a relatively high teenagee pregnancy rate – 50% above th he EU averag ge. ng with the e UK, Hunga ary and the Baltic postt-soviet cou untries, an In addittion, Slovakiia has, alon extreme ely low repro oduction ratte – the lowe est in EU with 1.32 children on aveerage for a woman in fertile age.1 em of Youth Sexual Aggrression and Victimization V n (Y-SAV) is considered c In the Sllovak societyy, the proble to be a rapidly grow wing problem m along with h bullying at schools. Sex xual aggresssion is thoug ght to start ears of age and a thus the e age of 16 years y is considered to bbe late for prevention. p verbally at 12-13 ye Among tthe most ala arming issuess raised by tthe stakehold ders included the dominnant role of web social networkking tools in young people’s lives an nd their conttribution to the sexual eexploitation of minors. onal surveyss in Slovakia,, conducted by the NGO O ‘Odysseus’ in 2010 and titled ‘All One of tthe few natio what pe eople do (no ot) talk abo out sex’2 ind dicated TV and interne et as newly emerging threats t for children. Special refference was made on th he sexual acttivity of min nors (under tthe age of 15 years) in R and o ther vulnera able groups such as youung people leaving the ethnic ggroups, predominantly Roma, foster ca are system. Although th he number oof victimized d youth was thought to be rapidly increasing, i systemattic monitorin ng of the pro oblem was saaid to be missing or to be b carried ouut sporadicallly by state research h institutions (e.g. Slov vak Academ my of Scienc ce, Academy y of the Poolice Force,, Research Institute e of Child Psyychology and d Pathopsych hology), and d occasionally y by NGOs. T The lack of monitoring was thou ught to resu ult in limited d official eviidence on th he problem and thus lim mited opporttunities for effective e interventio on. In line with w this, sexxuality from m the human-rights and hhealth persp pective did not rece eive any systtematic refle ection in anaalytical publiications devoted to the assessment of societal and political develo opment durin ng the turbu ulent period of rapid soc cial change after 1989 in i Slovakia e Annual Re eports publiished by pre estigious Insstitute for Public P Affairrs, Bratislava). In this (e.g. the regard, the need to o set up a monitoring ssystem at national n leve el was undeerscored. Am mong other ons, legalisa ation of sex services s wass also mentio oned as a prromising soluution to obta ain records suggestio of the sex providerss, particularrly off-streett and gain control c over the numberr of sexually y exploited holders howe ever argued that registration of sex workers w would amplify existing youth. SSome stakeh problems since a significant sharre of sex wo rkers would never registter because oof their illeg gal migrant status. nces on youtth sexuality 2. Polittical influen Many of the stakeho olders seeme ed to be verry sceptical about the political situaation in Slov vakia. They characte erised the political p clim mate in Slovvakia as rellatively stab ble after thee early parliamentary elections with a sttrongly left-oriented gooverning parrty, dominatted by a paarliament cllearly proeference waas made to the unique Basic Contraact with the e Holy See European left-wing oriented. Re w is tho ought to havve put Slova akia into a difficult poosition conce erning the (signed in 2000), which ance of individual rightts as related d to variouss dimensionss of intimatee citizenship (gender, performa sexualityy, education n). Some stak keholders exxpressed a sttrong disappo ointment froom the goverrning party for rema aining inactiive while th hey expected d them to pay p more atttention to tthe rising incidence of sexual vviolence and promote fa avourable coonditions forr legislative changes. Thhe long lasting missing interest in issues of sexual ‘ottherness’ an nd sexuality--related hum man rights i n politicianss was also underlined by some stakeholderss - independ dently from their t left-to-right orientaation.
The Rep productive He ealth Report:: The state oof sexual and d reproductiv ve health witthin the European Union (2011). T The European Journal J of Contraception aand Reproducttive Health Ca are (16, Suppllement 1), 1-7 70. 2 www.iuventa.sk/filess/documents/ /publik%C3%A11cie/%C3%AFa al%C5%A1ie%20 0materi%C3%A A1ly/co_sa_ne ehovori_o_s exe-previiew.pdf 1
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It was ffurther emp phasised thatt during the e previous ruling r period d, the goveerning party expressed openly ttheir unfavou urable attitu udes by stati ng that ‘The e topic of registered parrtnerships (of same sex people) is absolutelyy unimportan nt’3 and this topic was abandoned by y the right-w wing liberals during the me Declarattion in spite of the factt that this isssue (along negotiattions of the Governmenttal Programm with libe eralisation off conditions for soft-drugg use) was one o of their main m electionn-campaign slogans. In addition to that, so ome stakeho olders reportted on vario ous efforts geared g by coonservative politicians M of H Health, to ob bstruct the within 2011 as well as by Christiian Democraat leaders off the Slovak Ministry abortion/con ntraception policy p in Slovvakia or prevent free ac ccess to it. I n line with the t above, liberal a some sta akeholders stated s that both politiccal and socie etal issues keep k Y-SAV m matters hidd den in the Slovak society and appeared a to o be quite p pessimistic with w limited expectationns in terms of o positive ese pessimisttic views we ere largely attributed to the politica al situation changes in the near future. The and morre specificallly to a lack k of politicall competenc cy and a ‘pu urposive sileence’ of the governing party to avoid stigm matising its political p imagge in the eyes of strongly conservattive voters/p population, as well iin order to negotiate n with potentiall political pa artners. In particular, thhe governing party was criticised d for intentiionally ignorring issues off sexuality in n an attemp pt to avoid thhe political risk. Some stakehollders criticissed the left liberal gove ernment for sharing the friendship aand following g the rules of the R Roman Catho olic Church to ensure itts political support. In other o words,, it was thou ught to be political risky for the t governin ng party too raise issue es related to t Y-SAV, w which could meet the oval of the church and consequentlyy of a major part of the society. Thiss dominant role of the disappro church in the Slovak k society wass thought to be historica ally justified.. In particulaar, church was w thought ple’s respectt, trust and ccommitmentt during the totalitarian communist regime, by to have gained peop eople living under u adversse conditionss at rural co ommunities offering material and spiritual support to pe and by h helping peop ple maintain their culturral and religiious identity y. In recent yyears church h is funded by the SSlovak Ministtry of Culture e and has gaained a stron ng influence in the socieety along with a major involvem ment in political matterrs and decission making mechanisms. The stake keholders’ viiew of the position of the churcch within the Slovak socciety seemed d to be contradictory. Soome stakeho olders held the opin nion that the e church sho ould be sepaarated from the state an nd the politi tical matterss. This was attempted in the pa ast unsuccesssfully due tto the stron ng political influence i off the religious parties. he influentiaal role of th he church in n political m matters and suggested Other sttakeholders endorsed th taking ad dvantage of this power in i local socie ety and using its resourc ces in futuree preventive efforts for Y-SAV. W What was strressed as imp portant by soome stakeho olders was th he influentiaal role of the e church in Y-SAV m matters. In particular, p itt was mentiooned that ev very action to address iissues of sex xuality has met the strong nega ative reaction n of the religgious organissations, whic ch in turn haave affected the public opinion and consequ uently the governors’ g d ecisions. Some years ag go, the goveernment statted openly ey will not ad ddress issues of homose exuality while a TV programme on h omosexualitty in Czech that the Republicc was very negatively n criticised c witthin Slovakia a. On the other hand, the newly established e Committtee on LGBT TI issues with hin the Advissory Board of o the Goverrnment on H Human Rightss, National Minoritie es and Gend der Equity (a after a failu re to establlish it in sprring 2011) w was considere ed to be a positive step toward ds the recogn nition of the e problem. The T current post-secular p period was considered c to be ch haracteristic by radicalissing politicall attitudes on o sexuality. The formerr Minister of Education (represe enting a leftt-central pollitical party)) called the request forr same-sex registered partnership p ‘perversion’.4 Likew wise, approximately 8 yeaars ago (200 04) there was a national action plan for sexual ealth prepare ed for the M Ministry of He ealth but wa as never putt into force due to the and reprroductive he strong p political influ uence of the e religious p parties. This political sittuation was also thoughtt to affect youth po olicy in Slova akia, which currently c ad dresses only y youth mobiility, employyment, recre eation, and other sim milar areas but not sexuality. It waas however encouraging that the M Ministries of Education, Health, Internal Affa airs and othe ers are curre ently in the middle m of de eveloping thee Youth Stra ategy 2014will be related to youth h health andd well-being, involving 2020 witth thematic areas, one of which w sexual h health and prevention. p Among A othe er suggestion ns some stak keholders higghlighted th he need to stimulatte the deve elopment of a diversityy of discourrses around sexuality tthat would enable to o minority-p pluralities in nstead of the e traditional majority deecision-makin ng process. introducce a culture of It was fu urther underlined that if i conflicts iin the sexua ality arena are a to be so lved, silence e needs to evolve in nto conflicting discourse es.
Lajčáko ová, Petocz a Kolíková. (201 11). Ľudské a menšinové prráva. In M. Ko ollár, M. Bútorra, G. Mesežn nikov (Eds.), Slovensko o 2010. Súhrnn ná správa (pp. 151-167). Brratislava: IVO. (Quote: Pp. 152). 4 Ibid, pp p. 153. 2
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3. Consservatism ass an obstacle e to youth ssexuality witthin the Slov vak society Sexualityy was not co onsidered to o be an easyy topic to discuss within n the Slovakk family. Parrents were thought to efficientlly avoid disc cussing with their childre en about sex xuality due too being unco omfortable or emba arrassed. This was large ely attribute ed to the strrong conserv vatism and ssometimes illiberalism i that see em to characcterise the Slovak S socie ety. People don’t d reportt cases of yoouth sexual aggression and victiimization an nd thus the problem p is th hought to be e underreported. Accordiing to recentt research5 attitudes towards sexual minorrities in the e general pu ublic were shown s to difffer significa antly from a other minority m grou ups. Moreov ver, the highest share oof citizens refuses to attitudes towards any on on sexual minorities and their ne eeds. This combination c was thought to result express their opinio ort of societa al synergy in refusal and neglect of sexual s ‘otherrness’ in thee Slovak socie ety. into a so 4. NGO Os as main ac ctors in the fight againsst sexual vio olence Stakehollders underllined the lac ck of servicces to addre ess youth sexual aggresssion and vic ctimization either att governmen ntal or at non-governmen ntal level bo oth for young g victims or perpetrators of sexual violence e. A governm mental counc cil on preven ntion of crim minality was indicated ass the body in n charge of safety at schools, which w employ ys an interse ectoral strate egy but is not active in Y-SAV matters. It was mentioned that t preventtive efforts iin youth pop pulations are e geared by a special Department D further m under th he Ministry of o Internal Affairs. A Howe ever, Y-SAV matters werre thought tto be missing g from the agenda o of this Deparrtment. In line with thatt, the existin ng youth organisations w were thoughtt to be less active on n issues of se exual violenc ce. other hand, there are se everal non-ggovernmenta al organisatio ons dealing w with issues of o violence On the o against cchildren, girrls and boys, women butt none of the em addressing sexual vioolence in ch hildren and young pe eople. The NGO N ‘Slovak k Family Plan nning Association, SFPA’ (a nationall branch of IPPF)6 was mentioned as being active in th hat area. Itss activities include i the promotion oof sexual ed ducation in unteers and members m of the associattion organise e various eduucational ac ctivities for Slovak scchools. Volu pupils, tteachers and parents at a schools b ut this activ vity is based on bilate ral collaboration with individua al school au uthorities and d not univerrsally introduced by the e Ministry off Education. There are also ano onymous helplines certiified by the e governmen nt to offer assistance to children and their parents in various isssues and situ uations some e of them related to sexu uality. Anonyymity in these services ht to be attrractive to yo oung people and this is the t reason why w these seervices are widely w used is though by peop ple of all ag ges for very sensitive/p personal issu ues. In addittion, some NGOs that have been establish hed to addre ess youth sex xuality issuess are not easily identifia able in local society due e to lacking continuity. On the other o hand, prevention in youth is thought to be b mainly geeared by NG GOs, which er risk behavviours of you uth, they are e in an ideall position to help in Ydespite focusing on GBV or othe evention. Th he Children of Slovakiaa Foundation n (CSF), the e largest inddependent foundation SAV pre providing grant-prog grammes for NGOs workiing with children and yo oung people up to 26 ye ears of age n active in issues relevant to child d abuse issue es, but not directly to Y-SAV in a number of has been ways. Mo ost importan ntly, it has prepared p the e Alternative report on th he implemenntation of th he Optional Protocoll to the Convvention on the t Rights off the Child on o the sale of children, child prostitution and child po ornography (OPSC) in the Slovak Re epublic. In cooperation with w 10 otheer NGOs actting in the field of children an nd youth. The T other acctual reportt relevant to child abuuse issues prrepared in Slovakia was the rep port on Actio on against Trrafficking in Human Bein ngs, which inncludes also children & youth.7 a the e role of fam mily and sch hool to NGO Os. Young peeople were thought t to Some stakeholders ascribed b volunteerr workers tthan by gov vernmental approve preventive efforts geared or carrried out by initiative es as they are a not seen as official aand are trussted more ea asily. This iss the reason why most stakehollders identiffied the need to invest on the non-governmental sector byy increasing the funds, the fund ding opportunities and ge enerally by im eir capacity in staff and expertise. mproving the
Bianchi.., G., Luha, J. (2010). Názorová N nep participácia: sexuálna s a te elesná inakossť na okraji záujmu. In Sociológia a - Slovak Socciological Reviiew : časopis p pre otázky sociológie, (42), 548-563. 6 www.ro odicovstvo.sk 7 http://w www.coe.int/ /t/dghl/monittoring/traffickking/Docs/Rep ports/GRETA_ _2011_9_FGR__SVK_en.pdf
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They furrther suggestted the esta ablishment o f a coalition n between NG GOs aiming tto put presssure on the governm ment to identtify the prob blem of Y-SA AV and prom mote the nec cessary policcy and action ns towards effective e prevention n and interve ention. Althoough NGOs were w conside ered to be thhe key actors in youth preventiion, many off the stakeho olders were disturbed ab bout the une equal distribbution of funds and the rather liimited part of o the goverrnmental bud dget allocated to NGOs for their hu ge task. NGO Os were in fact thou ught to operrate under ve ery unfavourrable conditiions due to the t shortage of staff and d funds and many off them are thought t to strive to survvive. Anothe er issue thatt caused greeat frustratio on was the fact thatt access to certain c governmental fu nds was only y available to t state orgaanisations altthough the major part of their responsibiliities is beingg carried ou ut by NGOs. The lack oof preparedn ness of the onal staff to t identify and provide e specialised d assistance e for Y-SAV V was also underlined professio although h a movemen nt to train first f line proofessionals iss currently in n progress w within Slovak kia, carried out by N NGOs under governmenta g al funding an nd particularly by childre en psychologiists. ng action currrently unde rtaken by NG GOs involvess the developpment of a coalition c of Some other promisin nder the lea adership of the t Children of Slovakia a Foundation n and UNICA AF called ‘Co oalition for NGOs un children’, which is going g to colla aborate with h the Committee on child dren and youuth within th he Advisory H Rightts, National Minorities and a Gender Equity with hin the 1st Board off the Goverrnment on Human quarter of 2013 tow wards the upd date of the aactual Natio onal action plan p for childdren and you uth for the ears. Representatives of the Chiildren of Slovakia S Fou undation exxpressed th he further next ye opportun nities to address Y-SAV V matters th hrough the CSF biggest grant makiing program mme called ‘Children n’s Hour’ ass well as through its new w grant-mak king program mme under thhe NGO Prog gramme of EEA Fina ancial Mecha anism 2009-2 2014 under tthe call title ed ‘Empowe erment of Vuulnerable Ch hildren and Youth’. In addition to t the above e plans, the C Council for Slovakia S High her Educatioon, as an adv visory body Ministry of Education is i planning to recomme end the improvement oof the unde ergraduate to the M educatio on of first liine professio onals to the e Ministry off Education as well as to develop a national action plan for Y-SAV V with a core e group of yooung higher education sttudents. uality educa ation: A misssing issue fro om the scho ool curriculu um 5. Sexu As regarrds to educa ation, it beca ame clear th hat no officiial sexuality y education iis currently offered at schools but there are a instead several init iatives fund ded by the government and implem mented by m to focus oon traditiona al education with limiteed or any reference to NGOs. Schools in Slovakia seem ple’s sexualitty. Some staakeholders pa articularly mentioned m thhat sexuality y education issues off young peop in schoo ols has been recently ‘d downgraded’ by removin ng it from the portfolioo of compulssory school subjectss. Moreover, sexuality ed ducation offfered in scho ools that are e operated bby churches and other private schools ope erating unde er differentt value imp peratives (alll financed equally by the state undamental parts of the e sexual health agenda due to the lacck of a defin ned binding budget),, may miss fu minimal content forr sexuality ed ducation. Th he need to introduce universal educcation at sch hools about sexualityy topics wass underscore ed while som me stakehold ders suggeste ed that it neeeds to be optional o in order to o enable pup pils to refuse e attendance e, when necessary. Othe ers stressed the need of consensus developm ment among g all the stakeholders in n education (Ministry off Education, religious grroups, civil organisa ations etc.) on o the minim mal requirem ments for a compulsory c sexuality s eduucation in prrimary and secondary schools. ed that, based on the scchool reform m in 2008, th he National IInstitute forr Education It was also mentione t mod del of govern nance in sch hools with th he following characteristtics: public (ŠPÚ) inttroduced a two-tier educatio on program (70%) and sc chool educaation program m (30%). Through this m model, SPU provides a common n curriculum for all schoo ols and puts some standards for elem mentary andd secondary education, which ad ddress 70% of o the conten nt of the currriculum while the 30% of the curricuulum is selec cted by the school a authorities based b on cerrtain availab ble options. Several sch hools use thiis option to introduce sexualityy education as a separa ate school s ubject in a particular grade g of 0.55 (16 hours during the school yyear) or 1-hour (33 ho ours during the schooll year). Thiis 30% was considered d by some stakehollders as a go ood opportun nity to addre ess sexuality y issues with hin the schoool curriculum m although it would not be com mmon for all the schools due to being g optional. Despite D the bbenefits of this t model, akeholders stressed s tha at the strongg influence of Roman Catholic C Chuurch deters the school some sta authoritiies from sele ecting sexuality-related topics in this 30% portion of the schoool curriculu um.
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It was ffurther men ntioned that some schoools offer ba asic information about sexuality th hrough the courses titled ‘ethiccs’ and ‘cate echistical’. T The first one e is taught by y a specialiseed pedagogiics and the by a priest. Some stake eholder conssidered ‘catechistical’ as a a good oppportunity to promote second b sexualityy education by using the e power of rreligion on pupils p through training thhe priests to o offer this type of e education. In response to t this sugge estion, it wass argued that a human riights and he ealth-based sexualityy education can never be b sufficienttly performed by a Catho olic priest aas he has to follow the normativve regulatio ons of his church, whicch come in contrast with practicees such as the t use of condomss, access to certain c medical servicess, etc. also noted th hat since 19 997, there iss education on marriage e and parennthood includ ded in the It was a curriculu um of primary and secon ndary schoolls. This courrse is cross-ssectional in nnature and its i content and teacching metho ods depend on the schoool authoritiies and the teachers. T There are sc chools that ignore th his course within their cu urriculum, w while others address it efffectively. erlined that some teach hers offer se exuality educ cation despiite not been n officially It was ffurther unde included d in the sch hool curriculum and the ese teacherrs are usually stigmatiseed and considered as ‘trouble makers’ wiithin the mu unicipal auth horities in charge c of school monitooring. Exceptt from the efforts o of certain NGOs to prom mote a comp pulsory miniimum conten nt of sexual education in i schools, supporte ed by memb bers of the ruling r party and some opposition rig ght-wing libeeral parties, nobody is thought to have the courage to confront c the e leaders of the t church and undertakke the politic cal risk. also mention ned that a manual m on ssexuality education wass developed targeting students of It was a ISCED 2 (11-15 yearss of age). The manual aaimed to asssist the scho ool authoritiees and the teachers t in addressing sexualityy matters and Y-SAV and d was funded d by the IPPF. It was deeveloped by volunteers FPA (academ mics, psychollogists, teacchers with long experienc ce in sex ed ucation.8 Th he material of the SF consists of two partts: a method dological guid de for teach hers and worrksheets for students. The T manual containss a separate chapter reg garding the p prevention of o sexual abu use and violeence in the context of sexual a and reproductive rights and health . Although this manual was positivvely evaluatted by the Ministry of Education n it remaine ed unexploite ed by schooll authorities due to stronng argumentts posed by the religgious partiess. Neverthelless, copies of the man nual were diistributed too schools, educational e institutio ons and oth her professional officess and are successfully s used at prresent. SFPA A has also conducte ed a number of training g seminars foor teachers focused on the use of tthis manual in schools. This edu ucational ma aterial beca ame also avaailable on the t web by the lead orrganisation9 and many teacherss are curren ntly using th he material as guidance for their lessons. Bessides the material m on sexualityy education, there are directives d of the Ministry y of Educatio on for NGOs and schools on how to address bullying at schools s withiin lesson, wh hich is availa able on the web. w 10 akeholders also a referred d to the speccialised stafff employed in schools deepending on the school Some sta budget. In particular, it was notted that som me schools employ e psych hologists or sspecialised pedagogics p to provide professio onal assistan nce to the p pupils and the teachers. It was how wever mentioned that enditure and they are usually em mployed as part time these professionals raise the school expe ees. Some sttakeholders were w frustraated with the fact that the t school bbudget depends on the employe number of pupils an nd thus man ny schools arre discriminated due to o lacking thee financial capacity c to employ professional staff. Schoo ols that can’’t afford to employ e professional stafff have the alternative a ases for pssychological assessment and assisstance to certain gov vernmental option to refer ca ogical centre es that operrate at big ccities to add dress the sc chool needs of the whole district. psycholo Several cconcerns we ere however reported ab bout the pre eparedness of o the professsional staff to address Y-SAV m matters in th hese city ce entres and th he need to improve the e staff know wledge, dete ection and managem ment skills on o Y-SAV casses was und derscored. Be esides that, it was menntioned that schools in most casses use the services of the t psycholoogical centre es to address student drropouts while bullying, aggressivve behaviou ur and every ything relate ed to sexuallity is intenttionally conccealed altho ough quite often it is suspected d.
Rovňano ová, L. - Lukššík, I. - Lukšík ková, Ľ. (eds ). (2007). Me etodická príru učka pre sexuáálnu výchovu na druhom stupni zá ákaldných škôll v rámci osno ov výchovy k m manželstvu a rodičovstvu. r Bratislava B : Okkat Plus pre SP PR, 2007. 9 http://rrodicovstvo.w wordpress.com m/metodiky/m metodiky/ 10 www.p prevenciasikan novania.sk 5
Reco ommendations the Slovak Republic, R 20122
Serious concerns we ere also rep ported aboutt the majorr role of the e local goveernment in the school n. The stake eholders we ere uncertain n about the e effectiven ness of self--governance in Slovak function w reporte d about the e insufficientt knowledgee and trainin ng of local regions and serious concerns were w as theirr susceptibility to politic cal interestss. Serious do oubts were governorrs to address Y-SAV as well raised ab bout the level of preparedness of loccal governorrs to make co orrect decisiions about educational e matters without hollding the ap ppropriate ed ducation, atttitudes and the culturee on the one e hand and without having the political autonomy to d decide based d on the sch hool interessts on the otther hand. Increasin ng the auton nomy and the e overall cap pacity of sch hools to addrress Y-SAV m matters was mentioned as a priority. Beside es the limited knowledgge and expe ertise of tea achers to iddentify and effectively m in schools,, they are allso thought to be relucttant to repoort the probllem due to address the problem ant conseque ences follow wing such praactices such h as stigmatiisation to loocal authoritties. It was unpleasa also men ntioned thatt the low soc cioeconomic status of the teachers justifies theiir low engagement and commitm ment in addrressing Y-SAV V. It was thu us stressed as a important to have proofessional sta aff such as primary prevention coordinatorss, school psyychologists and a social pe edagogues to address th hese issues at schoo ols. It was further menttioned as im mportant to train the te eachers alongg with other first line professio onals in agaiinst the strong stereotyp pes they hold d and to be more alert. To have the e autonomy to reporrt cases of Y-SAV without been a fraid of stig gmatisation and bad crriticism. Altthough the employm ment of app propriate sta aff for sexu al education n in schoolss has been thought to be a long pending issue due to o insufficientt school fund ds, certain stakeholder seemed s to hoold a differe ent view of the situa ation, attrib buting highesst responsibiility to the lack l of political will. Scchools were thought to suffer a shortage off staff, speciialists and m money. Furth hermore, parents don’t seem to hav ve realised their pow wer to affecct the school program an nd they show w low intenttion to collabborate with the school authoritiies. Althoug gh they hav ve a voice iin the 30% of the scho ool curriculuum they have limited influence e. 6. Som me recommendations forr policy and practice
up a monitorring system for f victimize ed youth at national n leve el. Set u Lega alise sex servvices to conttrol sexual exxploitation of o youth. Sepa arate the chu urch from state and polittical matters. Invest in the non n-governmen ntal sector byy increasing the funds, the t funding oopportunities and their acity in stafff and expertiise. capa Imprrove undergrraduate educ cation of firsst line professsionals. Deve elop a nation nal action plan for youth h aggression and victimiz zation. Intro oduce sexuallity educatio on in the schoool curriculu um. Colla aborate with h all stakeho olders in ed ucation to reach r consen nsus on the minimal req quirements for a compulsoryy sexuality education in primary and secondary schools. s Incre ease the au utonomy and d the overaall capacity of schools to address youth aggre ession and victiimization.