YOUTH SEXUAL AGGRESSION AND VICTIMIZATION IN SPAIN STAKEHOLDERS’ PERSPECTIVES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE Principal Author: Franny Parren, Rutgers WPF Utrecht, The Netherlands December 1, 2012
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
The curren nt report is info ormed by person nal interaction with representatives of different organisationns and individuals in Spain and desk rresearch. Consu ultations were conducted betw ween June-October 2012. Org ganisations: Fedderación Mujere es Jóvenes, Fundación Mujeres, Accción en Red, Federación F Plaanificación Fam miliar España (FPFE), ( Sexpol,, Solidaridad. Individuals (experts): Lucas Platero (Universidad Co omplutense Ma drid and LGBT activist), Diana a Sojo (gynaecoologist at Centrro de Salud Madrid), Isabel Sorriano o Villaroel (Fe emtopia), Isabeel Vicario-Moliina (Department of Developpmental and Educational E Psychologyy, University off Salamanca), Lucia Mazarrasa Alvear (Instituto de salud Carrlos III), Vita Arrrufat (Public Health H Unit, Castelló; R Red Activas), María M Dolores Gerez Valls (Direector of Centro o de Salud San Fernando), Maargarita Galustia an Jimenez (Lawyer), Concha Lopez Casares C (Psycho ologist), Rafaelaa Martin Perez (individual expert, collaboratees with differen nt women’s organisatio ons), Juan Carllos Diezma (Doctor, Works in health promottion for youth in i Madrid), Raqquel Millan Susiinos (Social Worker).
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
1. Spain: a setback k in opportu unities to wo ork on youth h sexual agg gression and d victimizatio on exual aggresssion and victimization (Y-SAV) in Spain has The poliitical climatte to work on youth se deteriorated since the central riight Partido Popular (People’s Party or PP) camee into powerr on the 20 er 2011. Durring the conssultation, staakeholders reported r that work that has been de eveloped in Novembe the fram mework of the t Law 1/2004 on Coomprehensive e Protection n Measures against gen nder based violence e, is rapidly being broke en down due e to changes in politica al priorities, guided by ideological i reasons w which are ju ustified by th he economicc crisis. owing concerns were exp pressed whicch could influ uence (futurre) work on YY-SAV: The follo the combination n of the economic crisiss, austerity programmes p and a conseervative reg gime which he core of itts governing g has resulteed in or is planned p to places traditional ‘family values’ at th t law on sexual and reproductive health, saame-sex marriage and result in modifications of the ell as the cloosure of wom men’s centre es’, cutbacks ks on youth work w and a (sexuality) education, as we mantling’ off state programmes and d subsidies directed at the eliminaation of gen nder based ‘dism viole ence and the e promotion of gender eq quality; the influence an nd presence of the Cath holic Church h within gove ernmental sttructures an nd decision es is growing g, and some politicians (currently in power?) havve direct linkages with making processe holic Institutions; Cath also within socie ety and amo ong the Span nish populatiion there seems to be a renewed appraisal of traditional value es and conservatism (acccording to some inform mants, this is especially y the case eas). Signs off growth of such neo-coonservative movements m among younger populations in rural are n the ‘march hes for life’ which favour of the baan on abortion. These can be seen forr example in ganised by the t growing movement ‘hazteoir’ (make your vvoice heard). Another marcches are org noticceable issue e are the re ecent argum ents put forrward by the organisatiion ‘custodia a paterna’ (Spa anish associa ation for fath hers with cu ustody over children) that state funnded program ms to fight gend der based vio olence facilittate and jus tify criminallisation and discriminatio d on of men.1 es to work on youth ssexual aggre ession and Stakehollders have noticed a backlash in possibilitie victimiza ation. Howevver, it is alsso emphasise ed that threa ats to make changes to laws and policies have also bro ought about discussions and renewe ed mobilisattion of civil society orgganisations, as well as citizens concerned about a losing basic rights..2 2. Acting against youth y sexuall aggression and victimiization, topiics of discusssion a again nst Y-SAV in the implem mentation of the law on gender base ed 2.1 Limiitations for acting viole ence During tthe socialist regime led d by Prime M Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapate tero (2004–2011) Spain made ad dvancements with the developmen nt of specifiic measures to fight geender based d violence, includingg sexual violence in the e frameworkk of the Organic Law 1/2004.3 Withh this law, the Spanish governm ment showed its commitm ment to erad dicate gende er based viole ence and maade it a publlic interest and a re esponsibility of society instead of a private mattter which should be so lved within the family and betw ween ‘a ma an and his wife’. w This w was a rupturre in Spanish h tradition aand the Fran nco period where the tradition nal role of the t family aand the resttriction of women’s w righhts were co ontinuously ed through policies. Under the resp ponsibility of o the Goverrnment Deleegation again nst Gender reinforce Based Viiolence and the State Observatory O on Violence Against Wo omen, a coorrdinated app proach has been de eveloped wiith specific protocols ffor action for f differentt fields likee justice, health h and educatio on.4 Addition nally a syste em for colle ecting data and a state statistics on ggender base ed violence was crea ated, with sp pecific disaggregated datta per age but not per ty ype of violennce.5 1
http://ccustodiapaterrna.blogspot.n nl/2012/01/esspana-denuncias-falsas-de-las-mujeres.hhtml, internet access at 12 Octobe er 2012 2 An exam mple is the pla atform ‘nosotros decidimoss’ (we decide)) that gathers individuals annd organisatio ons against planned rreforms of the e law on aborttion by the Miinistry of Justice. 3 Ley Orgánica de Protección integra al contra la Viiolencia de Gé énero 4 See: ww ww.msc.es/ssii/violenciaGen nero/violenciaaGenero/prottocoloActuacio on/home.htm m Information on instrumen nts were provvided by the Observatory O off Women’s Health of the Ministry of Heallth, Social Serrvices and Equality d during a visit to their office e. 5 For the most recent gender g based violence survvey (2011), see e: 1
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
This new w legislation focused on harsher h penaalties for offfenders, the establishmeent of trainin ngs and protocolls for professsionals on ho ow to adequaately detect and deal with victims off gender bassed violence e and ensurin ng victim’s access to servvices. Aware eness raising campaigns hhave also been impleme ented throug gh educational institution ns and media a. However, according too different stakehollders due to a range of fa actors (whicch will be desscribed below), work on youth sexua al aggressio on and victim mization, and prevention n in particula ar remains currently undder-addresse ed. ghly decentrralised gove ernmental sttructure. Thee autonomo ous regions Spain is a monarchyy with a hig have reggional parliaments and a large mand date in formulating polic cies and decciding on how w to spend their budget. The na ational gove ernment devveloped crite eria for train ning of profeessionals, pro otocols for p on hoow to tend to o victims of gender baseed violence. Indicators the heallth care secttor and the police to detecct cases of gender g based d violence w were also dev veloped, how wever there are no oblig gations for the auto onomous com mmunities to meet min nimal standa ards. The responsibility for impleme entation is decentra alised and transferred to the au utonomous communitiess. Stakeholdders notice that the effective eness largelyy depends on n the comm itment of th he autonomo ous communiities, which is often in line with h its politica al colour or depends on n the presen nce of politicians or chaampions com mmitted to work on n the issue. This also seems to b be the case with work on youth ssexual aggre ession and victimiza ation, which h has been unevenly de eveloped across the 17 regions. Sta takeholders claim that some au utonomous communities (e.g. Canariias, País Vassco, Andalussia) can be cconsidered progressive p in their stance to ad ddress the issue of gend der based (a and sexual) violence v am mong young people p and een supportiive in termss of financiing program mmes for and by youngg people. An n example have be mentioned was the research r and d prevention n programme e DETECTA which w is impleemented by Fundación o changing sexist valuees among you uth. At the Mujeres with the govvernment off Andalucía aand focuses on momentt there is a tendency t to cut social se ervices due to t the austerity measurees and the demands d of opean Union n. This mean ns an additi onal deterio oration of opportunitiess to work on n Y-SAV at the Euro regional and local le evel. More so o because th he central go overnance is led by the cconservative e PP and in twelve o out of seventteen autonom mous govern nments the PP P is in powe er. ncern related d to governaance and the e structure of o governmenntal funding addressed Another issue of con during tthe consultations, was that t stakehoolders assertt that structures whichh stimulate bottom up learning are lacking. NGOs in pa articular, fe eel that there is only lim mited learninng from expe eriences in practice e by governm mental instiitutions thatt provide fu unding. Learrning could be stimulatted within ed platformss in which different d govvernmental and a NGO sta akeholders coome togethe er to learn integrate from eacch other (as was the case e with the H HIV-AIDS prog gramme - wh hich recentlyy ended). ges and oppo ortunities re ported by sttakeholders: Summaryy of challeng after the establiishment of the 2004 inte egral law to combat gender based viiolence much has been e at an instittutional leve el (special un nits and prottocols were created c to ddeal with gen nder based done viole ence across, for example e the health h sector, jusstice and education). Thhis led to an n increased reco ognition of th he problem among a Spaniish citizens and a strengthened the fraamework to work on YSAV;; a sysstem of data a and statisttics collectioon on gender based viole ence has beeen created at a national gove ernment leve el (by the National Obse ervatory on Gender Based Violence ), however, there is a focu us on ‘femiccide’ with little specificcation per ty ype of viole ence. As a rresult it is difficult d to measure the pre evalence of Y-SAV; Y therre are gaps in the implem mentation off the law an nd regulation ns and work is unevenly developed amongst regions; workk on youth sexual agg gression and d victimizattion remains under-adddressed. Th his is true particularly in te erms of prev vention; us communities to com mply with miinimum stan ndards and speccific obligatiions lack for autonomou impllementation of measures to combatt gender bassed violence seems to deepend on th he political colour or the com mmitment of certain ‘ch hampions’ wiithin the reg gions; cuts in social se ervices leads to a deteriooration of op pportunities to work on Y-SAV at re egional and local level; therre is a lack of o mechanism ms and platfforms where e governmental institutioons can learn n from the pracctice of NGO’s and vice-v versa.
www.mscc.es/ssi/violen nciaGenero/p publicaciones//estudiosinvesstigaciones/PD DFS/AvanceMaacroencuesta2 2011.pdf 2
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
2.2 A na arrow underrstanding an nd definition n of gender based viole ence, aware eness raising g does not appe eal to youth h Since 20 004, differe ent State fu unded progrrams and campaigns c such as ‘sacca la tarjetta roja al matratad dor’, ‘no occultemos el maltrato, de enunciémosllo’ and ‘No te saltes lass señales. Elige E vivir’6 were im mplemented.. This led to t an incre eased aware eness among g the Spaniish population of the existencce and serio ous characte er of gende er based vio olence. One stakeholdeer noticed a shift for example e where thatt the media had often p previously re eferred to a case of rapee as ‘crimen n pasional’ (crime o of passion). wever, gend der based vio olence has b become partt of the voc cabulary andd currently at a least all Now how cases of gender base ed murder or femicide re eceive atten ntion. By usin ng the term gender base ed violence the crim me is recognised as caussed by uneq qual power differences d between b meen and women, biased gender rroles and exp pectations. t the law w 1/2004 reco ognises the specific s gendder based ch haracter of Stakehollders perceivve the fact that violence e against women as a step in th he right dirrection. The e (former) government explicitly recognissed gender based b violence as part aand parcel of o unequal power p relatioons and com mmitted to addressing unequal gender rela ations that rreinforce suc ch violence.7 In additionn, sexual vio olence has a an area for action in n the nation nal sexual annd reproducttive health been reccognised as a problem and strategy 2011- 2012,, which was also designe ed by the former governm ment. aw gender ba ased violence is defined as ‘violence e exercised against a wom men by their present or In the la former sspouses or byy men with whom w they m maintain or have h maintaiined analogoous affective e relations, with or without coh habitation, as an expresssion of discrrimination, the t situationn of inequality and the elations prevvailing betw ween the sexxes’.8 This de efinition tak kes account oof female viictims that power re do not live togethe er with their partner, b but does no ot include gender g basedd violence committed c women outsiide a relatio onal context,, like inter peer p sexual violence v amoong youth or same sex against w couples of all ages. e that due to t prevailingg conservative norms in society aand the dom minance of Stakehollders notice religiouss institutionss such as the Catholic C Church, an intimate i rela ationship is often underrstood and interpreted as a marriage betwe een a husban nd and a wiffe. ‘It is a traditional peerception am mong many Spanish people thatt an affective relationsship ‘would, or rather should’, oftten imply a marriagen a man and d a woman’’, as one off the inform mants expressed. Expliccitly addresssing sexual between aggressio on among yo outh would be b in conflicct with the dominant d mo oral that youung people (especially minors --18) should not n be engag ged in sexuaal relationsh hips. ‘To recognise that young people do have sex and to acknowle edge the nee ed to work oon healthy sexual s relationships is a step too far for many people iin Spain and d some politticians, espe ecially in th he current climate wherre conservattive values prevail iin policy ma aking’. Stake eholders em mphasised that in Spain very conserrvative or ‘ttraditional’ values ccoexist alon ngside with progressive e values an nd ideas, especially e cooncerning sexual and reproducctive health and rights. A large portiion of societty supports progressive p ppolicies (i.e. more than half of tthe populatio on support sa ame sex marrriage) wherreas another large portioon truly oppo oses them. The conttext is comp plex, and the e feeling is tthat society is i increasing gly polarised and divided d according to generrations, place of living (e e.g. rural, urrban) and other factors. ative values are also reflected in aw wareness raissing campaig gns. During Some off the prevailiing conserva interview ws the argum ment was ma ade that cam mpaigns do not n address youth sexuaal aggression as a topic of urgen ncy and are not n that effe ective in raisiing awarene ess around th he topic. Thee general impression of stakehollders is that the campaig gns and the media for a large part portrait p gendder based vio olence as a narrow issue - predominantly physical p vioolence conducted by a man towaards his wife. Poster en between 330-50 years with w damage ed faces and physical injuries. campaiggns generallyy show wome
Translattion: ‘Pull a re ed card for pe erpetrators off violence’, ‘D Do not hide th he signs of vioolence, but re eport them’, ‘Do not iggnore the sign nals. Chose to live’. 7 Law 1/2 2004 on Comp prehensive Pro otection Measuures against gender g based violence, v preaamble. 8 Law 1/2 2004 on Comp prehensive Pro otection Measuures against gender g based violence, v articcle 1.1. 3
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
Some yo outh do not feel f addressed by these images and have difficu ulties perceiiving sexual aggression that the ey might exp perience in their daily lives as vio olence, especially the m more ‘usual’ forms9 of sexual ccoercion. Mo oreover, stak keholders thiink that in (government ( t supported)) awareness campaigns there ha as been too strong a foc cus on victim ms and secon ndary prevention (focus on the imp portance of reporting, when viollence alread dy occurred) instead of challenging c prejudices p a nd stereotyp pes as root of such viole ence or payiing attention n to structu ural causes of o sexual vioolence. Anotther issue, causes o which is remarkable according to some stake eholders is the t tendency y to define tthe right to abortion a as a form o of structural gender base ed violence to which pre egnant women are beingg subjected (stated by Gallardó ón, Minister of o Justice in a parliamen ntary speech on 7 March 2012).10 ess raising is i regarded to be morre effective in addressing youth ssexual aggre ession and Awarene victimiza ation when it is directe ed more at bystanders and a the peo ople around the victim that could notice ssigns of unh healthy relationships. A According to o social worrkers who w were consultted, youth (especia ally girls) disscuss issues of sexualityy and relationships mosstly with theeir peers an nd friends. Moreove er, it is perce eived to be important too use terms that t match with w the expeeriences and d reality of young pe eople- and to t draw away from an exxclusive use e of the word d ‘rape’. Yo ung people, especially young w women are offten grapplin ng with more e subtle form ms of sexual aggression, ccoercion, an nd pressure based up pon multiple e expectation ns. Another recommenda ation is to bu uild strategicc alliances with w places where yo outh go, such as sport cllubs and barss, in order to o reach out to t them. o used by youth to e express and exchange opinions, som me stakehold ders notice As social media is often e potential to work th hrough these e channels could be further exploored. Howe ever, some that the represen ntatives of NGOs N emphassised that yoouth often ask for leaflets in printedd form, as th hat is what they tru ust as ‘corre ect’ informa ation. So, tthe trust in social media as a souurce to find objective informattion is consid dered low. These T organiisations are concerned that social m media will be e used as a substituttion for cam mpaigns and more expenssive preventtion efforts in i order to rreduce spending. They think that, although h social med dia could be e a complem mentary insttrument in ccampaigns to promote on and to address a youn ng target grooup, contact in real life is crucial. discussio ges and oppo ortunities re ported by sttakeholders: Summaryy of challeng in co omparison with w ten yearrs ago, there e is a notable increase in the awareeness of the e existence and serious charracter of gen nder based vviolence amo ong the Span nish populattion. The me edia is also paying more atte ention to the e matter; f thatt the integrral law reco ognises the sspecific gen nder based it iss perceived as a step forward charracter of viollence against women; the current law w on gender based vioolence includes violence e exercised against wo omen in a xt. This law, however, d does not inc clude sexual violence am mong young peers (and relattional contex same e sex couple es of all ages) and victtims of such h violence cannot appeaal to measu ures of the integgrated law; consservative ide eas and stig gmas around d sexually active a youth narrow thee space to recognise, discu uss and addrress Y-SAV; awarreness raisin ng campaigns do not sufficiently address Y-S SAV but foccus predominantly on physsical violence e conducted by a man toowards his wife. w Youth feel that (posster) campaiigns hardly everr cover the experiences of sexual ccoercion and d violence th hat they enccounter in their t lives. More e messages and a images that appeal to youth arre necessary and campaiigns could be focussed more e on the bysstanders. Building strate egic alliancess with places where youuth often go (like bars, sporrt clubs) coulld help in reaching youth h; NGO Os started to o explore ne ew media aas an instrum ment for ca ampaigning aand awareness raising (parttly due to ne eed because lack of resoources, partly y because off identified nneeds of you uth to work with h new media a). The pote ential of soccial media to o address Y-SAV could bbe explored d more but therreby it should d be taken into accountt that youth are hesitantt to trust thee informatio on at social al media cou uld be a complementarry instrumennt but it sho ould never media as ‘objecctive’. Socia ace real life contact with the targett group. repla
‘More u usual refers to o cases that are a more freq quent or case es where there e is unwantedd sexual beha aviour other than rape e. 10 http:// /politica.elpaiis.com/politic ca/2012/03/007/actualidad/ /1331109997_ _755805.html,, internet acce ess at 12 October 2 2012 4
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
2.3 Prev vention is crrucial to tackle root cau uses of Y-SAV A reoccu urring comm ment from sttakeholders was that ex xisting policies on gendder based vio olence are ineffectiive as they fail f to tackle e root cause es and barrie ers that youn ng victims faace when se eeking help or reporting cases off sexual viole ence. uch as fear, economic d dependence from family y members oor partners, prejudices To tacklle barriers su and soccial control by the community, a more com mprehensive approach iis needed, and early interven ntion (targetting youth in n the age off 12-13 yearss old) is cru ucial. Howevver, stakeholders think that the e current policy, as far as it is impllemented, focusses mainly on awarreness raising, training and improving suppo ort services and a less on p prevention. One of the reasons r for tthis, accordin ng to some d behaviour of youth takes time annd relatively expensive stakehollders is thatt changing attitudes and preventiion programm mes will sho ow little to n no concrete results within a period oof governing g (4 years). Creatingg protocols for f existing services s cou ld be politic cally more in nteresting, leess expensiv ve and less controve ersial than prevention. 2.4 Currrent changes of the edu ucational currriculum impede the prrevention off Y-SAV One of tthe important structure es for preven ntion of you uth sexual aggression annd victimization is the educatio onal curricullum in schoo ols. Spanish statutory education e law views sexxuality educ cation as a universa al subject an nd also the 2004/1 law on gender based violen nce states tthat (article 4.1.) ‘the Spanish education syystem shall make m the te aching of re espect for fundamental rrights and lib berties and ality of men n and women n a part of its objective es’, and (artticle 4.3.) ‘pprimary education will the equa help students to become skilled d in the peaaceful solutio on of conflic cts and to uunderstand and a defend equality’. Ho owever, desp pite of this cclear statement in law, sexuality s ed ucation in Spain is not sexual e mandato ory and therre are no qu uality standaards. The co ontent depe ends on the skills, know wledge and ideologiccal backgrou und of the teacher t and//or institutio on. There are some goood exampless of rightsbased se exuality worrkshops facilitated in sch hools by NGOs like Sexp pol and Accióón en Red and a out-ofschool p peer educatio on programm mes provided d by Fundac ción Mujeres and Federaación Mujere es Jóvenes. Howeverr, the genera al opinion is that with th he rule of th he PP linkage es between politics, policy-making and religion are blu urred and the t conservaative stance e of the Cattholic Churcch on issues regarding al rights determines edu ucation. Stakeholders no ote that esppecially in rural r areas sexualityy and sexua religiouss institutes like the Opuss Dei are be ecoming morre influential in their conntrol over th he content of sexua ality educatiion (with a focus on ab bstinence and chastity instead of respecting sexual s and reproducctive health and rights of o oneself and d others). gression and victimizatioon within sch hools is the Another obstacle forr the prevention of yout h sexual agg initiative e of the Miinister of Education too change the e course off ‘Educaciónn para la Ciudadanía’ C (citizensship educatio on) into ‘Educación Cíviica y Constittucional’ (civic and consstitutional education). e This hap ppened in January 2012 after a some p parents organised and crriticised the curriculum of being in conflict with their right r to choo ose an educaation for the eir children which fits ttheir moral beliefs b and ideas ab bout the trad ditional family and relatiionships. The e Minister off Education ddecided that he would eliminatte ‘controversial questio ons’11 and in nstead of de ealing with human h valuees, respect and a sexual diversityy the course now exclusively focusse es on the working of the constitutioon in Spain. There has been a responses by progressiv ve autonomoous regions like Andaluc cía, País Vassco and Cattaluña who ed to make use u of their right r to deciide upon 35% % of the scho ool curriculuum (Andalusia) and 45% expresse (for the other two) to have the ese topics stiill discussed within scho ools.12 Howevver, in mostt cases the new reggulation mea ans that the opportunityy to openly discuss d Y-SA AV within thee classroomss has been d. removed urrent climatte within wh hich the State no longerr fulfils the obligation to t create a Especially in this cu ment for youth to discusss sexuality and a relationsships, it is pperceived ass crucial to supportive environm ategic alliances that cou uld endorse sexuality ed ducation in schools or oout of schoo ol settings. find stra Example es given werre to work more with AMPAS (Associations off Mothers annd Fathers of Pupils), student unions and teacher t unions.
See, fo or example: www.elmundo.es/elmundo/22012/08/04/e espana/1344071841.html See, fo or example: htttp://sociedad d.elpais.com//sociedad/201 12/05/24/actu ualidad/13378889433_41774 46.html 5
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
Summaryy of challeng ges and oppo ortunities re ported by sttakeholders: altho ough Spanish law stressses the impoortance of sexuality s education, it is not mand datory and therre are no qua ality standards; therre are some e good exa amples of rrights-based sexuality workshops provided by y external orga anisations in schools but the genera l opinion is that the inffluence of reeligious instiitutions on scho ool curriculu um on sexuality is largge (and gro owing, espe ecially in ruural regions), thereby focu ussing on abstinence and chastity; the change of th he curriculum of ‘citize nship education’ into ‘c civic and connstitutional education’ oves the oblligation of sschools to ad ddress and by the Minister of Education in Januaryy 2012 remo uss issues off respectful (sexual) ( relaationships an nd sexual diversity. Thereeby the opportunity to discu discu uss Y-SAV an nd related isssues openly w within the classrooms ha as been remooved; in this current climate it is crucial tto find strategic allianc ces that coould endorse e sexuality hools (like AMPAS, A Assocciations of Mothers M and Fathers of PPupils), student unions educcation at sch and teacher unio ons. 2.5 The need for yo outh friendly y services an nd health ca are In generral the imprression is th hat compare ed to adults, youth face e more diffi ficulties and are more hesitant to seek help in cases off sexual viol ence victimiisation. Youtth often lackk the knowle edge about the existence of serrvices and th heir rights, as well as not n having th he resourcess or the con nfidence to ational Sexua al and Reprooductive Hea alth Strategy y13 2011 of tthe Ministry of Health, seek hellp. In the Na Social P Politics and Equality, it is argued tthat investin ng in sexuall health of children and youth is nt because it contribu utes to the e development of hea althy sexuall relationships during importan adulthoo od. Although h in this polic cy youth are e addressed as specific group g with s pecific need ds, there is no obligation for im mplementatio on of the po licy by autonomous com mmunities annd clear indicators and o improve ‘y youth friendlyy services’ are a left out. objectivves on how to The Min nistry of He ealth create ed protocolss for health h care respo onses to geender based violence, describin ng risk facto ors, symptom ms, protocolls for medica al investigattion and thee referral of victims of sexual viiolence to otther servicess. However, in practice it is thought that there iis a lack of training t for professio onals on how w to work with w these p rotocols and d how to apply the criteeria. An inve estment in training and supportt of primary care professsionals is de eemed important, as thee first suppo ort offered to the vvictim and the t level off confidentiaality, and understanding g by the prrofessional will w largely determin ne whether a victim fee els sufficienttly supporte ed to report the case too the police and to be able to m make use of the support services and d structures as provided within the 22004/1 law. dation to imp prove servic e delivery to o young victtims of sexuaal violence was w to pay Another recommend attention to the posssible links between b unw wanted preg gnancy and sexual s violennce.14 In casse a young n abortion or o visits a ggynaecologisst with sexu ual health pproblems, itt could be woman requests an e to pose (in ndirect) quesstions about the sexual relationship, coercion or unwillingness. effective o important to t consider that t sexuallyy active youtth are vulnerable to beinng stigmatise ed and the It is also fear of judgmental statements by profess ionals can deter d young g victims of sexual violence from h care professionals shou uld be traine ed, not only y on how to work with criteria c but seeking help. Health ative thinkin ng and preju udices can negatively influence coommunication and the also on how norma relation of trust. Trraining on such ‘soft’ faactors is deemed necesssary in ordeer for professionals to provide sensitive and non-judgm mental suppoort to young victims and d to create a safe enviro onment for ng clients to discuss sexu ual aggressioon and victim mization. the youn n by professi onals is fairlly common Finally, it has been stated that in Spain the conscientious objection ers (i.e. in case of sexxuality educ cation), pharrmacists (reefusing to provide the and used by teache a doctors (in case of aabortion). Th his is considered a majoor problem, as it limits morning after pill) and the acce ess to a wide e range of rig ghts, especiaally those rellated to sexu uality and reeproduction.
www.m msps.es/organ nizacion/sns/p planCalidadSN NS/pdf/equida ad/ENSSR.pdf,, accessed at 12 October 20 012 There h has been some good researrch and a piloot on detectin ng cases of sexual violencee by integratin ng questions on health relationships and form ms of sexual coercion an nd violence within w surveyys of abortio on services: www.redxlasalud.org/index.php/mo od.documentoos/mem.desca argar/fichero.DOC-258%2322E%23pdf, acc cessed at 12 October 2 2012 14
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
Summaryy of challeng ges and oppo ortunities re ported by sttakeholders: youtth often lack k the knowledge about exxisting servic ces and the confidence tto seek help; altho ough in the National Se exual and Re eproductive Health Strattegy 2011 yoouth are addressed as speccific group of attention with w specificc needs, the ere is no oblligation for tthe impleme entation of the p e autonomou us communitties and clea ar indicators and objectivves on how to t improve policy by the ‘you uth friendly health h servic ces’ are left out; therre is a lack of training of professiionals on ho ow to work with protoocols on gen nder based ence and ho ow to apply y criteria. A An investmen nt is needed d in this are rea to make e protocols viole effecctive. Moreo over, as the fear for stiggmatisation and victim blaming is cconsidered an a obstacle for yyouth to see ek help, professionals shoould also be trained on ‘soft’ factorrs, e.g. how to provide senssitive and non-judgementtal support aand how to create c a safe e environmennt to discusss Y-SAV; e with w improviing service delivery d and support to yyoung victims of sexual therre are good experiences ence by payying attentio on to the p possible link ks between unwanted ppregnancy and a sexual viole viole ence. 3. Som me recommendations forr policy and practice (ass by Septem mber 2012): Governa ance and poliicy making Obliggations for minimum sttandards thaat autonomo ous communities and thhe central government shou uld comply with w have to be created to effective ely implemen nt national ppolicies on combatting c gend der based vio olence. Strucctures to leearn from practice shouuld be created by the governmentt to feed th heir policy making on addrressing youth sexual agggression and d victimizattion, e.g. inntegrated platforms in al and NGO sstakeholderss come togetther. whicch different governmenta ment statisticcs Governm More e specific sta atistics on gender based d violence pe er age and type of viole nce could be e gathered to m measure the prevalence p of o youth sexu ual aggressio on and victim mization. on: Educatio Conttinue advoca ating for the e obligation of the statte to provide educationn within schools about respectful sexua al relationsh hips in line with international human rights instrumentss (like the t Child, CEDAW) C and in line witth the national law 20004/1 on gen nder based Convvention of the viole ence, the 2010 abortion law and the 2006 education law. Sexu uality educattion should not only havve a health focus but also deal withh social and emotional aspe ects of sexua ality, inclusio on and respe ect for all gender orienta ations and seexual identities. Espe ecially in thiss current mo oment where ein the state e does no lon nger fulfil thhe obligation n to create a su upportive en nvironment for f youth too discuss sex xuality and relationshipps it is crucial to find strattegic alliances that could d endorse se exuality educ cation in sch hools or out oof school settings, like the A AMPAS (Asso ociations of Mothers M and Fathers of Pupils), P stude ent unions annd teacher unions. u port servicess: Health ccare and supp More e support an nd resourcess for trainingg is needed for professionals on how w to apply indicators, protocols and how to provide non-judggemental support to cre eate a suppoortive environment to uss sexual violence with young victim ms. discu Pay more attenttion to the linkages bettween unwa anted pregna ancies, sexuual health prroblems of ng people an nd sexual vio olence within n health care e services by y educating medical personnel and youn askin ng questionss about the relationship r in case of young y women n requestingg abortion orr attending gyna aecologists. Com mpulsory traiining of professionals w working with h youth (e.g g. at health centres, sc chools and universities etc.) on how to address you uth sexual ag ggression and d victimizati on. This traiining could mandatory to o get a degre ee and in ord der to becom me a civil serrvant. be m dia: New med The potential off new media a as a form of campaign ning and aw wareness raissing complem mentary to existting program mmes could be explored d more but it i should nev ver be usedd as a replac cement for existting, real-life e prevention n programme es and other types of cam mpaigns and activities. wareness raissing: Campaiggning and aw 7
Reco ommendations Spain, 2012
Chan nge the messsages in cam mpaigns from m a focus on domestic vio olence, ‘oldeer’ women and a victims to m more focus on n youth, more ‘usual’ foorms of sexual violence, the role of bbystanders, prejudices and gender norm ms that cause e violence.
Preventiion: Identify spaces where youtth go (like sport clubs, bars, church communnities) and work with ke trainers of o football te eams, teachers, youth workers) w to ddiscuss sexua al violence interrlocutors (lik among youth. n work with h 12-14 yearrs old as th his is the ph hase where normative values v and Startt prevention prejudices are fo ormed that could c cause and reinforc ce sexual violence.