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SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012 SEMESTER II AMP 354 – CONSUMER BAHAVIOR PROJECT PAPER: THE INTENTION TO USE SMARTPHONE AMONG STUDENTS

Lecturer:-

YBHG. DATO DR. ISHAK ISMAIL Prepared by:MEMBER’S NAME CHUAH WEN XU MA XIAO ONG SHI YUN TAN YINN JENG

MATRIC NO 000000 000000 000000 000000


AMP 345 – CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, we would like to sincerely thank our honourable lecturer Dato Dr. Ishak Ismail for guiding us and making this project possible. Without the valuable guidance and important advises from him, this project might fail and we can never complete this project. The guidance and assistance from Dato Dr. Ishak Ismail allow us to do this project accordingly, systematically and also successfully without losing the right track on completing this project as a whole. We would like to sincerely appreciate and thank his patience for bearing with our questions throughout the whole process on completing this project. We also deeply appreciate his effort for providing us students with examples that are related to the topic of our research.

We would also like to offer special thanks to all the students of University Science of Malaysia for offering us unconditional helps in completing the questionnaire which contributed to the success of this project. Besides, we would also like to thank the authority of Hamzah Sendut Library for providing us with sufficient facilities and comfortable environment and atmosphere to complete this research project.

Additionally, we would like to thank all group members who had contributed their efforts and times with the purpose of producing a well-organized assignment. The completion of our project has nurtures us into exploring this subject; AMP354 Consumer Behavior comprehensively besides strengthening our bonds.

Besides, all members are assigned to an appropriate capacity of task to ensure a wellcollaborated group performance. Hereby, all members can learn from each other regarding our respective understanding and knowledge about the management of a business as well as to this subject. Finally, we hope that this report will be a useful and informative guide for future researches regarding the Intention to use Smartphone among student.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

Chapter1:

Chapter 2:

Chapter 3:

Chapter 4:

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction: Smartphone 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Purpose of Study 1.4 Research Objectives 1.5 Research Questions 1.6 Definitions of Key Variables

5 6 8 9 10 11

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Theoretical Framework 2.2.1 Perceived Usefulness (USE) 2.2.2 Perceived Ease of Use (EOU) 2.2.3 Compatibility (COM) 2.2.4 Observability (OBS) 2.2.5 Trialability (TRI) 2.2.6 Self-Efficacy (SEF)

12 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Design 3.2.1 Types of Study 3.2.2 Nature of Study 3.3 Hypothesis 3.4 Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique 3.5 Variables and Measurement 3.6 Data collection Technique 3.7 Technique of Analyses 3.7.1 Reliability Analysis 3.7.2 Descriptive Analysis (includes frequencies analysis) 3.7.3 Pearson Correlation Analysis 3.7.4 Regression Analysis

19 19 19 19 20 24 24 27 28 28 28 28 29

ANALYSIS AND RESULT 4.1 4.2 4.3

4.4

Introduction Reliability Test Descriptive Analysis 4.3.1 Frequencies Analysis 4.3.2 Descriptive Statistics of Study Variables Hypotheses Testing 4.4.1 Correlation 4.4.2 Multiple Regressions 4.4.3 Hypothesis Result

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Chapter 5: 5.1 5.2 5.3

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Discussion of the main finding Implication to the theory and management Limitations and suggestion for future research

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APPENDICES A. Questionaire B. SPSS tables output

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1

INTRODUCTION TO SMARTPHONE

The world is always improving in terms of technological developments. These make our life improved and easier. However, some of the products introduced in the market as a result of these developments might not be very familiar to many. An example is a Smartphone. Many people still confuse whether cell phones are Smartphone or not. Actually not all cell phones are Smartphone. What exactly could be the difference between normal cell phones and a Smartphone?

A Smartphone is a high-end mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone. While cell phone is s a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. Smartphone have more advanced computing ability and connectivity than contemporary mobile phones. They are typically equipped with portable media players, cameras, high-resolution touch screens, web browsers, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi and mobile broadband access (3G).

The Smartphone emerged in 2000, and sales have consistently increased with each succeeding year. Smartphone such as Appleâ€&#x;s iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy and HTC have gained much popularity over the last few years. With the price of Smartphone falling and their capabilities increasing, the consumption of Smartphone is on the rise. Smartphone have become a pocket computer and a must have necessity for students nowadays. The ease of acquiring free wireless on campus makes it even more convenient for students and faculty to use their Smartphone. They can browse the Internet and check emails without the hassle of finding a free computer to use.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

With the vast development in the mobile industries, Smartphone have become incredibly advanced, with multicore processors and cameras. There are more and more different types of Smartphone that are established in Malaysia. Each of these Smartphone varies and the Intention to use Smartphone among the students differs as well. However, one thing is for sure is that Smartphone are gaining massive popularity among students.

Interestingly, USM students tend to have interest in the topic regarding Smartphone. The problems that we are trying to scrutinize involve understanding why USM students‟ Intention to use Smartphone is triggered. This can be narrow down to a few main questions as follows:

1. What does USM students consider before they conclude on their Intention to use Smartphone? 2. Does USM student‟s perceived usefulness of Smartphone affect their Intention to use Smartphone? We ought to find out if the student‟s seemingly positive perceived usefulness of Smartphone for instance, the ability to complete task more quickly and also increase productivity do affect their Intention to use Smartphone. 3. How student‟s perceived ease of use of the Smartphone has an effect on their Intention to use Smartphone? If students find Smartphone relatively easy to operate and use will intention to use a Smartphone increases, decreases or has no effect at all? 4. How student‟s compatibility with Smartphone influence their intentions to use a Smartphone? If USM students find themselves not that compatible with the usage of a Smartphone will they still have the Intention to use Smartphone? 5. Would student‟s observability of the usage of Smartphone affect their Intention to use Smartphone? Will USM students be affected to use Smartphone with frequent observability of others using the Smartphone?

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6. How does trialability of Smartphone related to USM student‟s Intention to use Smartphone? At this point the problem is whether the student‟s ability to try a Smartphone before actually using one would affect their Intention to use Smartphone later on. 7. Does USM student‟s self-efficacy play a role in their Intention to use Smartphone? What is the effect of a positive self-efficacy towards Smartphone usage to their actual Intention to use Smartphone? 8. How does USM student‟s attitudes towards using Smartphone relate to their Intention to use Smartphone? If USM students have negative attitudes towards Smartphone usage for example using the Smartphone is not a good idea and an unpleasant experience then will they still have the intention to use Smartphone?

This kind of problem statement may also help us to find out whether students are indeed having the intention to use Smartphone. In the meantime, we may also explain the role of variables and determinants in predicting their intention to use the Smartphone.

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PURPOSE OF STUDY

Conducting this research allows us to identify the intention to use the Smartphone among USM students. Most importantly, it tells us why students tend to prefer Smartphone instead of the normal featured phone. Our research allows us to understand why Smartphone are significant for one. This is not something that we can normally learn or comprehend by observing other students or learning from any subjects taught in our university. Nevertheless, the research allows us to understand the behaviour of the students in USM.

The research does not only benefit us, who are the researchers. In fact, the data and information is very useful for the existing entrepreneurs or those who wish to engage into business activities that involves Smartphone. Our data allows them to gain knowledge on the preference and factors that are deemed to be crucial by most students which will subsequently, triggers their Intention to use Smartphone. Understanding such vital elements allows them to maximise those factors in order to attract more consumers from USM. As USM students consist of local students from all over Malaysia as well as international students, the market is significantly large. Being able to grab hold of such a huge population will render them success in their business.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

1. The main objective of this research is to verify the determinants factors that affect student‟s Intention to use Smartphone. These factors are the independent and mediating variable namely students perceive usefulness of Smartphone, students perceive ease of use of Smartphone, student‟s compatibility, trialability and self-efficacy towards Smartphone and lastly student‟s attitudes towards using Smartphone. 2. Gauge the importance of each determinant factor that will affect the student‟s Intention to use Smartphone. Determine whether these factors are significant towards student‟s intention to use Smartphone.

3.

Identifying the most important and prominent factor that influence and affect student‟s Intention to use Smartphone and at the same time determining which of these variables or factors are not significant to student‟s intention to use the Smartphone.

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to attain and achieve our research objectives in this study, the following research questions have to be answered: 1. What type of determinant or variable will affect student‟s intention to use the Smartphone? 2. Does the independent variables (student‟s perceive usefulness of Smartphone, student‟s perceive ease of use of Smartphone, student‟s compatibility, trialability and self-efficacy towards Smartphone) and mediating variable (student‟s attitudes towards using Smartphone) have a positive relationship with student‟s Intention to use Smartphone? 3. Which of the variables is significant to the student‟s Intention to use Smartphone?

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DEFINITION OF KEY VARIABLES

Perceived Usefulness Defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance (Davis, 1989).

Perceived Ease of Use Defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort (Davis, 1989).

Compatibility In order to be able to do whatever we want with the given dynamic system under control input, the system must be controllable (R. Kalman, 1960).

Observability In order to see what is going on inside the system under observation, the system must be observable (R. Kalman, 1960).

Trialability The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis(Diffusion of Innovations, p. 16).

Self-Efficacy The belief in oneâ€&#x;s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations (Albert Bandura, 1995).

Attitude towards Using Smartphone An organized predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects (Shaver, 1977).

Intention to use Smartphone A determination or plan to do a specific thing

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CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1

INTRODUCTION

Here, we will be doing a literature review which is a description of the literature relevant to our research topic. We will include a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. A critical literature review is a critical assessment of the relevant literature. A critical literature review shows how prevailing ideas fit into our own thesis, and how our thesis agrees or differs from them.

2.2

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

In our research, the theoretical framework are based on six determinants of the attitude and intention towards using Smartphone, which includes perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, observability, tialability and self-efficacy. We would study the consumerâ€&#x;s behaviours and performance on Smartphone through these factors. Here we can determine how students can be facilitated to have the intention to use the Smartphone by those determinants. Here, we will provide the literature review of the six determinants which is the independent variables of our research regarding studentâ€&#x;s intention to use the Smartphone.

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2.2.1 Perceived Usefulness (USE)

Perceived usefulness (USE) was defined by Fred Davis (1989) as the degree to which a prospective user‟s subjective probability that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. Taylor & Todd (1995) found that attitude toward using means that a user‟s feelings of favorableness or unfavorableness towards using the technology. Davis (1989) and Taylor & Todd (1995) addressed that behavioral intention is viewed as being jointly determined by a person‟s attitude using the system and perceived usefulness. In another word, perceived usefulness has a significant and positive effect on consumer‟s attitude.

Perceived usefulness of Smartphone can be addressed by perceived value and purchase intention. Perceived value reflects that an overall consumers‟ subjective evaluation between benefit (what is received) and cost (what is given) (Dodd & Monroe, 1985; Zeithaml, 1988). Recognition should have ability to help consumers maintain clear guideline that the advantages and disadvantages of using Smartphone sequentially can facilitate consumer‟s purchase intention, and eventually purchase Smartphone. Next, purchase intention is regarded as a subjective tendency for a consumer to choose a product, and it is an important indicator to predict commuter purchase behavior (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975).Purchase intention refers to the possibility of consumers „willingness to buy a product (Zeithaml, 1988; Dodds et al., 1991; Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000). In another word, purchase intention is the different levels of purchasing desire for consumers. Consumer‟s attitude and subjective norm have a significant and positive effect on purchase intention. An individual‟s conscious plan can make an effort to purchase a brand. In brief, if consumers have a good impression and attitude toward a brand or a product, they will have purchase intentions.

When users perceive that a new technology tool or product can help them to finish work efficiently, their perceived usefulness will be higher. Based on the past studies, researchers have developed the factors influenced consumer‟s purchase decision such as perceived usefulness.A previous study conducted by Park and Chen indicated that behavioural intention to use a Smartphone was largely influenced by perceived usefulness and attitude toward using a Smartphone.Perceived usefulness positively determined attitude toward using Smartphone.

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2.2.2 Perceived Ease of Use (EOU)

Perceived ease of use (PEOU) was defined by Davis (1989) as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort. Perceived ease of use is a construct tied to an individual‟s assessment of the effort involved in the process of using the system (Davis, 1989). Perceived ease of use refers to the ability of consumers to experiment with a new innovation and evaluate its benefit easily. In another word, consumers can easily use and assess the Smartphone with free effort. Perceived ease of use is associated with intention in Technology Acceptance Model, but the underlying objective is to predict usage behavior. The Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) is the most widely applied model of user acceptance and usage. Although perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness significantly affect customer adaptation intentions, perceived ease of use is hypothesized to have a significant direct effect on perceived usefulness. But perceived usefulness is not hypothesized to have an impact on perceived ease of use. Perceived ease of use pertains to those performance impacts related to process of using the system per se. Another way, perceived ease of use means the performance of using Smartphone, easy to use and easily assess the Smartphone.

The formation of perceived ease of use regarding a new system such as Smartphone can relate to control, intrinsic motivation, and emotion. Control can be divided into perception of internal control (Smartphone self-efficacy) and perceptions of external control (facilitating conditions). Control is a construct that reflects situational enablers or constraints to behavior (Ajzen, 1985). Control has an effect on key dependent variables such as intention and behavior in a variety of domains, such as dominate consumer‟s desire and willingness of purchasing Smartphone. Next, intrinsic motivation relates to perceptions of pleasure and satisfaction from performing the behavior (Vallerand, 1997), means that if consumers perceive that they can be satisfied through purchasing Smartphone, it will facilitate their purchase desire. Emotion is conceptualized as Smartphone anxiety. Smartphone anxiety is defined as an individual‟s apprehension, or even fear, when he or she is faced with the possibility of using Smartphone, it also relates to users‟ general perceptions about Smartphone use. On the other hand, the more Smartphone anxiety becomes, the worse users‟ perception for Smartphone, consumers will reduce purchase of Smartphone. Consumers were more likely to have a positive attitude if they had a higher PEOU, which in turn was positively affected by Smartphone self-efficacy

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2.2.3 Compatibility (COM)

Compatibility is the ability of two or more systems or their components to work together without user intervention or modification. For new technology or product, compatibility is the capable of orderly, efficient integration and operation with other elements in a system with no modification or conversion required. Compatibility refers to the degree to which adopting the IT innovation is consistent with the existing values, needs, and past experiences of potential adopters. Such as Smartphone, android is an operating system that is widely used as a platform to develop applications compatible with the new age Smartphone ranges. Therefore android compatibility can operate or function on the execution environment of the same.

However, functional compatibility risk can affect consumer‟s preference. Functional compatibility risk, that is risk associated with the joint functionality or performance of bundle elements. Conchar, Zinkhan, Peters, and Olavarrieta (2004) proposed that functional compatibility risk is a form of performance risk. When functional compatibility risk is more salient, buyers are more likely to think about the possibility that a set of items will not perform together as well as they could, consumers will reduce the preference for the product. One way the salience of functional compatibility risk may be influenced is through priming. Herr (1989) found that priming consumers to think about particular product attributes. Folkes (1988) found that consumer‟s estimates of the likelihood of product failure increase when examples of failures are more available in memory. For example, if iPhone4 failed to make consumers satisfactory, means that consumers were disappointed, consumers may estimate iPhone4s will be failed like iphone4. Failed iphone4 affected consumers‟ perception of iPhone4s.

Compatibility has a positive effect on the rate of adoption. When a user recognizes that an innovation is compatible with a system, the more the innovation will be adopted. When nurses perceived the Smartphone as being compatible with other technology in the hospital that adoption was more likely and that necessary infrastructure within hospitals to support Smartphone use was important. A user‟s compatibility with a Smartphone was found to significantly affect the perceived usefulness of a Smartphone.

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2.2.4 Observability (OBS)

Observability refers to the degree to which the results of adopting or using the IT innovation are observable and communicable to others. Observability also refers to the extent to which consumers can readily see others using the product, for example, people who do not have ATM cards or cellular phones can easily see the convenience that other people experience using them; on the other hand, VCRs are mostly used in people‟s homes, and thus only an owner‟s close friends would be likely to see it. Observability, in control theory, is a measure for how well internal states of a system can be inferred by knowledge of its external outputs. The observability and controllability of a system are mathematical duals. The concept of observability was introduced by American-Hungarian scientist Rudolf E. Kalman for linear dynamic system.

Observability has a positive effect on adoption. When a user has an opportunity to observe an innovation, the innovation is more likely to be adopted.Observability was also positively correlated with Smartphone adoption, where a doctor was more likely to adopt a Smartphone if they saw their peers and coworkers using a Smartphone and improve their opinion on Smartphone. Putzer et al. surveyed practicing nurses in southeastern hospitals and also found that PU, observability, and organizational factors positively influenced Smartphone adoption. Putzer found that when nurses perceived the Smartphone as being compatible with other technology in the hospital that adoption was more likely and that necessary infrastructure within hospitals to support Smartphone use was important. If consumers can observe the Smartphone before purchasing it and the observability positively affects consumer‟s perception and attitude, consumers are more likely to accept Smartphone.

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2.2.5 Trialability (TRI)

Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis (Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers, 1995), and is positively related to acceptance since trialability can accelerate acceptance because small-scale testing reduces risk. Rogers contends that new ideas or techniques that can be tried on a limited basis reduce uncertainty for potential adopters, and this experience may be particularly important for early adopters who do not have the benefit of other organizationsâ€&#x; experience to draw upon. According to Tan and Teo (2000), if consumers have the opportunity to try the innovation, it will minimize their fears when customers found that mistake could be resolved. Being able to try out a new product can reduce the risk for the consumer and if a product can be purchased in small quantities then trials are relatively easy (Shoemaker and Shoal, 1975). In general, trialability is the factor to measure the perception of adopting innovations and the predictor that affect attitude towards PDA and perceived risk.

Taking Apple iPhone, the most accepted Smartphone in the world nowadays, as example, the main perceived risks for a new potential adopter are financial risk (not just the price, but whether it will be worth the cost) and time risk--how much time and effort will be invested by the consumer. Further, trialability can be related to the global consumer value of "Consumer Rights/Freedom of Choice." These quotes reflect the global consumer value of "Freedom of Choice" and the distribution strategy for the Apple iPhone. Trialability has a direct and positive influence on intention to purchase and use Smartphone. People would like to try to experience and use the new product before purchasing, high trialability can motivate people to make purchase decision and finally own it.

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Self-Efficacy (SEF)

Self-efficacy is a term used in psychology, roughly corresponding to a person's belief in their own competence. It has been defined as the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain a certain set of goals. It is believed that our personalized ideas of self-efficacy affect our social interactions in almost every way. Self-efficacy is a vitally important goal for positive psychology because it can lead to living a more productive and happy life. Self-efficacy can influence different people‟s performance and behaviors. "I can fix any computer problem" is an example of the confident expectation of a person with high self-efficacy in that domain. That same person may have low self-efficacy in another domain: "I am a nerd and will probably be socially awkward at the party.

Perceived behavioral control can vary with different situations and actions (Ajzen, 1991). It has been often associated with the concept of computer self-efficacy with regard to the acceptance of new technologies. Pedersen (2005) also defined behavioral control as a second order construct that is formed by self-efficacy and facilitating conditions. Computer selfefficacy is defined as the degree to which people believe that they have the ability to perform a specific task on their computer (Compeau and Higgins, 1995) or Smartphone, keeping in mind that, in this case, self-efficacy is related to the Smartphone as well as the services under study. In another word, Smartphone efficacy is also the extent to the ability to carry out a task or goal by Smartphone. The person with high self-efficacy on Smartphone can perform better than those with low self-efficacy on Smartphone.

Control has been shown to have an effect on key dependent variables, such as intention and behavior, in a variety of domains. Both internal (computer self-efficacy) and external (facilitating conditions) control factors play an important role in shaping people‟s intention and behavior, as they are expected to be incorporated in people‟s assessment as to how easy or difficult it will be to use a new technology (Venkatesh, 2000), thus affecting the acceptance of that technology (Davis, 1989). For instance, these control factors can influence attitudes and intention towards using Smartphone. Smartphone self-efficacy has a direct and positive influence on the intention to use Smartphone.

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CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1

INTRODUCTION

In methodology section, we are going to discuss about our research design, hypotheses, population, sample size and sampling technique, the variables and measurement. We will also include our data collection techniques as well as methods and techniques we use to analyses the data collected. Methodology section is used to explain the entire process of how the information is gained as well as transforming the information into statistical data that can be interpreted accordingly.

3.2

RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2.1 Types of Study

This is a correlational study which was conducted among students studying in the main campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang. It is conducted to look for relationships among variables. Hypotheses testing was undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variables to predict relationship.

3.2.2 Nature of Study

This research was conducted under the non-convicted setting or natural environment. Respondent is unaware and is not prepared to the answer of the questionnaires given. The variables are neither controlled nor manipulated. We collected the data within three weeks after the assignment is assigned. We collected the data from willing and voluntary respondents in Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang. The unit of analyses includes individuals who are students of Universiti Sains Malaysia undertaking bachelor, master and PhD degrees. The research sites for this study are conducted on individuals who are either the users or nonusers of Smartphone.

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HYPOTHESIS

In this supersonic world nowadays, Smartphone had become one of the essential gadgets that are gaining massive popularity and are being use by fellow students to multitask, help in their studies as well as release the stress accumulated during the process of learning in the university as there is various functions that provides entertainment, for instance, games, music, high resolution cameras as well as the easy connectivity to the internet. However the intention to use the Smartphone among the students here in USM varies. Hence, we will try to scrutinize why USM students‟ Intention to use Smartphone is triggered and in what way that a particular factor or aspect will have a positive relationships or affect the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. These factors or aspects are the independent and mediating variable namely students perceive usefulness of Smartphone, students perceive ease of use of Smartphone, student‟s compatibility, trialability and self-efficacy towards Smartphone and lastly student‟s attitudes towards using Smartphone.

In short, USM students will only have the Intention to use Smartphone provided that the attitudes towards using the Smartphone are positive. We can generate a few hypotheses from here.

Hypothesis 1

H1:

The student’s perceived usefulness of Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the student‟s perceived usefulness of the Smartphone is soaring or high, the intention of the student‟s to use the Smartphone will be high as well. This signifies a positive relationship. Perceived usefulness is a very important factor that one will consider before having the intention to use the Smartphone. If a student‟s perceived usefulness of the Smartphone is deem positive or they agree or strongly agree that the usage of Smartphone enable them to accomplish tasks more quickly, improve and enhance their study performance, increase of productivity, and relatively useful in their studies then they will have a positive intention to use the Smartphone. Hence, these clearly suggest that the student‟s perceived usefulness towards the Smartphone influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

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Hypothesis 2

H2:

The student’s perceived ease of use towards the Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the student‟s agree that perceived ease of use towards the Smartphone is relatively high, the student will agree that the intention to use the Smartphone will be high as well. This signifies a positive relationship. Perceived ease of use is another significantly important factor that one will take into consideration before having the intention to use the Smartphone. If a student find that their perceived ease of use of the Smartphone is reasonably easy, flexible to interact with, have a clear and understandable interactions with, easy to become skilful at using the Smartphone and find Smartphone easy to use then they will have a positive intention to use the Smartphone. Therefore, perceived ease of use towards the Smartphone influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

Hypothesis 3

H3:

The student’s compatibility with Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the students find that their compatibility with the Smartphone is high, their intention to use the Smartphone will be high as well. This signifies a positive relationship. Compatibility is a factor that will influence the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. If a student‟s compatibility with a Smartphone is deem positive or they agree or strongly agree that the usage of Smartphone is compatible with all the aspects of their studies, fit into their study style as well as fit well with the way they like to study then they will have a positive or higher intention to use the Smartphone. For this reason, it suggests that the student‟s compatibility with the Smartphone influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

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Hypothesis 4

H4:

The student’s observability of Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the students find that their observability of the Smartphone is high, their intention to use the Smartphone will be high as well. This indicates a positive relationship. Observability is one the factor that will manipulate the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. If a student‟s observability with a Smartphone is high or they agree or strongly agree that their observability of Smartphone is common or relatively easy for example they can easily observe others in the university using a Smartphone or they had a lot of opportunity to see the Smartphone being used then they will have a positive or higher intention to use the Smartphone. Hence, it suggests that the student‟s observability of the Smartphone influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

Hypothesis 5

H5:

The student’s trialability of the Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the student‟s agree that they are able to be exposed to high trialability of the Smartphone the student will agree that the intention to use the Smartphone will be high as well. This signifies a positive relationship. Trialability is another significantly important factor that one will take into consideration before having the intention to use the Smartphone. If a student finds that they can use a Smartphone on a trial basis long enough to see what it can do or they can properly try it out before deciding on whether or not to adopt the Smartphone then they will have a higher intention to use the Smartphone. Therefore, trialability of the Smartphone influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

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Hypothesis 6

H6:

The student’s self-efficacy with Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the students have a high self-efficacy with the usage of the Smartphone, the intention of the student‟s to use the Smartphone will be high as well. This signifies a positive relationship. Self-efficacy is a considerably important factor that one will consider before having the intention to use the Smartphone. If a student has a strong beliefs about their abilities and capabilities to use a Smartphone or they agree or strongly agree that their self-efficacy towards the usage of Smartphone then they will have a positive intention to use the Smartphone. In this research, if the student finds that they can operate, use and complete a task using the Smartphone with little or no assistance then it will influence their intention to use the Smartphone. These clearly suggest that the student‟s self-efficacy towards the Smartphone influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

Hypothesis 7

H7:

The student’s attitudes towards using the Smartphone have a positive relationship with the student’s Intention to use Smartphone.

If the student has positive attitudes towards using the Smartphone, they will have a positive intention to use the Smartphone as well. This indicates a positive relationship. Attitudes towards using the Smartphone are a vital factor that influences the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. In general, every other factors mention in hypothesis 1 to hypothesis 6 is related to the student‟s attitudes towards using the Smartphone. If a student finds and agree that using the Smartphone would be a good idea, a pleasant experience and is beneficial as well as they would like using the Smartphone then they will have a strong intention to use the Smartphone. Hence, it suggests that the student‟s attitudes towards using Smartphone influence the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively.

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POPULATION, SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

In order to determine the intention to use smart phone we used the sampling procedure and the population that is chosen is all USM students. Random sampling is chosen as target students were selected randomly to answer our questionnaires pertaining to the research. Randomness in sampling can helps to generate accurate information that can precisely predicts the behaviour of the studentsâ€&#x; intention to use the smart phone. We have chosen 125 respondents to help in our research and the data collection period was during April 2012. The information obtained from the questionnaires was the primary and raw data of our research. Other than information collected from the questionnaire, we also obtained information from the Internet such as research papers on journals that were completed by various credible researchers about the intention to use of smart phones.

3.5

VARIABLES AND MEASUREMENT

Interval scales was applied from section 1 to 8 for measurement whereas for section 9 and 10, respondent answer was measured in nominal scale. The respondents were required to read each question and answer the question at section 1 to Section 8 with honesty in order to get an accurate result. The rating scales areas follows:

1

Strongly Disagree

2

3

4

5

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

There are three types of variables we are concerning in this research. These variables are independent, mediating and dependent variables. Independent variable is a variable whose variation does not depend on that of another. On the other hand, dependent variable is a variable that depends on that of other variables. There is relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. Mediating Variable then serves to clarify the nature of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. In this study, the independent variable is the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, observability, trialability, and self-efficacy mediating variable is the attitudes towards using the Smartphone. Lastly, dependent variable is the intention to use the Smartphone.

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Perceived of usefulness Student‟s perceived usefulness towards Smartphone was measured with six questions with a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of perceived of usefulness with the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “Using the Smartphone would improve my study performance”

Perceived ease of use Student‟s perceived ease of use was measured with six questions with a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of perceived ease of use with the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “Learning to operate the Smartphone would be easy for me”

Compatibility Student‟s compatibility with Smartphone was measured with three questions with a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of student‟s compatibility with the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “Using the Smartphone will be compatible with all aspects of my studies”.

Observability Student‟s observability of the Smartphone was measured with two questions with a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of student‟s observability of the Smartphone with the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “I have had a lot of opportunity to see the Smartphone being used.”

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Trialability Student‟s trialability towards the Smartphone was measured with four questions with a 5point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of student‟s trialability towards the Smartphone and the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “Before deciding on whether or not to adopt the Smartphone, I would need to use it on a trial basis.”

Self-efficacy Student‟s self-efficacy towards the usage of the Smartphone was measured with ten questions with a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of student‟s self-efficacy towards the usage of the Smartphone and the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “I could complete a task using the Smartphone if there was no one around to tell me what to do as I go.”

Attitude towards using smart phones Student‟s attitudes towards using the Smartphone is the mediating variable and was measured with four questions with a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The relationship of student‟s attitudes towards using the Smartphone and the intention to use Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “Using the Smartphone would be a good id

Intention to use Smartphone Student‟s intention to use the Smartphone is the dependent variable and it was measured with four questions using 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The student‟s intention to use the Smartphone will be positive if most of the answers are from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5). Example of question is “Assuming I have the Smartphone, I intend to use it.”

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One hundred and twenty-five respondents had voluntarily participated in our questionnaire research. Our questionnaire was divided into ten primary sections that signify the respondents‟ demographics, internet experience, independent variables which is the perceived usefulness, perceived ease to use, compatibility observability, trialability, self efficacy and how this factor influence the dependent variable, intention to use smart phone. Other than that, we also have a mediating variable, which is the attitude towards the smart phone.Demographic question that asked about the backgrounds and general information of respondent is included in the last section. These are used to correlate both mediating variable and dependent variable which is the attitude towards Smartphone and intention to use Smartphone among different groups of users. This survey form is design with a closed format question. Likert scale, which provided with the five alternatives, ranging from 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree is used for measurement. The questionnaires can be referred in the appendix section. 3.6

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

In our study, raw data is collected through survey and questionnaire that is distributed randomly at University Science Student. This is to ensure that the respondents were from various schools in campus USM so the data collected will be evenly distributed among students from different schools or faculties from USM. Additionally, respondents get the questionnaire personally in a face to face state from our group members and after respondent completed the questionnaire; our group member will collect it directly from them. The main advantage of this method is that it is well-structured. Questions given are to collect information regarding student‟s perceptions towards the intentions to use a Smartphone it is neither misleading nor pressured respondents to answer in a certain pattern, these can reduce bias from the respondent. Thus, it produces more honest responses from the respondents leading to a more accurate result for our research on the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone.

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TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSES

Data gathers through questionnaires in our research was analyzed by using SSPS software. The output that we gained from SPSS software are then analysed with the aid of information obtained from online journals as well as SPSS guides. The tests and theories that were employed are as follows:

3.7.1 Reliability Analysis

Reliability analysis is important to deal with any measurements error on all information gathered. So, reliability test is significant for us to know the degree of goodness of our information. In our research, dependent, mediating and independent variables are analysed by using reliability test. This is done to ensure that all variables are analysed correctly and make sure those respondents had clearly understands our questionnaire. This ensures that the sample obtained is good. Cronbachâ€&#x;s alpha was used to measure internal consistency reliability.

3.7.2 Descriptive Analysis (includes Frequencies Analysis)

Descriptive analysis refers to the transformation of the raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret. Descriptive analysis are conducted in order to facilitate us in seeing the relationship as well as allowing us to make comparisons through the construction of tables and graphs. In our project paper, descriptive analysis involves computing percentages and frequencies of relevant factors. Nevertheless, the mean and standard deviation of all major variables are also evaluated.

3.7.3 Pearson Correlation Analysis

This test is done to conclude all the hypotheses made. Pearson Correlation is employed to provide us with quantitative figures that can help us in estimating the type and strength of relationship between two variables. The figures normally range from -1 to +1 where a +1 correlation specifies that there is a strong positive linear relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable. In our research, each independent variable is analysed to determine its correlation with the studentâ€&#x;s intention to use the Smartphone. This helps us in determining whether to accept the hypotheses proposed or not.

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3.7.4 Regression Analysis

Regression analysis refers to techniques for modeling and analyzing the relationship between dependent variable and one or more independent variable(s). It helps in understanding the changes in dependent variable when one of the independent variables is varied while the others are held constant. Basically it means that all independent variables are assumed to be uncorrelated with each other.

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CHAPTER 4 : ANALYSIS AND RESULT 4.1

INTRODUCTION TO DATA ANALYSIS

The data obtained through the techniques explained in the previous segment will then be analysed. Analyses are conducted with the aid from SPSS software and the results are interpreted and discussed in this section. We started by conducting reliability test to weigh the consistency and the dependability of the information generated from the distribution of questionnaires.

Next, descriptive analyses were performed to provide us with a more distinctive set of data. We then proceed with a step-by-step analysis on the independent variables and dependent variable. The relationship between these features are examined and linked to the hypotheses testing procedures. Independent t-test is performed to test the association between respondents‟ demographic and other main independent variables. Correlation as well as regression analysis were performed next, to test the connection between the independent variables with the dependent variable.

4.2

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

Before conducting test through the primary data obtained, we had conducted reliability test on all the information gathered. We had employed the Cronbach‟s Alpha (α) which is a widely-used genre of reliability measure. As defined in Wikipedia, „Cronbach‟s Alpha is commonly used as a measure of the internal consistency or reliability of a psychometric test score for a sample of examinees. Hereby, the test is conducted to ensure that the data used in our studies are consistent. This reduces the level of analyzingcontradictory or inaccurate data.

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The table below shows the results generated from the reliability test: Table 1: Reliability coefficients for the major variables Variable

Number of items

Items dropped

Cronbach's Alpha

Perceived Usefulness (USE)

6

-

0.918

Perceived Ease of Use (EOU)

6

-

0.886

Self-Efficacy (SEF)

10

-

0.889

Trialability (TRI)

4

-

0.725

Observability (OBS)

2

-

0.703

Compatibility (COM)

3

-

0.896

4

-

0.822

4

-

0.891

Attitude Towards Using Smartphone (ATT) Intention to use Smartphone(INT)

The alpha can assumed any range of value below 1. However, it is important to note that only positive values are logical. The generally accepted rule of thumb is deemed to be 0.700, whereby the data are consistent. Many professionals only use data with an alpha of 0.700 or higher especially when the population is large. As the population of USM students is substantial, we had set 0.700 as the minimum measure of an acceptable alpha.

Reliability test was conducted on all major variables of our research. They are dependent variable (Intention to Use Smartphone), mediating variable (Attitude towards Using Smartphone) as well as independent variables (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Compatibility, Observability, Trialability and Self-Efficacy).

As we can see from the table above, all data exceeded the borderline alpha value of 0.700 with the lowest being 0.703 generated in the items tested for observability of Smartphone usage. This is particularly due to the less cohesive relationship among the two classes of information tested for this group. However, the value is still relatively consistent and reliable. The highest value is 0.918, which indicates high internal consistency or reliability is the alpha of studentâ€&#x;s perceived usefulness of Smartphone. The strong consistency is highly attributed

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to the close association between the six questions asked to identify the student‟s perceived usefulness of Smartphone. The Cronbach‟s alpha values for all the variables is more than 0.7, hence no items are dropped to increase the reliability score of this scale. In short, we can conclude that all the data obtained and tested are of relatively high internal consistency as all variables relatively have high value of alpha. This will facilitate us in investigating the relationship of all variables as there is only a low level of data irregularity.

4.3

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Descriptive analysis are conducted in order to facilitate us in seeing the relationship as well as allowing us to make comparisons through the construction of tables and graphs. In our project paper, descriptive analysis involves computing percentages and frequencies of relevant factors. This emphasizes on the analysis of respondent‟s demographic statistics. Nevertheless, the mean and standard deviation of all major variables are also evaluated.

4.3.1 Frequencies Analysis Table 2: Frequencies for Demographic of Respondents Variable

Frequency

Percentage %

Age below 18 years old between 18 to 25 years old between 26 to 30 years old above 31 years old

4 107 12 2

3.2 85.6 9.6 1.6

Gender Male Female

38 87

30.4 69.6

Race Malay Chinese Indian Others

38 58 11 18

30.4 46.4 8.8 14.4

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Nationality Malaysian Others

97 28

77.6 22.4

Year Of Study First year Second year Third year Forth year and above

15 85 0 25

12.0 68.0 0 20.0

111

88.8

11 3

8.8 2.4

Status Part time Full time

14 111

11.2 88.8

School/ Faculty Hybrid Arts Sciences

77 30 18

61.6 24.0 14.4

Living Arrangement In Campus Outside Campus

87 38

69.6 30.4

CGPA Below 2.0 2.0 – 3.0 3.1 – 4.0

17 55 53

13.6 44.0 42.4

Program Bachelor‟s degree (undergraduate) Masters PhD

In this research, there are 125 respondents. From the frequency analysis conducted on the respondents‟ demographic, we came to the knowledge that most of our respondent namely 107 respondents (85.6%) range from the age of 18 to 25 years old. This is in accordance with our expectation as students normally start attending university at the age of 19 or 20 years old. 12 (9.6%) of the respondents are between 26 to 30 years old. Most of them are currently studying masters or PhD. There are 4 (3.2%) and 2 (1.6%) of the respondents that are at the age range of below 18 years old and above 31 years old respectively.

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compare to 11 respondents (8.8%) who are doing master degrees and 3 respondents (2.4%) who is currently studying PhD. From the 125 students questioned, 87 % of them are female respondents. This might be attributed to the high population of female students in USM.46.4% of the students in our sample are Chinese students, 30.4% are Malay students and 11% of them are Indian students. The percentages are dominated by the three largest ethnic in Malaysia while a minority of them consist of students of other races who are mainly internationalstudents from China, Indonesia, Japan, Germany as well as Africa.

Furthermore, It is found in our sample that most of the respondents study in school/faculty of Hybridwhich consist of 77 respondents (61.6%) and 30 respondents from school/faculty of Arts and lastly 18 respondents (14.4%) are from school/faculty of Sciences. This might be due to the fact that the main campus offered more courses unrelated to Sciences as there are more branches of USM that offered Sciences courses for instance, the Engineering campus. While the respondentâ€&#x;s year of study on the other hand, showed that 15 respondents (12.0) are first year students, 85 respondents (68.0%) are second year students while 25 respondents (25%) are forth or above yearâ€&#x;s students. 69.6% of respondents are living inside the campus. While the other 30.4% of respondents stays outside campus.

The CGPA level of respondents mostly fall within the range of 2.0 to 3.0 which showed 55 of them (44%), 17 respondents (13.6%) had CGPA level below 2.0 while the remaining 53 respondents fall in the range between 3.1 to 4.0 CGPA levels.

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Table 3: Frequencies of Respondent’s Internet Experience Variable

Frequency

Percentage %

Years of experience between 1 to 5 years between 5 to 10 years between 10 to 15 years 15 years and above

2 33 88 2

1.6 26.4 70.4 1.6

Internet access at home Yes No

122 3

97.6 2.4

Place Home Place of employment School/academic institution Cybercafe Others

78 3 39 3 2

62.4 2.4 31.2 2.4 1.6

Browser Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Others More than one browser

18 34 62 11

14.4 27.2 49.6 8.8

Using rate per day Less than 0.5 hours From 0.5 hours to 1 hour 1 – 2 hours 2 – 3 hours More than 3 hours

2 5 30 38 50

1.6 4.0 24.0 30.4 40.0

Frequency of internet access Less than once a month Once a month A few times a month A few times a week About once a day Several times a day

1 2 2 3 38 79

0.8 1.6 1.6 2.4 30.4 63.2

Further data‟s analyses showed most of the respondents have had internet experiences. We categorized these respondents into groups that have between 1 to 5 years of internet experiences, between 5 to 10 years of experiences, between 10 to 15 years of experiences and lastly 15 years and above of internet experiences. We start from 1 year and above because none of the respondents have at below a year of internet experiences. Majority of the UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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respondents falls in between 10 to 15 years of internet experiences, data showed 88 (70.4%) of the respondents have 10 to 15 years of internet experiences. Only 2 (1.6%) of the respondents have between 1 to 5 years of internet experiences and the same is showed for 15 years and above. This might be due to the trend of the world nowadays that proves the importance of internet whereby each and every teenager has access to it. Besides, since most of our respondents are in between 18 to 25 years old, they might not have more than 15 years of internet experiences and that explains the reason of only 2 respondents answered more than 15 years of internet experiences. 33 (26.4%) of the respondents have 5 to 10 years of internet experiences.

122 (97.6%) of the respondents have internet access at home while only 3 (2.4%) of the respondents have no internet access at home. The reason for no internet access at home is most probably due to the international students that came to USM to study Master or PhD rented rooms or houses outside the campus that have no internet access. Besides, the analysis showed that 78 (62.4%) of the respondents access internet primarily from home. This is interrelated to the results that showed 97.6% of the respondents have internet access at home. On the other hand, 39 (31.2%) of the respondents have access to the internet primarily from school/academic institution. While data showed that 3 (2.4%) of the respondents have access to the internet primarily from place of employment and the same number of respondents goes to Cybercafe as well. 2 (1.6%) of the respondents answered others. This is because they have access to the internet primarily through their mobile phones/Smartphone.

Majority of the respondents answered others as their choice of web browser they usually use. 62 (49.6%) of the respondents answered others and most of them uses Google Chrome as their main web browsers. 18 (14.4%) of respondents and 34 (27.2%) of the respondents uses Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox as their main web browser respectively. While 11 (8.8%) of the respondents use more than one web browsers. On an average day, majority namely 50 (40.0%) of the respondents spend more than 3 hours on the internet. This is because social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter are gaining massive popularities among the students nowadays. Besides, universities students require more research and additional information which can be done and found on the internet hence, majority of the respondents spend more than 3 hours a day on the internet. Additionally, data showed that on average, majority of the respondents answered about once a day and also several times a day as how often do they use the internet. UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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Descriptive Statistics of Study Variables

Table 4: Descriptive Statistics of Study Variables Variable

Mean

Standard Deviation

Perceived Usefulness

3.7200

0.56701

Perceived Ease Of Use

3.8133

0.66922

Self Efficacy

3.7856

0.60903

Trialability

2.4800

0.47264

Observability

3.8760

0.71464

Compatibility

3.4240

0.91029

Attitude

3.7780

0.69504

Intention

3.9080

0.69309

In this research, all the main variables are measured in scales which ranges from „(1) Strongly Disagree‟ to „(5) Strongly Agree‟. Means and standard deviations were obtained for the independent, mediating and dependent variables.

Table 4 shows all the value of mean and standard deviation for the eight main variables. The Independent variables includes perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, observability, trialability and self-efficacy. Attitude towards using Smartphone is the mediating variable and intention to use Smartphone is the dependant variable. From the results given in Table 4, it is shown that the mean of all the variables is between 2.4800 and 3.9080. The dependent variable which is the intention to use Smartphone recorded the highest mean value which is 3.9080. This shows that most of the respondents somewhat or tend to agree that they possesses the intention to use a Smartphone. This might be due to the rising recognition, effectiveness and the ability to multitask with a Smartphone. Student‟s perceived ease of use and also student‟s observability follow up with relatively high values of means namely 3.8133 and 3.8760 respectively. Both variables obtain minimum values that are seemingly above the mid scale of „(3) Neutral‟. This indicates that student‟s UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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generally tend to agree that their perceived ease of use as well as observability do affect their intention to use Smartphone. The mean for the remaining 2 independent variables as well as mediating variables also showed comparatively high values of mean between 3.7200 and 3.7856. Student‟s attitude towards using Smartphone which showed a mean value of 3.7780 signifies that they generally agree that a positive attitude affect their decision to use Smartphone. All the 3 values of means are also above the mid scale of „(3) Neutral‟. Hence, the student‟s perceived usefulness of Smartphone and self-efficacy also affect their intention to use Smartphone. Among the independent variables, the mean of trialability recorded the lowest value of 2.4800. The figure is slightly below the mid scale of „(3) Neutral‟. Hence, students generally disagree that trialability affect their intention to use Smartphone. Standard deviation of all the variables is between 0.47264 and 0.91029. Student‟s compatibility with Smartphone has the highest standard deviation of 0.91209 whereas trialability has the lowest standard deviation of only 0.4726.

4.4

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

4.4.1 Pearson Correlation Analysis We then proceed by testing the relationships among the independent variables and dependent variables. This is significant in finalizing all the hypotheses made. Pearson Correlation is employed to do the measurements. This is so as correlation analysis provides us with quantitative figures that can help us in gauging the type and strength of relationship between two variables. The figures normally range from -1 to +1. A +1 correlation indicates that there is a perfect positive linear relationship between the two tested variables. Ironically, a correlation of -1 signifies a perfect negative linear relationship between the two variables. In our research, each independent variable is analysed to determine its correlation with the dependent variables that is the intention to use Smartphone. The results are shown in the table displayed in the following page.

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Perceived Usefulness

1.000

Self Efficacy

0.930**

1.000

Perceived Ease Of Use

0.850**

0.852**

1.000

TrialAbility

-0.232**

-0.207*

-0.171

1.000

Observability

0.826**

0.828**

0.859**

-0.148

1.000

Compatibility

0.342**

0.363**

0.208*

-0.022

0.359**

1.000

Attitude

0.837**

0.856**

0.859**

-0.239**

0.853**

0.429**

1.000

Intention

0.915**

0.878**

0.881**

-0.249**

0.832**

0.287**

0.831**

Intention

Attitude

Compatibility

Observability

TrialAbility

Perceived Ease Of Use

Self Efficacy

Perceived Usefulness

Table 5: Pearson Correlation between Major Variables

1.000

**Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed) * Correlation is significant at 0.05 level (2-tailed)

By referring to the correlation matrix shown in the previous page, the impact and relationships of all independent variables can be determined. This is done by examining the Pearson Correlation computed by SPSS programme.

Perceived Usefulness vs Intention to Use Smartphone As we can see, the correlation between students‟ perceives usefulness towards Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is 0.915. The positive correlation indicates that the capability of perceive usefulness do affects USM students‟ intention to use Smartphone positively. Besides, the positive figure of 0.915 marked highest correlation relationships among all the independent variables. This support the first hypothesis (H1) made that „The UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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student’s perceived usefulness of Smartphone has a positive relationship with student’s intention to use Smartphone’. This concludes that student‟s perceived usefulness of Smartphone do affect shopping intention .With that, hypothesis 1 is accepted.

Perceived Ease of Use vs Intention to Use Smartphone From the result obtained, the correlation between students‟ perceives ease of use towards Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is 0.881. The relatively high positive correlation indicates that student‟s perceived ease of use towards Smartphone do affects USM students‟ intention to use Smartphone positively. This support the second hypothesis (H2) made that „The student’s perceived ease of use towards the Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’. This allows us to conclude and summarize that student‟s perceived ease of use do affect their intention to use a Smartphone positively. Hence, hypothesis 2 is accepted.

Compatibility vs Intention to Use Smartphone The correlation between student‟s compatibility with the Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is the lowest among all the independent variables tested with a figure of 0.287. The positive correlation indicates that the student‟s compatibility with Smartphone do affects USM students‟ intention to use Smartphone positively. However in this case, the closer the correlation coefficient is to zero the greater the uncertainty, and low correlation coefficient means that the relationship is not certain enough to be useful. Hereby, due to the risks of being inaccurate and also the uncertainty of the third hypothesis (H3) that „The student’s compatibility with Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’ is rejected. This concludes that student‟s compatibility with the Smartphone do not affect student‟s intention to use the Smartphone in a certain manner. Nevertheless, hypothesis 3 is rejected.

Observability vs Intention to Use Smartphone From the result obtained, the correlation between student‟s observability of the Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is 0.832. The relatively high positive correlation coefficient indicates that student‟s observability of the Smartphone do affects student‟s intention to use Smartphone positively. This support the forth hypothesis (H4) made that „The student’s observability of Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’. This allows us to conclude and summarize that student‟s observability of UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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the Smartphone do affect their intention to use a Smartphone positively. Hence, hypothesis 4 is accepted.

Trialability vs Intention to Use Smartphone As shown in the table above, the correlation between student‟s trialability towards the usage of Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is -0.249. The negative correlation coefficient indicates that student‟s trialability do not affect student‟s intention to use the Smartphone in a positive manner but in an inverse manner. This do not support the fifth hypothesis (H5) made that „The student’s trialability of the Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’. This allows us to conclude and summarize that student‟s trialability of the Smartphone does not have a positive relationship with student‟s intention to use a Smartphone positively. Therefore, hypothesis 5 is rejected.

Self-Efficacy vs Intention to Use Smartphone The correlation between student‟s self-efficacy with the Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is 0.878. The relatively high positive correlation coefficient indicates that student‟s self-efficacy with the Smartphone do affects student‟s intention to use Smartphone positively. This support the hypothesis (H6) made that „The student’s self-efficacy with Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’. For this reason, we can say that student‟s self-efficacy with the Smartphone does affect their intention to use a Smartphone positively. Hereby, hypothesis 6 is accepted.

Attidudes Towards Using the Smartphone vs Intention to Use Smartphone From the result obtained, the correlation between student‟s attitudes towards using the Smartphone and their intention to use Smartphone is 0.831. The comparatively high positive correlation coefficient indicates that student‟s attitudes towards using the Smartphone do affects student‟s intention to use Smartphone positively. This support the final and seventh hypothesis (H7) made that „The student’s attitudes towards using the Smartphone have a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone. This allows us to conclude and summarize that if student‟s attitudes towards using the Smartphone is positive, the intention to use the Smartphone will be affected in the same manner. Hence, hypothesis 7 is accepted.

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4.4.2 Multiple Regression Analysis Besides the correlation analysis, linear regression analysis is another well-known method to analyse the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. There are various genres of regression and in our research and we had chosen to focus on multiple regressions analysis. Multiple regressions test allows us to examine the association between all variables simultaneously. This allows us to make better comparison while facilitating us in concluding our hypothesis.

Table 6 Modal Summary Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.937a

.879

.872

.24834

a. Predictors: (Constant), Attitude, TrialAbility, Compatibility, PerceivedUsefulness, Observability, PerceivedEaseOfUse, SelfEfficacy

According to the SPSS output as shown above, we will be able to determine how strong the major variables affects the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. As we can see, the R value is 0.937. This indicates the correlation of the independent variables and the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. The R square value tells us the fraction of variance in student‟s intention to use the Smartphone that can be explained by all the independent variables. The R square value is 0.879 which signifies that 87.9% of USM student‟s intention to use the Smartphone is affected by the six independent variables and one mediating variable that we had studied (student‟s perceive usefulness of Smartphone, student‟s perceive ease of use of Smartphone, student‟s compatibility, trialability and self-efficacy towards Smartphone and also student‟s attitude towards using Smartphone). However, we must take note that this does not symbolise the extent to which any of the particular independent variable is related to the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone as this percentage is the overall (all independent and mediating variables as a whole) appraisal of the relationship‟s strength. The percentage also tells us that the remaining 12.1% of the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone are triggered by other factors besides the tested independent and mediating variables in this research. There is more than half of the student‟s intentions to use the Smartphone are triggered by the independent variables and mediating variable we had studied. Additionally, the adjusted R square computed by the software is 0.872 indicating that UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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87.2%of the changes in USM student‟s intention to use Smartphone can be explained by the changes in the six independent variables and one mediating variable tested in our research. This is the suggested figure after taking into account the sample size as well as the number of independent variables tested.

Table 7ANOVA Model 1

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

52.352

7

7.479

121.270

.000a

Residual

7.215

117

.062

Total

59.567

124

a. Predictors: (Constant), Attitude, TrialAbility, Compatibility, PerceivedUsefulness, Observability, PerceivedEaseOfUse, SelfEfficacy b. Dependent Variable: Intention

Multiple regression analysis also allows us to conduct ANOVA test on the major variables as well. ANOVA stands for Analysis of Variance and the test tells us whether the regression equation is explaining a statistically significant portion of the variability in the dependent variable from variability in the independent variables. This is done by observing the F-value as well as the Sigma (p-value) from the table. The F value will be used to determine whether the model tested has statistically significant impact on shopping intention after taking into account the number of variables needed to achieve it.

The calculated F-value 121.270 and the p-value are at a computed level of 0.000. This shows that the model of the six independent variables and one mediating variable significantly predicts the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. However, this model does not tell us how much the variables impact student‟s intention to use Smartphone. Hence, we proceed with the analysis of the coefficient.

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Table 8 Coefficients Unstandardized Coefficients

Model

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

-.178

.859

B

Std. Error

(Constant)

-.039

.217

PerceivedUsefulness

.656

.114

.537

5.739

.000

PerceivedEaseOfUse

.337

.086

.325

3.931

.000

SelfEfficacy

.027

.110

.023

.242

.809

TrialAbility

-.076

.050

-.052

-1.525

.130

Observability

.079

.070

.082

1.132

.260

Compatibility

.001

.030

.001

.023

.981

Attitude .000 a. Dependent Variable: Intention

.083

.000

-.002

.999

1

Beta

Standardized coefficients figure allows us to compare the relative strength of one independent variable and the other independent variable. This is so as the beta coefficient is shown after standardizing all the variables according to the standard deviations. This uniformity allows us to compare the forces of relationship of different independent variables with the dependent variable. Of all the independent and mediating variables tested, student‟s perceived usefulness displayed the strongest association with student‟s intention to use Smartphone with a beta of 0.537. Hence, increase in one standard deviation of products student‟s perceived usefulness towards Smartphone triggers a 0.537 standard deviation increase in USM student‟s intention to use Smartphone. Student‟s perceived ease of use of the Smartphone prevails next with a 0.325 standard deviation increase in student‟s intention to use Smartphone for each standard deviation increase in the perceived ease of use factor. Student‟s self-efficacy, observability, compatibility and attitude towards using Smartphone have a beta of 0.023, 0.082, 0.001 and 0.083 respectively.

Student‟s trialability of Smartphone displays a negative relationship

whereby one standard deviation increase in the student‟s trialability causes 0.052 standard deviation decrease in student‟s intention to use the Smartphone.

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However, our conclusion cannot be drawn solely by referring to the standardized coefficient. We need to gauge the significance of the relationship before determining if the association explained based on the beta coefficient is valid or not. The confidence level is set at 95% which means that the p-value must be less than 0.05 before the relationship is concluded.

Relationship between all the major variables and student intention to use Smartphone is significant if p < 0.05 As shown in the table, student‟s perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are the only two independent variables that have a significant impact on student‟s intention to use Smartphone with the p-value of 0.000 for both variables. We found that the higher the level of student‟s perceived usefulness towards Smartphone, the greater the intentions to use Smartphone. The same goes to student‟s perceived ease of use. The student‟s self-efficacy, trialability, observability, compatibility and attitude towards using Smartphone did not meet the necessary criteria to significantly impact student‟s intention to use Smartphone, so they played no role at this stage of the analysis. Hence, hypothesis one (H1) „The student’s perceived usefulness of Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’ and hypothesis two (H2) „The student’s perceived ease of use towards the Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student’s intention to use Smartphone’ are accepted. However, all the other independent variables show a p-value that exceeds the borderline of 0.05. This result shows us that the impact of student‟s self-efficacy, observability, trialability, compatibility and attitude towards using Smartphone are not significant enough or is not significantly predicted. Hence, due to the high level of uncertainty, we had rejected H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7.

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4.4.3 Hypothesis Results Hypothesis

Correlation Pearson P Correlation

The student‟s perceived usefulness of Smartphone has a positive H1 0.915 0.000** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. The student‟s perceived ease of use of Smartphone has a positive H2 0.881 0.000** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. The student‟s compatibility with Smartphone has a positive H3 0.287 0.001** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. The student‟s observability of Smartphone has a positive H4 0.832 0.000** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. The student‟s trialability of Smartphone has a positive H5 - 0.249 0.005** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. The student‟s self-efficacy with Smartphone has a positive H6 0.878 0.000** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. The student‟s attitudes towards using Smartphone have a positive H7 0.831 0.000** relationship with the student‟s intention to use Smartphone. *p must be less than 0.05 for a relationship to be significant.

Regression Beta

P*

Hypothesis Results

0.537

0.000

Accepted

0.325

0.000

Accepted

0.001

0.981

Rejected

0.082

0.260

Rejected

-0.052

0.130

Rejected

0.023

0.809

Rejected

0.083

0.999

Rejected

** p must be less than 0.01 for a relationship to be significant.

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CHAPTER 5:DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1

DISCUSSION OF THE MAIN FINDING

We had employed random sampling technique in conducting our research and reliability test is then carried out on all the data obtained. The results shows that all the data obtained and tested are of relatively high internal consistency as all variables have high value of alpha which is from 0.713 to the highest being 0.918.

After making sure that that the data obtained were reliable, we then proceed to analyse the data. Descriptive analysis was then conducted and we had also conducted frequency analysis on respondent‟s demographic as well as their internet experience. We found out that most of our respondent ranges from the age of 18 to 25 years old. Most of the students surveyed are females. Besides that, majority of the respondents are Chinese and are Malaysians. We had also realised that USM students are rather experienced when it comes to internet. Through the collections of data we manage to know that most of the respondents have 10 to 15 years of internet experience, have internet access at home as well as serve the internet several times a day for more than 3 hours.

We then conducted descriptive analysis on the intention to use the Smartphone of all respondents and found out that USM students tend to have relatively high intention to use the Smartphone. We obtained the highest mean for student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. Hence, we summarise that USM student‟s intention to use the Smartphone are quite strong as most of the respondents responded positively towards having the intention to use the Smartphone with answers ranging only from Neutral (3) to Strongly Agree (5).

We then conducted Pearson Correlation analysis to do the hypothesis testing by testing the relationship among the major variables. Pearson Correlation analysis enable us to determine whether each of the independent variables as well as mediating variables have a positive or negative relationships with the dependent variables. More vitally, correlation analysis allow us to decide and conclude whether or not we can accept the seven hypothesis made earlier in this research. We found out that hypothesis one (H1), hypothesis two (H2), hypothesis four (H4), hypothesis six (H6) and hypothesis seven (H7) is accepted. While hypothesis three (H3) UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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and hypothesis five (H5) are both rejected. This means that the outcome of this research project only coincides with the first, second, forth, sixth and seventh hypothesis formulated in correlation analysis.

Lastly we perform multiple regression analysis that allows us to learn more about the relationships of the independent and mediating variables with the dependent variable and to further test the significance of each major variable. Through the analysis we manage to find out that only hypothesis one (H1) and hypothesis two (H2) are accepted. The rest of the hypothesis is rejected because it is not significant enough to impact the dependent variable of our research. In this case, our dependent variable is student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. In conclusion, we are able to summarize that only student‟s perceived usefulness (USE) and student‟s perceived ease of use (EOU) of the Smartphone have a positive relationship with the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. These two independent variables significantly impact the dependent variable of our research. We can conclude that it is in fact very important for one to be conscious and aware of their own degree of judgments towards the usefulness and ease of use of an item (in this case, a Smartphone) before they can decide on the degree or level of intention to use that particular item.

The value of Brand The value of brands can influence customer‟s perceived usefulness of a product. A brand is a product or product line, store, or service with an identifiable set off benefits, wrapped in a recognizable personality, carrying with it a connection between product and customers. Today, the use of Smartphone has become a common popular trend, especially among the universities students. Actually, the value of brand largely influences student‟s perceived usefulness of Smartphone. For example, Smartphone of iphone, Samsung, htc, Nokia are attractive for students. However, brand equity is developed through excellence with both the functional elements and emotional elements of the brand. The functional elements of a brand include performance, quality, price, reliability, and logistics. In other words, whether the brand can solve a problem as expected and what it is supposed to do. For Smartphone, its different kinds of functions have catered to student‟s needs of chatting, video, games, online, photographing and even GPS. It offers whatever students want to use and experience in daily life. The key is UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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inexpensive prices of most Smartphone, which can be afforded by students. The functional elements of Smartphone satisfy student‟s different requirements. The emotional elements of a product include image, personality, style, and evoked feelings. In other words, whether the brand can create an emotional connection as expected between customers and the products. No matter which brand of Smartphone, attractive image and style are what they are seeking and have reached. Such as touch screen of Smartphone is a representative creation. A powerful brand creates an image and an identity for a product or a company also connotes a brand promise, which is what consumers can expect in exchange for their money. All Smartphone can offer promises when customers purchase, and can perform what consumers expect during the process of purchasing. Therefore, this point also directly motivates students to make purchase decision. The effective functional and emotional elements increase and develop the value of brand. Students can perceive usefulness of Smartphone through the value of brand; good value can positively facilitate student‟s intention to purchase and use Smartphone. Overcoming language problem Language problem is always a major barrier between different countries and it influence one perceived ease of use of a product. So overcoming language problem became a global market strategy for any company. Some normal cell phone had this language problem. Sometimes people could not find their mother languages in some normal cell phone that they purchased abroad. With that consumers are left with no choice but to use that average cell phone with English language, but English is not always a convenient medium for people whose mother language is not their first language. The findings of our research found ease of use a particularly important and significant factor for university students when it comes to their intention to use a Smartphone. There is a lot of foreign students in USM, although they can communicate with each other in English, it is somehow not convenient and not the best choice for many students to send messages to their parents and friends in their countries in English. However, Smartphone is equipped with a multi-language function. It includes English, Chinese, Malaysian, Korean, Japanese, Thailand, Spanish, German and many other languages. Students can easily change the setting of their Smartphone to their own languages. Hence, being able to change the setting of the Smartphone to own language function can improves the perceived ease of use of Smartphone. Hence, perceived ease of use of Smartphone boosts and improves student‟s intention to use Smartphone positively. UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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Need recognition The need for recognition of a product occurs when an individual senses a difference between what he or she perceives to be the ideal versus the actual state of affairs. Consumers buy things when they believe a product‟s ability to solve a problem is worth more than the cost of buying it. Such as student‟s need recognition of Smartphone, they have the intention to use a Smartphone not solely for the usual function of an average cell phone which is to make calls and to send messages but to utilize the various new technologies as well as practical functions a Smartphone provides. For instances, searching for information can be done conveniently by a Smartphone that supports WiFi, instead of carrying a laptop. Additionally, Smartphone provides GPS function that can be assessed expediently by a mere click instead of using and buying the navigation system. Most functions that are available in the computer can also be used by a Smartphone. Thus, Smartphone is highly adaptable to students who are more likely to seek convenience and speed. Need recognition of Smartphone can satisfy current student‟s lifestyle, however, this need recognition also can express student‟s perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of Smartphone which is why it further facilitate student‟s intention to use Smartphone. Search for information of Smartphone Searching information for any product may be internal, retrieving knowledge from memory, or it may be external, collecting information from peers, family and marketplace. About searching for information from a Smartphone, students easily use either one of the ways. Search for information in a Smartphone is more convenient and prompt, because Smartphone has been a product of daily life, whereby most consumers carries it around themselves and we can see people using Smartphone in just about any time. It means that students can easily search and get information from a Smartphone. So quick and accurate information motivates student‟s interest to a Smartphone and improve student‟s perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of Smartphone that consequently increase student‟s intention to use Smartphone. Learning Perceived ease of use (PEOU) was defined by Davis (1989) as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort. We can use the learning theories in consumer behavior to explain why Student‟s perceived ease of use (EOU) of the Smartphone has a positive relationship with the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone. Learning involves "a change in the content or organization of long term memory and/or UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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behavior." There are three major forms of operant learning. In positive reinforcement, an individual does something and is rewarded. He or she is then more likely to repeat the behavior. Therefore, for instance, when student perceive learning to use a Smartphone would be easy, they tend have more intention to own the Smartphone. If the result is opposite, such as having hard time to understand or Smartphone are difficult to use, they are more probably did not want to buy one. Attitude Consumer attitudes compose of consumer‟s (1) beliefs about, (2) feelings about, (3) and behavioral intentions toward some object. When consumer have a positive belief for example that using the Smartphone would enable them to accomplish task more quickly would result in consumer are more likely to buy Smartphone. Next, Consumers also hold certain feelings toward brands or other objects and sometimes these feelings are based on the beliefs. For example, some consumer are Iphone lover where he or she feels that Apple Inc‟s product have application on helping consumer in their works, therefore he or she may hold a positive feeling and are more willing to buy and use Smartphone. Consequently their intention to use a Smartphone is positively affected. The behavioral intention is what the consumer plans to do with respect to the object. When consumer perceived Smartphone is useful in their life, it will result in positive intention to own and use a Smartphone. Through the results of our research project, we also manage to find out that the relationships of student‟s compatibility, trialability, observability, self-efficacy as well as attitudes towards using the Smartphone with the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone are negative. This might be due to other factors that trigger student‟s intention to use the Smartphone, for instance, the price range of the Smartphone and the appearance of the Smartphone which includes the size, colors and shapes of the Smartphone. These other factors might influence and impact the student‟s intention to use the Smartphone positively or more in comparison with student‟s compatibility, trialability, observability, self-efficacy as well as attitudes towards using the Smartphone does.

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IMPLICATION TO THE THEORY AND MANAGEMENT

Conducting this research allows us to identify the intention to use the Smartphone of USM students besides telling us why students tend to have the intention to us the Smartphone. This is crucially important because the knowledge gained is not something that we can find out or understand by observations or readings. Nevertheless, the research allows us to understand the behaviour of the students in USM. The research data and information is very useful for existing entrepreneurs as well as beginners in the entrepreneurships sectors particularly those involving Smartphone or the mobile industry. Our data enhance their knowledge on the preference and factors that are fundamental for most students which can consequently lead them in using a Smartphone. Our research will provide a channel for these businessmen to understand such vital elements and allows them to maximise those factors in order to attract more consumers from USM. The population in USM students is significantly large. Hence, being able to attract such huge population will trigger success in their business. This also serves in helping the managers to nurture tactful marketing strategies in order to prepare in the future.

5.3

LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

We had encountered various limitations throughout the completion of this project paper. We tried to minimise or eliminate them in a way that such limitations will not affects the judgment and conclusion made.

The research project generally emphasizes on the output obtained from the SPSS software. However, SPSS might have some limitations that might lead to minor inaccuracies in the data used in our research. This is particularly because users have less control over the output generated. Moreover, whenever we wish to alter the data in a significant manner, problems tend to arise.

In the next research, we suggest that researchers can employ other software to perform the necessary test that is needed. It would be best if researchers analyse their data from a few software. This might be time-consuming. However, it ensures that the results obtained contains only a minimal portion of error or even better, free from any errors.

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Nevertheless, we had also encountered time constraint that had limit the research and extent of research performed. Since we are all students, we will need to allocate our time accordingly so that we can balance between completion of this project as well as other means of studying. Hence, we had encountered time constraint that had limited our work to a certain extent that we had agreed upon to be sufficient. We suggest that further studies in the future should span over a longer period of time so as to allow the researchers to conduct pervasive and detailed research. This will improve the credibility and accuracy of the data and results reported.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Begum, N. J. (2008, January 28,). African Journal of Business Management. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=+perceived+ease+of+use&source=web&cd= 10&ved=0CIsBEBYwCQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.academicjournals.org%2FAjbm %2FPDF%2Fpdf2008%2FFeb%2FJahangir%2520and%2520%2520Begum.pdf&ei=Or TsTrTHKYPprAf87-HqCA&usg=AFQjCNGkwk200nBfdKgaa by Gavin J. Putzer, M. P. (n.d.). Online Research Journal. Retrieved December 2011, from http://perspectives.ahima.org/: http://perspectives.ahima.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=167&It emid=56 FARLEX. (n.d.). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved December 2011, from The Free Dictionary Web Site: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Compatibility Gavin J Putzer, A. S. (2010 Winter, January 1). Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2805554/ Gavin J. Putzer, M. P. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2011, from http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_047016.hcsp?dDo cName=bok1_047016 Hannu Verkasaloa, C. L.-N.-C. ( 2009., November 10). Science Direct Article. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736585309000793 Jengchung Chen1, Y. P. (2010:Vol 5(2): e16). electronic Journal of Health Informatics. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.ejhi.net: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=study+fo+observability+on+smartphone&so urce=web&cd=5&ved=0CFQQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftaimages.s3.amazonaws.com%2Fimages%2Fpdfs%2F87.pdf&ei=7JLsToaRFdCHrAfht_ mHCQ&usg=AFQjCNG1dz_QariLgVGZATIlR0Vu3WuoHg Jengchung Chen1, Y. P. (2010;). electronic Journal of Health Informatics. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.ejhi.net: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=study+fo+observability+on+smartphone&so urce=web&cd=5&ved=0CFQQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftaimages.s3.amazonaws.com%2Fimages%2Fpdfs%2F87.pdf&ei=7JLsToaRFdCHrAfht_ mHCQ&usg=AFQjCNG1dz_QariLgVGZATIlR0Vu3WuoHg UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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Jones, K. (2009, February 26,). Engaged Learning. Retrieved December 2011, from http://engagedlearning.net: http://engagedlearning.net/post/requirement-to-sociallearning-adoption-4-trialability/ Jr., M. S. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=+observability+on+smartphone&source=we b&cd=9&ved=0CGwQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdscholarship.pitt.edu%2F6783%2F1%2FFinalThesisMichaelSusick42811.pdf&ei=mJvsT pCvM5HjrAfvqKH1CA&usg=AFQjCNGmsJPHt5yBGqvRe9N-pb5kP9coXQ Jr., M. S. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=+observability+on+smartphone&source=we b&cd=9&ved=0CGwQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdscholarship.pitt.edu%2F6783%2F1%2FFinalThesisMichaelSusick42811.pdf&ei=mJvsT pCvM5HjrAfvqKH1CA&usg=AFQjCNGmsJPHt5yBGqvRe9N-pb5kP9coXQ Lori J. Ducharme, P. H. (2008, May 2). NIH Publc Access, Author Manuscript. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2365704/ Rosse, J. G. (2008). Mendeley. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.mendeley.com/research: http://www.mendeley.com/research/what-is-anattitude/ The Free Dictonary. (n.d.). Your Dictonary. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.yourdictionary.com/: http://www.yourdictionary.com/intention Vaccaro, V. L. (2010, January 9th). Free Patent Online. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.freepatentsonline.com: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/International-Journal-BusinessStrategy/243799145.html Viswanath Venkatesh, D. o. (2000, December). Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=+perceived+ease+of+use&source=web&cd= 4&ved=0CEcQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sukkarieh.net%2Fshared%2FNJIT% 2Fvenkatesh.pdf&ei=OrTsTrTHKYPprAf87HqCA&usg=AFQjCNEEmyUzOwEw7jrdQ4DTD9erWftl7w Webkriti. (2011, October 14). Tech News Update. Retrieved December 2011, from Tech News Update Web Site: http://tech-news-update.com/android-compatibility-forsmartphone-technology wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observability UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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wikipedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_acceptance_model Wikipedia. (n.d.). wikipedia, The free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-efficacy Wikipedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone Wikipedia,. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronbach's_alpha William Dubin, P. (n.d.). Mental help. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.mentalhelp.net: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=39052&cn=14 Yangil Park, (. o. (n.d.). Emerald, Research You Can Use. Retrieved December 2011, from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1636252&show=htm

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APPENDICES A. QUESTIONAIRE

Dear Respondents, We are students from School of Management who is currently undertaking AMP354 Consumer Behavior course in University Science of Malaysia. The objective of this survey is to study about Intention to use Smartphone. We are seeking your participation to complete this questionnaire. The information gathered is anonymous and will remain strictly confidential. It will be used only for advance knowledge and dissemination of the overall results for academic purposes. Your participation is voluntary and you can choose to discontinue at any time if you wish to do so. Your completion of this questionnaire will be taken and considered as your consent to participate in our research project. Thank you for your participation and cooperation.

Regards, Group Members:Chuah Wen Xu Tan Yinn Jeng Ma Xiao Ong Shi Yun

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Survey on Intention to use Smartphone This survey is divided into 10 sections:-

ď&#x201A;ˇ ď&#x201A;ˇ

Answer each of the following questions with your own honest perception as well as feelings. There is no right or wrong answers. For Section 1 to 8, state your agreement based on the following scales:1

2

3

4

5

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Section 1: Reliability Using the smartphone would enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly

1

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5

Using the smartphone would improve my study performance

1

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Using the smartphone would increase productivity Using the smartphone would enhance my effectiveness in my studies Using the smartphone would make it easier for my studies I would find the smartphone useful in studies

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3

4

5

Section 2: Perceived Ease of Use Learning to operate the smartphone would be easy for me I would find it easy to get smartphone to do what i want it to do My intereaction with the smartphone would be clear and understandable I would find smartphone to be flexible to interact with It would be easy for me to become skillful at using the smartphone I would find the smartphone easy to use Section 3: Compatibility Using the smartphone will be compatible with all aspects of my studies Using the smartphone will fit into my study style I think that using the smartphone will fit well with the way i like to study Section 4: Observability It is easy for me to observe others using the smartphone in my university I have had a lot of oppurtunity to see the smartphone being used

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1

2

3

4

5

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Section 5: Trialability Before deciding on whether or not to adopt the smartphone, i would need to use it on trial basis Before deciding on whether or not to adopt the smartphone, i would need to properly try it out I would be allowed to use the smartphone on a trial basis long enough to see what it can do

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had never used a smartphone like it before

1

2

3

4

5

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had only the smartphone manuals for reference

1

2

3

4

5

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had someone else using it before me

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

I know where i can go to satisfactorily to try out various uses of the smartphones Section 6: Self-Efficacy I could complete a task using smartphone if no one around to tell me what to do as i go

I could complete a task using smartphone if i could ask someone for help if i got stuck I could complete a task using smartphone if someone else had helped me get started I could complete a task using smartphone if i had a lot of time to complete task for which the smartphone is provided I could complete a task using smartphone if i had just the built-in help facility for assistance I could complete a task using smartphone if someone showed me how to do it first I could complete a task using smartphone if i had used similar smartphones before this one to do the same task

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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1

2

3

4

5

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Section 7: Attitude Towards Using Smartphone Using the smartphone would be a good idea Using the smartphone would be a pleasant experience Using the smartphone would be beneficial for me I would like using the smartphone Section 8: Intention to Use Smartphone Assuming i have the smartphone, i intend to use it Whenever possible, i intend to use the smartphone To the extend possible, i would use the smartphone to do different things I intend to increase my use of the smartphone in the future

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Section 9: Profile

1. How old are you?

Years

2. What is your gender? 1.

Male

2.

Female

3. What is your race / ethnicity? 1.

Malay

2.

Chinese

3.

Indian

4.

Others (Please specify)

2.

Others,

4. What is your Nationality? 1.

Malaysian

5. What is your year of study? 1.

First Year

2.

Second Year

3.

Third Year

4.

Forth Year and above

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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6. What programme are you registered for? 1.

Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Degree

2.

Masters

3.

PhD

4.

Others

2.

Full Time

7. What is the status of your candidacy? 1.

Part Time

8. Which school / faculty are you from? 1.

Hybrid

2.

Arts

3.

Sciences

4.

Others

2.

Outside Campus

9. Do you live in or outside campus? 1.

In campus

10. What is your current CGPA level?

11. How long (in years or months if less than 1 year) have you been using the internet?

12. Do you have internet access at home? 1.

Yes

2.

No

13. Where do you primarily access internet from? 1.

Home

2.

Place of employment

3.

School / Academic Institution

4.

Cybercafe

5.

Others

14. Which browser do you usually use? 1.

Internet Explorer

2.

Mozilla Firefox

3.

Others

4.

More than one browser

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

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15. On an average day, how much time do you spend on internet? 1.

Less than 30 min

2.

30 min to 1 hour

3.

1-2 hours

4.

2-3 hours

5.

More than 3 hours

16. On average, how often do you use internet? 1.

Less than once a month

2.

Once a month

3.

A few times a month

4.

A few times a week

5.

About once a day

6.

Several times a day

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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B. SPSS TABLES OUTPUT Reliability Analysis

Perceived Usefulness Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.918

N of Items 6

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Using the smartphone would enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly

19.6

11.323

0.801

0.899

Using the smartphone would improve my study performance

19.55

11.362

0.74

0.907

Using the smartphone would increase productivity

19.62

10.688

0.772

0.903

Using the smartphone would enhance my effectiveness in ny studies

19.46

10.96

0.834

0.894

Using the smartphone would make it easier for my studies

19.56

10.861

0.695

0.916

I would find the smartphone useful in studies

19.56

11.652

0.802

0.9

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

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Perceived Ease of Use Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.886

N of Items 6

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Learning to operate the smartphone would be easy for me

19.05

11.014

0.815

0.847

I would find it easy to get smartphone to do what i want it to do

19.13

11.903

0.638

0.875

My intereaction with the smartphone would be clear and understandable

19.07

11.519

0.644

0.875

I would find smartphone to be flexible to interact with

19.12

10.881

0.672

0.873

It would be easy for me to become skillful at using the smartphone

19.07

11.051

0.807

0.848

I would find the smartphone easy to use

18.96

12.345

0.651

0.874

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Using the smartphone will be compatible with all aspects of my studies

7.01

3.314

0.768

0.88

Using the smartphone will fit into my study style

6.73

3.329

0.83

0.821

I think that using the smartphone will fit well with the way i like to study

6.81

3.818

0.801

0.854

Compatibility Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.896

N of Items 3

Item-Total Statistics

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

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Observability Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.703

N of Items 2

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

It is easy for me to observe others using the smartphone in my university

3.98

0.629

0.543

.a

I have had a lot of oppurtunity to see the smartphone being used

3.77

0.696

0.543

.a

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Before deciding on whether or not to adopt the smartphone, i would need to use it on trial basis

7.6

2.161

0.591

0.622

Before deciding on whether or not to adopt the smartphone, i would need to properly try it out

7.41

2.034

0.636

0.591

I would be allowed to use the smartphone on a trial basis long enough to see what it can do

7.28

2.558

0.31

0.775

I know where i can go to satisfactorily to try out various uses of the smartphones

7.47

2.025

0.547

0.645

Trialability Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.725

N of Items 4

Item-Total Statistics

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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Self-Efficacy Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.889

N of Items 10

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

I could complete a task using smartphone if no one around to tell me what to do as i go

34.12

28.514

0.785

0.867

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had never used a smartphone like it before

33.93

29.613

0.749

0.87

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had only the smartphone manuals for reference

34.15

30.342

0.576

0.882

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had someone else using it before me

34.23

31.92

0.487

0.888

I could complete a task using smartphone if i could ask someone for help if i got stuck

34.32

31.342

0.489

0.888

I could complete a task using smartphone if someone else had helped me get started

34.14

30.477

0.597

0.881

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had a lot of time to complete task for which the smartphone is provided

34.17

30.272

0.588

0.881

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had just the built-in help facility for assistance

34.06

30.265

0.66

0.876

I could complete a task using smartphone if someone showed me how to do it first

34.1

29.883

0.61

0.88

I could complete a task using smartphone if i had used similar smartphones before this one to do the same task

34.05

29.835

0.75

0.871

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

67

Attitude Towards Using Smartphone Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.822

N of Items 4

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Using the smartphone would be a good idea

11.66

4.58

0.476

0.876

Using the smartphone would be a pleasant experience

11.26

4.18

0.746

0.727

11.26

5.031

0.682

0.769

11.15

4.63

0.762

0.731

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Assuming i have the smartphone, i intend to use it

11.74

4.047

0.833

0.831

Whenever possible, i intend to use the smartphone

11.69

4.7

0.754

0.862

To the extend possible, i would use the smartphone to do different things

11.66

4.838

0.637

0.904

I intend to increase my use of the smartphone in the future

11.8

4.339

0.827

0.834

Using the smartphone would be beneficial for me I would like using the smartphone

Intention to Use Smartphone Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha 0.891

N of Items 4

Item-Total Statistics

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

68

Descriptive Analysis Frequency Test

Age What is your age?

Valid

below 18 years old between 18 to 25 years old between 26 to 30 years old above 31 years old Total

Frequency

Percent

4 107 12 2 125

3.2 85.6 9.6 1.6 100

Valid Percent 3.2 85.6 9.6 1.6 100

Cumulative Percent 3.2 88.8 98.4 100

Valid Percent 30.4 69.6 100

Cumulative Percent 30.4 100

Valid Percent 30.4 46.4 8.8 14.4 100

Cumulative Percent 30.4 76.8 85.6 100

Valid Percent 77.6 22.4 100

Cumulative Percent 77.6 100

Gender What is your gender?

Valid

male female Total

Frequency

Percent

38 87 125

30.4 69.6 100

Race/Ethnicity What is your race/ethnicity?

Valid

Malay Chinese Indian Others Total

Frequency

Percent

38 58 11 18 125

30.4 46.4 8.8 14.4 100

Nationality What is your nationality?

Valid

Malaysian Others Total

Frequency

Percent

97 28 125

77.6 22.4 100

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

69

Year of Study What is your year of study?

Valid

first year second year forth year and above Total

Frequency

Percent

15 85 25 125

12 68 20 100

Valid Percent 12 68 20 100

Cumulative Percent 12 80 100

Programme What programme are you registered for?

Valid

bachelor's degree (undergraduate) masters PhD Total

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

111

88.8

88.8

88.8

11 3 125

8.8 2.4 100

8.8 2.4 100

97.6 100

Valid Percent 11.2 88.8 100

Cumulative Percent 11.2 100

Valid Percent 61.6 24 14.4 100

Cumulative Percent 61.6 85.6 100

Valid Percent 69.6 30.4 100

Cumulative Percent 69.6 100

Status What is the status of your candidacy?

Valid

Part time Full time Total

Frequency

Percent

14 111 125

11.2 88.8 100

School/Faculty Which school/faculty are you from?

Valid

Hybrid Arts Sciences Total

Frequency

Percent

77 30 18 125

61.6 24 14.4 100

Outside/ Inside Campus Do you live in or outside campus?

Valid

In campus Outside campus Total

Frequency

Percent

87 38 125

69.6 30.4 100

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


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70

CGPA Level What is your current CGPA level?

Valid

below 2.0 Between 2.0 to 3.0 Between 3.1 to 4.0 Total

Frequency

Percent

17 55 53 125

13.6 44 42.4 100

Valid Percent 13.6 44 42.4 100

Cumulative Percent 13.6 57.6 100

Years Using Internet

Valid

How long (in years or months if less than 1 year) have you been using the internet? Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent between 1 to 5 years 2 1.6 1.6 1.6 between 5 to 10 years 33 26.4 26.4 28 between 10 to 15 years 88 70.4 70.4 98.4 15 years and above 2 1.6 1.6 100 Total 125 100 100

Internet Access at Home Do you have internet access at home?

Valid

Yes No Total

Frequency

Percent

122 3 125

97.6 2.4 100

Valid Percent 97.6 2.4 100

Cumulative Percent 97.6 100

Valid Percent 62.4 2.4 31.2 2.4 1.6 100

Cumulative Percent 62.4 64.8 96 98.4 100

Valid Percent 14.4 27.2 49.6 8.8 100

Cumulative Percent 14.4 41.6 91.2 100

Place of Internet Access Where do you primarily access internet from?

Valid

Home Place of employment School/academic institution Cybercafe Others Total

Frequency

Percent

78 3 39 3 2 125

62.4 2.4 31.2 2.4 1.6 100

Browser Which browser do you usually use?

Valid

Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Others More than one browser Total

Frequency

Percent

18 34 62 11 125

14.4 27.2 49.6 8.8 100

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

71

Time Spent on Internet

Valid

On an average day, how much time do you spend on the internet? Valid Frequency Percent Percent Less than 0.5 hours 2 1.6 1.6 From 0.5 hours to 1 hour 5 4 4 1-2 hours 30 24 24 2-3 hours 38 30.4 30.4 More than 3 hours 50 40 40 Total 125 100 100

Cumulative Percent 1.6 5.6 29.6 60 100

How Often Use Internet On average, how often do you use internet?

Valid

Less than once a month Once a month A few times a month A few times a week About once a day Several times a day Total

Frequency

Percent

1 2 2 3 38 79 125

0.8 1.6 1.6 2.4 30.4 63.2 100

Valid Percent 0.8 1.6 1.6 2.4 30.4 63.2 100

Cumulative Percent 0.8 2.4 4 6.4 36.8 100

Descriptive

Perceived Usefulness Perceived EaseOfUse SelfEfficacy TrialAbility Observability Compatibility Attitude Intention Valid N (listwise)

Descriptive Statistics Std. Max Mean Dev

N

Min

Skewness

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Std. Error

Statistic

Std. Error

125

1.83

4.67

3.720

0.56701

-1.328

0.217

2.144

0.430

125

1.50

5.00

3.813

0.66922

-1.024

0.217

1.583

0.430

125 125 125 125 125 125

1.70 1.25 1.50 1.67 1.50 1.50

5.00 4.25 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

3.786 2.480 3.876 3.424 3.778 3.908

0.60903 0.47264 0.71464 0.91029 0.69504 0.69309

-1.240 1.274 -0.900 0.006 -1.198 -1.021

0.217 0.217 0.217 0.217 0.217 0.217

2.152 3.800 0.903 -1.625 2.059 1.241

0.430 0.430 0.430 0.430 0.430 0.430

125

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012

Kurtosis


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

72

Correlation Analysis

Self Efficacy

Perceived Ease Of Use

Trialability

Observability

Compatibility

Attitude

Intention

Perceived Usefulness

Perceived Usefulness

Correlations

1

.930**

.850**

-.232**

.826**

.342**

.837**

.915**

0.000

0.000

0.009

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

.930**

1

.852**

-.207*

.828**

.363**

.856**

.878**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

0.000

0.021

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N

Self Efficacy

N

Perceived Ease Of Use

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

.850**

.852**

1

-0.171

.859**

.208*

.859**

.881**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

0.000

0.056

0.000

0.020

0.000

0.000

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

-.232**

-.207*

-0.171

1

-0.148

-0.022

-.239**

-.249**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.009

0.021

0.056

0.100

0.805

0.007

0.005

N

Trialability

N

Observability

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

.826**

.828**

.859**

-0.148

1

.309**

.853**

.832**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.100

0.000

0.000

0.000

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

.342**

.363**

.208*

-0.022

.309**

1

.429**

.287**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

0.000

0.020

0.805

0.000

0.000

0.001

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

.837**

.856**

.859**

-.239**

.853**

.429**

1

.831**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.007

0.000

0.000

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

Pearson Correlation

.915**

.878**

.881**

-.249**

.832**

.287**

.831**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.005

0.000

0.001

0.000

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

N

Compatibility

N

Attitude

N

Intention

N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012

0.000

125


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior

73

Regression Analysis

Model Summary Model

R

1

.937

a

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

0.879

0.872

0.24834

b

ANOVA

Sum of Mean df F Squares Square Regression 52.352 7 7.479 121.27 1 Residual 7.215 117 0.062 Total 59.567 124 a. Predictors: (Constant), Attitude, TrialAbility, Compatibility, PerceivedUsefulness, Observability, PerceivedEaseOfUse, SelfEfficacy b. Dependent Variable: Intention Model

Sig. a

.000

a

Model

Coefficients Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta -0.039 0.217

(Constant) Perceived 0.656 Usefulness Perceived 0.337 Ease Of Use 1 Self Efficacy 0.027 Trialability -0.076 Observability 0.079 Compatibility 0.001 Attitude 0.000 a. Dependent Variable: Intention

t

Sig.

-0.178

0.859

0.114

0.537

5.739

0.000

0.086

0.325

3.931

0.000

0.110 0.050 0.070 0.030 0.083

0.023 -0.052 0.082 0.001 0.000

0.242 -1.525 1.132 0.023 -0.002

0.809 0.130 0.260 0.981 0.999

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA SEMESTER 2, ACADEMIC SESSION 2011/2012


AMP 354 Consumer Behavior