Page 1

{ breath } [ GameScape RC 7, Jose Sanchez, Bartlett, 2013 ] [ Xuan Guo ] [ Ying Xiao ]


breath

Xuan Guo | Ying Xiao Studio Gamescape, Jose Sanchez plethora-research project GAD Cluster 7

Bartlett School of Architecture University College London

August, 2013


acknowledgement Breath is deeply grateful to their tutor: Jose Sanchez, assistant tutor: Sergio Irigoyen, whose help, advice and supervision were invaluable. Breath also grateful to Denis Lacej, Michail Desyllas, Denis Vlieghe who helped tremendously to finalize the research. Xuan Guo would like to thank for the energy and support received during this endeavor from family, old and new friends, without it this couldn’t be possible. Ying dedicates her work to the most inspirational studio-mates. Without their help, breath cannot be done.


shrink

pp1

A.1

{var the viper}

pp9

A.2

the game of typology

pp27

Hong Kong analysis on_Board

pp33

B.2

pp41

B.1

C.1

Housing proposal C.2

pp51 mobile market proposal

pp59

C.3 Phsyical model

pp71

C.4

C.5

pp79

configuration

C.6

material test

pp89


conents

Dec 2013

Feb

H

appendix

Mar

pp199

H1

GAD life

pp199

Apr

H3

blogs

pp207

May

pp97

D.1

3d modeling workshop

D.2

Jun

pp101

Arduino workshop

E

breath E.1

E.2

F

pp109

Physical simulation

Sandbox of behaviour

pp125

pp123

pp137

interface F.1 F.2

pp141

information

network

pp153

G

H.2

pp175

Play as design G1

pp203

Reviews

H.4

Breath Kit

pp179

G.1

Game play

July

H.5

pp189

thesis report

pp211

Aug

references

pp239

Sep




A./// early research A.1/// shrink

“Our design medium is behavior itself. Elegance and economy remain the preeminent values of good design. An elegant mechanics translates a simple push or pull into rich and complex behavior.�--Chuck Hoberman, Hoberman Associates. The deployable structure has the concept of adaptability and inter- activity. Users use that to find an appropriate response to space and function needs. It has a unique opportunity for aesthetic transformation expression. In the early research, we simulated Hoberman structure in computer to study the space could be folding down to its normal size by the scissor-like joints.


-Reference Hoberman sphere Shape and functions need a possibility to change,not always in statics states and can be in a transition statics. A Hoberman sphere is a structure invented by Chuck Hoberman that resembles a geodesic dome, but is capable of folding down to a fraction of its normal size by the scissor-like action of its joints. The Hoberman sphere can be unfolded by allowing certain members to spread apart. This can be accomplished by feeding out a string or cable in the larger models. The operation of each joint is linked to all the others in a manner conceptually similar to the extension arm on a wall-mounted shaving mirror.

Figure A.1  Hoberman sphere

pp.2

A./// early research


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Figure A.3  structure behaviour

-Cross Scissor-like component

Figure A.2  structure behaviour



Transformable structure is a broad field, scissorlike structure is a specific one which has one or two degree of freedom, which enables the interal propagation of movement from one component to another, offering us a change to design and build indeterminate physical solution.

A./// early research

pp.3


Figure A.4  Hoberman structure simulation

pp.4

A./// early research


-Users’ choice -Simulation of Hoberman The design of indeterminate “building”, which offers a range of possible solutions, enable the users’ choice, according to incidental needs, demand and desires. It can be more applied to the personality and personal situation ofpeople who may have to use it. General brief is the shape of the building can be achieved by analyzing present situation.

Figure A.5  simulation process



A./// early research

pp.5


-A design media The deployable structure has the concept of adaptability and interactivity. Users use that to find an appropriate response to space and function needs. It has a unique opportunity for aesthetic transformation expression. Chuck Hoberman said: “ use of the capacity of change and the sense of design objects.� So in shrink, structure is a design media and the motion becomes design itself.

:

Figure A.6  digital simulation

pp.6

A./// early research


Figure A.7  digital simulation 

A./// early research

pp.7


 

A.2/// {var the viper} term 1 project review

The project is exploring the possibility of re-configuration of arcitectural elements. Using the modular architectural components, users can creat an openended architecture. It provides the material with embeded intelligence to configurate a varitity of aggregations. Using the logic of folding, the player could create their own structure. The name of project using viper, because vipers behave as a linear elements, which is simliar to my first model, "var the viper" means make the viper as a varible, in order to transforming linear elements to a varity of architectural aggregations. In the future, this technology can be used as a self repair structure, or a kinetic structure to meet the multi functions of space.


-References MTran robotic system The initial innovation is from a selfreconfigurable modular robot called M-TRAN developed by AIST and TokyoTech since 1998. "This system can change its 3-D structure and its motion in order to adapt itself to the environment. It is using a Distributed Autonomous System, which interact or communicate and cooperate with each others to make the total system self-organize." I am fasinting about the concept of CA, the interaction between the neighbors can help the whole system self-reconfiguration. Figure A.8  Mtran robot configure family

Figure A.9  Configuring process

pp.10

A./// early research


breath

-Fold it Foldit is a computer game enabling players to fold protein as a way to contribute to scientific research. The specific shape of the protein will define the function of the protein, which could be a disease or a curer. Putting architecture into a small scale, the architectural elements and the protein are functioning as the same princple, So I have an idea to invite players to build theirown space using the logic of folding to make a 1 dimensional element (Line) go into 2d (Surface) and 3d (Lattice). Looking into MTran system, it has a variety kinds of connections between capsules which make the whole system more complicated at the start of the research I decided to narrow it down to simple connections.

Figure A.10  Fold it



A./// early research

pp.11


-Structure of the system There is no hiearchy between the robotic joints. They are all at the same level. Each robotic joints could communicate with its neighbour. Through this way, the whole system is connected. Players could activate some behaviour of certain joints. It is like a state machine. The joints have pre-defined certain behaviours like adding, rotating and joining.

Basic Component A + B

*

Figure A.11  Network of the system Figure A.12  Connected face

pp.12

A./// early research


{ var the viper } -Introduction The project is exploring the possibility of re-configuration of arcitectural elements. Using the modular architectural components, users can creat an openended architecture. It provides the material with embeded intelligence to configurate a varitity of aggregations. Using the logic of folding, the player could create their own structure. The name of project using viper, because vipers behave as a linear elements, which is simliar to my first model, "var the viper" means make the viper as a varible, in order to transforming linear elements to a varity of architectural aggregations. In the future, this technology can be used as a self repair structure, or a kinetic structure to meet the multi functions of space.

Figure A.13  Game scene



A./// early research

pp.13


-The mechanic of the system There is two parts of the basic components, we can call it cubeA and B, A is controlling the z axis rotation of cube B, And B is controlling the x axis rotation of the next cube A. In a capsule unit, they are always connected to their partner with hinge joint, and this connection can not be broke, but between each capsule, the joint can be breaked and reconnected. With this simple mechanics, it create multiple shapes of structure.

CubeB CubeA 90°

90° The Combination of 2 Capsules

Information transform direction

*Snake Linear Behaviour

At the the start of the research, I am scripting my own design applications, and optimise the tools to simulate the process of adding and rotating geometrys. Users can also turn off the gravity in order to see the rotation more clearly. In the third edition of the app, adding“Joint Mode”, user can cut down or connect the joint between capsules. In this system, there is no hierarchy inside of cubes, all the cubes are at the same level, players are controlling the modes of the cubes, however, cubes has been pre defined state machine. Take the move behavior as an example, I am setting the first cube in a queue as an actuator, the other cubes in the queue will be followers, so they can walk as a system.

pp.14

A./// early research

The Combination of 3 Capsules

Figure A.14  combination of robotic joints

Figure A.16  Rotate process

Ceate 3D line

Figure A.15  Joint mode


4

1

2

3

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Figure A.17  Walk behaviour



A./// early research

pp.15


Figure A.18  Re-configure process pp.16

A./// early research


-Test for folding In the second test for folding, I feel the potiential of this system but realize two diffculties for folding; the first one is if player try to rotate a long queue of elements at the same time, the process of rotation will become much slow. The second diffcult is the shaking of the components, they are not stable as a system.

Figure A.19  Re-configure process



A./// early research

pp.17


-Develop the components In order to optimise the components, and folding to a 2D surface, I limit the rotation of the cubes into right angle, and develop the shape of the cubes. With the new components, the cube can self fill the holes, in order to create a surface without any gap.

Figure A.20  Component develop diagram

pp.18

A./// early research


Figure A.21  Forming a minimum surface wall



A./// early research

pp.19


-The viper city v1.0 This is a project exploring folding a structure to creat a 3D space. At this step, player is still the center of the building process, next step, the designer is trying to bring the components into the process they could self sensing the world, and get involve into the growing process. We are building streets, the square and the skyscrape in the city. Because they are all created with a single line, they are all connected with each other, and at last we end the the line at the start point, they form a loop. All the logic is folding, we can create the surface, the space, the scuplture almost everything in the city.

Figure A.22  Interface of the application

pp.20

A./// early research


1 6

2 7

3 8

4 9

11 16 21

12 17 22

13 18 23

14 19 24

5 10 15 20

Figure A.23  generative aggregation process



A./// early research

pp.21


 B./// board game workshop 

-board game workshop


Figure B.1  Photo of board game workshop

pp.24

B./// board game workshop


breath



B./// board game workshop

pp.25


B.1/// The game of typology -board game workshop Team: Ying Xiao, George Tsakiridis, Vassia Diamanti, Iro Karantaki


Inspirations:

game machine assembly process 1

Figure B.2  Assembly process

game machine assembly process 2

game machine assembly process 3


breath

Game of Typology Machine

-Introduction of the game of typology The agenda of The game of typology is “Value”. The game allows 3 players to play. Each player can own all pieces of same color, red presents private spaces, green presents green spaces, and yellow presents buffering zone. Each color has its own rule to play. The terrain(board) of this game is tranformable which can be lift up by players.

Figure B.3  Photos of The game of typology component detail

score panel



B./// board game workshop

pp.29


GAME COMPONENT:

OPEN SPACE

BUFFERING SPACE

Scoring system:

RULE OF CONNECTION:

PRIVATE SPACE

absolute value:

SAME COLOR(TYPE)CUBE CONFIGURATION

GAME RULE:

RIGHT !!

Level

0.25

Level

0.50

5 Level

0.75

4 3 2 1 0

Level

1.00

Level

2.00

Level

3.00

Level

4.00

Level

scoring

7 6

Level

2points

Level

2points

5 Level

2points

7 6

TOP VIEW

WRONG !!

PUT HERE

RULE OF DENSITY (RULE OF FOUR)

RULE OF CONNECTION SINGLE LAYER MULTIPLE LAYER

relative value:

SINGLE LAYER

SINGLE LAYER

4 3 2 1 0 Figure B.4  The rule of the game

pp.30

B./// board game workshop

Level

1point

Level

1point

Level

1point

Level

0point

Level

scoring


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Figure B.5  Study model

4th move

3 pieces components

7th move

15th move

20th move

Lift-up terrain

study machine of building typology

transformable terrain



B./// board game workshop

pp.31


B.2/// on_board -board game workshop Team: Xuan Guo Dimitra Angelopoulou Efthymia Dimitra Kotsanii


pp.34

B./// board game workshop


breath

-Game variation At the start of the board game design, we focus on the housing issue, led by the high density problem in Hong Kong. We developed a board game called "CAGE U", which could be played by two or more than two players. Every turn, each players can decide use the space infrastructure to invest in commerce or accomodate people, and get a certain amount of "people". The game ends when one player has no space for his people. The trick is players have to build infrastructure to accomodate people, but also invest in commerce to build space. Through this game, we want to comment on commerce take too much space for people living in Hong Kong. The game is trying to find the balance between residential space and commercial space in the building.

Figure B.6  on_board Lego version Figure B.7  on_board foam version



After field trip in Hong Kong, we found another interesting topic on the networks. We developped our second prototype game On_Board.

B./// board game workshop

pp.35


-Inspirations The whole study of the game is inspired by the city of Hong Kong and its networks that are constituted of many different parameters. Some major parameters such as the land use, the economy analysis, the buildings typology and the density of the city, were analyzed in the following diagrams.

Figure B.10 

-Goal of the game Main goal of the game is the formation of two networks, conflicting or not, in two different levels, that intend to expand in the areas with the most positive value. It also comments on the over population on the limited lands that leads to the drop of the land values.

-“Scaless” The previous study led to the creation of a board game that focuses on the various networks that can either constitute a city or scale down into a building scale.

Figure B.8  typology of Hongkong building blocks

pp.36

B./// board game workshop

Land value drops

Figure B.9  rules of the game Type A1

Type A2

Type A3

Type C1

Type C2

Type B

Type D1

Type D2


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S Player

Player

Step 3 _ Place a structural component

Step 1 _ Configure the board

Step 5

_ Place all of your Structural Components. The first player that achieves it finish the game.

or network components

+

Player

Player

Step 2 _ Choose your mode of

Step 4 _ Take 2 network components

Game Play

Step 6 _ Count your points

The scoring system varies according to the two different gameplays. n the fist gameplay each player tries to form a network and gather the ma imum of points. way to do so is by blocking his opponent s network. n that case the score is individual since the game is highly competitive. n the second gameplay the two players cooperate in order to form their networks. Their goal is to achieve the best common score by avoiding the board tiles with the minimum value. n that gameplay the players compete each time their previous selves and try to improve their efficiency as a team by overpassing their last score.

Game Play

Figure B.11  Gameplay instruction



B./// board game workshop

pp.37


Step 1, Player A Starts

Step 1, Player B

Step 2, Player A

Step 2, Player B

Step 3, Player A

Step 3, Player B

Step 4, Player A

Step 4, Player B

Figure B.12  Capture of the game play Step 5, Player A

pp.38

B./// board game workshop

Step 5, Player B Ends




B./// board game workshop

pp.39




C./// re-configurable structure

C.1/// Hong Kong analysis


Figure C.1 

Pressure in Urban Scale:

Landuse pressure: density of landuse not buildt up 2

<1,000 people/km

2

<10,000 people/km

2

<50,000 people/km

2

>50,000 people/km

population pressure:

culture pressure noise pressure heavy pollution pressure

Pressure in Hong Kong

pp.42

C./// re-configurable structure

decomposition


Figure C.2 

Horizontal Connection in Hong Kong:

Bridge

visible invisible

connecet & bring

add VALUE !

game rule of value

bridge in the game

0 Value

private space with buffering space

value bridge buffering space connection

visible connection multiple layers/different levels

invisible connection shopping/stores in the corridor of tube invisible connection in people, transportation, commercial, such like a Commercial “Tube”.

stores/retials

pp.44

C./// re-configurable structure

> 0 Value


breath

A city is built in many layers. Layers in the temporal sense, but also in layers in the physical sense. The two often go hand in hand. A new area brings a new layer, a new style develops a new typology or new

expanding in vertical level

technology allows for a change in usage. In dense inner city locations however, very seldom one finds an unused spot, at least not on street level, but maybe on roof tops.

expanding in street level

Figure C.3â&#x20AC;&#x192; Hong Kong vertical& horizontal density growthâ&#x20AC;&#x192; 

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.45


-High density Forced by skyrocketing housing prices, and continually increase population density, 'Cramped living space in cage homes, cubicle apartments and sub-divided flats has become the reluctant choice for tens of thousands of Hong Kong people, The room is only 9 sq meters, but is occupied by up to 6 people. people only own a space as large as a bed. The same with cage house, more families are living in the sub-divided flat, A bunk bed takes up half the space, a cabinet most of the rest, leaving barely enough room to stand up in.

Manufacturing sector 9%

Other services 22.6%

sale and retail services 23.9%

10%

9% 1%

11.1%

3M

3M

public administration, social and personal services 16.9%

real estate, professional and business services 11.2% 1288 industries

other

services

347 136 0

3M

forest 67.1%

financing and insurance 15.4%

1224

3M

Natural environment

64

70

55

Economy Pie Chart

Hong Kong density Chart

405

41

30

Land Use Pie Chart

33

29

12

Skycraper(number) Points

3M

1.5M

Population Density (hundred/km sq)

10

Population (million) Urban Areas(km sq) Points per Building

15 20

Hong Kong

C./// re-configurable structure

Other

Building area

5

1.5M

pp.46

transport 4.5% recreation area 1.8% empty/construction site 2.5% other developed land 2.3% agriculture 6.4%

78.9%

90%

574

Figure C.4â&#x20AC;&#x192; "Cage housing" + Sub-divided apartment Figure C.5â&#x20AC;&#x192; Population of Hong Kong comparing with the other cities

water housing land other2.3% 6.1% other 2.8% 3.9%

Other 1%

Tokyo

Mumbai

Los Angeles

New York

London

Cairo

12 - 19 Floors = 0.01 Point 20 - 29 Floors = 0.05 Points 30 - 39 Floors = 0.25 Points 40 - 49 Floors = 0.50 Point 50 - 59 Floors = 1.00 Points 60 - 69 Floors = 2.00 Points 70 - 79 Floors = 3.00 Points 80 - 89 Floors = 4.00 Points 90 - 99 Floors = 5.00 Points 100 or more Floors = 6.00 Points


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Figure C.6â&#x20AC;&#x192; Reconfigurable apartment (Reference)

Energy distribution

energy in bedroom

more tranformable structure is the more effective in energy distribution.

bedroom 20 M 2

energy in 3 rooms mechanism energy

energy in livingroom

livingroom 20 M 2

energy

bedroom bedroom livingroom diningroom livingroom diningroom

slide wall

bedroom 3 rooms tucked into one

livingroom

20 M

2

energy in diningroom

diningroom 20 M2

diningroom



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.47


Figure C.7â&#x20AC;&#x192; Pressure in building scale:

Relationship: buildings density population density unit density

Building density

ground level

car parking

Low density: person/unit 1/9=0.111

pp.48

C./// re-configurable structure

High density in Hong Kong 10 person/unit 11/9=1.222

Population density

Unit density


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Figure C.8â&#x20AC;&#x192; Concept sketchy 

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.49


 C.2/// HOUSING PROPOSAL 

-Configurable housing solution


Heat Transform Simulation

-Energy transform simulation(CA) We are suggesting the whole housing system could respond to space volumn change and reconfigure itself to adapt to these changes. This transform behaviors require a certain amount of energy inputs. some of these energy input we propose are coming from the heat energy. solar radiation cause the distribution of heat on the surface uneven, and these uneven temperature make the heat sensitive material(sensor) react to these change by configure its own part. Here is we use CA to simulate the process of energy transfer in side of the block. With the consist-ant heat input, the heat is expanding from the surface to the center of the block. At this state, I have not considered the objects inside the block may influence the heat transferring process. I start from simulation on a 2D surface, the top one is an example of energy input controlled by user himself. the general logic is the unit caculate its neighbor, how many neighbor is at high temperature, the more neighbor are at high temperature state, the larger possiblity the unit will become heater. this is simulation process happened on 3d space.

Fps: 01s.

Fps: 11s.

Fps: 21s.

Fps: 01s.

Fps: 11s.

Fps: 21s.

Fps: 01s.

Fps: 11s.

Fps: 21s.

Fps: 31s.

Fps: 41s.

Figure C.9â&#x20AC;&#x192; CA simulation on 2D

pp.52

C./// re-configurable structure

Fps: 51s.

Heat Transform Simulation


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Fps: 3s.

Fps: 6s.

Fps: 9s.

Fps: 12s.

Fps: 15s.

Fps: 18s.

Fps: 21s.

Fps: 24s.

Fps: 27s.

Fps: 30s.

Fps: 33s.

Fps: 36s.

Fps: 39s.F

ps: 42s.F

ps: 45s.F

ps: 48s.

Figure C.10  CA simulation on 3D 

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.53


Physic model

chain connection

robotic joint

Figure C.11â&#x20AC;&#x192; Component analysis

pp.54

C./// re-configurable structure


Figure C.12â&#x20AC;&#x192; Re-configurable proposal

robotic rotation

robotic rotation

point to point connection

line to line connection



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.55


-Concept Considering actural requriments for living space of a family is changing all the time. The project is trying to explore providing solution for housing crisis by negotiate usable space between neighbors. Considering each space in a house as a variable , the re-configurable space become an energy package providing extra- value for the housing itself. The whole transform process could either controlled by the sensor or the users. The sensor could detect the chang- ing of the temperature and store the heat energy to re-configurate itself. The users can also change the shape of the structure by manually pushing the surface.

pp.56

C./// re-configurable structure


C.3/// mobile market proposal -A 21-century mobile market


Reference -Bloom

Designed by Jose Sanchez and Alisa Andrasek BLOOM is conceptualised as an urban toy, a distributed social game and collective “gardening” experience that seeks the engagement of people in order to construct fuzzy BLOOM formations.

Figure C.13 Bloom pp.60

C./// re-configurable structure


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Reference -Yard furniture Museums Quartier Vienna The inner courtyards of the Museumsquartier in Vienna, formerly the royal stables, which have been renovated and now host several cultural organisations, museums and cafes, are the playground for 116 over-sized elements, made of coated EPS (expanded polystyrene), which - joined in endless variations - can be read as characteristic, recognizable occupants on behalf of modern architecture in the preserved, historical complex of buildings.By piling the elements in winter they are transformed into building-like structures, inside one can enjoy punch and DJ-music, or even the "cinema of the cold".

Figure C.14â&#x20AC;&#x192; Yard Funiture, Vienna 

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.61


Figure C.15â&#x20AC;&#x192; Component development -first generation

pp.62

C./// re-configurable structure


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Lattice component

Figure C.16â&#x20AC;&#x192; Component variationLattice structure attach the wall 

joint

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.63


Figure C.17â&#x20AC;&#x192; Component development -second generation

pp.64

C./// re-configurable structure




C./// re-configurable structure

pp.65

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Figure C.18â&#x20AC;&#x192; Component development -second generation


Figure C.19â&#x20AC;&#x192; Component development -third generation

component A

component A

pp.66

component A

component B

component A

component B

component B

component B

C./// re-configurable structure


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Figure C.20â&#x20AC;&#x192;

Aggregation 

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.67


-Urban furniture We ambitious it could be an urban furniture, placing on the square, while people could re-configure some parts pp.68

C./// re-configurable structure

Figure C.21â&#x20AC;&#x192;

Aggregation






C.4/// physic model

-Configurable housing solution


pp.72

C./// re-configurable structure


Figure C.23          -configuring compoments into a loop in order to have a series of section like space.

Figure C.22          -magnet connections make the whole system has more variations and adaptation.



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.73


-model making process step 1_lazer cutting pieces on 3mm MDF

step 2_glue pieces into components

step 3_glue the magnets on faces need to be attached

step 4_configure components with certain rules

pp.74

C./// re-configurable structure

Figure C.24          -capture of the model making


Figure C.26          --Rotation with Connection

Figure C.25          -Twisting with connection



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.75


Figure C.27          -spatial condition

pp.76

C./// re-configurable structure


Figure C.28â&#x20AC;&#x192; -wall condition



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.77




C.5/// configuration


-Component Development We did several generation of component studies. From lattice one to more solid component, we need to improve the shope of the component in order to make it lighter for people re-configure.

pp.80

C./// re-configurable structure

Figure C.29â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Component for configuration Figure C.30â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Component combination analysis


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Figure C.31â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Plan & elevation



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.81


-Dimension of components and aggregation These components combine with robotic joints. People could push and pull the components, the structure will start to deploy itself. This rendering images show the dimension of the component.

Figure C.32â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Dimension of the component

pp.82

C./// re-configurable structure


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Figure C.33â&#x20AC;&#x192; -urban furniture



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.83


Figure C.34â&#x20AC;&#x192; Sceneria A pp.84

C./// re-configurable structure


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Figure C.35â&#x20AC;&#x192; Sceneria B 

C./// re-configurable structure

pp.85




C.6/// material test


-Ratio test

During lots of test, we conclusion it that mixing plaster with polymer with 3:1 ratio. A plastic mould was made to cast the component first. Pouring the mixture material into the mould and after 50 mins, take off the plastic mould. The nice cast component is done.

Figure C.37â&#x20AC;&#x192; Ratio test

Figure C.36â&#x20AC;&#x192; Duration for dry

pp.90

C./// re-configurable structure


Step 1 mixing plaster with polymer with 3:1 ratio.

Step 2 prepare the plastic mould

Step 3 pouring the mixture material into the mould.

Step 4 50 minutes later, the plaster become dry and stable, take off the mould. Figure C.38â&#x20AC;&#x192; Rotate casitng process



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.91


Component

plaster

ploy

C1

90

14

60

overall

portion

Weight

condition

Scale

18

122

6.428571429

1h

0

29

broken

XXS

20

0

80

3

40min

0

48

good

XXS

50

20

0

70

2.5

40min

0

29

broken

XXS

50

18

0

68

2.75

60min

0

41

good

XXS

50

25

0

75

2

40min

0

broken

XXS

100

36

0

136

2.75

50min

1

108

good

0.9

90

33

0

123

2.75

50min

1

90

Too dry to fill

0.9

90

32

0

122

2.75

60min

3min

5

104

good

0.9

80

29

0

109

2.75

50min

3min

5

91

uneven

0.9

85

31

0

116

2.75

60min

3min

5

106

Too dry to fill

0.9

80

29

0

109

2.75

60min

2min

5

92

good

0.9

80

32

0

3

115

2.5/1/0.09

2.59

26.67

50min

2.5min

0

88

uneven

0.9

80

34

0

6

120

2.35/1/0.17

2.52

13.33

50min

3.5min

0

102

too dry to fill

0.9

80

32

0

5

117

2.75/1/0.15

2.9

16

50min

2min

0

92

too dry to fill

0.9

80

37

0

2

119

2.16/1/0.05

2.21

40

60min

0

66

too thin

0.9

75

36

0

7.5

118.5

2.08/1/0.2

2.3

10

50min

0

97

too many polymer

0.9

84

36

0

9

129

2.33/1/0.25

2.58

9.33

50min

0

117

uneven

0.9

81

33

0

9

123

2.45/1/0.26

2.7

9

50min

2

104

some part uneven

0.9

81

34

0

9

124

0

93

the edge

0.9

C3

100

36

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136

2.75

50min

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101

broken

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C4

100

36

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136

2.75

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88

good

0.8

80

32

0

118.7

2.5/1/0.19

0

90

a little dry less material

0.8

6.7

C./// re-configurable structure

Ratio2

Time

11min

10min

15min

9

Figure C.39  Sceneria B -Through different ratio of mixing plaster with polymer, we get different strength of the component. The time spend on drying process also influence the strength of the component.

pp.92

Ratio

First Dry Time

Magnets

C2

water Fibre

Stir Time

2.7

12

50min

17min

Figure C.40  Diagram of Ratio test Figure C.41  Catalog of components




C./// re-configurable structure

pp.93


Figure C.42â&#x20AC;&#x192; Rendering of aggregation

pp.94

C./// re-configurable structure


breath



C./// re-configurable structure

pp.95




D./// workshops

-D.1/// 3d modelling workshop Assistant: Michail Desyllas In order to improve 3d modeling skills, a workshop was arranged in term 2. The 3d modeling workshop covered modeling skills, 3dmax rendering skills and also had Zbrush session. Grateful to Michail Desyllas who help during whole weekends to provide individual help, which made the workshop successful.


Changeable unit which can make building always in a transition statics.The form can be reconfigurabled according to functionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s change. The behaviours such as: shrink and expanding can save and re-use the change of the energy which accroding to the temperature in this case.

SHRINK SHRINK SHRINK

unit configuration 1

unit configuration 2

unit configuration 3

unit configuration 4

size change from temperature:

Low

High


-{VAR THE VIPER} 

Xuan Guo

D./// workshops

pp.99


D.2/// arduino workshop Assistant: Denis Vlieghe

Arduino is the favorite open source hardware hacking platform for designers. What could be better than spending a weekend learning about Arduino with Denis Vlieghe. Combining with the project, we use the color display to make the data visualization in physical model.


-Present the data of Orientation Embedded with accelerometer, RGB light, and arduino board, the component have color display according to the different orientation. We use magnets to be connection of each component. Like the figure shows, the two components connected with magnets, because of different orientation, the color display is not same. And accelerometer will sense the rotation during the movement and it will send data to LED to change the color.

Figure D.2  Photo of workshop Figure D.3  Elevation of aggregation

Figure D.1  Color display rotation

pp.102

D./// workshops


Figure D.4â&#x20AC;&#x192; Deploy the structure

Figure D.5â&#x20AC;&#x192; Photo of the components


-Color show orientation We vacum form the components into 2 seperate parts, and embed the arduino board , sensor and light inside, then glue those 2 parts. Light could come out frm the half transparent plastic surface. Different orientation and combination of components will have different color display.

Figure D.6â&#x20AC;&#x192; -photo of the component with arduino embeded

pp.104

D./// workshops


0° 180°

270°

90° 90°

300°

270°

270° 270°

90°

300°

290°

90° 90°

270°

Figure D.7  -color diagram with possible configuration 

D./// workshops

pp.105


magnets

accelerometer

RGB light

main board

arduino

magnets

Figure D.8â&#x20AC;&#x192; -detail of the inside part components

battery

pp.106

D./// workshops


accelerometer ground

accelerometer2 3v

RGB light green input accelerometer2 y input accelerometer2 x input accelerometer2 z input RGB light 3v RGB light blue input

RGB light red input accelerometer1 3v accelerometer1 ground accelerometer1 x input accelerometer1 y input

accelerometer1 z input

Figure D.9â&#x20AC;&#x192; -maps of the arduino board



D./// workshops

pp.107




E./// breath -project introduction

Breath is an architecture research project based on game mechanics. The project is in- tended as a game. The frame which 6 robotic joints are embedded is one unit in Breath game. The project makes a statement about architecture exist both in digital and physical world. Though sandbox of behaviors, Breath project provides novel views of lifelike structure and makes the transition process of the structure with architecture space meaning. Many features, for instance: social engagement, material and space economy and energy consumption are presented in the project and allow being worth digging in architecture research.


strandbeest Theo Jansen

-kinematic structure Theo Jansen’s StrandBeest had a grand influence for breath project. He began what he was known for today: building large mechanics out of PVC that were able to move on their own from harvesting the wind, known as Strandbeest. “He strives to equip his creations with their own artificial intelligence so they can avoid obstacles by changing course when one is detected, such as the sea itself.” Strandbeest by Theo Jansen is impressive kinematic structure not only because his kinematic system, but more important is the motion of the system.

pp.110

E./// breath

Figure E.1  -Strandbeast- Theo Janson


breath

-Architectural differetiation Open-ended design means without definite limits and no fixed result.Instead of fixed, static design, goals of open-ended are system operable. As I mentioned earlier, Hoberman is open-closed. Although the structure has transition moment, the result is still fixed. The answers of transition states like Boolean, the result is not true is false.

Figure E.2â&#x20AC;&#x192; Concept diagram



E./// breath

pp.111




E.1/// physic simulation In the level of energy consumption and material economy, sticks are chosen to embed with intelligence robotic joints. A platform in game mechanics was designed to deal with real physical properties. In this chapter, we studied from single joint to the configuration of several joints, how they work together and put them into later mobile-market design.


-Combine robotic joints with sticks The open-ended system is a way to approach architecture economy and energy consumption. After some analysis and previous study, embedded robotic joints into architecture component are not a good way to achieve that goal of the economy and energy consumption. In order to optimize the design, the combination of stick and robotic joints was finally chosen in the project.

Figure E.3â&#x20AC;&#x192; Freedom of the robotic joints

pp.114

E./// breath


breath

Figure E.4â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Combination of robotic joints to achieve different rotation



E./// breath

pp.115


Figure E.5  3D print joints Figure E.6  Diagram of combination jointsand rotation Figure E.7  Standing simulation

-Collectively function of robotic joints Robotic joints with many modules have large number degrees of freedom. With the combination of stick, the structure has the ability to reach different angles in a space. pp.116

E./// breath


breath

Servo

Magnets

Stick Magnets Follower

Actuator

Figure E.8â&#x20AC;&#x192; Detail diagram of the robotic joints



E./// breath

pp.117


-Digital simulation We start to study on the platform we build to control the behavior of the robotic joints in order to make a structure stand itself though physical properties, such as: gravity, weight, constrains.

pp.118

E./// breath

Figure E.9â&#x20AC;&#x192; Diagram of joints lift the chair


breath

Figure E.10â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Simulation with gravity and strength



E./// breath

pp.119


-Deployable mobile shop We study from single joint to the configuration of several joints, how they work together and put them into later mobile-market design. We combine the color display experiment from arduino workshop with mobile market design. This figure shows the different color orientation.

Figure E.11â&#x20AC;&#x192; Deployable mobile shop

pp.120

E./// breath


Figure E.12â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Deployable shop could be folded into a bunch of sticks for salers carry 

E./// breath

pp.121


-Generating process This video screenshots show we have a tool to build up structure; this is our one strategy for the generic system build with stick and joints. These figures show we try to create a simple cell in a game but for the build up strategy here is so complicated to create simple. And we realize that it not so important to create a structure but important and much potential to create the sandbox of behaviors.

Figure E.13â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Aggregating process Figure E.14â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Folding process pp.122

E./// breath


breath



E./// breath

pp.123


 E.2/// sandbox of behaviour Based on robotic behaviors, the interactive creation between frames can be complex and beautiful. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a game playing with robotic behaviors and networked performance. The physical simulation makes the structure lifelike to present different space configuration and specific quality. In this chapter, the project described that more and more behaviors emerged, the possible result of creature based on behaviors is endless. Like the Black Swan effect, some of the result would be difficult to design or invent.


-Soda Constructor Soda-Constructor is a construction kit for interactive creation using masses and springs, and follows strict physical laws. By turning springs into ‘Muscles’, models can be animated and made very life-like.

Figure E.15  Soda constructor

pp.126

E./// breath


breath

-Karl Sims Evolved Virtual Creature In 1994, Karl Sims’s project Evolved Virtual Creatures presented a novel system for creating virtual creatures that move and behave in simulated threedimension physical worlds. “Different fitness evaluation functions are used to direct simulated evolutions towards specific behaviors such as swimming, walking, jumping, and following.”

Figure E.16 -Karl Sim behaviour simulation



E./// breath

pp.127


pp.128

E./// breath


-Interest of behaviour We start to see very similar and sequence of behavior, in a large structure like a staircase. It’s very linear, not the way it looks, but the way it behaves. And now from the linear behavior study, you can find some specify space quality thought out its movement. By changing through the different behaviors, the space presents different configuration and quality.

Figure E.17  -Capture of behaviour Figure E.18  -Concept drawing



E./// breath

pp.129


-Creating complex behaviour The project generates complex behaviours from simple interaction of human and robotic joints. Icons for behaviours in game, red ones are motion behaviors, which are independent. Blue ones are relation behaviours, which follow other joints. Green ones are the icons for the behaviours between robotic joints to human; the distance, the number and the height of human are inputs of behaviours. The frame is one unit in Breath game. It has 6 motor robotic joints, which have been connected with sensors and the rest ones are passive. All joints have WIFI-Port that can receive and transit data through the port. Behavior-based control is one way I connect both in digital research in architecture design and physical application as an architecture product. Figure E.19 -behaviour icons Figure E.20 -Range of the frame

pp.130

E./// breath


Figure E.21â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Robotic frame catalog and detail 

E./// breath

pp.131


robotic joint

robotic joint

robot-human

-Interaction between human and robotic frame The frame can receive data both from itself neighbour frame and human. Green color behaviour icons represent interacting behaviour between human and frame. For example, when people get close to the frame, this event could activate the frame to open. People's height and some other data could also recorded by the frame.

human(num) human

human(height)

pp.132

E./// breath


breath



E./// breath

pp.133


actuator behaviours

follower behaviours

-Motion and relation behaviour Red color present “Motion” behaviours which means the movement is isolated. Blue present the “Relation behaviours”. Relation is intelligent understanding, it’s copying behaviour from another, by following the movement from another, it’s not exactly the same movement as the one you followed

pp.134

E./// breath

A kinematic kit


Figure E.22â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Comparing actuator behaviour with follow behaviour



E./// breath

pp.135




F./// interface Open source architecture would require one step that allows noneprofessional designers to participate in the architecture development. The welltrained architects could do more to promote this development in architecture design field. In the aspect of video game, interface is the key to make the communication easier and better between computer (game itself) and human (players). In this chapter, the information data, for instance, color behaviors and networks are well explained the data visualization and communication between digital and physical in breath interface.


-Game vs Structure analysis software World of Goo is a physics-based puzzle video game. The game is built around the idea of creating large structures using balls of goo. the player must use the goo balls to construct bridges, towers, and other structures to overcome gravity and various terrain difficulties. Sodacontructor are made of "masses" and "springs" and follow strict physical laws. By turning springs into "muscles", models can be animated. These games are explaining the complexity of load bear structure in an more comprehensive way comparing to structure analysis software like Autodesk® Robot™, hundred of icons and sophisticated interface make un-expert people hard to understand the system and interact or manipulate with it. We use game engine “Unity3d” and Several game software to explore the behaviours in order to user friendly interface.

Figure F.1 -Unit logo Figure F.2 -The world of Goo Figure F.3 -Catastrophe Figure F.4 -Soda constructor

pp.138

F./// interface


breath

Figure F.5 -Autodesk robot structural analysis



F./// interface

pp.139




F.1/// information -A second layer of architecture

Architecture has been thought of as hardware for such a long time. Thinking of architecture as digital (software), we may consider these invisible things that underpin and redefine the spaces. Thinking further, architecture could be considered as a whole operating system and it could be open-sourced. Game mechanics would allow architecture design achieves that: operable and open source. In this conception in architecture, everyone can be the designer of his or her own space. Using game mechanics to explore the field of architecture design in order to present radical thinking in computational algorithm.


Selected

MENU

14

6

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Diagram Mode

? circle beh

up-down beh

wave beh

loop beh

vertical fol

follower

robot-human

human(num)

human(height)

Sliders


breath

-Merge of information with real world behaviour Consider these invisible data that underpin and redefine the spaces are the digital part of architecture. Use game mechanics as a design tool. We can see the individual part of architecture like left page. And the image on right page is the real physical part.

Figure F.6 -Behaviour with data visualization Figure F.7 -Breath interface help understand the relation



F./// interface

pp.143


pp.144

F./// interface


Figure F.8â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Color lines showing the relation between frames Figure F.9â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Robotic joints function as frame's brain 

F./// interface

pp.145


pp.146

F./// interface


Figure F.10â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Capture of the movement Figure F.11â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Diagram mode



F./// interface

pp.147


pp.148

F./// interface


-Presenting the relation The movement of this space configuration. Color lines show the type of network and icons show the behaviours. For instance, wave motion: independent behaviour, it allows frame move both forward/ backward and up/down. These behaviours do not need other frame as an input. Follower behavior: dependent behavior, it will learn or follow other frames. It creates lag from the frame it learns.

Figure F.12â&#x20AC;&#x192; -Diagram mode



F./// interface

pp.149


-An architectural product exist both physically and digitally breath is considered as an architectural product kit. It works both interior and exterior. It could be a temporary market or music event shelter. The complex behaviours provide different spatial quality for the space it inhabits. The digital part is the network, which is software in architecture. Network is the data visualization. It is visible only in the game, but really happened in physical world. The breath project presents the architecture could be both in digital and physical. In a physical world, people can download the app online and use the device to control physical frame, the collaborative design make the architecture interactive in an innovative way.

pp.150

F./// interface


circle beh

up-down beh

wave beh

loop beh

vertical fol

follower

robot-human

human(num)

human(height)

MENU

?



F./// interface

pp.151




F.2/// networks The digital part in breath is the network of behaviours. Network is the data visualization of robotic behavior. In this chapter, different network topologies are shown. Those networks described clearly about the learning path the players built for the creatures and explained well about the different relationships among those behaviours. And it is visible only in the game but really happened in a physical world (architecture).


follower behaviour Selected

14

6

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dependant behaviour, it will learn or follower other frames. But not exactly copy. it creates a lag with the frame it learns from. Color line show the relation from follower to motion frame. (red to blue)

0

frames

small frame1

small frame2

small frame4

small frame5

small frame3

frame data frame behaviour follow human based on distance type no deck height 2.5m

large frame (deck)

connected people distance 2m height 1.70m number 1

large frame

wave motion independant behaviour, it allows frame move both forward/backward and up/down. This behaviour does not need other frame as input.

human to frame behaviour frame interact with human. when people get close to the frame, the frame will be activated. while get away from it, the frame will come back to sleep mode.

pp.154

F./// interface


breath

-Different typology of network :It allows players drag and drop behaviours to frame. Information of relation between frame agents overlay with the movement of frames people see in the real world. Network describes clearly to the players about the learning path they build for the creatures and explains well about the different relationships among those behaviours.

Figure F.13 -Topology of network diagram Figure F.14 -Screen capture of breath 

F./// interface

pp.155


Figure F.15â&#x20AC;&#x192; -"Star" type network pp.156

F./// interface




F./// interface

pp.157


Figure F.16â&#x20AC;&#x192; -"loop" type network

pp.158

F./// interface




F./// interface

pp.159


Figure F.17â&#x20AC;&#x192; -"mixture" type network

pp.160

F./// interface




F./// interface

pp.161


pp.162

movement_1

movement_2

movement_3

movement_4

movement_5

movement_6

F./// interface


Figure F.18â&#x20AC;&#x192; -creating behaviour by build networks 

F./// interface

pp.163


Click Actuater

Selected

circle beh

2

circle beh 2

up-down beh

0

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14

vertical fol vertical fol

2

follower 0

follower vertical fol

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pp.164

F./// interface

vertical fol

vertical fol vertical fol


Figure F.19â&#x20AC;&#x192; -information on frame bird view with network type A



F./// interface

pp.165


Selected

2

Click Actuater 2

follower circle beh 1

circle beh up-down beh wave beh

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vertical fol 14

13

follower follower

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pp.166

F./// interface

vertical fol vertical fol


Figure F.20â&#x20AC;&#x192; -bird view with network type B



F./// interface

pp.167


Selected

vertical fol vertical fol up-down beh

4

follower 11

Click Actuater follower

follower

1

follower

circle beh

vertical fol

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vertical fol human(height)

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human(height) follower

pp.168

F./// interface


Figure F.21â&#x20AC;&#x192; -bird view with network type C



F./// interface

pp.169


vertical fol up-down beh follower

Selected

Click Actuater 6

follower

follower

circle beh

vertical fol

circle beh

12

human(height)

follower

human(height)

vertical fol

up-down beh wave beh vertical fol 1

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pp.170

F./// interface


Figure F.22â&#x20AC;&#x192; -bird view with network type D



F./// interface

pp.171


Selected wave beh

3

circle beh circle beh

4

Click Actuater

wave beh robot-human

up-down beh follower

1

loop beh 0

vertical fol

vertical fol vertical fol

14

vertical fol vertical fol

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follower

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up-down beh human(height)

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pp.172

human(num) vertical fol

F./// interface


Figure F.23â&#x20AC;&#x192; -information on frame bird view with network type E -capture behaviour




G./// play as design -An innovative design approach

With the notion of the collaboration of digital materiality and human-computer through the open-ended system, the project suggested that learning design through playing rather than search. In a game, interface is the key point of the design tool and the key point of game algorithm is player. Therefore, on the game mechanics, the productive design creation guides the players to produce more outcomes with various performances.


-Call for players' attention We have published our game on Plethora website. After a week, some beta players sent us some feedback. It is interesing people comment not only as architectural project also the experiencing as a game. We also attended the unity user meetup in London to introduce our breath game into the game players and designers' circle. A lot of good comments and suggestions are recevied from them.

Figure G.1 -breath on plethora website Figure G.2 -game feedback for breath Figure G.3 -present breath at London unity user group(LUUG)

pp.176

G./// game plays


breath



G./// game plays

pp.177




G.1/// breath kit -an architectural product kit

With robotic joints embedded, behaviorbased control is one way the project connected both in digital research in architecture design and physical application. This chapter shows couple of examples of how the breath kit works as an architecture product


Figure G.4â&#x20AC;&#x192; perspective view capture 1

pp.180

G./// game plays


Figure G.5â&#x20AC;&#x192; perspective view capture 2



G./// game plays

pp.181


-An architectural kit As an architecture kit, the frame can be used in different scenarios. The structure has the ability to interact with human and no-human objects with endless possibilities. These qualities of spaces can reach the specific requirement in architecture design field, such as the structure of event, market, interior and exterior design. Through playing the game, more outcomes will come out.

Figure G.6â&#x20AC;&#x192; concept drawing Figure G.7â&#x20AC;&#x192; detail of the frame kit

pp.182

G./// game plays




G./// game plays

pp.183


Figure G.8â&#x20AC;&#x192; -capture behaviour in perspective view with diagram mode view pp.184

G./// game plays




G./// game plays

pp.185


Figure G.9â&#x20AC;&#x192;-breath default view

pp.186

G./// game plays


Figure G.10â&#x20AC;&#x192;-breath default view




G.2/// game plays Play as design. Human become an important and necessary part of the design process. The drag and drop action in the game create a virtual network in the system, and it influence the interaction between agents. Different gameplay from the community players become the outcome of design. Players could create different behaviour by different combination of networks; besides, players can create new sandbox behaviour by changing parameters like the speed, the vertical height and the horizontal range. These sliders give players endless possible behaviours. Exploring special quality movement and space requirement by playing game.


pp.190

G./// game plays




G./// game plays

pp.191


pp.192

G./// game plays

Figure G.11  -breath screen capture behaviour Figure G.12  -plan drawing


Social event space (Fashion event)

Robotic joint Circle beh up-down beh Wave beh Vertial Follower beh Follower beh Robot - human Human (num)

Public plaza

Public corridor

Social event space

14 25


Figure G.13  -bird view Figure G.14  -perspective view


Figure G.15â&#x20AC;&#x192; -elevation drawing Figure G.16â&#x20AC;&#x192; -capture of breath game scene

pp.196

G./// game plays




G./// game plays

pp.197




H./// appendix H.1/// GAD life

-Global Game Jam(GGJ) Unit trip has been to Hong Kong happened in January, 2013. Walking in the city with view of architects and joining a global event “The Global Game Jam(GGJ)” in the end of January. The Global Game Jam(GGJ) is the world’s largest game jam event which holed by Hong Kong Polytech university in January, 25-27, 2013. Think of it as a hackathon focus on game development. The GGJ aims to stimulate innovation, experimentation, collaboration and creativity.


pp.200

H.///appendix

F.2/// Rendering Workshop




H.///appendix

pp.201




H.2/// reviews


game really is? What deliver to people? And also motivation of the game. I will suggest consider more about who will participate with that game. The project now is kind of social attitude, for example you don’t need a specific site. But I still think consider a specific issue, like site, local data, will improve design perspective and also make the project stronger.

H.2 /// reviews Martin Dittus

A game is opened to centrally designer and people interpretations. I like the

Good and clear process, enjoy the

pp.204

H.///appendix

It looks interesting. I am kind wondering maybe I’m wrong.. This product will appreciate by artists. The animal behaviors embedded in the structure, that’s quite unique. I am sure it can be interactive, controls, reactive. Data visualization.. But right now, consider the interface, the game aspect; the outputs now are not concrete enough, a little bit abstract for an architecture project.

Theo Spyroupolos

Sean Hana

project, and I see huge potential there. Still, you need to think more about your interface because as an online game it is very important. Several strategies here are for generative complexity, that’s the revolution does. I’m interesting your playing game, such as: I played before and two months later, we are going to see something interesting happened. There are two ways to make it happen. One is: game generative collaborate design, people play their own component anywhere to collaborate. The other : game is not about the collaborate design but the competitive. I copy someone, catch and replicate the object. I also suggest make variety of components and behaviors that will make the game stronger and more complexity.

Filip Visnic

think it’s a beautiful design and the interface is nice, but for a game, it is not open enough. Look at Soda constructor, it is more open. You use a more beautiful way to produce a game but more close thoughts for a game. I am more interesting how game aspect as more design intention. In the way, I see more potential, the angles, I suggest use some local data, find some noise, such as, wind, sun. Sun flowers, For instance, design a more innovative energy farm. The presentation is great. But for the architecture, the object is not so clear, consider human and non-human agent. In next two months, I think it quite easy to make the game more open and accessible.

presentation and I also played your game before your presentation, I got some Joyful moment. Nice to hear that you said considered this thing as a physical product. For me, it has big potential. But my question is : I feel the movement will “kill” people. I am wondering if you could do something which can adjust the range.

Ricardo de Ostos I found some interesting in this game play. I think you should have more critical thinking of game, what

The project looks huge different from Karl Sims, Karl Sims’s staff created beautiful building blocks as creatures. Your project use game mechanics to simulation, it’s like a real time, from my point of view, I enjoy your presentation quite a lot, because the reference you showed, your design process. But one of thing that you are not just creating creatures, you should have large view, like landscapes scale, allow people interactive, the creatures can be made as building blocks. That’s the game aspect. indivual level and collaborate level. I think you have very interesting technical skills, interface you can play with that, but need more design perspective, so the project now is not well ready to go an architecture product in real world. For something innovative, it still has a long way to go. I will like to make this game more accessible and open, allow more and more people to join and explore, create something.

Steven Gage I don’t suggest it as a real physical p r o d u c t . Yo u m a y c o n s i d e r t h e population rather than the object. Allow many people from different parts in the world to join and add component / behaviours, talk about reflection, relation among the frames, create levels in game. Use global perspective.

Alisa Andrasek Are we trying to design a game, or trying to use game into a design? If you look at the design the game, I really

Jose Sanchez In your case, make the game more open and accessible is crucial. You did so well in the presentation, but in the project, you should consider more frames interactions, reflection. I think it’s a very ambitious project, and now you should know what layers should be added to your project, I think for the completely open, you are half-way there, and I am very encouraged you to make the game more open. The next 2months should be more productive and ambitious.




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H.3/// blog


-Xuan Guo -Blogâ&#x20AC;&#x192; xuanguo.tumblr.com -E-mail xuan.guo.bartlett@gmail.com

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-Ying Xiao -Blogâ&#x20AC;&#x192; yingx.tumblr.com -E-mail gailxiao@gmail.com



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H.4/// thesis report -Xuan Guo


TABLE OF CONTENTS

University College London Bartlett School of Architecture

Introduction

1

Research background

2

Entropy and Negentropy

3

Self-organizing system and players

4

Human based computation

5

Research Project The game of SmartCube

7

The Breath Game

9

Crowdsourcing and Community

LUDOLOGY NENENTROPY Using Crowd sourcing to violate the second law of thermal dynamics

Submitted By Xuan Guo (SN: 110069451) 19-07-2013 (Word Count: 5087)

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7

16

Conclusion

17

References

18


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LUDOLOGY NENTROPY

rule in a more persuasive way.

Using Crowd sourcing to violate the second law of thermal dynamics

Abstract

Entropy can be used to describe the disorder of the system. (Shannon, 1948) According to the second law of thermal dynamics, the entropy in a close system always increases. (Causius, 1867) Living systems can locally ‘defy’ the Second Law of Thermodynamics by importing energy and using it in replacement of inefficient or degenerated energy. It provides a possibility to break the second law of thermal dynamics.

The word Ludology comes from Latin Ludo, which covers all fields of play. (Huizinga, 1949) Game is considered as a fundamental for human’s life, while videogame like Foldit set an example how a multiplayer online game can also help the scientific research. Here, the word Ludology is used as rhetoric to illustrate how video game could serve for the computational design purpose.

This paper takes an evolutionary standpoint and studies “breath” as a problem of reducing complexity of an agent-based system. This standpoint or perspective is called Negentropy. Accordingly, it draws notions from the fields of thermodynamics and proposes a perspective in which the behaviours of structure could be created by a procedural including human players.

Entropy is commonly used to describe the disorder of the system. According to second law of thermal dynamics, the entropy in a close system always increases. (Shannon, 1948) The concept of entropy can be translated from physics into a useful concept for architecture disciplines. For computational thinking, a close agent system build for architectural design purpose will turn to chaos with the time decay. However, entropy increase can be reduced by allowing the system open and maintaining a sufficiently large entropy flux exiting the system. (Shannon, 1948) Information theorist Shannon called this negative value for entropy Negentropy. Therefore, author is trying to suggest a creative approach to bring order to the system by introduce players into this agent system, which combine both human and computational algorithm into the decision making process.

A key aspect in this perspective lies in how to interpret the concept of creating a new order for an chaotic background, and how is it used for the purpose of creating global behaviours with sandbox behaviours, how can we translate the concept of Negentropy from physics (particular from thermodynamics) into a useful concept for architecture disciplines? How to perform the translation to game applications dealing with the problem of regulate behaviours for an intelligent agent system?

This paper presents how videogame provides a platform to engage players into the architectural design process and collaborative work with a set of computational rules, presenting Breath project, which deals with behaviours and kinetic movements of structure, breaking the behaviour of whole structure into behaviours of discrete modular robotic unit. Players could make creative outcome by play with sandbox of behaviours for the modular kit.

Introduction

The hypothesis for this paper is applying players as inputs, it is possible to violate the second law of thermodynamics by remain the system open from chaos to order to increasing the Negentropy of the system. The paper is organised as follow parts: introduction, research background, research projects and conclusion. In the next chapter, it describes the history theory of entropy in thermodynamic area, and Negentropy while Maxwell’s demon is introduced as trial to break the second thermodynamic law. The second part of the essay introduces my individual project SmartCube and group project Breath cooperated with Ying Xiao, which explains the process reducing the complex outcomes produced by generative creation. The result of the experiment and future research are demonstrated in the final part.

In this paper, it is necessary to understand the notion of the Ludology first. The word Ludology comes from Latin Ludo, which covers all fields of play. “Play is a voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy and the consciousness.” (Huizinga, 1949) Play games can be treated as the most fundamental in life. While play is a well-defined quality of action that is different from “ordinary” life and it has its own social function. People shall understand that game is a culture factor in life. (Huizinga, 1949) Ian Bogost (2006) in his book Unit Operation writes: “Ludology is a single word to entail game research”. Here Ludology is videogame rhetoric to explain that game can be utilized as a tool to serve for the computational design purpose. For this reason, we use the videogame as a platform interactively helps people talk with other agents in the system. Ian Bogost also suggested games have educational purpose to reflect sophisticated 1Report 1

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Research background Entropy and Negentropy Introduced by Rudolf Clausius in 1865, Entropy is used to describe unavailability of energy. According to the second law of thermal dynamics, the entropy of the universe always increases. The transformation process is irreversible.

dS >= 0 However, James clerk Maxwell’s demon tried to break the second law by introducing a demon to sort the colour balls. In information theory, this demon is doing the information analysis of finding the fast move molecules in the blue box and slow moves molecules in the red box, and allowing these go through the wall. Critic like Le— Szilárd (1929) said a real-life demon would cost energy to think. However, this hypothesis actually introduce the idea of keeping the entropy of a system low by allowing the system open that has external inputs and outputs. Erwin Schršdinger introduced the idea and phrase “negative entr opy” in his 1944 book What is Life? He describes the Negentropy as negative entropy a living system used to keep its own entropy low. A living organism avoids decay by exchange material with its environment like eating drinking and breathing. (Schršdinger, 1944) To push this thinking even further, Ludwig von Bertalanffy argued that traditional closed system models based on classical science and the second law of thermodynamics were untenable. (Bertalanffy, 1950) He explained open system has a profound difference with a close system that is equifinality. Inanimate system has no equifinality. However, in open reaction system, it could maintain the same value of steady state by the constants of reactions and of the inflow and outflow. The irreversible process causes the entropy growth, but negative entropy or Negentropy from the importations of matters could help the system avoid entropy increase.

dS = deS + diS Claude Shannon in his article A Mathematical Theory of Communication proved that the entropy can be considered as a measure of randomness relative to an assumed standard. If an input can produce only one possible result and no extra storage space is required, its entropy is zero. Therefore, the more unpredictable the result is, (Causius, 1867) the higher entropy it will be. Entropy has been commonly used to describe the disorder of the system. According to thermodynamics, living systems can only persist by being open and maintaining a sufficiently large entropy flux exiting the system. Therefore, living systems can locally ‘defy’ the Second Law of Thermodynamics by importing energy and using it in replacement of inefficient or degenerated energy. Therefore the name Negentropy was chosen for this perspective. The concept of entropy and Negentropy can be translated from physics into a useful concept for architecture disciplines. For computational thinking, a close agent system build for architectural Report 3

design purpose will turn to chaos with the time decay. These serialized outcomes generalized by purely computational algorithm or changing the parameters blur the definition of what is meaningful and what is meaningless. However, new order can be brought by introducing a external input “players” into the process, which maintain the system open. Players can create identical outcome by take advantage of human’s visual and sensibility. Therefore, it can be argued that players will be the Negentropy for the self-organizing system. Self-organizing system and players Self-organizing is a process where some form of global order or coordination arises out of the local interactions between the components of an initially disordered system. (Johnson, 2001) This process is spontaneous: it is not directed or controlled by any agent or subsystem inside or outside of the system; Such a system would define the most elemental form of complex behaviour: a system with multiple agents dynamically interacting in multiple ways, following local rules and oblivious to any higher-level instructions. (Johnson, 2001) Emergent would not truly considered until macro behaviour appears which means outcome is hard predicted from beginning or in the process. Conway's Game of Life is an example of self-organized system. It is a two dimensional cellular automaton. Different patterns emerge like Still life’s Oscillators Spaceships. However, it can be considered as “zero-player” game, the outcome is defined by initial conditions and rules setting for each cell. Human interaction can also be interpreted as a set of more complex rules. Games are made of rules and a decision making process from human players. Furthermore the final outcome for game, which is normally win or lose, is hard predicted from the beginning. Hence, a game involve in human interaction could also be analyzed as a self-organizing system. Human players take the role of local agents in the system. For computational thinking, players could be replaced by agents that obey the basic rules of game. Although board game like tic-tac-toe is constrained by simple rule, it can still generate complexity. The number of distinct legal configurations exceeds 50000, (Holland, 1998) the number of board configurations that can occur in checkers is even larger, far too large to compile a list that programs the response for each possible configuration, but not all configurations are meaningful to players. A difference between human players and these agents is that players normally have intentions for the game, and they will take different strategies in this process. Strategy is defined by a series of good move. Therefore, it is obvious that human players give a different field of understanding for the chaotic states. Samuel’s checkersplayer use a program that mimic human player’s strategy to predict the move tree. (Holland, 1998) More specifically, the start and end of the game is more constrained than the middle part. Considering the game as change of different state, the same state can be generated from different previous state with different moves. Samuel’s computer checker is trying to identify these obvious win states and avoid trap states. However, both win states and trap states are learning the experience from human players. In this case, human intelligence is used to reduce unnecessary predication and calculation after Report 4

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Human based computation. Usually human perform a role of critic while the evolutionary program take the role of creator. (Kosorukoff, 2000) However, human’s creativity is far more interesting than computational algorithm. In a human based generic algorithm, it encourages hu mans to take part into both roles, and organises knowledge flows within a community of individuals for the purpose of collaborative evolutionary web-based problem solving, boosting innovation and creativity. (Kosorukoff, 2000) Instead, reversing the common interaction between computers and humans, it is a coordinator aggregating efforts of many human evaluators. Participators could save and share their aggregate solution in the game. The system will evaluate the effectiveness of the configuration by calculating the number of pieces used and the condition of structure stability. New folding approach is emerging from evolutionary assembly method by human players rather than computational algorithm. The skills of the participants will be improved when they spe nd much time to play it, hence the learning ability of humans will increase the efficiency of the system. In reality, the re-configurability and modular components reduced the energy consumption in the building process. From the thermodynamic point of view, it drops the entropy from a close static architecture system. Components can be reused and adept to different condition. Also, people play with the game is the free resource that can be treated as inputs to the system. It helps the system keep an equifinality state. Giving another example from video game industry, it combines the human intelligence and computational algorithm in terms of protein folding. A small protein can consist of 100 amino acids, while some human proteins can be huge (1000 amino acids). The number of different ways even a small protein can fold is astronomical because there are so many degrees of free dom. Figuring out which of the many, many possible structures is the best one is regarded as one of the hardest problems in biology today and current methods take large amount of money and time, even for computers. Foldit attempts to predict the structure of a protein by taking advantage of humans' puzzle-solving intuitions and having people play competitively to fold the best proteins. (Foldit, 2013) According to the comparison example (Figure 1) between players and Rosetta programme, players performs lower energy consumption and better result than the top predict programme. (Cooper, 2010) In this diagram, green colour is Foldit players while yellow colour is Rosetta algorithm. The y-axis represents the score of the solution. It clearly shows human player generally get better score than Rosetta programme. One of the reason for that is human players take a variety of approaches to solve the puzzle comparing to the top predict Rosetta programme. The different combination of redefine and rebuild approach generate unexplored strategies that could potentially be more effective than the automated algo rithms.

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identifying the important state.

The second reason is the complexity dramatically grows with the increase of the length of the protein chain. Even for the simplest chains, it would take a typical desktop computer several centuries to predict the optimum way a protein would fold. (Dartnell, 2008) Despite computers being very quick and accurate at certain problems, for many tasks they are still far surpassed by the human brain, such as in visual processing, spatial reasoning or problem solving.

Figure 1 (Cooper, 2010) Although players dealing with a puzzle far from the start point show some troubles, players can perform better with appropriate visual cues. It also indicates “it needs to find good balance with human intelligence and computational methods.” (Seth Cooper, 2010) All these games provide an alternative solution for how to reduce the complexity in a self-organizing system. It is unnecessary to let agents go through all the possible states. Human’s brain actually does have the strategy or ‘algorithms’ to filter some noise states and find more clear and meaningful ones. In order to reduce the complexity of the system, the suggestion will be introducing players into the agent-based system. It creates a symbiotic interaction between Human and computer. These quantitative studies support our perspective, but have only included non-spatial, physics and ecological systems. Their implications and translations for architecture (especially concerning strategies) are interwoven with our perspective and supplemented with the spatial dimension in the form of action spaces. Taking the idea back from videogame industry to architecture field, the agent-based system gives opportunity for an open-ended architecture. These agents could be controlled by certain rules to simulate the real world, for example water and wind. Simulations of the acoustics of spatial designs and material systems, or of the flow of air and heat through spaces and in materials, or the stress response of structures under imposed loads, are now standard modules in most engineering software, and increasingly used in design studios. (Hensel, Menges, & Weinstock, 2010) If these agent system is considered as close system, the complexity or in another word entropy will always increase.

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Research Project The game of SmartCube Finished in the first term, the SmartCube is a game designed by author, which allow players using the logic of folding to make a 1 dimensional element (Line) go into 2d (Surface) and 3d (Lattice). .In general, the game can be understood as a computational form-generating process about adding and folding action.. The project is made up of modular robotic components, which is initially inspired by a modular robot MTran system developed by AIST and Tokyo-Tech. There are two parts of the basic components in a modular unit, we can call it cube A and B, A is controlling the z-axis rotation of cube B, and B is controlling the x-axis rotation of the next cube A. (Figure 3) In a capsule unit, Cube A and

Figure 3 (Author, 2012) Figure 4 (Author, 2012) In this system, there is no hierarchy between each unit; all the units are at the same level. (Figure 4) These units have been pre-defined state machine. Players are triggering the transition between the states of the components. Take the move behaviour as an example, the first component in a queue is an actuator, the others are passive following the first one, so whenever player cut down the connections, they will always walk as a system. It can be treated as a self-organizing system, but players as an external input is ‘Negentropy’ of the system. Players can interact with the agent units by click. Each click and analysis happen in players’ brain helps the system create a certain form of aggregation.

B are always connected with hinge joint, but between capsules, the joint can be broken and reconnected. With this simple mechanics, it can create multiple configuration of structure. (Figure 2) Figure 2 (Author, 2012)

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Giving only two components in the aggregation, there are 16 different combinations, even limiting all the rotation into right angle. The number of configuration surge with the increase of the components. Not all combinations are meaningful. Without control, the system could generate a mass of aggregation. Some of the components may collider with other. With the assist of human players, the system take advantage of people’s visual ability and logic analysis going to order from a chaotic self-organizing system. Players could bring their intention into the game; they may take certain strategy. For example, they may want to continue adding components linearly. By place two linear components together, a 2-dimensional face may generate. This spatial sensibility is inherited in human’s brain. Players do not need special training that they could manage to creative make the meaningful aggregation.

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The Breath Game is a videogame designed by Xuan Guo and Ying Xiao in the research cluster Gamescape within The Bartlett, UCL. This game allows players play with sandbox of behaviours to create their own behaviour for a kinematic structure. The project can be understood in three scales, global structure scale, the local modular robotic unit scale, and the variable kit scale. It is an example showing how players as a Negentropy create recognizable different emergent behaviour from a simple rule agent-based system.

breath

The Breath Game.

provide the positions and angles for moving objects, we can control each detail of their behaviour, but it might be difficult to achieve physically plausible motions. If we instead provide forces and torques and simulate the resulting dynamics, the result will probably look correct, but then it can be very difficult to achieve the desired behaviour, especially as the objects we want to control become more complex.” (Sims, 1994) (Figure 6)

Figure 6 (Karl Sims, 1994)

Figure 5 (Author, 2013) In general, our interest is to make the structure move therefore it could perform and behave in the space. Architecture no longer has to remain static. These movements could provide different spatial quality. If consider Hoberman’s system as an kinematic structure that only allow two states which are open and close happen in one structure, the project breath is trying to define the moments between these two states. For complexity theory, the process of increasing variety is called differentiation. (Hensel, Menges, & Weinstock, 2010) The folding process can be used as an opportunity for architectural differentiation. (Figure 5) This colour code diagram below shows the differentiation from “State A” to “State B” and the project exists between state open and state close, which is not creating a uniform space, but a different spatial quality through these transition process. Instead of define every detail movement of the structure; the project breaks down the behaviour of whole structure into the behaviour of discrete modular robotic units. Followed by the game SmartCube, the project Breath carries the mechanics of modular robotic units that could fold and attaching to other components. The servomotor could be embedded inside of the modular robotic joints to control the rotations of joints. Sticks can be connected to the robotic joints. The strength of the servomotor can work collectively to fold the whole structure. Karl Sims explains the conflict between complexity and control. (Sims, 1994) “If we directly Report 9

Figure 7 (Soda, 2013) These two approaches clearly address the problem, which has been discussed in this paper. If let the simulation run by themselves without human control, people may never get the behaviour they want through the process. Besides, if designer set every detail of the movement such as position and rotation, the system seems too rigid without any emergent outcome. However, videogame provides an interactive platform; players could be a part of the design process. Report 10



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In the early stage of the project, a game has been designed to allow players create and control behaviour of their own kit, which is made up of robotic joints and sticks. It is similar to Soda constructor, which is a construction kit for interactive creations using masses and springs, and follow strict physical laws. By turning springs into â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Musclesâ&#x20AC;?, models can be animated and have their own behaviours. (Soda) (Figure 7) In our early stage game, players could activate or deactivate different behaviours for the joints, such as clockwise rotation and anticlockwise rotation, by click the robotic joints. (Figure 8) In this way, the behaviour of whole structure could be defined. Series of experiments about simple behaviours have been tested in this game. For example, giving enough strength to the robotic joints located on the four corners of the cube, the cube could be lifted up by itself. In the process, players can decide which joints need to be added force to rotate, but the whole structure are still influenced by gravity and physics. Furthermore, players can adjust the behaviour of joints immediately based on the simulation. Hence, people get more control for the behaviour, but remains the physic simulation for the system. Figure 8 (Author, 2013)

Figure 8(Author, 2013) However, it is not an easy task to build their own kit for players after some feedback received from test players. At this stage, the Breath game focuses on creating a simple structure kit but with different behaviours. From early studies, it can be concluded that the movement of whole structure is a result of collective behaviours of modular robotic units. Different movements are achieved by giving various strengths to the joints to against gravity and physics. These units are like the brain of the system. By activating some particular joints player can make the whole structure move, fold in different way. Therefore, different behaviours can be embedded into the kit. A kit like this is made up of 6 robotic joints and sticks, 2 of which have the strength to lift and fold while the rest are just passive ones. The kit could receive data through WIFI port. (Figure 9) Players could activate kit, while kit could also send information between each other.

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Figure 9(Author, 2013) Instead of controlling the behaviour of each robotic unit, players can activate different behaviours of each kit, which is easier for players to understand the movement. From some recorded gameplay, players are able to create linear behaviour by assigning similar behaviour onto sequence of structure kits. The structure can perform very different spatial quality by changing behaviours. Players are dealing with different sandbox of behaviours. Red buttons represent the isolated action behaviour. When player drag and drop the button onto the robotic frame, it will start to move and fold as the button shows like wave motion. Blue buttons represent relation behaviours. It is copying or aligning behaviour from other kit. By following the movement from another, it is not doing the same movement as the one it follows; we use relation behaviour to create a lag, a distance of time to generate more emergent behaviours. Through relation behaviours, players can build connection between the robotic frames, and these frames start to talk with each other, in a way connect the system together. If one kit changes behaviour, the other connected kits will follow the change. It creates ripple-effect behaviour for the system.

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Figure 10 (Author, 2013)

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Crowdsourcing and Community Human become an important and necessary part of the design process. The drag and drop action in the game create a virtual network in the system, and it influence the interaction between agents. With the game, it frees the designer, but calls for the community join in the process. Different gameplay from the community players become the outcome of design. Players could create different behaviour by different combination of networks; besides, players can create new sandbox behaviour by changing parameters like the speed, the vertical height and the horizontal range. These sliders give players endless possible behaviours. However, there may require some motivation to attract players to play the game. The more participants the more meaningful outputs we will get. There are several incentives to participants such as curiosity, aesthetic satisfaction and fun. ( Kosorukoff, 2000) A proper combination of incentives could encourage players participate. Like game Foldit, it has a score system record the efficiency of players and the social function, other players could comment on solutions.

Figure 11 (Author, 2013) The network diagram view shows the relation between robotic frames. Blue sides are the followers while red sides are the ones that followers learn from. By drawing different network for the system, players are using different strategies to create behaviour. For example, the star topology network can create a behaviour look like sink; (Figure 11) the loop topology network creates behaviour like wave. (Figure 10) By mixing different typologies, complex and beautiful behaviours emerge from the system.

The breath project can be ambitiously considered as a new product of architecture kit. With game engine for people interactively play, this product kit can exist both physically and digitally. Moreover, it allows the community continually develops it. Players could potentially embed more behaviours or different robotic frames into it. With technology support from the community, people may manage to build the kit in real world. As a product, people could sale it for different events all over the world. This deployable kit could meet the requirements of temporary markets , which have different states from day to night. It could also serve for a music event. Meanwhile it could be placed in the gallery; it works both interior and exterior.

In the system, the robotic frame is the agent constrained by rules, which can communicate and behave differently. The system gives alternative understanding for the notion of artificial intelligence. It makes interaction between human and non-human objects; the structure has its own brain, some algorithms to define the rules, playersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interaction with the structure and the robotic joint itself working collectively at the same time make the system behave like a living creature. User interface is the place where players (Human) and agents (Non-Human objects) communicate. Every piece of matter is both physical and digital. In the game, diagram view shows the network of relation between robotic frames. It draws the digital part of the architecture elements. Those connections we cannot see in the real world, but it is important data that exists. In the system, the network displays the â&#x20AC;&#x153;learning pathâ&#x20AC;? from followers to motion ones. Moreover, the behaviour icon on the top of robotic frames shows the current state. Lines and icons make this hidden information visible for players. Players could understand and manipulate these data to create behaviours.

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Conclusion

Reference

In summary, the Breath project has taken advantage of some game mechanics to create interesting behaviours in agent-based system. The videogame provides a platform to engage players into the architectural design process and collaborative work with a set of computational rules. Players could make some creative outcomes by play with sandbox of behaviours for the modular kit.

BogostIan. (2006). Unit Operations: an approach to videogame criticism. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Considered as Negentropy, player is an alternative solution to find meaningful outcomes from a chaotic self-organize system. Crowd-sourcing and the increasingly grow video game community provide great opportunities and resources to further test this ideas. However, there are some research limits that need to be further developed. At first, the computational algorithm could learn from the human players to build strategy, therefore it can detect the meaningful aggregation in a more effective way to reduce complexity. At this stage, the feedback from community is not enough to have more number of emergent behaviours. All these questions remains to be answered in the further research.

CausiusRudolf. (1867). The Mechanical Theory of Heat-with its Applications to the Steam Engine and to Physical Properties of Bodies. London: John van Voorst. HenselMichael, MengesAchim, & WeinstockMichael. (2010). Emergent technologies and design: Toards a biological paradigm for architecture. Oxon: Routledge. HollandJohn. (1998). Emergence: from Chaos to Order. Oxford: Oxford University Press. HuizingaJohan. (1949). Homo Ludens: a study of the play-element in culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. JohnsonSteven. (2001). emergence: the connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software. London: Penguin Books Ltd. Schrodinger, Erwin. (1944). what is life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ShannonClaude. (July 1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, pp 373-423, 623-656. CooperSeth, KhatibFiras, TreuilleAdrien, BarberoJanos, LeeJeehyung, BeenenMichael. (August 2010). Predicting protein structures with a multiplayer online game. Nature (466), pp756-760. Sims, Karl. (July 1994). Evolving Virtual Creatures . Computer Graphics , pp15-22. SzilĂĄrdLeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;. (1929). On Entropy Reduction in a Thermodynamic System by the intervention by Intelligent Subject. eitschrift fur Physik (53), pp 840-856. Bertalanffy von Ludwig. (May 1969). General System Theory. Science (164), pp681-682. The Science behind Foldit, http://fold.it/portal/info/science, (accessed 11 July 2013) Dartnell, Lewis.,"How online games are solving uncomputable problems", http:// www.newscientist.com/article/mg20026811.700-how-online-games-are-solving-uncomputabl eproblems.html?full=true, (accessed 11 July 2013) Soda, "Constructor", http://sodaplay.com/creators/soda/items/constructor, (accessed 11 April 2013). Kosorukoff Alexander, "Human Based Genetic Algorithm", http://web.archive.org/web/ 20091 027041228/http://geocities.com/alex+kosorukoff/hbga/hbga.html, (accessed 11 April 2013)

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H.4/// thesis report -Ying Xiao


Contents Architecture design with human participate through Open-end tectonics based on game mechanics

Keywords Introduction 1: Deployable/Motion is design 2: Open architecture design

Ying Xiao

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Approach to Open-ended structure Decision making in architecture Crowdsourcing design Base on game mechanics / Architecture digital and physical

3: A Call for Open Design March GAD Research Cluster 7 Tutor: Jose Sanchez The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL

4:The Game Breath 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Behavior-based structure Sandbox of Behavior Self-behaviors/Robot to Robot Behavior/Human to robot behavior Behavior network Interface

5: Design though Playing July 19, 2013

Conclusion

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breath

Search Keywords:

Deployable / Motion to be design

Deployable structure, Interact architecture, Robotic joints, Robot behavior, Game mechanics, Open-ended system, Open source, economy and energy consumption. “Our design medium is behavior itself. Elegance and economy remain the pre-eminent values of good design. An elegant mechanics translates a simple push or pull into rich and complex behavior.” --Chuck Hoberman, Hoberman Associates

Introduction: The city and building construction are constantly updating all the information throught time. Current building constructions are unsustainable with respect to generating solid waste and using of material. In recently years, building construction is becoming the leader of polluter in the generation of waste, land and water. The construction of commercial and residential used 40% of raw materials (U.S. Department of Energy 2003). The use of materials and methods required for processing in terms of energy and water for implementing sustainable design. Recently with the economic crash, the design aspect of the economy and energy consumption has been more and more considered as interrelated concerns. The deployable structure has the concept of adaptability and interactivity. Users use that to find an appropriate response to space and function needs. It has a unique opportunity for aesthetic transformation expression. Chuck Hoberman said: “ use of the capacity of change and the sense of design objects.” So in my project, structure is a design media and the motion becomes design itself.

“O

ur design medium is behavior itself. Elegance and economy remain the pre-eminent values of good design.” (Hoberman 2011) The deployable structure can translate a simple behavior into a complex. David P. Billington defined structural art as designs that are efficient, economic, and elegant. (Billington 1983) Architecture is not hands-on. People will not get feedback for a year because the building cycle, including design and construction will take a long time. Generally, public’s reaction to buildings is not immediately and in the aspect of the economy it’s not efficiency. This paper presents how the architecture design based on game mechanics, that re-open creative desires of users themselves and presents computational design thinking in a radical way. The project “Breath” presents how people play with creating behaviors to offer viewers a novelty changing perspective and bring the deployable structures come to life. At the same time, the creatively interaction will meet function requirements and economy efficiency. Based on the game mechanics the outcome possibilities are endless. The crowd-sourced decisions can make larger distribution into architectural thinking and research.

Figure 1: Packable dome, Hoberman Associates

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A Hoberman sphere (as shown in Figure 1) is a structure invented by Chuck Hoberman. It makes some remarkable results that the space could be folding down to its normal size by the scissor-like joints. I am interested with the idea such as the economy of space and energy consumption. Deployable and kinematic structures, for instance: expandable bridges and kinematic sculpture – as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3) provide a new vision for people to see the static structure become lifelike. Like the Rolling Bridge (Heatherwick 2004), is the bridge provided an access channel for residents and workers like the function of normal bridge, additionally and crucially, it also provides access for boat. The designer makes the movement of the bridge with extraordinary aspect. These innovative designs can offer an exciting dynamic experience and also aesthetical structure.

Figure 2: A kinetic aluminum sculpture

The goal for the kinematic structure in architecture is to create flexible and adaptable architectural spaces that can physically re-configure themselves in order to meet the changing need and interactive creation. Usually we define kinematic structure as a building component, and the kinematic architecture is relevant to linking-rigid, shape-changing mechanics. So the transition state of each structure is singularity. For instance, the transition of hoberman structure (shown as Figure 1) from close to open is rigid, and states are only open and close.

“Architecture requires a balance of function and expression. Function without expression is flat.” (Prentice 2012). Motion can bring expression to architecture. Like the deployable structure I mentioned earlier, such as, hoberman structure and Theo jansen kinematic structure. They all have different aspects of how these deployable structures work in spaces economy, energy harvest and consumption. On this technical level, how architecture truly engages with it? In the past 10 years, there has been a remarkable achievement in architecture flexibility, for instance: temporary house and shelter for disaster relief. It can quickly provide temporary structure for living but I think the real potential of the flexible design is not only the flexible structure. The most powerful thing is the flexible way of design, which means design with open-ended tectonics.

Figure 3: A kinetic aluminum sculpture

At a very early stage in my research, Theo Jansen’s StrandBeest had a grand influence on me. Theo Jansen (born on 1948) is a Dutch artist. He began what he was known for today: building large mechanics out of PVC that were able to move on their own from harvesting the wind, known as Strandbeest (as shown in Figure 4). “He strives to equip his creations with their own artificial intelligence so they can avoid obstacles by changing course when one is detected, such as the sea itself.” (Jansen 2013) For me, Strandbeest by Theo Jansen is impressive kinematic structure not only because his kinematic system, but more important is the motion of the system.

Open architecture design Approach to Open-ended structure Decision making in architecture Crowdsourcing design Base on game mechanics / Architecture digital and physical

Approach to Open-ended structure Open-ended design means without definite limits and no fixed result. (Chris Koher, 2008) Instead of fixed, static design, goals of open-ended are system operable. As I mentioned earlier, Hoberman structure (as Shown in Figure 1) is open-closed. Although the structure has transition moment, the result is still fixed. The answers of transition states like Boolean, the result is not true is false. (as Shown in Figure 5)

Figure 4: StrandBeest, Theo Jasen

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Figure 5

The project Stick Weaving is a good example to express how the open-ended approach in a flexible structure by Bradford Hansen-Smith. The basic units in the structure connect to neighbor units with tubing. So the entire structure is flexible enough to morph into various forms. The example (as Shown in Figure 6) can be opened up and transform into a large square array of modules and curved around into a ball shape or any organic result. (Hansen-Smith 2011)

Figure 7

Hinge joint in Hoberman structure is rigid. In order to bring large freedom, I embedded the intelligence of modular robotic into the structure. With the advance of research, I started to create the structure with architectural component and the robotic joints are part of intelligence. (as Shown in Figure 8) With the robotic joints embedded, the structure can configure from linear packed to non-linear unfolding space (Shown as Figure 9). Magnet is the way to connect each component and joints. The rules of the connections are simple and users themselves can create the initial unfolding transition process and final configuration. (as Shown in Figure 10, Figure 11)

Figure 6: Stick Weaving, Hansen-Smith

I think the structure itself is a design media. People express themselves through it and have a purpose to use the spaces. Motion to be design. In the project Breath, I am trying to make the transition process of deployable structure become architectural moment. My project exists not only at the point “A” and “B”, but also between “A” and “B”. (as Shown in Figure 5) In order to achieve the design goal, I considered relying on the notion of unit operations to unpack the relationship in the structure (as Shown in Figure 7). “Unit operations are modes of meaning-making that privilege discrete, disconnected actions over deterministic, progressive systems… I contend that unit operations represent a shift away from system operations, although neither strategy is permanently detached from the other.” (I.Bogost 2006)

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

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Decision making in architecture “Decisions are singular and unrepeatable; they cannot be generalized into rules. But all this also means that we cannot say that a decision simply “emerges” out of a chaotic background, or pops out thanks to the movement from one “basin of attraction” to another. No self-organizing system can obviate the need for such a decision, or dictate what it will be. A decision always implies novelty or difference — in this way it is absolutely incompatible with notions of autopoiesis, homeostasis, or Spinoza’s conatus. What we need is an aesthetics of decision, instead of our current metaphysics of emergence.” Steven Shaviro – The Pinnochio Theory. (Shaviro n.d.)

Figure 11, 12

The open-ended system is a way to approach architecture economy and energy consumption. After some analysis and previous study, embedded robotic joints into architecture component are not a good way to achieve that goal of the economy and energy consumption. In order to optimize the design, the combination of stick and robotic joints was finally chosen in my research. Robotic joints with many modules have large number degrees of freedom. (as Shown in Figure 11) With the combination of stick, the structure has the ability to reach different angles in a space. (as Shown in Figure 12)

With the development of computational and digital design in these years, especially architects, they moved their focus on form finding from a traditional way to using computer simulation software make spatial forecasting and optimize the design. This kind of design approach seems like override the design intention about decision-making and manipulation. The intention of “What people want” seems been covered with these fancy design tool. For instance, the self-organization system those designers used to study from natural biological. After some calculations and set the rules, they applied them into architecture design. Actually, this algorithmic simulation seems to be highly careful and logic. But my query is: where does the rule come from? And do these rules can solve problems and design architecture for us? In my opinion, without human participates, such algorithmic simulation is not synchronized in our design environment.

Crowdsourcing design Human participate in design brings the power of crowdsourcing. “Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from online communities, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 269) Actually, crowdsourcing is addressed a lot in video games. For instance: a scientific game “FOLD-IT”. (as Shown in Figure 13) “The game is developed by the University of Washington’s Center for Game Science in collaboration with the UW Department of Biochemistry, which would teach players solve puzzles with protein folding.” (Cooper 2002) They wanted to use research method of crowdsourcing on game mechanics to solve challenges questions in science that not even experts were able to solve, and also create biological innovations.

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A Call for Open Design

Figure 13

Base on game mechanics / Architecture digital and physical Like I mentioned in early paragraphs, algorithmic simulation cannot replace the human participate in computational design. The agents should be able to be operated by us. Architecture design cannot avoid decision-making. In the aspect of video game, it is all about decision-making and human participate. In video game design, they all re-open the player’s creative desire by setting rules and provide open source platform. From all possible outcomes from games, there would be an unexpected event like “The Black Swan”. “The Black Swan theory is a metaphor that describes an event that is a surprise to the observer, has a major effect, and after the fact is often inappropriately. The theory refers only to unexpected events of large magnitude and consequence and their dominant role in history. Such events, considered extreme outliers, collectively play vastly larger roles than regular occurrences.” (Taleb 2010) Video game has an open-source platform that allows users’ contingent creations throught the open-ended structure.

Architecture has been throught of as hardware for such a long time. Hardware likes: static element in architecture: walls, roofs, floors and spaces. In 21st century, I believe architecture should have two approaches: physical (hardware) and digital (software). Thinking of architecture as digital (software): like smells and sound that surround us. We may also consider these invisible things that underpin and redefine the spaces. Thinking further, architecture could be considered as a whole operating system and it could be open-sourced. Game mechanics would allow architecture design achieves that: operable and open-source. In this conception in architecture, everyone can be the designer of his or her own space. In order to present radical thinking in computational design, I suggest using game mechanics to explore the field of architecture design. page 11

The challenging world climates highly encouraged the designers to rethink the design approach to collaboration and create platforms for shared value creation. Pubic with this knowledge will communicate with architects on the platforms which produces a new collective invisible linking which link democratization with innovation in a widening spectrum of productive public domain. It provides a democratizing in the field of architectural design. I believe the democratization and innovation in architecture will bring us a non-unified framework for a new outcome for architectures. “Open a parallel discussion about the use of digital technologies and online connectivity will redefine the traditional roles of architect radically. Cooking is often hailed as an early form of open source; vernacular architecture—producing recipes for everyday buildings—is another form of early lo-fi open-source culture, openly sharing and optimizing technologies for building. ”( (Ratti 2011)) It means a contemporary use of open source in architecture is the architecture network, which replaces traditional design copyright and allows open access to use appropriately. Right now, wider ways of use open source in architecture base on between digital input platform and physical output platform.

“Open source architecture requires a framework in which has different between “who design” and “ who use ” is replaced by participatory and operation system.” (Nieuwenhuy 1998) A Dutch artist Constant Nieuwenhuy presented this idea with his project New Babylon. (as Shown in Figure 14) He assumed that everyone in this enormous exploration is an artist, designers and architects of their spaces. “His project proposed a worldwide structure constantly built and rebuilt by its inhabitants, a structure that varied throughout its lengths as different groups of people contributed to it and altered it in different ways. The stated hypothesis of Constant is that man in the future is free from physical labor and could be totally devoted to playing and creativity. He diminished the gaps between the practice of art and the practice of architecture and highlighted the connections between the delight of art and the delight of architecture.” (NICHOLS 2004) Based on the concept of Homo Ludens by John Huizinga Huizinga, The hypothesis of Constant’s suggested: “play is primary to and a necessary, through not sufficient, condition of the generation of culture.” (NICHOLS 2004) An interesting word is: “Let my playing be my learning and my learning be my playing”. (Huizinga 1995)

Figure 14 : Newbabylon, Constant Nieuwenhuy

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“We talk about design as a means to improve the quality of life, but in truth, architecture is pretty much for the top one percent, and it’s only really useful if we democratize it, if we can put it into the hands of many. ” --Alastari Parvin WikiHouse co-founder

“Collaborative consumption is a class of economic arrangements in which participants share access to products or services, rather than having individual ownership.” (Rachel Botsman, Rogers Roo, 2010) The model is used in the marketplace like eBay and Craigslist, which has a big success. Apart from the development strategy in marketplace, open source has become ethos. “Open source means a model of creativity distribution that means users can change roles from consumers to producers, developers and users. It advocates new procedures in imagination and formation of virtual and real spaces within a universal infrastructure.” (Rachel Botsman, Rogers Roo, 2010) Embedded open-source in architecture design allows inhabitants to control and shape their living environment and make more contribution in the economy and energy consumption. So I believe the open design in the architecture is crucial.

Corresponding to the call, there are many famous open design examples in architecture field in these years. Wikihouse (Parvin) (as Shown in Figure 15) is an open-source construction set, can enable the programmatic agenda of democratization in architecture and deliver its announcement to make the users creative energy. “Wikihouse is not a single, finished product, but an open community project. The aim of which is to make it possible for anyone to design for anyone else. There is no fixed design “team” or “studio”, but a steadily growing community of designers from all disciplines who share in common the belief what developing freely available house design solutions which are affordable, sustainable, and adaptive to differing needs is a worthwhile aim. ” (Parvin)

Recent years, many people want to help some areas in Africa to improve their living condition, health treatment in order to keep their social sustainability. Mobile architecture such as a health clinic is a great improvement in a way of construction. Patient don’t need to go far away to see doctors, they can let doctors come to the patients. The development of reconfigurable methods in the manufacturing can be highly customized as “kits”. This concept of “Kitted” parts enables low-cost, modular construction supporting creates spaces in function of facilities. It can be customized. This idea wildly distributed throught Africa like you get a seed and grow it in a lot of land. People share knowledge on the same platform and quick to assemble and get their own building, which can certainly solve the local issue. The idea of Kit and WikiHouse is a good example of open architecture designs. The great advantage of this is that anyone in the world can design its own products. “Design architecture throught open source platform supersedes architectures of static geometrical form with the introduction of dynamic and participatory processes, systems and network. The adaptation is over stasis and relationship is over compositions. The purpose of this new design framework is to transform architecture from a top-down delivery mechanics into a transparent, bottom-up ecological system even if it still includes top-down mechanics. ” (U.Haque)

A call for open architecture design is crucial. Make architecture open to the public like video games would allow us think more in order to design radically especially in today’s computational architecture. It should be more criticalness, listen to the voice about “what people want” and make the system more operable. These are unreachable by algorithmic search.

The Game Breath Behavior-based structure Sandbox of Behavior Self-behaviors/Robot to Robot Behavior/Human to robot behavior Behavior network Interface

Figure 15: Wikihouse, An open source construction set

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Behavior-based structure

Sandbox of Behavior

Breath is an architecture research project based on game mechanics. The project is intended as a game. In the previous chapters, I talked about embedding robotic joints into stick to allow the deployable structure has a various freedom and an open-ended transition results. These robotic joints are not only allowing the various freedoms, but also have a collection of behaviors embedded. The frame (as Shown in Figure 16) is one unit in Breath game. It has 6 motor robotic joints, which have been connected with sensors and the rest ones are passive. All joints have WIFI-Port that can receive and transit data throught the port. Behavior-based control is one way I connect both in digital research in architecture design and physical application as an architecture product.

Generally speaking, Breath is a game about bringing structure to life. Based on robotic behaviors, the interactive creation can be complex and beautiful. It’s a game playing with robotic behaviors and networked performance. The physical simulation makes the structure lifelike to present different space configuration and specific quality. Frame allows custom build like the Java game Soda-Constructor (Shown as Figure 18). “Soda-Constructor is a construction kit for interactive creation using masses and springs, and follows strict physical laws. By turning springs into ‘Muscles’, models can be animated and made very life-like. ” (soda 2007)

Such as the Breath frame, it won’t fold or move unless the robot’s sensor receives a information from the device. There is no programming inside before the data received. After data received, these robotic joints would bring the Breath frame life. It would have a life-like behavior. Figure 18 : Soda Contructor

Cubeletes (Cubelet-Modular Robotics ) (as Shown in Figure 17) is a good example of robotic construction kit. “It combines sensor, logic and actuator blocks. Anyone even kids can create simple reconfigurable robots that exhibit surprisingly complex behavior. Each cubelets in the kit has different equipment on board and a different default behavior. There is Sense Block that act like eyes and ears, Action blocks and Think blocks. All the sensors are the inputs to the system. These behaviors would make reconfigurable robot lifelike. ” (Cubelet-Modular Robotics )

Figure 19 : Evolved Virtual Creature, Karl Sims

But most important playable part in project Breath is playing with creating behavior. Sandbox of behavior is the heart of the game. “In 1994, Karl Sims’ project Evolved Virtual Creatures (as Shown in Figure 19) presented a novel system for creating virtual creatures that move and behave in simulated three-dimension physical worlds. “Different fitness evaluation functions are used to direct simulated evolutions towards specific behaviors such as swimming, walking, jumping, and following.” (Sims 1994) The project described that more and more behaviors emerged, the possible result of creature based on behaviors is endless. Like the Black Swan effect mentioned before, some of the result would be difficult to design or invent.

Simply speaking, the common ground between these two project: Cubelets and Evolving Virtual Creatures are the different combinations of different behaviors bring various motion creatures surprisingly. Figure 16

Figure 17 : Cubelets, Modular robot kit

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Self /Robot to Robot/Human to Robot Behavior

Behavior network

In order to give different task to the robotic joints in Breath frame, I designed two categories of behaviors: Motion and Relation. These two categories behaviors are shown in figure 20. Red color presents the motion behaviors (self-behaviors) which means the movement will be isolated if the robotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sensor receive the information of motion behavior. Blue color presents the relation behaviors (robot to robot-behaviors) which is intelligent understanding. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s copying behavior from another robotic joints, by following theirs movement. Simply speaking, this kind of behavior could be described as learning from the one it followed. Actually, study is not exactly is learning the same movement as the one it followed because of the time distance. Therefore, a lag is produced in the movement of the robot to robot-behaviors. In this system, players can make interactive between relation to human and non-human objects. (as Shown in Figure 21) The custom structure would like a living creature, which can receive information from human and also learn from each other at the same time. In the Breath frame, some of the robotic joints are embedded with another sensor. When people are approaching that make the frame take reaction autonomously such as folding, unfolding and move.

Architecture project should happen both in digital and physical like my statement in the previous chapter: Architecture digital and physical. Digital part is software in architecture. In my game is the network of behaviors. Network is the data visualization of robotic behavior. It describes clearly to the players about the learning path they built for the creatures and explain well about the different relationships among those behaviors. And it is visible only in the game but really happened in a physical world (architecture). The diagram (as Shown in Figure 22) is the study of network topology. From simple topology: line, star and bus to a more complex ones. (as Shown in Figure 32)

Figure 22

In the first chapter: Motion to be design, I gave a proposal, which make transition moment of the deployable structure architecture moment. And I also suggested using more flexible components and methods, such as behavior based robotic joints, sticks and game mechanics to make system open-ended. Therefore, in a game, players can drag and drop different behaviors to the custom structure in order to present different qualities of spaces throught out its beautiful movement. There are two ways to build the network: Players allow preset network before the movement (as Shown in Figure 23) or actuating one node first and then choose the rest followers (as Shown in Figure 24). The network of star (as Shown in Figure 25) means one node is moving and others are following the same one. All blue ones (follow behaviors) are following the movement of the red one (motion behavior). The structure would have ripple movement throught the learning path I build for it. The creature behave differently and have unexpected movement through various networks build by player. For example, the linear network and its space configuration (as Shown in Figure 26) are completely different from the configuration throught more complex network. (as Shown in Figure 27) The structure has the ability to interact with human and no-human objects with endless possibilities. These qualities of spaces can reach the specific requirement in architecture design field, such as the structure of event, market, the gallery design or interior and exterior design. (as Shown in Figure 28, Figure 29) Through playing the game, I explored more. There are two specific movements: one is the behavior of every node is isolated and the other is no relation behavior in network. No network in structure (as Shown in Figure 30) means every node behavior is isolated. All robots are doing the self-behavior and no learning happened between each other. What is said above, they all have motion behaviors. Players can operate the motion ones and bring effects to followers.

Figure 20

Figure 20

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But players cannot control the robot behaviors in the structure with the network of the loop (as Shown in Figure 31) unless they change one follower behavior into motion behavior. There is no hierarchy inside. Different from the network of star, the loop one could make domino effect to the structure. The complex network (as Shown in Figure 32) is hard to read, but it present exciting and unexpected outcomes through the game.

The game Breath is open-sourced, players allow free-download, build up the structures and explore the network throught the open-ended system. As my research project, the game is still on going. A platform, which allow worldwide players share outcomes and learn strategies from others will be build in the game. Figure 28

Figure 25

Figure 23, 24

Figure 25

Figure 26

Figure 29

Figure 27

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INTERFACE

In the chapter of Open architecture design, I suggested open source architecture would require one step that allows none-professional designers to participate in the architecture development. Actually, it has already happened now. Such as the examples I described in that chapter, such as WikiHouse. And the well-trained architects could do more to promote this development in architecture design field. In the aspect of video game, interface is the key to make the communication easier and better between computer (game itself) and human (players). The interface of Breath (as Shown in Figure 33) is friendly designed and it is easy for players to figure out how to play. Colors in the game present different robot behaviors. Red is the color of passion and I use it to present motion behavior in my game. It will give a directly perceived through these colors. With the 3-slider bar: speed, vertical height and the horizontal range, players allow to play with that in order to create hundreds of family behaviors. Actually, the background of Breath is full of the scientific design technologies, such as: deployable structures, robotic joints and behavior-based system. But the interface is teaching non-professional people to deal with scientific thinking, allowing for collective intelligence to make the research moving forward.

Figure 30

Figure 31

Figure 33

Figure 32

And another important step in open source design is the evaluation system. Knowledge of architecture design should be applied to the open source architecture design. In the architecture game aspect, an evolution system would be embedded in order to distinct “good” space design and “bad” space design. Certainly, space is not absolute good or bad. It only evaluates if the configuration reaches the space or environmental requirements. Another part of evaluation is the player’s feedback for the game.

secenes from game

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We build an open source platform through a sandbox game, which can create a feedback loop and the design intentions also become part of it. If outcomes of game tend to be consistent, then the open-source platform should be more developed.

Design through Playing

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Let me playing be my learning and my learning be my playing.â&#x20AC;? --John Huizinga (Huizinga) With the notion of the collaboration of digital materiality and human-computer through the open-ended system, I suggest learning design through playing rather than search. In a game, interface is the key point of the design tool and the key point of game algorithm is player. Therefore, on the game mechanics, the productive design creation guides the players to produce more outcomes with various performances.

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Conclusion Based on the game mechanics, the Breath project explores architecture design with the notion of digital materiality and physical symbiosis. Though sandbox of behaviors, Breath project provides novel views of lifelike structure and makes the transition process of the structure with architecture space meaning. Many features, for instance: social engagement, material and space economy and energy consumption are presented in the project and allow being worth digging in architecture research. As an on going research project, the project Breath can be explored more like custom-invent robot behavior and a deeper research in human-computer symbiosis. Design with openended tectonics though open-source platform could be a potential way toward new architecture design research. And the crowd sourced design decisions could be produced and made a radically thinking in architecture design.

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Works Cited

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Stott, Rory. “TED Talk: WikiHouse co-founder Alastair Parvin Speaks at TED2013” 31 May 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 16 Jul 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/379597>

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Botsman, Rachel, and Roo Rogers. What’s Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption. New York: Harper Business, 2010.

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Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955. Jansen, Theo. The Great Pretender. nai010 publishers, 2013. NICHOLS, Julie. “Nomadic Urbanities.” 2004. www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/gjaps. <http://www.arts.auckland. ac.nz/webdav/site/arts/shared/Departments/asian-studies/gjaps/docs-vol4-n02/Nichols-vol4-2.pdf>. Nieuwenhuy, Constant. Hyper-architecture of desire. Rotterdam: The Netherlands : Witte de With, center for contemporary art, 1998. Parvin, Alastair. WikiHouse. Open source construction set. n.d.

Shaviro, S. n.d. “Against self-Organization.” The Pinnocio Theory. http://www.shaviro.com/Blog/?p=756 May 2009. “Crowdsourcing”, http:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/crowdsourcing. (accessed 11 June 1987). Kohler, Chris (2008-01-04). “Assassin’s Creed And The Future Of Sandbox Games”. Wired.com. Retrieved 2008-04-29. An open source construction set, http://www.wikihouse.cc/ (accessed 5 June 2011)

Prentice, Tim. Working with the Wind Jane Ingram Allen. March 2012. Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers. What’s Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption. HarperBusiness, 2010. Ratti, Carlo. “Open Source Architecture (OSArc).” 15 June 2011. domus. 15 June 2011 <http://www.domusweb.it/en/op-ed/2011/06/15/open-source-architecture-osarc-.html>. Sims, karl. “Evolved Virtual Creatures.” July 1994. Karl Sims. <www.karlsims.com/evolved-virtual-creatures.html>.

Figures 1: Packable dome, Hoberman Assocaites. Hoberman, Chuck. “Insights.” 26 January 2011. Hoberman Associates. Hoberman Associates . 26 January 2011 <http://www.hoverman.com/insights.html>. Figures 2: The Rolling Bridge, Heatherwick, Thomas. The Rolling Bridge. Thomas Heatherwick Studio, London. Figures 3: Prentice, Tim. Working with the Wind Jane Ingram Allen. March 2012.

soda. Constructor. 24 Augest 2007. 2007 <http://sodaplay.com/creators/soda/items/constructor>. Figures 4: Strandbeest, Jansen, Theo. The Great Pretender. nai010 publishers, 2013.

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Figures 6: Stick Weaving, Hansen-Smith, Bradford. Stick-weaving . Math Monday: Flexbie Stick Structure. 2011. Figures 13: FOLD-IT screenshot, by Cooper, S. Treuille, A. Barbero, J. Leaver-Fay, A. Tuite, K. Cho Snyder, A. Beenem, M. Salesin, D. Baker, D, Popovic, Z. Figures 14: Newbabylon, Nieuwenhuy, Constant. Hyper-architecture of desire. Rotterdam: The Netherlands : Witte de With, center for contemporary art, 1998. Figures 15: WikiHouse, An open source construction set, http://www.wikihouse.cc/ (accessed 5 June 2011) Figure 17: Cubelets, Modular Robotics Blocks, Cubelet-Modular Robotics . Modular Robotic Blocks. Boulder, 2012. Figure 18: Soda Contructor, soda. Constructor. 24 Augest 2007. 2007 <http://sodaplay.com/creators/soda/ items/constructor>. Figure 19: Evolved Virtual Creature, Sims, karl. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Evolved Virtual Creatures.â&#x20AC;? July 1994. Karl Sims. <www. karlsims.com/evolved-virtual-creatures.html>.

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-Bibliography Hoberman, Chuck. “Insights.” 26 January 2011. Hoberman Associates. Hoberman Associates . 26 January 2011 <http://www.hoverman.com/insights.html>. Jansen, Theo. The Great Pretender. nai010 publishers, 2013. Bogost, Ian. Unit Operations-An Approach to Videogame Criticism. MIT Press , 2006. Cubelet-Modular Robotics . Modular Robotic Blocks. Boulder, 2012. Nieuwenhuy, Constant. Hyper-architecture of desire. Rotterdam: The Netherlands : Witte de With, center for contemporary art, 1998. Sims, karl. “Evolved Virtual Creatures.” July 1994. Karl Sims. <www.karlsims.com/ evolved-virtual-crea- tures.html>. soda. Constructor. 24 Augest 2007. 2007 <http://sodaplay.com/creators/soda/items/ constructor>. “Crowdsourcing”, http:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/crowdsourcing. (accessed 11 June 1987). Talet, Nassim Nicholas (2010) [2007], The Black Swan: the impact of the highly improbable (2nd ed.), Lon- don: Penguin, retrieved 23 May 2012 Kohler, Chris (2008-01-04). “Assassin’s Creed And The Future Of Sandbox Games”. Wired.com. Retrieved 2008-04-29. Parvin, Alastair. WikiHouse. Open source construction set. n.d.

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breath

-Image credits Figure A.1 Packable dome, Hoberman Assocaites. Hoberman, Chuck. “Insights.” 26 January 2011. Hober- man Associates. Hoberman Associates . 26 January 2011 <http://www.hoverman. com/insights.html>. Figure A.8-9 MTran robotic system, AIST and Tokyo-Tech, http://unit.aist.go.jp/is/frrg/dsysd/mtran3/ what.htm ,1998 Figure A-10 FOLD-IT screenshot, by Cooper, S. Treuille, A. Barbero, J. Leaver-Fay, A. Tuite, K. Cho Snyder, A. Beenem, M. Salesin, D. Baker, D, Popovic, Z. Figure C.13 Bloom, http://www.bloom-thegame.com/main/, 2012 Figure C.14 Yard furniture Museums Quartier Vienna, http://www.ppag.at/cms/index. php?idcatside=62&lang=2 , 2002 Figure E.1 Strandbeest, Jansen, Theo. The Great Pretender. nai010 publishers, 2013. Figure E.15, F.4 Soda Contructor, soda. Constructor. 24 Augest 2007. 2007 <http://sodaplay.com/ creators/soda/ items/constructor>. Figure E.16 Evolved Virtual Creature, Sims, karl. “Evolved Virtual Creatures.” July 1994. Karl Sims. <www. karlsims.com/evolved-virtual-creatures.html>. World of Goo, www.worldofgoo.com/‎, 2008 Figure F.5 Autodesk Robot Structural analysis Professional, http://www.autodesk.com/products/ autodesk-simulation-family/features/robot-structural-analysis , 2012



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Breath_Final portfolio  

Final portfolio GAD Bartlett

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