sulfur diesel. (Ref. 15) Locally, the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency is reporting that ultralow sulfur diesel fuel cost about 8 cents per gallon more than conventional diesel. (Ref. 16) Because the fuel is handled separately, transportation costs currently add another 6 to 7 cents per gallon. This raises the overall cost of ultralow sulfur diesel to about 15 cents per gallon. Other issues Most refiners use a hydrotreating process to desulfurize diesel fuels. For the most part, refiners will extend this process to meet the 15 ppmw specification. Diesel fuels that are more difficult to desulfurize could be subjected to intense hydrotreating. This process can reduce trace components containing nitrogen and oxygen that provide a natural lubricity. (Ref.1) This reduced lubricity could result in excessive engine wear without the addition of a high lubricity additive, like biodiesel. To avoid any problems, ULSD users Washington State University Extension Energy Program 3 should make sure that the fuel lubricity meets equipment manufacturers specifications. The ULSD produced locally by Phillips Petroleum has a minimum of 3,100 grams lubricity (Scuffing Load Ballon Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator test) and is in compliance with the ASTM standard for highway diesel.(Ref.16) Additional handling may also be required when using lowsulfur fuels. Until lowsulfur diesel fuels are mainstreamed, they will need to be kept separate from conventional diesel fuels to prevent blending and or contamination. Early on, some local users of ULSD experienced minor fuel filter plugging issues when using ULSD, however, the current reformulation appears to be working well. (Ref.17) Washington State University Extension Energy Program 4 References 1. Diesel Engines: Environmental Impact and Control, Alan Lloyd and Thomas Cackette, California Air Resources Board, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Volume 51, June 2001. 2. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association California Air Resources Board 3. Personal communication, Paul Carr, Puget Sound Clean Air Association, September, 2002. 4. California Air Resources Board, Fuels Report: Appendix to the Diesel Risk Reduction Plan, Appendix IV, October 2000. 5. U.S. Department of Energy, Diesel Emission ControlSulfur Effects Projects Summary, June 2001. 6. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association, Demonstration of Advanced Emission Control Technologies Enabling DieselPowered HeavyDuty Engines to Achieve Low Emission levels, 1999. 7. Supply and Distribution of ULSD A Changing Perspective, RAD Energy, presentation at Diesel Emission Control Retrofit Users Conference, Pasadena, California, February 67, 2001. 8. JohnsonMathey CRT product literature. 9. Personal communication, Marty Lassen, JohnsonMathey, September 2002. 10. California Air Resource Board product verification letters to Englehard Corporation, July 23, 2002, and JohnsonMathey, October, 10, 2001. 11. California Air Resource Board Staff Report, Initial Statement of Reasons for Proposed Regulation for the Verification Procedure for InUse Strategies for Controlling Emissions from Diesel EnginesAppendix B. Diesel Engine Emission Control Technologies, March 29, 2002. 12. Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association low sulfur fact sheet.