African Day Inspirational Planner
About this Book
If you wanted one of those diaries that urge men to be soft and tame and take life lying down with a soft whimper, you have the wrong one in your hands. This is a diary for men who are men like the psalmwriter David was: passionate, powerful, loving, creative, wild and dangerous â€“ and in touch with God The authors of this book live in Africa and we frequent the wild places in the Okavango swamps, Namibian desert, Mozambican ocean and South African bushveld. We have had many narrow escapes from elephants, snakes, lions, sharks, hyenas and those determined old ladies who lead the intercession on Tuesday nights. To be a Christian man means to be forgiven and authentic. If we have been saved, God lives in us when we are: in the bush, at home, at work, at the football game and at church. There is no thought in us He does not know and we are saved by grace alone â€“ and therefore we can be true to our hearts as He changes us day by day As we journey together through this year, we will face the fierce battles of the heart and of the world. But we will not be alone. We hope to see you in Africa one day. We include some useful information that you will need when you come to our savage continent.
Africa Tawny and savage, our continent lies crouched in ambush between two oceans. It is a land of wild contrasts alluring and forbidding, exciting and dangerous, ancient, vast and sprawling. Here in our wild land the bushveld lies open and wide as far as the eye can see. Here the leopard moves like a silent shadow in the dusk and here the spiral horns of the lone kudu bull etch the sunset. And it is here the travelers and hunters of the ages have come.
Welcome to our Africa. A Safari Media Africa Publication
Disclaimer Living as a Christian man in the world today is a dangerous occupation. Attacks on your heart will come from the media, family, co-workers and friends. Your dreams will be assaulted and your faith battered. Although every human effort has been made to present the facts as accurately and as detailed as possible, information in this publication is used at own risk and Safari Media Africa is not responsible for use or misuse of any information contained in this publication.
Copyright Copyright 2000/1/2/3/4/5/6/7 Safari Media Africa. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may he reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. ISBN 0-958-4523-4-2
Credits and Thanks Dr. Kobus Hugo, snake bite treatment Mitch Mitchell: Bushcraft and hunting The Ultimate Field Guide for Larger Southern African Mammals: Mammals identification, tracks and information The Ultimate Field Guide for Common Southern African Snakes: Snakes identification and information
Year Planner 2013 January February March April May June July August September October November December Goals 1
Dream big dreams. Dream dreams that are frightening. We are like tightrope walkers and God is our safety net â€“ if you fail, you do not die. You always get another chance. Mitch Mitchell
05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
Perseverance is Courage stretched over time Martin Luther
05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
The next level of growth in your life will always be what you can not do now. God grows us and our faith by stretching it Mitch Mitchell
05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
Men can change habits; only God can change a nature Ed Cole
Do not admire the man who sleeps with 3000 women. Only the man who sleeps with the same woman 3000 times is the true lover Mitch Mitchell.
Being male is a matter of birth; being a man is a matter of choice Ben Kinchlow
Sin can only come out of the mouth by confession. The phrase “Forgive me, I was wrong” should be part of our vocabulary Chris Catlin
The fear of manâ€™s opinions disables; trusting in God protects you from that Proverbs 29:25 The Message
The idea of retiring is never entertained by one who wants to change his world Chris Catlin
Living by faith is like driving at night â€“ the headlights do not light the road all the way to your destination. We see just enough to go forward by. Mitch Mitchell
Like an eagle that stirs up its nest and hovers over its young, that spreads its wings to catch them and carries them on it pinions. The Lord alone leads you Deut 32:11-12a
If you are discouraged and dissatisfied, look to see how far away from God you are standing Chris Catlin
Procrastination eats away at the very core of our time and motivation Miles Munroe
Jesus said that the Sabbath was made for man not man for the Sabbath. Donâ€™t let religion distract and desensitize you Chris Catlin
Dreams die because they are shared with the wrong people Miles Munroe
Most men have no real friends â€“ only acquaintances or business contacts. Take time to truly invest your life in 2 or 3 friends Mitch Mitchell
January 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
True joy is found not in what you accomplished but in who benefits from your success Miles Munroe
It is always better to fail at something than to excel at nothing Myles Munroe
Change your thoughts and you can change your world Norman Vincent Peale
A crippled past does not need to pollute your personality Houston
You alone are responsible for achieving a satisfying life Verome Puckoff
Robert Lowell said that “ the light at the end of the tunnel is an oncoming train”. However, the bible says “ Do not be anxious for anything…”
Understanding who you really are in Christ will help you get you to where you need to go Mitch Mitchell
Itâ€™s knowing the truth - not the facts that will set you free Houston
All men dream, but not equally. Those who dream by night wake in the day to find that it was vanity; but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act their dream with open eyes to make it possible. T.E. Lawrence
The wise man is not the man who gives the right answers, but the man who asks the right questions Charles Levi-Strauss
Failure is not failure to meet your goal. Real failure is failure is not to reach as high as you possibly can Dr. Robert Schuller
You are not finished when you are defeated you are finished when you quit Van Crouch
It does not help if you are the fastest in the race if you donâ€™t finish Chris Catlin
If any man considers himself religious and yet does not keep a tight rein on his tongue, he deceives himself and his religion is worthless James 1:26
When a man is wrapped up in himself he makes a pretty small package John Ruskin
If you donâ€™t know where you are going you will more than likely wind up somewhere else. David Campell
There are those that want only to arrive without making the journey Chris Catlin
Knowledge is proud that he has learnâ€™d so much , Wisdom is humble that he knows no more Willam Cowper1785
When a man sees himself as God sees him, he can live life at full throttle without fear of rejection Rodney Cooper
When I got saved, thatâ€™s when my feet got a brand new walk, my mouth a brand new talk, I am not what should be; and I am not what a could be but thank God I am not what I used to be Old Church saying
I have nothing to hide; I have nothing to prove and I have nothing to lose Ken Davis
The victorious Christian life means looking more like Jesus after the trial than before Rodney Cooper
Most middleclass men tend to worship their work, work at their play and play at their worship. No wonder they are mixed up! unknown
The saints are just the sinners Who fall down and get up Bob Carlisle
We men are great pretenders. Letâ€™s be authentic with God, ourselves and others Mitch Mitchell
If you can laugh at it you can survive it Bill Cosby
Don’t live with a ‘cut the fun’ attitude as a Christian, laugh much. Lord save us from Christians baptized in lemon juice. Mitch Mitchell
The serious business of every Christian is Joy C.S. Lewis
A free man can show care and compassion and fatherly discipline and strength Chris Catlin
Do not measure the Kingdom by drinking and eating. Some men rape - but that does not mean you should abstain from sex with your wife. Because some men get drunk does not mean wine is evil. Mitch Mitchell
March 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
There is a conflict between who I am and what I want to be - ask any golfer! Chris Catlin
Let the world feel the weight of who you are â€“ and let them deal with it John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Spend time in the wilds with friends and without your family. The wild places call to our hearts and time in the bush gives new perspective on our lives. Mitch Mitchell
Don't make the mistake of thinking that you have to be in the full-time ministry to serve God. Your job is the true frontline of the battle between darkness and light Mitch Mitchell
A free man can rejoice with those who rejoice and mourn with those that mourn John 11:35 NIV
Do not worry about tomorrow - tomorrow will worry about itself. Jesus of Nazareth
Our wives want a new dishwasher, or the latest fashion, they want us as men. They want to fell and hear that we love them. Dishwashers do help Chris Catlin
Sin has it’s power in secrecy, but .” He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and expose the motives of men’s hearts 1Cor 4:5 NIV
The greatest thing in the world is not so much where we stand as to which direction we are going Oliver Wendell Holmes
Patience and time do more than force and rage Jean de Fontaine 1621-1695
Do a check up from the neck up, watch your mind and watch your tongue Chris Catlin
They can because they think they can Virgil (Aenid) 70-90 BC.
Character is what a man is in the dark D L Moody
Words kill or words give life, theyâ€™re either poison of fruit â€“you choose Proverbs 18:21 The Message
Where there is life there is hope Terence ( C. 190-159 BC.)
Dreamers keep dreaming new dreams Houston
Eve was created in the lush beauty of Edenâ€™s Garden Adam was created outside in the wilderness John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
People who live defensively never rise above being average John Mason
For many men the great obstacle to giving is not in our luxurious living or desire for more money but in our fear of insecurity C. S. Lewis
The way through the world is more difficult to find than the way beyond it Wallace Stevens
The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full Jesus of Nazareth
The accumulation of events that we do not understand erodes our confidence and reduces us to a survivalist mindset John Eldredge
The glory of God Is a man fully alive Saint Irenaeus
I am still confident in this: That I will see the goodness of God in my life King David: warrior, lover, murderer, psalmwriter
Your heart is the real you and it will determine your destiny. The last thing satan wants is for you to start fighting to protect it Mitch Mitchell
You know something. What you know you canâ€™t explain. You felt it your entire life. There is something wrong with the world. Morpheus in The Matrix
Everything in this world is much more than it seems Mitch Mitchell
You are never a great man if you have more mind than heart Beuchene
You cannot know the joy and freedom of a ransomed heart until you give your life back to God Mitch Mitchell
Those who look to Him are radiant; their faces are never covered with shame King David: warrior, lover, murderer, psalmwriter
There is no greater reward than believing and holding on to Godâ€™s promise And living it for all the world to see when it becomes visible Mitch Mitchell
May 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
When we set out to hear Godâ€™s voice, we do not listen as if it will come from somewhere above us. It comes from within, in our heart, the dwelling place of God John Eldredge, Waking the Dead
Remember Solomon who on the outside seemed successful (all the wealth he needed, 3000 wives) yet he cried: "Meaningless! Everything is meaningless!â€?
Giving is the greatest evidence of true freedom Miles Munroe
Whatever God gives to you is normally for others as well Chris Catlin
Better a patient man than a warrior, a man who controls his temper than one who takes a city Proverbs 16:32 NIV
If you insist on holding on to your old ship while it is sinking, you may drown with it Mitch Mitchell
Show me your friends and I will show you your future Miles Munroe
Donâ€™t be a chicken when you should be an eagle. Experience Godâ€™s high altitude in all of your life Chris Catlin
Mediocrity is the enemy of Potential
Indecisiveness creates instability. A double minded man is unstable in all his ways James 1:8
When we are using our past to plan our future, it is like a man driving a car with the windscreen painted black and using only the rear view mirror to guide him. God has more for you and wants to make you more than yesterday. Mitch Mitchell
Manhood and Christ likeness are synonymous Ed Cole
God’s word washes us white, man’s words white wash Chris Catlin
We have this treasure in jars of clay to show that this all-surpassing power is from God and not from us 2 Corinthians 4:7
God is not influenced by outward appearances; neither is His power diminished by seemingly impossible obstacles Miles Munroe
God does not want us to just know who we are in him; He wants us to become it Miles Munroe
Our destiny is to become fully alive. Your heart bears a glory â€“ and it is needed. Now. John Eldredge, Waking the Dead
When a man is getting better, he understands more and more the evil still left in him. When a man is getting worse he understands his own badness less and less C. S. Lewis
The core of manâ€™s heart is undomesticated And that is good. John Eldgedge, Wild at Heart
There are two Greek words: the ordinary word to kill and one to murder. When Christ quotes that commandment He uses murder in all three accounts, All killing is not murder any more than all sex is adultery. C. S. Lewis
One person with real faith and trust in God will accomplish more than a thousand with only power, persistence and endurance Mitch Mitchell
A man with one watch knows what time it is A man with two is never quite sure. Know what you believe and stick to it.
If God controls your will, He controls you destiny If something else does, you are going to need a paddle for the creek Mitch Mitchell
You can believe a man who has been through the trials of life. If he had an encounter with God, he will not trust in himself anymore â€“ and he will walk with a limp, like Jacob. Mitch Mitchell
Fear is a poor chisel to carve out tomorrow. Worry is simply the triumph of fear over faith. John Mason
Corporate policies and procedures are designed with one aim: to harness a man to the plow and make him produce. But the soul refuses to be harnessed. It knows nothing of day timers and P&L statements. John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
If you want to find out how proud you are, just ask yourself: â€œHow much do I dislike it when people snub me, or refuse to take notice of me, or patronize me, or show off?â€? C.S. Lewis
“Child”, said the Voice ”I am telling you your story, not hers” C.S. Lewis, The Horse and His Boy
This is a fallen world, full of fallen people. It is a world at war. You were not loved as you were meant to be. This has shaped your convictions about yourself John Eldredge, Waking the Dead
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Fear and worry are interest paid in advance for something you may never own. John Mason
Your words are seeds you plant in someone elseâ€™s life John Mason
July 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
We say that people are proud because they are rich or clever or good looking, but they are not. They are proud of being richer, or cleverer or better-looking than others. C. S. Lewis
Worry gives a small thing a big shadow Old Swedish proverb
Your best friends are those who bring out the best in you John Mason
Some women want a passive man if they want a man at all, the Church wants a tamed man â€“ they are called priests; the corporation wants a sanitized, hairless, shallow man Robert Bly, Iron John
Instead of asking what you aught to do to become a better man ask yourself: “What makes me come alive – what stirs my heart?” And then you will discover your destiny John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
If we believe that man is made in the image of God, then we will do well to remember that The Lord is a Warrior; the Lord is His name Exodus 15:3
God is wild, dangerous, unfettered and free Walter Brueggeman
Every man has a battle to fight An adventure to live and a beauty to rescue John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
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Life is a hypocrite if I canâ€™t live The way it moves me! Christopher Fry
This is a stem of that victorious stock: and let us fear The native mightyness and fate of him William Shakespeare, Henry V You are made in the image of God.
“Safe? Who said anything about safe? ’Course He isn’t safe. But He is good” Beaver, from C.S. Lewis’ The Lion the Witch and the Wardrobe
How would telling people to be nice to one another get a man crucified? What government would execute Mister Rodgers or Captain Kangaroo? Philip Yancey
God is a Person who takes immense risks. No doubt the biggest risk of all was when He gave angels and men a free will, including the freedom to reject Him John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Thou art my life â€“ I the brook, Thou the spring Because Thine eyes are open, I can see Because Thou art Thyself, â€˜tis therefore I am George MacDonald, Diary of an old Soul
Gender is a reality and a more fundamental reality than sex â€Ś a fundamental polarity that divides all created beings. C. S. Lewis.
In spite of what the media claim, being homosexual is not natural. No one has ever seen a homosexual lion or elephant in Africa Mitch Mitchell
August 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
The tragedy of life is what dies inside a man while he lives Albert Schweizer
The mass of men live lives of quiet desperation Thoreau
It is no coincidence that many men fall into an affair not for love, not even for sex, but for adventure John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Aim at heaven and you will get earth â€œthrown inâ€? aim at earth and you will get neither C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity
Keep your feet on the Rock when you have reached the end of your rope John Mason
Men past forty get up nights Look at he city lights, and wonder Where they made the wrong turn and wonder why life is so long Ed Sissman
If a man does not find those things for which his heart is made if he is never even invited to live for them from his deep heart he will look for them in some other way John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
All men die few men ever really live William Wallace, Braveheart
Only those who try to resist temptation will know how strong it is C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity
There is always free food on a fish hook John Mason
If you do not know what to do Donâ€™t do it Mitch Mitchell
The hunter said to the bear: “I want a fur coat”. The bear said: “I want a full stomach, let us compromise”. The bear ate the hunter and both got what they wanted. The bear had a full stomach and the hunter was wrapped in fur John Mason
An army of sheep led by a lion would defeat and army of lions led by a sheep Old Arab proverb
The secret longing of your heart whether it is to build a boat and sail it to write a symphony and play it to plant a field and care for it: that is what you were made to do John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
If Christianity means only one more bit of good advice, then it is of no importance. There has been no lack of good advice for the last four thousand years. A bit more makes no difference C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity
Every boy, in his journey to become a man, takes an arrow in the center of his heart in the place of his strength John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Every one who has some vague belief in God, until he becomes a Christian, has the idea of earning a pass mark in an exam. The first result of real of Christianity is to blow that idea to bits C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity
If strangers and strange sights can shake the world of children it takes the people they know and love best to pull it out from under them like a chair Buechner
Not receiving any blessing from your father is an injury not seeing your father when you are small, never being with him, having a remote father, is an injury to your heart Bly
If I find in myself a desire which no experience in this world can satisfy the most probable explanation is that I was made for another world C.S. Lewis
Men either overcompensate for the wound in their hearts by becoming driven (violent men) or they shrink back and go passive (retreating men) John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Hearing tells you that the music is playing Listening tells you what the song is saying John Mason
To give a man back his heart is the hardest mission on earth From the movie Michael
Nothing worth having comes without some kind of a fight Bruce Cockburn
Those blows that you have taken in your life were not random accidents. They hit dead center. You are under assault because the enemy fears you John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Our prayers lay the track down on which Godâ€™s power can come. Like a mighty locomotive, his power is irresistible, but it cannot reach us without rails. Watchman Nee
I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen. Not only because I see it, but because I see everything by it. C.S. Lewis
The measure of a man is not what he does on Sunday but rather who he is Monday through Saturday John Mason
When a man wants to be validated by a woman, he is either addicted or emasculated usually both John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
The nose of the bulldog is slanted backwards so he can continue to breathe without letting go Winston Churchill
No man, for any considerable period of time, can wear one face to himself and another to the multitude without finally getting bewildered as to which may be the truth Nathaniel Hawthorne
October 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
What you do on earth Echoes in eternity Russel Crow as Maximus Meridius, from the movie Gladiator
The true test of a man, the beginning of his redemption, actually starts when he can no longer rely on what heâ€™s used all his life The real journey begins when the self fails John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
How many roads youâ€™ve traveled, how many dreams youâ€™ve chased Across sand and sky and gravel Looking for one safe place Marc Cohn
A man without his true love his life, his God will find another John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
Until you have given yourself to Him You will not have a real self C. S. Lewis
Forgiveness is setting a prisoner free And then discovering the prisoner was you anonomous
Enemy-occupied territory That is what this world is C. S. Lewis
We men are afraid to let our strength show because the world does not have place for it John Eldredge, Wild at Heart
I donâ€™t want to loose heart I want to believe like Wallace does I will never be on the wrong side again My ancient forefather, Robert the Bruce of Scotland in Braveheart
Courage is almost a contradiction in terms It means a strong will to live Taking the form of a readiness to die G. K. Chesterton
You are in serious danger if you allow yourself to go for any length of time without tasting the love of Christ. Without that satisfaction our souls go silently in search for other lovers. Maurice Roberts
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers For he today that sheds his blood with me Shall be my brother William Shakespeare, Henry V
The San bushmen say "Thank you for dying for me" to the fallen antelope,. When I touch a buck that I killed I remember another death which I had part in, One who died for me as surely as if I had pulled the trigger. Mitch Mitchell
Beauty is not only a terrible thing; it is also a mysterious thing. There God and the devil strive for mastery, and the battleground is the heart of men Fyodor Dostoyyevski
A courageous man must seek his life in a spirit of furious indifference to it he must desire life like water and yet drink death like wine G. K. Chesterton
Know that evil always speaks thoughts into you mind in the first person: â€?I want herâ€?. He does this so that you may mistake that thought as your own and perhaps act on it Mitch Mitchell
The place where God calls you is the place where your deep gladness and the worldâ€™s deep hunger meet Frederick Buechner
Thank God our time is now when wrong comes up to face us everywhere Never to leave us till we take The longest stride of soul men ever took Christopher Fry
Who keeps your life between the lines When left is wrong who steers it right? Tell me whoâ€™s at the wheel 4Him
The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, is a good as dead Albert Einstein
Life is too short to do things in half measures Live and love with abandon. If you believe in God, do it without holding back Mitch Mitchell
Show your family and the world who you really are today. Rip off the mask you wear once and far all. Be unafraid to be yourself. Mitch Mitchell
"Not one change of one species into another is on record ... we cannot prove that a single species has been changed." The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume 1 page 210
Donâ€™t ask yourself what the world needs. Ask yourself what makes you come alive, and go do that, because what the world needs is people who have come alive Gil Bailie
If evolution is true and it is only survival of the fittest animals, why should it matter to anyone that 6 million Jews were exterminated by Hitler, apartheid ruled in South Africa or the World Trade Center was attacked? Mitch Mitchell. The Ultimate Field Guide
Are you married? Then stay married. This is no time for checking out the new receptionist who works at your office. This is a time to be committed. This is the time to be a man. Steve Farrar, tempered Steel
The writingâ€™s on the wall. To believe is to be sure. Merchant Seal
A society that denies the supernatural usually ends up elevating the natural to supernatural status Phillip Yancey, Rumors of Another World
God may reduce you on judgment day to tears of shame reciting by heart the poems you would have written had your life been good W. H. Auden
Why would the survival of the fittest mechanism of evolution that supposedly brought us here now turn against us and cause us to feel pity for the oppressed why not just oppress them and survive better? Mitch Mitchell, The Ultimate Field Guide
We all have to choose between two ways of being crazy the foolishness of the gospel or the nonsense of the values of our world Vanier
December 31 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 Notes
If evolution is true, then we are only animals of accident. Then there could be no morality, no wrong or right and no mercy We would truly be what we despise most. Mitch Mitchell
Useful Information Safari Check List It is difficult to provide a comprehensive list of items to take on safari. Individual styles and tastes vary, so you should pack as to your individual requirements. Note: airlines restrict you to TWO checked bags with a maximum weight limit of 70 LBS (most airlines), and most international flights are cutting carry-on bags to ONE per passenger, so pack accordingly.
Traveler's items Airline tickets
Large duffle, wheeled is better
Airline approved gun case
Sturdy carry-on bag
- include one change of clothes, cameras, personal items, & detachable rifle scope
- bag that is convertible to a backpack for field use is best
Passport (with two photocopies, stored in separate locations when traveling
Visa (if required)
Immunization documentation (where required)
*US Customs Certificate of Registration - Form 4457 - For re-importation of guns
**Form SAP 311 - For Import/Export of firearm if hunting in South Africa
Loose fitting, comfortable clothing for international flight
Sleep aid to assist in adjustment to change in time zone
Malaria prophylactic (check area where traveling)
Multi-plug adaptor for electrical items & Converter
* Available only from a US Customs office **Downloadable at http://www.huntingreport.com/news/world-hunting-update.cfm
Clothing Three changes of hunting clothing in neutral colors ( khaki, olive, etc.)
Warm Jacket (medium weight)
Hunting boots - ankle high - well broken in (2 pair if you can afford the weight)
Hat - wide brim to protect neck and ears
Casual clothing for before/after hunt and evening in camp
Personal Items Sunblock - SPF30 or higher
Sunglasses with strap
Band-aids or blister blocker
Small flashlight w/batteries
35mm/digital camera with plenty of film/memory
Video camera with extra batteries and charger
Small diary and pen
Hunting Equipment Hunting weapon
Soft case for transportation to/from field
Ammunition - maximum 5 kg (about sixty rounds)
Arrows & broadheads - 12 (minimum), more is better
Archery field repair kit
Dust-proof bag (for cameras, video, etc)
Taxidermy shipping tags to be left with your trophies
Conversion Tables Length metric -> 1 millimetre [mm] 1 centimetre [cm] 1 metre [m] 1 kilometre [km] USA 1 inch [in] 1 foot [ft] 1 yard [yd] 1 mile 1 int nautical mile
USA 0.03937 in 10 mm 0.3937 in 100 cm 1.0936 yd 1000 m 0.6214 mile metric 2.54 cm 12 in 0.3048 m 3 ft 0.9144 m 1760 yd 1.6093 km 2025.4 yd 1.853 km
Area metric -> USA 1 sq cm [cm2] 100 mm2 0.1550 in2 1 sq m [m2] 10,000 cm2 1.1960 yd2 1 hectare [ha] 10,000 m2 2.4711 acres 1 sq km [km2] 100 ha 0.3861 mile2 USA metric 1 sq inch [in2] 6.4516 cm2 1 sq foot [ft2] 144 in2 0.0929 m2 1 sq yd [yd2] 9 ft2 0.8361 m2 1 acre 4840 yd2 4046.9 m2 1 sq mile [mile2] 640 acres 2.59 km2
Volume/Capacity metric -> USA 1 cu cm [cm3] 0.0610 in3 1 cu decimetre [dm3] 1,000 cm3 0.0353 ft3 1 cu metre [m3] 1,000 dm3 1.3080 yd3 1 litre [l] 1 dm3 1.76 pt 1 hectolitre [hl] 100 l 21.997 gal USA metric 1 cu inch [in3] 16.387 cm3 1 cu foot [ft3] 1,728 in3 0.0283 m3 1 fluid ounce [fl oz] 28.413 ml
1 pint [pt] 1 gallon [gal] USA 1 fluid ounce 1 pint (16 fl oz) 1 gallon
20 fl oz 8 pt
0.5683 l 4.5461 l metric 1.0408 UK fl oz 29.574 ml 0.8327 UK pt 0.4731 l 0.8327 UK gal 3.7854 l
Mass USA 1 milligram [mg] 1 gram [g] 1 kilogram [kg] 1 tonne [t] USA 1 ounce [oz]
imperial 0.0154 grain 1,000 mg 0.0353 oz 1,000 g 2.2046 lb 1,000 kg 0.9842 ton metric 437.5 28.35 g grain 1 pound [lb] 16 oz 0.4536 kg 1 stone 14 lb 6.3503 kg 1 hundredweight [cwt] 112 lb 50.802 kg 1 long ton (UK) 20 cwt 1.016 t
Trophy Handling in the Field Most hunters will depend on the PH to arrange for the skinning and the trophy preparation, but it is your trophy and it is wise to know what must be done. Make sure your trophies are identifiable by marking them with aluminum or lead tags, preferably attached to the trophies with galvanized wire.
Special precautions To make sure your skin will be undamaged, make sure that: 1. the animal is skinned as soon as possible - preferably within an hour or two of being shot 2. if the carcass has to be moved before skinning, make sure that it is not dragged over stones or sharp objects 3. that the skin is not damaged during loading, transport or offloading; 4. special care is taken during loading and offloading. Lifting the carcass with tarpaulins or Hessian and transporting it on these or on a thick layer of soft branches is best
5. the trophy is not exposed to the sun or high temperature, because this may cause increased `hair slip'. Cover the animal during transport to provide shade. Skin the animal in a cool, shady place. 6. Note: the skin of certain species such as eland, kudu, bushbuck, nyala, impala and gemsbuck are more prone to damage and should be given special attention during handling, transport and storage 7. all fat and pieces of meat must be removed from the skin as these contribute to putrefaction and skin damage. check that that the parts below the mane of the zebra and the ears are thoroughly cleaned of all flesh and fat 8. all dirt and blood be removed and the skin properly washed with clean water. the skins be drained of excess liquid by hanging them for a short while in a cool, shady place, before salting.
Salting Make sure that clean, good quality salt - preferably table salt - is used. 1. Check that the salt is rubbed well on all inner parts of the skin. Check that the sides of the skin are folded up to the middle and rolled or folded lengthwise to cover the inner, salted surfaces. 2. Salt cannot penetrate effectively into the thick hides of elephant, rhino, hippo and other thick-skinned animals. Make sure that the inner parts of such skins must be shaved more thinly. 3. Check that the skin is stretched hair downwards over a smooth, absorbent area 4. Make sure that the skin is carved thin enough for the salt to reach the hair roots, so as to prevent decomposition and hair slip. 5. If it is not possible to thin a skin, make incisions from the inside into the skin, parallel to each other and about 10 millimeters or Â˝inch apart. The depth of these cuts must be about half the skin's thickness to ensure adequate salt penetration.
6. When several skins have to be salted, select a level area like a cement floor in a cool room and spread an even layer of salt on the floor. Put the first skin, hair side facing down, on the layer of salt followed by the next skin. Keep stacking the skins while making sure that the salt permeates the moist inner surface of each skin. 7. Store the salted skins for about 24 hours in a cool place before opening. Shake off loose salt and hang the skins in the shade to dry. Never keep a wet skin in a plastic bag or a sealed container as this will ruin the trophy. 8. Fold the skin before it is completely dry for dispatch. With the hairy side now facing upwards, fold the edges inwards to meet in the middle with the hair facing inwards. Fold it in the required size and unfold it again and allow to dry. Forming the skin folds before the skin is completely dry is important to prevent it from cracking.
Quick Reference Field Guide Small Animals
150g Total Length 35cm Tail 23cm
Galago Senegalensis Afrikaans Nagapie Shona Chinhavira Tswana Mogwele Shangaan Mhimbi
1-2cm Contains fragments of insect exoskeletons
190g Total Length 35cm Tail 16cm
Paraxerus cepapi Afrikaans Boomeekhoring Shona Tsindi Tswana Setlhora Shangaan Sindyane
1 cm F 2cm H 3cm 290g Total Length 28cm Tail 17cm Shoulder height 7cm
Helogale parvula Afrikaans Dwergmuishond
3 cm, Deposited in middens near dens. Contains insect exoskeletons.
F 4cm H 5cm
400g Total Length 20cm Tail 2cm
Hedgehog Erinaceus frontalis Afrikaans Krimpvarkie Shona Shoni Zulu Nhloni Tswana Tlhong
Ground Squirrel Xerus inauris Afrikaans Waaierstertgrondeekhoring Tswana Sekatamosima
650g Total Length 45cm Tail 22cm
Slender Mongoose Galerella sanguinea Afrikaans Rooimuishond Zulu Chakide Tswana Ramotsibodis, Kganwe Shangaan Mangovo Shona Hovo
650g Total Length 58cm Tail 27cm 4 cm Deposited in middens Contains insect exoskeletons
680g Total Length 50cm Tail 22cm 5 cm Deposited in middens at burrow entrances
Cynictis penicillata Afrikaans Rooimeerkat Tswana Ramoswe, Motodi
Small Grey Mongoose
F 2.5 cm H 3 cm
F 4 cm H 3 cm
750g Total Length 62cm Tail 27cm 6 cm, Deposited in small middens. Contains insect exoskeletons and rodent hair
Galerella pulverulenta Afrikaans Kaapse grysmuishond
F 4 cm H 3 cm
800g Total Length 50cm Tail 22cm
Suricate Suricata suricatta Afrikaans Stompstertmeerkat Tswana K么t么k么/Sie
Striped Polecat Poecilogale albinucha Afrikaans Stinkmuishond Zulu Ngankakazana Tswana Nakedi Shona Ehidembo
5 cm Deposited in middens near warrens
3-4cm Light in color
1Kg Total Length 62cm Tail 26cm Shoulder height 12cm
1.2Kg Total Length 75cm Tail 40cm up to 5cm May contain fragments of insect exoskeletons
Galago crassicaudatus Afrikaans Bosnagaap Shona Chimhavira Zulu Sinkwe Shangaan Xidweta
Banded Mongoose Mungos mungo Afrikaans Gebande muishond Tswana Letototo Shangaan Nkala Zulu Buhala Shona Dzvoro
Small spotted Cat
1.3Kg Total Length 58cm Tail 22cm
3 cm Covered by females near dens
Genetta tigrina Afrikaans Grootkolmuskeljaatkat Tswana Tshipa Shangaan Nsimba Shona Tsimba
1.7Kg Total Length 73cm Tail 35cm
Paracynictis selousi Afrikaans Kleinwitstertmuishond Zulu Nsengane Tswana Kgano Shona Jerenyenje
Large spotted Genet
1.5Kg Total Length 57cm Tail 16cm Shoulder height 25cm
Felis nigripes Afrikaans Kleingekoldekat Tswana Sabalabolokwane
5 cm, Deposited in middens near dens Contains insect exoskeletons. Ground scratched over dung
F 3cm H 5cm
4 cm Contains insect exoskeletons
1.8Kg Total Length 92cm Tail 45cm
8cm Deposited at conspicuous latrine sites Contains insect fragments and small mammal remains
F 3 cm H 4 cm
Small spotted Genet
2Kg Total Length 93cm Tail 45cm
Genetta genetta Afrikaans Kleinkolmuskeljaatkat Tswana Tshipa Shangaan Nsimba Shona Tsimba
5 cm Contains insect fragments and small mammal remains Deposited in middens
2Kg Total Length 53cm Tail 10cm
Lepus capensis Lepus sexatilis Afrikaans Vlakhaas Shona Tsuro Zulu Logwaja Shangaan Mpfundla Tswana Mmutlwa
1.5cm Slightly oval and flattened Pale-colored with rough surface
F 2cm H 3cm
2.5Kg Total Length 70cm Tail 10cm
Scrub Hare Afrikaans Kolhaas Zulu Logwaja Shangaan Mpfundla Tswana Mmutlwa Shona Tsuro
1.5cm Slightly oval and flattened Pale-colored with rough surface
F 2cm H 3cm
1 cm Deposited in middens on ground or at tree bases in cylindrical clusters of 5cm
F 5 cm H 7 cm
2.8Kg Total Length 47cm No tail
Tree Hyrax Dendohyrax arboreus Afrikaans Boomdassie Siswati lmbila ye ma hlatsi
Yellow-spot Rock Hyrax Heterohyrax brucei Afrikaans Geelkoldassie Shona Mbira Ndebele Imbila
3Kg Total Length 50cm No tail 1 cm Slightly flattened
F 5 cm H 7 cm
Large Grey Mongoose
3.3Kg Total Length 105cm Tail 52cm
Herpestes ichneumon Afrikaans Grootgrysmuishond Zulu Nhlangala Tswana Leswekete, Tshagane 3.5Kg Total length 90cm Tail 34cm Shoulder height 30cm
Cape Fox Vulpes chama Afrikaans Silvervos Tswana Lesie
10 cm Contains rodent hair and small mammal remains
9cm contains insect exoskeletons
F 5cm H 4cm
3.6Kg Total Length 53cm No tail
Procavia capensis Afrikaans Klipdassie Shona,Venda Mbila Zulu Shangaan Mbili Tswana Pela
1 cm Slightly flattened
F 5 cm H 7 cm
4Kg Total Length 72cm Tail 18cm
Greater Cane Rat Thryonomys swinderianus Afrikaans Grootrietrot Zulu Vondo Shangaan Nhleti Shona Tsenzi Tswana Bodi
2cm Flattened and grooved
F 3cm H 5cm
4Kg Total Length 80cm Tail 40cm
Spring Hare Pedietes capensis Afrikaans Springhaas Zulu Ndulane Tswana Tsipo Shangaan Xindjengwe
1.5 cm Pale colored, grooved across the end, flattened and square
F 2cm H 5cm
Water Mongoose Atilax paludinosus Afrikaans Kommetjiegatmuishond Zulu Mvuzi Tswana Tshagane Shona Chidzvororo
4Kg Total Length 90cm Tail 35cm Shoulder height 22cm
4Kg Tail 5cm Shoulder height 35cm Average horn length 3cm
Philantomba monticolo R.W. Min 1¾" Max 2⅞" S.C.I Min 4" Max 8¾" Measurement Method 1
2 cm Deposited in middens near water, contains shells Contains water mongoose hair
1 cm Tapered at one end, hollow at the other Deposited in middens
6 cm Spreads on mud and soft soil
4Kg Total length 83cm Tail 29cm Shoulder height 35cm 2-3 cm Contains insect exoskeletons. Deposited in middens
Bat-eared Fox Otocyon megalotis Afrikaans Bakoorvos Tswana Thlose Shona Gava
African Wild Cat
4.3Kg Total length 93cm Tail 31cm Shoulder height 35cm
Felis lybica Afrikaans Vaalboskat Shona Nhiriri Tswana Phage Zulu Mpaka Shangaan Mphaha Venda Phaha
White-tailed Mongoose Ichneumia albicauda Afrikaans Witstertmuishond Zulu
3 cm 5 cm
4.4Kg Total Length 120cm Tail 42cm 3 cm Deposited in middens near burrows Contains insect
F 4 cm
Gqalashu Tswana Leselamothaba Shangaan Tlolota Shona Jerenyenje
exoskeletons and rodent hair
H 5 cm
5Kg Tail 5cm Shoulder height 38cm Average horn length 8cm
Modoquo kirkii Afrikaans Damara Dik-Dik R.W. Min 2⅜" Max 4" S.C.I Min 7" Max 11¼" Measurement Method 1
1 cm Deposited in middens at path junctions
5Kg Tail 13cm Shoulder height 25cm Average horn length 8cm
Neotragus moschatus Afrikaans Soenie Zulu Nhlengane
.75 cm Tapered at one end, blunt at the other. Deposited in middens
5.5Kg Total Length 125cm Tail 65cm
Vervet Monkey Cercopithecus aethiops Afrikaans Blou-aap Zulu Nkawu Tswana Kgabo Shona Tsoko/Shoko
Sharpe’s Grysbok Raphicerus sharpie Afrikaans Sharpe se Grysbok Shona Himba Shangaan Pitsipits R.W. Min 1⅜" Max 4⅛" S.C.I Min
3-4cm F 6cm H 8cm 7.5Kg Tail 6cm Shoulder height 50cm Average horn length 6cm
1 cm Tapered at one end, blunt at the other. Deposited in large middens
5" Max 8他" Measurement Method 1
8Kg Total length 100cm Tail 33cm Shoulder height 38cm
Canis mesomelas Afrikaans Rooijakkals Zulu Mpungutshe Tswana Phokojwe Shangaan Impungutshe Shona Hungubwe
8.5Kg Total length 90cm Tail 24cm Shoulder height 50cm
Proteles cristatus Afrikaans Aardwolf Zulu Nehi Tswana Thukwi,Mmabudu Shona Mwena
5 cm Usually contains hair, insect fragments and bone chips
8 cm Deposited and buried in covered middens. Contains sand and termite heads
9Kg Total length 100cm Tail 35cm Shoulder height 40cm 5 cm
Canis adustus Afrikaans Witkwasjakkals Zulu Mpungutshe Tswana Rantalaje Shangaan Hlati Shona Gava
10Kg Total Length 75cm Tail 37cm
Pangolin Manis temminckii Afrikaans Itermagog Shona Haka Shangaan Shikwaru
F 3cm H 5cm
10Kg Tail 6cm Shoulder height 54cm Average horn length 8cm
Raphicerus melonotis Afrikaans Grysbok Xhosa Ngxungxu R.W. Min 3" Max 4⅞" S.C.I Min 7" Max 12⅛" Measurement Method 1
Steenbok Raphicerus campestris Afrikaans Steenbok Tswana Phuduhudu Zulu Qhina Shangaan Shipene Shona Mhene R.W. Min 4½" Max 7½" S.C.I Min 11" Max 18⅛" Measurement Method 1
10Kg Total Length 95cm Tail 20cm Shoulder height 30cm
Millivora capensis Afrikaans Ratel Zulu Nsele Tswana Matswani Shangaan Shidzidzi Shona Sere, Tsere
Oreotragus oreotragus Afrikaans Klipspringer Tswana Kololo Shona Ngururu Tswana Kololo R.W. Min 4⅛" Max 6¼" S.C.I Min 11" Max 16¼" Measurement Method 1
1 cm Tapered at one end, blunt at the other Deposited in large middens
4-6 cm Rounded ends 7-8 cm
10Kg Tail 8cm Shoulder height 60cm Average horn length 8cm
11Kg Tail 5cm Shoulder height 50cm Average horn length 9cm
1 cm Tapered at both ends. Deposited in large middens
1 cm Shiny with narrow point at one end. Mixed or covered with soil
F 4 cm H 5 cm
11Kg Total length 108cm Tail 32cm Shoulder height 60cm
Serval Felis serval Afrikaans Tierboskat Zulu Ndlozi Tswana Tadi Shona Nzudzi Venda Didingwe
12Kg Total Length 135cm Tail 45cm Shoulder height 40cm
Civettictis civetta Afrikaans Siwetkat Tswana Tshipalore Shona Bvungo Shangaan Fungwe
3-6 cm Sometimes buried
14Kg Total Length 135cm Tail 50cm
Aonyx capensis Afrikaans Groototter Zulu Ntini Tswana Lenyebi Shona Mbiti
Oribi Ourebia ourebi
8cm Contains millipede exoskeletons. Deposited in middens near pathways
13Kg Total length 90cm Tail 26cm Shoulder height 43cm
Felis caracal Afrikaans Rooikat Zulu Ndabushe Tswana Thwane Shona Hwang Twana Venda Thwani
8 cm Grey, contains rodent fur. Scratch marks on ground
14Kg Tail 11cm Shoulder height 60cm Average horn length 10cm
5 cm Deposited in middens less than 10 m from water. Contains fragments of crabs carapaces
1 cm Deposited in middens near
F 5 cm H 6 cm
F 7 cm H 8 cm
Afrikaans Oorbietjie Zulu Wula.Iwula Tswana Phuduhudu kgamane R.W. Min 5⅞" Max 7½" S.C.I Min 13" Max 8½" Measurement Method 1
Red Duiker Cepholophus natalensis Afrikaans Rooiduiker Zulu Umsumpe Venda Phithi R.W. Min 2½" Max 4⅛" S.C.I Min 8" Max 12⅝" Measurement Method 1
14Kg Tail 11cm Shoulder height 43cm Average horn length 6cm
1 cm Tapered at one end and hollow at the other. Deposited in middens
15Kg Total Length 90cm Tail 12cm
5cm Often attached
Hystrix africaeausrali Afrikaans Ystervark Zulu Nungu Tswana Noko Shangaan Nungu
Common Duiker Sylvicapra grirnmia Afrikaans Duiker Tswana Phuti Zulu Mpunzi Shangaan Mhuti Shona Mhembwe Venda Nfsa R.W. Min 4½" Max 7⅛" S.C.I Min 11" Max 17⅜" Measurement Method 1
18Kg Tail 12cm Shoulder height 50cm Average horn length 11cm
20Kg Tail 10cm Shoulder height 75cm Average horn length 20cm
Grey Rheebuck Pelea capreolus Afrikaans Vaalribok Zulu Liza Tswana Lehele R.W.
1 cm Short point at one end, blunt or slightly hollow at the other. Sometimes in middens
1 cm Tapered at one end and blunt at the other
F 5cm H 9cm
Min 7⅞" Max 11½" S.C.I Min 18" Max 26⅜" Measurement Method 1
25Kg Total Length 125cm Tail 25cm Shoulder height 73cm
Lycaon Pictus Afrikaans Wildehond Zulu Nkontshane Tswana Letlhalerwa Shangaan Hlolwa Shona Mhumhi
7 cm, often contains hair
30Kg Tail 20cm Shoulder height 72cm Average horn length 14cm
Mountain Reedbuck 1cm Clusters of 4 cm
Redunca fulvorufula Afrikaans Rooiribbok Tswana Lehele Zulu Nxala R.W. Min 6⅞" Max 11½" S.C.I Min 20" Max 30¾" Measurement Method 1
32Kg Total length 140cm Tail 70cm
Papio cynocephalus ursinus Afrikaans Bobbejaan Shona Bveni,Gudo Tswana Tshwene
Springbuck Antidorccis marsupialis Afrikaans Springbok Tswana Tshephe R.W. Min 14" Max 19⅜" S.C.I Min 30" Max 50⅞" Measurement Method 1
F 11cm H 15cm
41Kg Tail 25cm Shoulder height 75cm Average horn length 35cm 1.5 cm Clusters of up to 5 cm. . Deposited in middens
F 4cm H 5cm
Bushbuck Trogelophus scriptus Afrikaans Bosbok Zulu Imbabala Tswana Serolobotlhoko Shona Dsoma Shangaan Mbvala R.W. Min 14" Max 19⅝" S.C.I Min 31" Max 55⅛" Measurement Method 5
45Kg Tail 20cm Shoulder height 80cm Average horn length 26cm 1cm Clusters of 4cm
47Kg Total Length 145cm Tail 25cm Shoulder height 80cm
8cm Dark when fresh, white when old, deposited in middens
Hyaena brunnea Afrikaans Strandjut Shona Bere Tswana Tlonkana, Phiritshwana
Impala Aepyceros melampus melampus Afrikaans Rooibok Zulu Mpala Tswana Phala Shangaan Mbala Shona Mhara R.W. Min 23⅝" Max 31⅞" S.C.I Min 54" Max 67¾" Measurement Method 1
Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus Afrikaans Jagluiperd Zulu Hlosi Shangaan Khankanha Tswana Lengau R.W. Min 12⅜" Max 14½" S.C.I Min E.D. Max 15" Measurement
50Kg Tail 28cm Shoulder height 90cm Average horn length 50cm
1.5 cm Tapered at one end, blunt or hollow at the other . Deposited in middens
F 8 cm H 6 cm
50Kg Total length 200cm Tail 70cm Shoulder height 80cm
F 10 cm H 9 cm
55Kg Total length 160cm Tail 53cm 4cm Mainly sand, covered with ground
Orycteropus afer Afrikaans Aardvark Shona Sambani Zulu Sambane Shangaan Xombana
Leopard Panthera pardus Afrikaans Luiperd Zulu,ShangaanTsonga,Ve nda Ngwe, Ingwe Tswana,Sotho Nkwe,Inkwe R.W. Min 15⅜" Max 19" S.C.I Min 14" Max 19" Measurement Method 18
Reedbuck Redunca arundinum Afrikaans Rietbok Zulu Nxala Shangaan Nhlangu Shona Bimba R.W. Min 14" Max 18⅜" S.C.I Min 34" Max 53⅜" Measurement Method 1
Bontebok Domaliscus dorcas dorcas Afrikaans Bontebok R.W. Min 14" Max 16¾" S.C.I Min 36" Max 47⅝" Measurement Method 1
55Kg Total length 185cm Tail 90cm Shoulder height 75cm
6-13 cm Contains hair and bone fragments Deposited in prominent places
F 8cm H 7cm
F 10 cm H 12 cm
60Kg Tail 25cm Shoulder height 88cm Average horn length 30cm 1.5 cm 7cm
62Kg Tail 38cm Shoulder height 90cm Average horn length 38cm
1.5 cm Short point at one end, blunt at the other. Deposited in middens
F 6cm H 5cm
70Kg Tail 40cm Shoulder height 95cm Average horn length 51cm
Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi Afrikaans Blesbok Tswana None/Nono R.W. Min 15½" Max 20" S.C.I Min 39" Max 52⅞" Measurement Method 1
1.5 cm Deposited in middens
70Kg Total Length 150cm Tail 25cm Shoulder height 85cm
Crocuta crocuta Afrikaans Gevlekte Hiëna Zulu Mpisi Shangaan Mhisi Shona Bere
F 8 cm H 6 cm
74Kg Tail 28cm Shoulder height 80cm Average horn length 45cm 1.5 - 2cm Sometimes clustered
Kobus vardonii Afrikaans Poekoe R.W. Min 16⅞" Max 22⅛" S.C.I Min 46" Max 58" Measurement Method 1
Potamochoerus porcus Afrikaans Bosvark Zulu Ngulube Tswana Kolobe ya naga Shona Humba, Nguruve Shangaan Khumba, Ngulube M'hlati R.W. Min 3⅞" Max 11⅞" S.C.I Min 11" Max 22¼" Measurement Method 4
4-8 cm Green when fresh but turns white with age due to high bone content. Deposited in middens
F 6cm H 5cm
80Kg Tail 38cm Shoulder height 72cm Average tusk length cm 8 cm Deposited in middens
Warthog Phocochoerus aethiopicus Afrikaans Vlakvark Zulu Ndlovudalana Tswana Kolobe Venda Phangwa Shona Njiri R.W. Min 13" Max 24" S.C.I Min 30" Max 49⅞" Measurement Method 4
82Kg Tail 45cm Shoulder height 70cm Average tusk length cm
5 cm Often clustered, slightly flattened
Red Lechwe Kobus leche Afrikaans Basterwaterbok Tswana Letshwee R.W. Min 26" Max 35" S.C.I Min 58" Max 73⅝" Measurement Method 1
Nyala Tragelaphus angasii Afrikaans Njala Zulu Inyala Shona Nyara R.W. Min 27" Max 32¾" S.C.I Min 63" Max 82½" Measurement Method 5
Sitatunga Trachelaphus spekei Afrikaans Waterkoedoe Tswana Nakong R.W. Min 27⅛" Max 32½" S.C.I Min 60" Max 81¾"
100Kg Tail 34cm Shoulder height 100cm Average horn length 70cm 1.5 cm 7 cm
108Kg Tail 43cm Shoulder height 115cm Average horn length 60cm 1.5 cm F 6cm H 5cm
115Kg Tail 22cm Shoulder height 90cm Average horn length 60cm 1.5 - 2cm Often clustered 9cm
Measurement Method 5
Black Wildebeest Connochaetes gnou Afrikaans Swartwildebees R.W. Min 22⅞" Max 29⅜" S.C.I Min 50" Max 95½" Measurement Method 11
140Kg Tail 50cm Shoulder height 120cm Average horn length 52cm
140Kg Tail 45cm Shoulder height 120cm
Domaliscus lunatus Afrikaans Basterhartbees Tswana TshesebeShona Nondo Shangaan Nondo R.W. Min 15" Max 18½" S.C.I Min 40" Max 55½" Measurement Method 1
Red Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus Afrikaans Rooihartbees Zulu Nduluzele Tswana Kgama Shona Ngama R.W. Min 23" Max 29½"S.C.I Min 62" Max 80¼" Measurement Method 1
Lichtenstein’s Hartebeest Sigmoceros lichtensteinii Afrikaans Lichtenstein se Hartebees R.W. Min 18½" Max 24⅜" S.C.I Min 53" Max 73" Measurement
150Kg Tail 47cm Shoulder height 125cm Average horn length 52cm
1.5 cm Sometimes clustered. Deposited in middens
2 cm Tapered at one end and blunt on the other
1.5 cm Tapered one end and blunt the other. Deposited in middens
F 8cm H 7cm
180kg Shoulder Height 125cm 1.5 cm Deposited in middens
F 8cm H 9cm
Lion Panthera Leo Afrikaans Leeu Shona Shumba Zulu Ngonyama Shangaan Nghala Tswana Tau R.W. Min 24" Max 28⅜" S.C.I Min 22" Max 28½" Measurement Method 18
Sable Hippotragus niger Afrikaans Swartwitpens Zulu Mpalampale Tswana Kwalata Shangaan Mhalamhala Shona Mharapara R.W. Min 41⅞" Max 60¾" S.C.I Min 100" Max 124⅝" Measurement Method 1
Gemsbuck Oryx Gazella Afrikaans Gemsbok Tswana Kukama R.W. Min 40" Max 49¼" S.C.I Min 100" Max 124⅝" Measurement Method 1
185Kg Total length 290cm Tail 100cm Shoulder height 120cm 12-15 cm Contains bone fragments and hair
F 15 cm H 13 cm
2 cm Sometimes clustered. Scrape marks
F 14 H 11
230Kg Tail 50cm Shoulder height 135cm Average horn length 102cm
240Kg Tail 60cm Shoulder height 120cm Average horn length 90cm
F 10cm H 9cm
250Kg Tail 40cm Shoulder height 130cm
Cape Mountain Zebra
5cm Cracked across middle
Equus zebra zebra Afrikaans Kaapse Bergsebra Xhosa Dauwa
Blue Wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus Afrikaans Blouwildebees Zulu Nkhonhoni Tswana Kgokong Shangaan Hongonyi Shona Ngongoni R.W. Min 28½" Max 33⅞" S.C.I Min 70" Max 99¾" Measurement Method 11
250Kg Tail 60cm Shoulder height 150cm Average horn length 60cm
2 cm Pointed at one end and blunt on the other. Deposited in middens
F 7cm H 6 cm
250Kg Tail 43cm Shoulder height 147cm Average horn length 120cm 2 cm Short point at one end and a hollow at the other
Tragelaphus strepsiceros Afrikaans Koedoe Zulu Mgankla Tswana Tholo Shona Nhoro Shangaan Hlongo R.W. Min 53⅞" Max 69¼" S.C.I Min 121" Max 150½" Measurement Method 5
F 10cm H 9cm
260Kg Tail 35cm Shoulder height 130cm Average horn length 75cm
Waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus Afrikaans Waterbok Zulu Phiva Tswana Pitlhwa Shona Dhumukwa R.W. Min 28" Max 39¼" S.C.I
1.5 cm Clusters of 8 cm
8cm Hoof drag marks between tracks
Min 70" Max 91¾" Measurement Method 1
Roan Hippotragus equines Afrikaans Bastergemsbok Tswana Kunkuru Shona Ndunguza Shangaan Ndakadsi R.W. Min 27" Max 39" S.C.I Min 68" Max 81¾" Measurement Method 1
Hartmann’s Mountain Zebra
270Kg Tail 54cm Shoulder height 145cm Average horn length 75cm
6 cm Crack across middle
315Kg Tail 45cm Shoulder height 130cm
Equus burchelli Afrikaans Bontsebra Zulu Dube Tswana Pitse ya naga Shangaan Tsonga,Mangwe Shona Mbizi
Syncerus caffer Afrikaans Buffel Zulu Nyathi Tswana Nari Shangaan Nyari Shona Nyati R.W. Min 45" Max 64" S.C.I Min 100" Max 139⅛" Measurement Method 10
F 11 H 10
300Kg Tail 40cm Shoulder height 150cm
Equus zebra hartmanni Afrikaans Hartmanse Bergsebra
2 cm Tapered at one end, hollow at the other
6 cm 11 cm
550Kg Tail 70cm Shoulder height 140cm Average horn length 100cm 15 cm F 14 cm H 13cm
Eland Taurotragus oryx Afrikaans Eland Zulu Mpofu Shangaan Mhofu Shona Phofu Tswana Phofu R.W. Min 35" Max 44¼"
700Kg Tail 60cm Shoulder height 170cm Average horn length 60cm Roland Ward cm SCI cm
2cm Tapered, rounded at one end, blunt at the other. Sometimes in cylindrical clusters
F 11cm H 10cm
S.C.I Min 79" Max 115⅞" Measurement Method 5
Very Large Animals
12 cm Deposited in middens. Contains undigested twigs
Black Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Afrikaans Swartrenoster Zulu uBhejane Tswana Tshukudu Shona Chipenbere Venda Thema R.W. Min 24" Max 47¼" S.C.I Min 56" Max 89½" Measurement Method 2 950Kg Tail 70cm Shoulder height 160cm
F 20cm H 17cm 30 cm30 cm Distinguishable from White Rhinoceros track by "W" (for white rhino) formed by back of track
2 cm Longer in bulls than in cows. Scattered, tapered at one end and blunt at the other
Giraffe Giraffa camelopordalis Afrikaans Kameelperd Zulu Ndhlulamithi Shangaan Nthutlwa 1200Kg Tail 120cm Shoulder height 300cm Total height 450cm
F 20 cm H 17 cm
Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibious Afrikaans Seekoei Zulu Mvubu Shangaan Mpfubu Tswana Kubu R.W. Min 29⅞" Max 64½" S.C.I Min 50" Max 88⅝" Measurement Method 4 1500Kg Tail 40cm Shoulder height 150cm
12 cm, scattered with tail 20 cm
White Rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum Afrikaans Witrenoster Zulu uMkhombe Tswana Tshukudu Shona Chipembere R.W. Min 28" Max 62¼" S.C.I Min 70" Max 111⅜" Measurement Method 2 2150 Kg Tail 100cm
Deposited in middens Contains undigested grass
Shoulder height 180cm
30 cm Distinguishable from Black Rhinoceros track by "W" (for white rhino) formed by back of track
Undigested fragments of wood and bark
Elephant Loxodonta Africana Afrikaans Olifant Zulu Ndhlovu Shangaan Ndlopfu R.W. Min 80lb Max 226lb" S.C.I Min 100lb Max 228lb Measurement Method 19 Record Tusk Length 11'5" 6000Kg Tail 1.5cm Shoulder height 360cm
50cm Shoulder height can be calculated by: Bulls: multiplying the circumference of the front spoor by 2.5 or 5,8 times the length of the hind footprint For cows, multiply the length of the hind footprint 5,5 times
Health Personal Medical Aid Kit One should have a small personalized first aid kit to carry with you on the hunt. The contents of this kit will depend very much on the individual.
Suggested contents of a small personal first aid kit: Antihistamine pills. 1 CPR mouthpiece. Personal medication (e.g. insulin) Injectable adrenaline (1:1000 - 1ml in syringe). A few assorted plasters. 2 Triangular bandages. 4 Butterfly suture plasters. Valoid pills. Antiseptic ointment (e.g. Betadine). 2 medium wound dressings. Oral rehydrate. 1 large wound dressing. Lomotil. 1 crepe elastic bandage. Water purification tablets. 6 Swabs. 1 Haemostat. 1 Tweezer. Pain / fever pills (e.g. Disprin, or Myprodol).
Safari Medicine Kit A well equipped safari medical bag EQUIPMENT Inflatable splint (1 for arm, 1 for leg) Foldable splint â€“ plastic (1 for arm 1 for leg) Hard splints (assorted) 1 Traction splint (for leg) Airways (3 sizes for adult, 3 for sub adult) 4 CPR mouthpieces 1 Laryngoscope (adult) 4 Endotracheal tubes
3 Artery forceps (hemostats)
USED FOR Fractures Fractures Fractures Fracture of the femur Keep airway open when unconscious For CPR and rescue breathing For inserting endotracheal tube For maintaining airway and attaching to Ambu bag Controlling bleeding, extracting objects,
2 Surgical scissors 2 Tweezers (1 medium and 1 small) 1 Dental syringe and needles 1 Ambu bag 1 Oxygen bottle and face mask 2 Scalpels and assorted blades 1 Stethoscope 1 Torch with spare batteries 1 Portable stretcher 1 – Stingose 2 – Tubes Anthisan Buscopan (tablets and ampoulles) 6 – Packets Lomotil or Immodium 2 boxes of each Disprin, Panado and Myprodol 6 ampoulles pethadine Grippons, Benylin Voltaren tablets and ampoulles Daraclor, Halfan etc Purbac Bactrim or Purbac Losec or Controloc Borax or Fucidin H KY jelly Lip Ice and Vaseline Ear drops Eye drops (Eyegene and Spesalerg)
suturing Cutting Extracting objects Local anesthetic Respiratory support Oxygen therapy Cutting For auscultation Working in the dark and checking pupil response Transportation of injured or sick Insect bites and stings Local allergies (external use) Stomach cramps Diarrhea Minor to moderate pain Severe pain Coughs, colds, flu Muscle injuries and pain Anti malarial Bladder infections Boils and abbesses Stomach ulcers Athletes foot Lubricant Cracked lips Ear pain / infections Eye infections / allergies
Medicines and Disposables MEDICATIONS AND DISPOSABLES 4 - 100mm wide elastic crepe bandages 6 – Triangular bandages 6 – 100mm wide bandages 6 – small size wound dressings
USED FOR Snakebite, fractures, sprains, dislocations Fractures and wounds Wounds, fractures, dislocations, sprains Wounds, fractures, dislocations,
6 – medium size wound dressings 6 – large wound dressings 2 – eye patches 2 – rolls 100mm wide surgical plaster 2 – rolls 50mm wide surgical plaster 2 – packets assorted plasters 20 – Butterfly suture plasters 6 – Occlusive wound dressings 4 – Ring bandages Suturing material and needles Alcohol swabs Gauze swabs (assorted – enough of) Sanitary towels (1 packet) 4 – IV drip sets 3 liters Ringers lactate 3 liters Physiological saline (NaCl) 1 liter Dextrose 4 ampoules insulin injectable 1 Suction apparatus 6 - 20ml disposable syringes
8 – 10ml disposable syringes 8 – 5ml disposable syringes 8 – 2,5ml disposable syringes 6 – 1ml disposable tuberculin syringes 1 Glucose test kit 1 Malaria test kit (20 tests) – if in malaria area 1 box Disposable surgical gloves Assorted hypodermic needles
sprains Wounds, fractures, dislocations, sprains Wounds, fractures, dislocations, sprains Eye injuries Assorted injuries and strapping Assorted injuries and strapping Minor injuries Suturing wounds Penetrating wounds of thorax and abdomen For securing imbedded objects Suturing of minor wounds For disinfecting injection sites For cleaning wounds and padding For ladies who forget and for wounds For IV infusions Fluid replacement Fluid replacement Hypoglycemia (diabetic emergency) Hyperglycemia (diabetic emergency) Suctioning secretions Inflating cuff on endotracheal tube and for irrigating wounds, cuts, abrasions Administering injections Administering injections Administering injections Administering injections Testing blood glucose Testing for malaria Protection Protection and removing
Lignocaine local anesthetic Activated charcoal (packet) 1 litre Betadine antiseptic (liquid) 1 litre Hibitane antiseptic (liquid) 1 – Bottle merchurochrome 20 – 100ml sterile distilled water 2- Betadine wound ointment 6 Ampoulles anti tetanus injection Broad spectrum anitbiotic tablets 2 – 100ml Injectable broad spectrum antibiotic Terramycin wound dusting powder 8 – 100mg Solucortef injectable
6 – ampoulles 50mg Anthisan injectable 2 Packets anthihistamine tablets 3 – 1ml adrenaline ampoulles 1:1000 dilution 1 Bottle Angised tablets Oral rehydrate and Energade (enough of) Valium injectable Burnshield dressings (assorted sizes) and Flamazine cream Valoid ampoulles and tablets 2 - packets Rennies 1 – Stingose 2 – Tubes Anthisan Buscopan (tablets and ampoulles) 6 – Packets Lomotil or Immodium 2 boxes of each Disprin, Panado and Myprodol 6 ampoulles pethadine Grippons, Benylin
splinters Local anesthetic (eg when suturing) To adsorb poisons Cleaning and disinfecting (also for instruments) Cleaning and disinfecting (also for instruments) Minor cuts and abrasions Irrigating and injecting Cuts and wounds (prevent or treat infection) Anti tetanus Systemic infections Systemic infections Wounds Anaphylactic shock (allergies), snake bite, spider bite, scorpion stings Allergies For allergies Anaphylactic shock Angina (heart cramps) Dehydration, heat exhaustion, heat stroke Sedative Burns Nausea and vomiting Heartburn Insect bites and stings Local allergies (external use) Stomach cramps Diarrhea Minor to moderate pain Severe pain Coughs, colds, flu
Voltaren tablets and ampoulles Daraclor, Halfan etc Purbac Bactrim or Purbac Losec or Controloc Borax or Fucidin H KY jelly Lip Ice and Vaseline Ear drops Eye drops (Eyegene and Spesalerg)
Muscle injuries and pain Anti malarial Bladder infections Boils and abscesses Stomach ulcers Athletes foot Lubricant Cracked lips Ear pain / infections Eye infections / allergies
No person must use medicines and/or equipment unless qualified to do so.
Expedition members should be properly trained.
If you wish to render medical assistance to a sick or injured person get their permission first (preferably in front of witnesses).
Stay within your level of competency.
Check the contents and especially expiry dates of equipment and medications before each trip and replace as necessary.
Acquaint yourself with the various drugs - what they are used for, side effects, how they are administered etc. Keep their leaflets on hand for easy reference.
Keep drugs in a cool place. Some medications must be kept in a refrigerator.
Before any drug is administered check for allergies - ask the patient, or relatives or look for a medic alert tag.
The ABCD of Basic Life Support ABCD of Life Support In an unconscious patient, open the airway by pushing the lower jawbone forward or use the jaw-thrust maneuver by applying pressure behind both angles of the jaw. While keeping hands on both sides of the head, place the fingers behind both angles of the jaw and lift the jaw to keep the airway open.
Check if the victim has a partial or complete airway obstruction. If he can cough or speak, allow him to clear the obstruction naturally. Stand by, reassure the victim, and be ready to clear his airway and perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should he become unconscious. If his airway is completely obstructed, administer abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is cleared. Using a finger, quickly sweep the victim’s mouth clear of any foreign objects, broken teeth, dentures and sand. Grasp the angles of the victim’s lower jaw and lift with both hands, one on each side, moving the jaw forward. For stability, rest your elbows on the surface on which the victim is lying. If his lips are closed, gently open the lower lip with your thumb
Breathing With the victim’s airway open, pinch his nose closed with your thumb and forefinger and blow two complete breaths into his lungs. Allow the lungs to deflate after the second inflation and perform the following:
Look for his chest to rise and fall.
Listen for escaping air during exhalation.
Feel for flow of air on your cheek
If the forced breaths do not stimulate spontaneous breathing, maintain the victim’s breathing by performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Check the victim’s mouth periodically for vomit and clear as needed. Circulation Chest compressions Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be necessary after cleaning the airway, but only after major bleeding is under control Do not Delay Start immediately
Vital Signs Vital signs show what is happening in the body and will give an indication of malfunction or normality. It is important that you know how to monitor them. Pulse
Rate - fast or slow.
Strength - strong, bounding, weak.
Rhythm - regular or irregular.
Normal: Adult 60-80 beats per minute (bpm), child 80-100, infant 100 - 140.
Respiration Noisy, elevated, depressed, labored, noisy, absent. Normal: Adult 12 breathes per minute, child and infant 20. Temperature and state of skin
In shock - cold and clammy.
Fever / heatstroke - hot and dry.
Sites for taking temperature: under tongue, under the arm, rectum. Skin colour
Red - vasodilation, heatstroke, neurogenic and anaphlactic (allergic) shock
Cherry red - carbon monoxide poisoning.
Pale - shock, blood loss, heart failure, anxiety, fear.
Bluish - low blood oxygen levels, airway obstruction, poor circulation (perfusion), respiratory difficulty or arrest.
Yellowish - liver malfunction.
Constricted - disease of CNS, drugs (e.g. morphine)
Dilated - dead, injury to CNS, cardiac arrest, drugs (e.g. atropine)
Unequal size - brain damage (injury / stroke)
Levels of consciousness 1. Normal - responds normally to questions and conversation 2. only answers direct questions 3. responds vaguely to questions 4. obeys commands 5. responds to pain 6. no response 7. Unconscious Movement and sensation Paralysis and loss of sensation - injury or disease. Paralysis on one side - stroke or brain injury. Paralysis of arms and or legs - spinal chord trauma. If severed paralysis is permanent. Response to pain No reaction to pain - under the influence of alcohol or drugs or deep coma. Spinal chord damage - paralysis and loss of sensation.
CPR CPR is an acronym for Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Correct and adequate resuscitation will result in lives being saved. When to give CPR here is no condition that requires more immediate action than cardiac arrest. When this happens respiration will also cease. Cardiac arrest can be caused by:
Poisoning by gas
Accidents and injuries
The best chance of successful resuscitation is when basic life support is started within 4 minutes of cardiac arrest. A person’s heart can however continue beating when breathing has stopped. In this case only rescue breathing and not CPR is necessary.
Give only when indicated
Patient must be on a hard surface.
Place hands in correct position. Keep arms straight.
Maintain correct rate, ratio, and depth of compression.
How to give CPR
Compression to ventilation ratio One First Aider Two First Aiders 15:2 5:1 Compressions per minute Adults Children Infants 100 100 100 Depth of Compression Adults Children Infants 4-5 cm 2.5-3.5 cm 1.5-2.5 cm
When to Stop Give CPR until:
The person recovers.
You become exhausted.
Trained help arrives.
Signs of Effective CPR
The color of the patient will improve.
A carotid pulse can be detected when compressions are applied.
The heart starts beating (stop compressions when the heart resumes normal function).
The person begins breathing spontaneously.
Level of consciousness improves.
Recovery Position Unconscious patients should be turned onto their side in the recovery position. Remember to protect the neck and spine while moving an injured patient into this position. Keep the patient in the recovery position even during transport - it will ensure that gravity keeps the airway open and vomit can run out of the mouth without entering the windpipe. Pressing an releasing the plastic bottle will cause air to escape through the pipe and will suck obstructing fluid back into the bottle.
Dangerous Animals Poisonous Animals Snakes The incidence of snakebites in Southern Africa is around 30-80 per 100,000 population per year in areas where snakes abound. Only a very small percentage of these bites are fatal. Snakebite is not a notifiable disease in South Africa and therefore reliable statistics are currently available on the deaths per year due to snakebites. However, it is estimated that it must be in the vicinity of 50 deaths per year. If the mortality figure of snakebites is compared to those of motor vehicle accidents (10 000 per year) it is clear that snakes pose an insignificant health risk in Southern Africa. Snake venom is designed to immobilize or kill prey, commence digestion and protect the snake against harmful ingested organisms. Venom can be injected by biting or spat at the eyes of a perceived threat. Snake Bites Snake venom can be divided into 4 groups according to its clinical effect on the victim. Cytotoxic – Direct toxic effects on the cells that cause cell lyses (destruction). Neurotoxic – The venom blocks the transfer of the nervous impulse from the nerve tissue to the muscle. Haemotoxic - The venom interferes with the clotting mechanism in the blood with the attendant complications of uncontrolled bleeding. Combination – A syndrome develops with a mixed picture between cytotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. Allergic reaction - The exposure to any of the venoms above can cause an allergic reaction in a patient. Cytotoxic venom
The presenting symptom of these bites is a painful swelling commencing at the bite site that is warm, often tender and spreads mainly up the limb or tissue. This may lead to swollen lymph glands within 2 hours after the bite. Local complications include blistering, necrosis (dead tissue), localized bleeding, and infection. The swelling may be so severe that it can cause compartment syndrome. This is a syndrome where the venom causes severe swelling of the underlying muscles. The muscles are surrounded by an inelastic sheath and when the muscle swells it compresses the arteries and nerves that run through the muscles within the sheath. The oxygen rich blood that flows through the arteries cannot reach the tissue under the occluded arteries and the tissue will then die due to the oxygen shortage. If this condition is not corrected as a matter of urgency within a period of 4 hours (usually surgery is needed to release the intra compartmental pressure by splitting the inelastic sheath) it may lead to tissue loss or even amputation in severe cases. Compartment syndrome must be seriously suspected when the pain in the tissue below the swelling increases in severity and develops a â€œpins and needlesâ€œ feeling or numbness. An absent pulse below the swelling is usually a late sign and requires urgent surgical intervention. Another frequent regional complication from cytotoxic venom is the development of a deep vein thrombosis (blood clot) in the affected limb. Systemic effects of the venom include hypo tension (low blood pressure), fluid on the lungs and difficulty breathing (edema and ARDS), and a low platelet count, which can lead to bleeding (DIC). Systemic venom action producing edema and heart conduction defects has only been documented in Gaboon adder bites, which are uncommon in South Africa as this snake is only found around St Lucia. The groups of snakes that has cytotoxic venom include the Gaboon adder, Puff adder, Mozambique spitting cobra, Stiletto snake, Night adder and other smaller adders. Neurotoxic venom
The neurotoxic venom interferes with the impulse transfer from nerve endings to skeletal muscles leading to paralysis. The signs and symptoms of neurotoxic envenomation can deteriorate rapidly from a feeling of numbness around the mouth (perioral anesthesia) to sweating, drop in blood pressure, difficulty in swallowing (saliva running from the mouth) to complete respiratory arrest where the patient stops breathing, and eventually without medical intervention, to death. Within a few minutes from a mamba bite there is perioral anesthesia that progress to relentless widespread muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure in 60-70% of cases. Non-spitting cobras (Cape, Snouted and Forest) leads to early swelling around the bite site, a window period where the patient is apparently normal followed by fairly rapid onset of inadequate respiration due to paralysis (about 50% of cases). The group of snakes with neurotoxic venom include Black and Green Mambas and the non Spitting Cobras: Cape, Snouted, Forest. Haemotoxic venom The venom interferes with the clotting cascade and by lowering the platelets in the blood. The Boomslang and Vine snakes are the two snakes most commonly responsible for bites to snake handlers. Their venoms are exclusively haemotoxic and acts on the clotting cascade preventing blood clotting which can cause internal and external bleeding. Fortunately both snakes are back-fanged snakes and their bites are limited to hands and feet. Boomslang induced clotting dysfunction is of slow onset, with potential death only occurring after several days. This allows time to get the Boom slang specific antivenom from the manufactures (phone: +27 11-882-9940). There is currently no antivenom available for the Vine snake. Although Gaboon and Puff adders has got cytotoxic venom, it can also cause bleeding by reducing the platelets. Combination venom A syndrome of a mixed picture of cytotoxic and neurotoxic signs and symptoms are found in some snake bites. Among these symptoms are cranial nerves dysfunction (Cranial nerves mainly supplies the organs of the face, throat and neck, heart and intestines), which
uncommonly leads to other skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Venom from a Berg adder bite can cause loss of taste and smell. The group of snakes with combination venom effects includes: Rinkhals, Berg adder, Garter snake, Shield-nosed snake Allergic reaction Exposure to venom either by skin contact or envenomation through a snakebite can cause an acute allergic reaction to patients that were previously exposed to the venom. The reaction can be compared similarly to an allergic reaction from a bee sting, ranging from a mild reaction to death within minutes after the bite. These reactions are usually limited to snake handlers or persons that was previously bitten by a snake. In the above group of patients that deteriorates rapidly after a bite an allergic reaction must be seriously considered. There is a huge difference in treatment between envenomation by a snakebite and an allergic reaction against the venom. Symptomatic snake bites are usually treated by antivenom where as an allergic reaction is treated with adrenaline. Snake Bite Management An analysis of 4 rural snakebite series involving 911 patients by Dr Roger Blaylock, one of the foremost authorities in South Africa on the management of snakebites, showed the following.
16% had no envenomation
77% developed progressive painful swelling
6% progressive weakness
Prevention Common sense is the gold standard in preventing snakebites: Wear boots that covers the ankle and loose hanging long pants. Most of the snakebites are on the feet, ankle and lower leg. 1. Don’t step over an obstacle if you cannot see what is on the other side.
2. Don’t put your hand into a hole when you can’t see what is inside. 3. Don’t handle snakes if you are not a professional snake handler. 4. Don’t confront a dangerous snake. 5. If you encounter a snake back of as fast as possible while keeping your eye on the snake. However, if you are so close that you are within striking distance and the snake is already engaged to strike, remain motionless until the snake withdraws. Snakes only strike at movement 6. Prevent nocturnal bites by using a light, wearing footwear and sleeping in a snake proof dwelling (zip up tents). 7. Be careful of handling “dead“ snakes as some elapids, notably the Rinkhals, may feign death and become miraculously and painfully alive when picked up. First Aid Getting the patient to medical help is the major priority. General principles to consider: 1. Remain calm and react in a logical way. Remember: very few people die from snake bite 2. Keep the patient calm and reassured. 3. Immobilize the patient as far as possible and don’t waste time in delaying his transport to the nearest medical facility. 4. Do not give the patient anything to drink or eat - especially not alcohol. 5. Incision, suction, cryotherapy (freezing of bite site), electrotherapy, topical or ingested medication is of no value. 6. Do not waste time by searching for and trying to kill the snake 7. Pressure immobilization bandaging is not recommended as it may aggravate or precipitate tissue necrosis (death/destruction) or compartment syndrome as the majority of snakebites presents with progressive swelling. 8. An arterial tourniquet is of value in known non spitting cobra and mamba bites and should be reserved for cases with
positive identification of one of the above group of snakes. Tourniquet application can cause severe underlying tissue damage if applied wrongly .It is best to leave it to people with the necessary training on tourniquet application. The tourniquet must be released every 30 min and not be kept on for longer than 2 hours. 9. Patients who cannot swallow their saliva must be placed in the recovery position and closely observed for respiratory failure. The saliva can accumulate in the patient’s throat and prevents air entry in the lungs. If left unattended the patient can “drown” in his own saliva. Try to remove as much as possible of the saliva in the victim’s airways by either sucking or finger sweep. With finger sweep, wrap a gauze swab or a piece of absorbable clothing around your index and middle finger, and sweep your finger through the patients mouth and throat to remove as much as possible of the saliva manually 10. When the patient becomes unresponsive or starts having difficulties breathing, immediately start with CPR. 11. Do not inject antivenom, the doctor should do that. 12. Antivenom is very effective and should not be withheld to a patient with signs and symptoms that necessitate the administration of antivenom. 13. However, the antivenom can cause a potentially severe allergic reaction. 14. The incidence of potentially severe acute allergic reactions depends on the clinical indication for its administration ranging from 8% when given to patients with progressive weakness to 20% for patients with painful progressive swelling. Patients with bleeding from Boom slang bites can have an allergic reaction to the antivenom in up to 70% of cases. 15. Antivenom must preferably be given under medical supervision with adrenaline at the bedside. 16. All snakebite victims should be hospitalized for at least 24 hours. 17. Symptoms and signs of severe local or systemic poisoning occur sooner in children than in adults due to a higher venom concentration.
18. The indications for antivenom administrations occur sooner and more frequently in children than in adults. 19. The same amount of antivenom is given to children and adults. 20. The venom from baby snakes is just as lethal as that of the adult snakes. 21. The severity of the signs and symptoms and rate of deterioration of a victim, depends on the amount of venom injected during the bite and bite site. 22. The closer the bites site to the heart the faster the signs and symptoms will appear. 23. If the venom is injected directly into a vessel, rapid deterioration in the victimâ€™s condition may be expected Venom in the eyes The Rinkhals and Mozambique spitting cobra are responsible for nearly all the cases of eye envenomation in Southern Africa. The Black spitting cobra and the Western barred spiting cobra can also be responsible for spitting in their victims eyes, although reported cases are uncommon. The Rinkhals and Mozambique spitting cobra can spit accurately over a distance of up to 2 meters. The Rinkhals needs to hood its neck to be able to spit whereas the Mozambique spitting cobra can spit from any position. The eye is very vascular and venom in the eye can be rapidly absorbed. This can cause severe inflammation and painful spasm of the eyelid. If left untreated it may progress to inflammation of the cornea and ulcer formation, which may cause blindness. If correctly treated the effects are usually benign with full recovery expected within a week. General first aid principles 1. Wipe the venom from the face 2. Wash the eyes with copious amounts of fluid for at least ten minutes 3. If water is not available any type of fluid can be used which is not harmful to the eyes like cold drinks, milk, beer etc
4. Place an eye pad over the eyes if available and transport the victim to the nearest medical facility 5. It is advisable to let an ophthalmologist examine the eyes 6. Antivenom, either topical or systemic, is not indicated Medical management The majority of patients cannot correctly identify the snake even with the help of pictures. Because of this Dr Blaylock divided the snakebite victims into the following 3 groups according to the clinical picture at presentation: 1. Painful Progressive Swelling 2. Progressive Weakness 3. Bleeding The syndromic management of these patients with antivenom simplifies the treatment of snakebites drastically. Antivenom is given in each of these groups according to set criteria based on signs and symptoms. Patients also receive supportive treatment according to the organ systems affected e.g. ventilation support for patients with respiratory failure and platelets and blood clotting components for patients with active bleeding Medical Information courtesy Dr. Kobus Hogo Common Poisonous Snakes Black Mamba A graceful, alert and unpredictable deadly poisonous snake and is active during the day, hunting for food. Hunting is done from a permanent lair to which it will return regularly. If it senses danger it will quickly slither away into dense undergrowth. The Black Mamba is named not for itâ€™s skin colour, but because the inside of the mouth is black. The head is coffin-shaped. This snake mainly lives in termite mounds, mammal burrows and rock outcrops. It normally attempts to escape when approached, but if cornered will bite readily and often.
Black Spitting Cobra A rare snake; for many years it was thought to be a black variety of Cape Cobra. When threatened it spreads a hood and spits venom in the same way as Mozambique Spitting Cobra but ejects much more venom at a time.
Boomslang A quick, alert snake, able to glide through trees, bushes and overland. If molested, it inflates its neck and body to a considerable size, often twice the normal girth and may strike sideways in rapid, jerky action. Vision is excellent. The male boomslang is green and the female a dull grey colour. Juveniles have emerald-coloured eyes.
Cape Cobra An active, quick moving species. Although always ready to retreat if approached, it will often not hesitate to rear up and expand a hood if flight seems impossible. Will bite readily if unduly molested. It climbs and swims with agility. It cannot spit its venom.
Common Night Adder This snake is docile and will move off if given choice. When molested it will react violently, hissing noisily, flattening the neck and striking repeatedly. They are usually found in stone piles, termite nests or mammal burrows. If provoked it will inflate its body with air, coil its body and hiss, striking at same time. It has long venom glands extending backwards into neck region. The V on the back of the neck is characteristic, mimicked by the harmless Egg Eater
Forest Cobra A large snake, very active and alert, climbs well and at home on land and water. When disturbed will quickly disappear into dense thickets; when cornered will spread a narrow hood and bite readily. This snake does not spit is venom.
Gaboon Adder This adder is placid by nature but when provoked it raises the forepart of the body slightly from the ground, hisses and strikes in any direction with surprising speed. Remains in one spot for days. When disturbed, will emit a series of long drawnout hisses while forepart of body lifts off the ground horizontally; even then reluctant to strike.
Green Mamba A tree-living snake, seldom seen on ground except to bask or chase prey. The head is coffinshaped. A very nervous snake but not-aggressive and reluctant to bite. Will strike if provoked. Bites are uncommon.
Mozambique Spitting Cobra A shy snake that seldom stands its ground. When cornered may spread a narrow hood but will not hold this pose for long. It may not always spread a hood before spitting and may only open its mouth slightly before doing so. In contrast to the Rinkhals which always spreads itâ€™s hood before spitting, this snake can spit from any position. The characteristic salmon-colored throat identifies this species.
Puff Adder A slow-moving, bad-tempered and excitable snake that may hiss or puff when disturbed. When annoyed, it strikes vigorously in all directions, but fortunately often gives warning of its intentions by hissing noisily. It relies on its perfect camouflage to escape detection and will rather freeze than move off.
Rinkhals A shy snake but will rear up, expand a hood and eject a spray of venom towards its attackers if unable to escape. Disappears quickly when disturbed but when cornered it will lift as much as half its body off the ground with hood spread with the two or three white bars on throat clearly visible. When frightened it will play dead, ready to strike when touched. It always spits its venom from a reared position.
Snouted Cobra Not an aggressive snake but when cornered will assume a intimidating posture. It does not spit itâ€™s venom. Often occupies a permanent home in a termite mound where it will reside for years if not disturbed.
Snouted Night Adder Although docile, it will react violently when molested, hissing noisily, flattening the neck and striking repeatedly. Snout obtuse, prominent and upturned at the end. The V on the back of the neck is characteristic, mimicked by the harmless Egg Eater
Twig Snake This snake has keyhole-shaped pupils and good vision, being able to sight prey from a distance. It seldom bites, unless provoked. It moves gracefully and swiftly when disturbed. Though timid, it will inflate its neck to display the bright skin between scales when threatened, followed by lunging strikes while bright tongue flickers in a wavy motion. The Zulus believe that this snake strikes and wounds like a spear because of the speed of the strike.
Western Barred Cobra A shy snake, always trying to escape; if cornered will spread a hood and spit its venom. Snake often found on tarred roads.
Sack Spiders Cytotoxic venom A fast moving, free ranging hunter. found in foliage.
Body length 13mm, leg span 35mm
Eight eyes .Straw coloured body with glossy black fangs.
Button Spiders Veurotoxic venom Lives in cobwebs amongst grass and rocks . Eight eyes, black with red dorsal stripe or stripes or simply red dot above spinnerets.
Body length 14mm, leg
No markings on back. Velvet texture. Egg case smooth and 10 mm across.
Violin Spiders Cytotoxic venom Free ranging hunter, found beneath rocks, in caves or dark corners of houses.
Body length 9mm, leg span 50mm
Six eyes. Small and delicate with long legs, brownish or dark brown with black markings. Violin-shaped marking on carapace Six-eyed Sand Spiders Cytotoxic venom. Lives buried in sand beneath stones, in caves, animal burrows etc. Six very small eyes. A flattened large and robust spider, body covered with sand particles from habitat lodged amongst body setae freshly moulted colour is yellowish or reddish brown.
Body length 15mm, leg span 50mm
Treatment The site of spider bite should be washed with anti-septic solution and covered with mercurochrome or antiseptic ointment. Antiserum is required for treatment of button spider bites.
If respiratory paralysis develops, artificial ventilation must be given; the bites of sac spider, violin spider and crab spider should be treated with antiseptic cream; antibiotic should be given if infection is suspected.
Scorpions How to prevent being stung 1. Wear protective footwear - especially at night. 2. Be careful when lifting rocks and logs 3. Watch out when collecting firewood 4. Do not handle scorpions with bare hands 5. When camping try not to sleep directly on the ground 6. Shake out footwear, clothing and bedding to evict nasties 7. Learn how to distinguish a highly venomous scorpion from a harmless ones
Some scorpions can squirt venom into the eyes of attackers from a bout 1m
Scorpion Families 1. Scorpionidae A relatively harmless species with large pincers and slender tail. It is mildly toxic and produces stinging pain in a mild local reaction which may persist for 15-20 minutes. No antivenom or treatment is required. 2. Buthidae Potentially lethal envenomations are possible by species of the buthid genera. They have thick tails and slender pinchers. Venom is injected by stinging or squirting venom at the eyes of the perceived threat. Scorpions are common throughout southern Africa. Parabuthus sp. is found throughout the region except on the highveld and eastern seaboard. The venom is a potentially lethal neurotoxin which causes an extremely painful local reaction within one. Use ice packs and tight crepe bandage to immobolise whole limb. Treat with specific antivenom. Do not use morphine and derivatives. Buthotus is restricted to sandy hot and arid areas in the north of the region.
Scorpionidae Up to 100mm, Varies from olive to yellow, brown or almost black. Large pincers and slender tail
Mildly toxic venom. Produces stinging pain in a mild local reaction which may persist for 15-20 minutes. No antivenom or treatment is necessary
Uroplectes 20 -50mm Bright green, orange or orange-green with black markings. No stridulatory patches or abdominal keels. Fast moving.
Very painful local reaction which may spread. Effects of venom lasts at least 3 hours. Use ice packs. No antivenom required. Do not use morphine and derivatives
Butotus 30 -70mm Medium-sized yellow scorpions with pincers, thick tails, characteristic black keels on carapace just behind head and three black keels down length of abdomen Use ice packs and tight crepe bandage to immobilize whole limb. Treat with specific antivenom. Never use morphine and derivatives for pain.
Parabuthus 60 -150mm Large yellow, brown or black scorpions with slender pincers, thick tail and stridulatory areas on the first and second tail segments
Use ice packs and tight crepe bandage to immobilize whole limb. Treat with specific antivenom. Never use morphine and derivatives for pain.
Many victims of scorpion stings see the scorpion that has stung them and its crushed remains often accompany them to hospital after the victimâ€™s vengeance has been had. Unless there are obvious systemic signs, antivenom therapy is contraindicated. An ice-pack should be applied to relieve the pain and retard the onset of systemic signs. Immobilization of the limb involved with tight crepe bandages and splints to impede the spread of venom via the lymphatic system is advised.
Under no circumstances should morphine or any of its derivatives be administered to reduce pain as these compounds act synergistically with the venom and greatly increase the chances of death. The specific antivenom should be used to treat patients with systemic signs. Symptoms The severity of envenomation depends on various factors such as the health and age of the victim, the sting site and species, size and degree of agitation of the scorpion. Persons with heart or respiratory problems will be at greater risk. Some or all of the following sings and symptoms may result. 1. Immediate and intense, burning pain at the sting site that lasts about 30 minutes. Mild inflammation may be present, with the sting mark not always visible 2. Signs and symptoms only develop after 30 minutes and sometimes only after 4 to 12 hours, increasing in severity over the following 24 hours. The pain can be local as well as far removed from sting site with abdominal cramps 3. Abnormal sensitivity, including a burning sensation and pins and needles usually in the hands, feet, face and scalp 4. Excessive sensitivity of the skin to clothing and bedding with the patient even increased sensitivity to noise 5. Lack of muscle coordination with a stiff legged or drunken walking action. 6. Involuntary movements, tremors and muscle weakness. 7. Increased pulse rate of 100 to 150 bpm for Parabuthus granulatus and below 55 bpm for Parabuthus transvaalicus 8. Raised blood pressure in Parabuthus granulatus. Normal in children but raised in some adults in Parabuthus transvaalicus cases. 9. Difficulty in swallowing especially with Parabuthus transvaalicus. Excessive salivation 10. Difficulty speaking 11. Excessive perspiration in Parabuthus transvaalicus cases
12. Headaches, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea 13. Droopy eyelids 14. Restlessness and anxiety is a prominent feature seen in children with Parabuthus granulatus. Hyperactivity and infants crying for unexplained reason. Restlessness, particularly in children, should be a warning of potentially life-threatening complications 15. Urine retention 16. Respiratory distress is a major complication and can result in death Treatment Patients with systemic signs and symptoms should be kept under observation for 48 hours before discharge. All other scorpion stings result in painful local signs which can be relieved by means of an icepack applied as soon as possible after envenomation. The severity of scorpion stings are affected by the amount of venom injected which varies from one sting to the next, the size of the specimen, the species involved and the body mass of the patient. Envenomations are characterized by an intense burning pain at the site of the sting after which systemic signs and symptoms develop which may be as follows: barely perceptible oedema and erythema at the sting bite, sweating, drooling, restlessness, confusion, nausea or vomiting, abdominal or chest pains, muscular twitching, numbness, convulsions and respiratory embarrassment. Doâ€™s: 1. First aid treatment is the application of a cold compress, if the hyperaesthesia will allow and an analgesic (Asprin, Paracetamol) to relieve pain and transport to a hospital 2. Monitor cardiac and respiratory functions and treat as required 3. Patient with systemic symptoms, especially children and the elderly must be hospitalized for 24 to 48 hours 4. Immobilize and clean wound 5. Antivenom must only be administered in the case of severe systemic envenomation
6. Antihistamine and steroids only to be administered in cases of allergic reaction to antivenom. In the event of hypersensitivity to the ingestion or injection of a substance, which must always be anticipated, administer adrenaline 7. Atropine may be administered in cases of confirmed Parabuthus transvaalicus envenomation to control excessive secretions 8. Intravenous administration of 10 ml of 10% calcium gluconate IV over 10 to 20 minutes may provide relief from pain and cramp, but is only effective for 20 to 30 minutes. 9. Administer a tetanus toxoid to prevent infection 10. Envenomation of the eyes must be flushed with water or any bland fluid (milk, urine). In severe cases antivenom can be diluted 1 to 5 or 1 to 10 with water Do not: 1. Do not use traditional remedies such as incisions, suction, tourniquet or the application of ointments. 2. Do not use alcohol as it will only mask any symptoms. 3. Do not administer antivenom if no signs or symptoms of severe envenomation presents itself. 4. Do not administer spider or snake antivenom. 5. Do not administer atropine to reduce salivation in the case of Parabuthus granulatus stings as it may lead to unopposed adrenergic reaction. 6. Do not administer barbiturates, opiates, morphine or morphine derivatives as this could greatly increase convulsions and cause respiratory distress. Antivenom is produced by the South African Institute for Medical Research (SAIMR) in Johannesburg  489 9000. Other Animals Tics
The rare tick toxicosis is caused by four fairly widespread tick species. The toxicosis is caused by toxins in the saliva of the tick. In humans, it is often evident as a localized paralysis characterized by ataxia and sudden muscle weakness, the severity of which is related to the number of Hyalota attached ticks and the duration of the attachment. The ticks should therefore be removed as soon as possible. No specific antivenom is available in Southern Africa. Calcium gluconate injections may be useful. Individuals subjected to frequent tick bites may develop hypersensitivity Bees and Wasps Bees and wasps cause more deaths each year than all the other venomous animals together. Most stings by bees, wasps and ants merely cause a very intense local pain which persists for about 15 minutes. However, some individuals develop hypersensitivity reactions following repeated envenomation. With each subsequent envenomation, the hypersensitivity reactions intensify until a stage is reached when anaphylactic shock type reactions may result. Patients hypersensitive to bee stings should be advised not to wear bright floral patterned clothing out of doors and not to apply nail varnish out of doors as the solvent is the alarm pheromone of bees. Perfume and beverages containing sugar should also be avoided out of doors. If stung by a bee, immediately remove the stinger and venom sac by scraping with a fingernail or a knife blade. Do not squeeze or grasp the stinger or venom sac, as squeezing will force more venom into the wound.
Wash the sting site thoroughly with soap and water to lessen the chance of a secondary infection. If you know or suspect that you are allergic to insect stings, always carry an insect sting kit with you. Relieve the itching and discomfort caused by insect bites by applyingâ€” 1. Cold compresses. 2. A cooling paste of mud and ashes. 3. Crushed cloves of garlic.
4. Onion. Centipedes Poisonous centipedes may be recognized by a flattened body of 2123 segments, one pair of legs per segment, the last pair of which are elongated. Centipedes have a distinct head with a pair of long antennae. A pair of fang-like projections on the head bear the venom glands. Bites give rise to a very painful local effect which may be accompanied by oedema, erythema and mild necrosis. Pain may be relieved by local injection of lignocaine or by the application of icepacks. No specific antivenom is available as centipedes are not considered dangerous. Hairy Caterpillars Some caterpillars have venom-containing hairs covering their bodies. Contact causes a painful reaction. The hairs of some caterpillars break up after penetrating the skin where their venom is dispersed. This makes removal extremely difficult. These hairs induce an inflammatory reaction which eventually enables the natural removal of the hairs. Blister Beetles Blister beetles do not bite or sting but injury results when skin contact is made with their blood. They can discharge some of their blood, a process termed reflex bleeding. Some blister beetles have to be crushed in order to release their blood which cause painful blisters. The beetles are very small and they often fly into the eyes and cause painful conjunctivitis. The eyes should be irrigated with normal saline or water. The blisters do not need treatment except to prevent secondary infections after they have burst. Bombardier Beetles These fast ground-dwelling beetles shoot scalding liquid into the eyes of attackers from a distance of about 1 meter. Envenomation of the eyes must be flushed with water or any bland fluid such as milk or urine.
Dealing with Dangerous Animals up Close Elephant Elephant can reach a height of 4m (13ft) and can accelerate to 38km/h (25mph) in seconds, a speed which can be maintained for great distances. Elephants normally avoid confrontations with humans but may attack, especially when:
there are small calves in the herd
when the animal has been wounded or hunted
or venturing too close
Old bulls make mock charges, and charge vehicles with spread ears and loud trumpeting. A mock charge normally ends only meters from the object of irritation. When such an animal is further provoked, a real charge and attack may result. A real charge is often led by the matriarch with ears flat against the body and the trunks called up to the back. Avoid herds of elephant in the veld and never disturb these peace-loving animals. A charging herd of elephant makes for an extremely dangerous situation and they are almost impossible to stop - even with rifle fire. Be alert to the sound of breaking branches, trumpeting, the sound a large bodies rubbing against branches or trees, a sound slightly like the far-off rumble of thunder, fresh elephant tracks and the rank smell of elephant. When elephants are at a safe distance and they are blocking the road or refuse to leave the camp area, a rifle shot or a continuous banging against a vehicle’s door or an axe against a tree trunk will cause the animals to leave the area. In an emergency situation when an elephant is charging, do not run upwind but turn sharply left or right. Because of its poor eyesight, the elephant may continue the charge and run past you.
The best advice is to avoid elephants altogether. Never fire a shot at an elephant - it creates great risk not only for you, but for others as well. Buffalo When a large herd of buffalo for disturbed they normally run away a short distance but return with nose in the air to inspect the impostor. Generally they then run away amid thundering noise followed by swarms of Buffalo flies. Lone bulls that have been hunted or wounded and animals that are unnecessarily disturbed can be very dangerous. A buffalo may charge without provocation and can seldom be stopped with a single rifle shot, even by an experienced hunter. Avoid buffalo as far as possible. On warm days buffalo hide in reeds or thickets close to river beds where old bulls spend most of their time in shallow water. The warning cry of the oxpecker and the breaking of branches may be the first and only signs of a charging buffalo. It is also a fact that a wounded Buffalo will turn back on his own tracks and wait for the hunter. Rhino Of the two kinds of southern African rhino the black rhino is the most dangerous. A black rhino that suddenly becomes aware of humans in its area may become confused and attack any moving thing. Look out for tracks and middens (a large heap of dung ) marking boundaries. With perfect timing and a good sidestep, (or rather a sideways dive) a rhino charge may be avoided. A bunch of thorns in your backside may be preferable to an irate rhinoâ€™s horn in that specific location. The white rhino is less aggressive but should also be considered dangerous. The story that rhino are self-appointed
fire wardens and kills fires at night may not be entirely untrue but seems to be an extremely rare occurrence. Lion Lions normally run away from humans. However when they are suddenly surprised or when getting too close being followed or harassed, or when mating or eating lions are approached on foot, a dangerous situation may result. Old, thin, or sick animals are often more aggressive and Lions pose a greater threat at night. Lions in the veld must be avoided by taking note of fresh tracks, vultures, sounds of growling and the sounds of hyenas in the area. Thickets close to watering areas must be especially watched. Study the behaviour of animals like zebra and wildebeest at a watering-holes. If they are hesitant to go and drink and stare at a specific thicket there may be a predator in hiding. Giraffe are especially good indicators of predators when they stare at thickets for extended periods. At night the startled warning cry of a plover or a dikkop may indicate an approaching lion. When a lion charges, trying to run away his signing your own death warrant - then it knows that you know you are food. Standing still and trying to stare it down is better but it requires lot of courage and sometimes a change of shorts - and may not work. Wounding a charging lion is especially dangerous. When you meet the king of the bush tried to remain as calm as possible. The golden rule is not to attack or flee first. Let circumstances - with your sights on the lion and a prayer - guide your actions. Often such a problem situation will resolve itself when the lion, after a mock charge or two, decides to disappear in the bush. Leopard With the exception of the legendary man-eating leopards, there are very few recorded a cases of leopards attacking humans. In exceptional cases old and sick Leopards may find humans easy prey, while
harassed, wounded or trapped animals maybe he extremely dangerous. Leopards normally avoid humans and only their tracks - often very close to the camp fire - indicate that they are present. Cheetah Of the larger predators the cheetah is the least dangerous. Hyena The brown hyena, also sometimes known as a â€œwolfâ€? in Africa, is very shy and will normally not harm anyone. The spotted hyena also avoids direct human contact. Hungry hyenas will sniff around the camp at night and a few cases are for recorded where people who slept outside were bitten or maimed by hyenas. Hyenas may sometimes damage the tires of vehicles or damage vehicles or equipment. A suitable barrier like branches of thorn trees are usually sufficient to keep hyenas at bay. Hippo Hippos cause the largest number of human fatalities in Africa. In most of the cases the animals were disturbed or harassed. Although the animal may appear very docile when floating in a waterhole, it is nevertheless a dangerous animal and may attack unexpectedly. They often hide in thickets next to water holes and fatalities occur when a human is between a hippo and the water. Hippo can move very fast in water and on dry ground and can easily overtake a running man. Serious accidents can occur when traveling at night next to rivers and surprised hippo try to escape to the water and collide with vehicles.
Hippos should be considered as potentially dangerous and a safe distance should be maintained. Crocodiles Anyone walking through water or swimming in a waterhole where crocodiles are present is exposing himself to the risk of being caught by a crocodile. Crocodiles or are extremely fast and powerful and seem to not differentiate between prey species. Even a powerful Buffalo is not strong enough to avoid being pulled into the water. Crocodiles have valves that close the throat and nostrils when submerged. When caught by a crocodile use knife or sharp object to a gouge the eyes or try to cut and perforate the valves that close the nostrils or the throat. The best defense is to stay away from deep water Snakes If you encounter a snake, back of as fast as possible while keeping your eye on the snake. However, if you are so close that you are within striking distance and the snake is already engaged to strike, remain motionless until the snake withdraws. Snakes only strike at movement
Emergency Numbers South African Institute for Medical Research  489 9000 South African Vaccine Producers  882 9940 /  882 9993 Poison Information Centers
Cape Town  6895227
Bloemfontein  405 303
Johannesburg:  403 7080
Pretoria  664 1100
Nelspruit  759 0500