The Legacy of the Klein Karoo Ostrich Klein Karoo 鸵鸟皮的珍贵遗产
Ostrich Farming Practices and Production Cycle
Converting Skins into Leather
The Characteristics of Ostrich Leather
A Brief Introduction to the Ostrich Industry
The Origin of the Klein Karoo Ostrich
Products Manufactured from Ostrich Leather
世界上最优质的鸵鸟皮革产自南非奥茨胡恩的Klein Karoo地 区，Klein Karoo International Proprietary Ltd公司正是以该地 名命名。Klein Karoo鸵鸟皮革可谓是独家、独特和奢华的代名 词。独一无二的耐用性，加上自然细腻的手感，不禁令人爱不释 手。鸵鸟皮革的独特之处在于别具风格的颗粒结构毛孔文理，让 人联想起风光秀丽的南非卡鲁群山河谷。 Top international fashion houses include Klein Karoo International’s highly valued exotic leather in their collections to enhance the exclusiveness and exceptionality of their designs. Ostrich leather’s durability and strength has made it possible for this industry to expand beyond fashion garments and accessories to other areas such as bespoke furniture and the luxury automotive industry. Klein Karoo International的各系列稀有皮革广受赞誉，受到各 大顶级国际时尚品牌的青睐。这些昂贵的稀有皮革使设计变得独 一无二，突显匠心独运。鸵鸟皮革的耐用性和坚韧性造就产业链 的可延伸性，超脱时尚服装和配饰领域，进军定制家具和豪华汽 车改装行业等其他领域。 Klein Karoo Ostrich leather is extremely strong, yet soft and easy to work with. The accumulation of decades of skills and knowledge applied in the tanning and finishing of our leather makes this versatile leather a unique design material that is only limited by your own imagination. Klein Karoo鸵鸟皮革具有坚韧、柔软且易加工等优点。数十年的 加工经验和皮革鞣制和涂饰方面的知识，使得这款多功能的皮革 成为了独一无二的设计材料，成就了设计师们超乎想象的独特设 计。
Christiaan Dior, 1986
The Origin of the Klein Karoo Ostrich Klein Karoo鸵鸟皮原产地
PART 1 第二部分
The world’s finest ostrich leather comes from the Klein Karoo region in South Africa, which in turn gives its name to this company, Klein Karoo International Proprietary Ltd. Klein Karoo Ostrich Leather is synonymous with exclusivity, uniqueness and sheer luxury. The unique wearing properties and naturally exquisite feel inevitably invites touching. The special character of ostrich leather originates in the unique grain pattern of quills evocative of the beautiful Karoo landscape valley and hills.
THE HISTORY OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN OSTRICH INDUSTRY
The nobility of the ostrich and its influence on world history can be traced back as far as antiquity. This ancient creature is featured in Egyptian hieroglyphics, gets mentioned in the scriptures of the Bible and can even be seen in a few rock carvings. Ancient Egyptians saw the ostrich feather as being symbolic of balance and justice due to its perfect symmetry, while warriors in ancient Greece and Rome wore these beautiful feathers in their helmets.
Christiaan Dior, 1986
鸵鸟的高贵气质及其对世界历史的影响由来 已久。埃及象形文字中刻画有这种古老的生 物，圣经中也有所提及，还见诸于不少岩石 雕刻中。古埃及人因鸵鸟羽毛的完美对称性 而将其视为平衡和公正的象征，而古希腊和 古罗马的战士头盔上也插有这种美丽的羽毛 Ostrich meat also played an important role in certain tribes. An Egyptian pharaoh, Firmus, viewed ostrich meat as the utmost indulgence, while the ancient historian Strabo described a community that ate so much ostrich meat that they were called “Struthophages”. Libyan tribes wore ostrich leather and used it to make shields. 鸵鸟肉在某些部落中也具有重要意义。埃及
法老Firmus将鸵鸟肉视为最高享受，古代历 史学家斯特拉博描述过一个爱吃鸵鸟肉的部 落，将其称为“Struthophages”。利比亚部 落曾穿戴鸵鸟皮革并用它来制作盾牌。 Large flocks of ostriches freely roamed Southern Africa since the beginning of our epoch. The first recorded sightings by travellers date back to 1775. Although many farmers owned tame ostriches in the Cape Province, true commercial farming started in 1826 with farmers initially merely harvesting feathers from live ostriches. European fashion trends of the Victorian era caused the first great ostrich boom in 1838. By 1913 ostrich feathers were so successful that it was ranked fourth on the list of South African top exports after gold, diamonds and wool. 人类纪元伊始，南非土地上遍布着成千上万 的的鸵鸟。据旅行家文字所记载，最初关于 鸵鸟的记录可追溯至1775年。尽管在南非开 普省很多人养殖鸵鸟，但真正的商业性养殖 始于1826年，养殖户们最初只是从鸵鸟身上 采集羽毛。维多利亚时代的欧洲时尚潮流成 就了1838年鸵鸟养殖业的第一次繁荣。直至 1913年，鸵鸟羽毛创收惊人，紧随 黄金、 钻石，羊毛，列为南非第四大出口商品
The entire ostrich industry collapsed after World War 1 when the demand for fashionable outfits decreased. This was mainly caused by the post-war depression and difficulties in sea transportation due to the presence of warships. The invention of the motorcar also made the fashionable wearing of large headdresses impractical. 随着第一次世界大战的结束，时尚服装的需求锐减，整个鸵鸟产业轰然崩溃。究其原因， 主要是战后经济萧条，加上战舰的干扰，导致了海上运输上的困难。而且汽车的问世也使 得曾经流行的大型头饰变得不再实用了。 In 1945 the Klein Karoo Agricultural Co-Operative was formed to protect the interests of its members. The Co-Operative strived to increase the productivity of the ostrich by also utilizing its other by-products, meat and leather. Ostrich skins were initially exported to the Netherlands to be tanned in 1959. Klein Karoo’s first specialised ostrich abattoir was completed in 1964, with its very own tannery opening in August 1970. 1945年，Klein Karoo农业合作社成立，旨在保护成员利益。通过同时利用其他副产品、肉 类和皮革，合作社尽力提高鸵鸟的生产效益。1959年，鸵鸟皮第一次出口到荷兰并进行鞣 制。Klein Karoo的第一家专业鸵鸟屠宰场于1964年建成，1970年8月又开办了自己的制革 厂。 International demand for ostrich leather started to rise significantly in the 1970s in European haute couture and American cowboy boots. Demand peaked in the 1980s, where after availability became severely restricted by artificial methods such as trade sanctions and limited export and distribution channels which continued to suppress the ostrich industry until the end of Apartheid in South Africa in 1993. 20世纪70年代，欧洲高级时装和美国牛仔靴对鸵鸟皮革的国际需求开始显著增长。20世纪 80年代，需求达到顶峰，随后鸵鸟皮的供应严重受到贸易制裁和出口分销渠道限制等人为 因素的限制，导致鸵鸟产业持续受损，直到1993年南非种族隔离结束。 At present, South Africa remains the world’s foremost producer in the ostrich industry with a 70% share in the global market. The Klein Karoo offers the ideal climate for ostriches. This dry, sun-drenched land is home to Klein Karoo International Proprietary Ltd, which consists of the most knowledgeable and dedicated ostrich producers and farms. A winning combination of vast experience, hard work and continued investment in research ensures that Klein Karoo International is the world leader in ostrich production, contributing to approximately 55% of all ostrich products exported internationally. 目前，南非仍然是全球鸵鸟产业的最主要生产国，占全球市场份额的70%。奥茨胡恩的 Klein Karoo地区为鸵鸟养殖提供最理想的养殖环境。这片阳光充足，且干燥土地正是Klein Karoo 公司所在地，公司拥有经验丰富的专业鸵鸟皮制革厂以及鸵鸟养殖场。丰富经验、 坚持不懈的探索和持续性研发投资是 Klein Karoo 公司成为全球鸵鸟皮产量位居领导地位 的致胜要素，其产值约占全球鸵鸟产品出口总额的55%。
Ostrich Farming Practices and Production Cycle
The ostrich (Struthio Camelus) is the largest bird on earth and is a member of the Ratitae or running bird group. This group of birds is made unique by the fact that they do not use their wings for flying like other birds tend to do. The ostrich is also renowned for being the fastest animal on two legs, easily reaching speeds up to 60km per hour. 鸵鸟（学名Struthio Camelus）是地球上最大的鸟类，同时还属 于鸵鸟目或走禽类。由于不像其他鸟类那样用翅膀飞行，鸵鸟堪 称鸟类中的异类。它也是跑的最快的两腿动物，奔跑速度每小时 可达60公里。 This flightless bird naturally prefers the Klein Karoo region of South Africa, which consists of an arid semi-desert with wide open spaces as far as the eye can see. Extreme temperatures fluctuate from scorching heat to cold, which are the perfect weather conditions for the ostrich to flourish. The unique habitat places farmers in the Klein Karoo in the ideal position to produce the highest quality ostriches in the world, while simultaneously striving to ensure that the entire production cycle stays as environmentally friendly as possible. 这种不会飞的鸟类天生喜欢南非的Klein Karoo地区，这里土地广 阔，属于干旱的半沙漠地带。冷热交替的极端温度更是鸵鸟快速 生长的完美气候条件。这片得天独厚的栖息地给Klein Karoo的养 殖户带来了极大的优势，培育出世界上最优质的鸵鸟，同时确保 整个养殖活动，不破坏周围自然环境。 The farming cycle of an ostrich is shorter than that of most other exotic species. The breeding birds are only active for eight months of each year, resting the other four months. Reproductive maturity is reached at 3 years but may be earlier in female ostriches. One can easily distinguish between males and females – males are black, while females are a softer grey. A fully mature ostrich weighs up to 150kg and can average between 2 to 3 meters in height.
鸵鸟的养殖周期比大多数其他稀有皮革物种 短。种鸟每年只有8个月的繁殖期，剩下4个 月处于休息状态。3岁达到繁殖成熟期，雌 性鸵鸟更早。鸵鸟的雌雄非常容易区分，雄 性羽毛为黑色，雌性为灰色。一只完全成熟 的鸵鸟体重可达150公斤，平均身高可达2-3 米。 Female ostriches produce approximately 4060 eggs per season. An initial clutch is laid, where after a single egg is added every other day. When the eggs are collected from the nest, the hen will always be left with some eggs to look after, otherwise an empty nest will negatively impact her future laying potential. The collected eggs are carefully cleaned and inspected, then placed in commercial hatching incubators. These machines are fully automated and create the perfect hatching conditions. 雌性鸵鸟每季约产40-60枚蛋。首先筑巢，之 后每隔一天产一枚蛋。从巢中取蛋时，总会 留一部分给雌性鸵鸟照看，否则空巢会影响 它们的产蛋率。收集的鸵鸟蛋经过认真清洁 和检查后放入商用孵化器中。所采用的孵化 器完全自动化，营造了完美的孵化环境。 An ostrich egg’s incubation period is approximately 42 days. After hatching, the chicks prefer a very social life together in clutches. They are incredibly fast-growing and will reach their full height and weight in 8-10 months. These young birds are raised in conditions that mimic their natural habitat as closely as possible with lots of open space and sunshine. At 10-12 months they will weigh about 90kg and are ready to be processed. 鸵鸟蛋的孵化期约为42天。孵化后，雏鸵鸟 喜欢群居生活。它们生长速度极快，8-10个 月即可达到成鸟的体积和重量。幼鸟的饲养 环境尽可能模仿其它们的自然栖息地，广阔 土地，充足阳光。10-12月龄时，它们的体重 约为90公斤，可用于加工。
The ostrich industry is regulated by a nonprofit organisation called the South African Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC), which represents both the interests of ostrich producers and processors and ensures that all role players align themselves with international standards. 鸵鸟产业由非营利组织南非鸵鸟商会 （SAOBC）负责监管，商会维护和监管鸵鸟 养殖户和鸵鸟制品加工厂的利益，确保所有 成员都遵守国际标准。 Regulations that control the South African ostrich industry are very strict and only farmed ostriches may be reared on registered ostrich production units. Each bird has a tag with a unique code that is regulated by the SAOBC, making it traceable from farm to abattoir to ensure that production does not negatively impact the numbers of the wild species in South Africa. Abattoirs are strictly monitored and must be registered and certified by a qualified veterinarian as an approved establishment. A yearly permit is issued by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries and strict compliance to the import requirements of any country where such is relevant is enforced. 南非鸵鸟产业的管控法规非常严格，规定只 有养殖的鸵鸟才可以在注册的鸵鸟生产单位 饲养。每只鸵鸟都贴有由SAOBC监管的识别 码标签，实现从养殖场到屠宰场的追踪，确 保生产不会对南非野生物种的数量产生不利 影响。屠宰场受到严格监控，必须经合格兽 医认证注册为批准企业。农林渔业部每年颁 发一次许可证，并严格遵守各个有关国家的 进口规定。 认证注册为批准企业。农业、林 业和渔业部每年颁发一次许可证，任何相关 国家的进口要求须严格遵守。
ANIMAL WELFARE AND CITES
Rare and luxurious leathers are mostly sourced from endangered or rare animal species. These types of exotic leather are regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). CITES plays an important part in conserving rare species and ensuring that they are protected from extinction. The export of unique types of leather can get complicated. A permit must accompany the movement of such materials which could mean more time is needed for purchasing and supply. 稀有皮革大多源自濒临灭绝或稀有的动物物种。此类珍异皮革受《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公 约》（CITES）的管制。CITES在保护稀有物种和确保其免于灭绝方面发挥着重要作用。稀有皮革 的出口十分复杂。此类材料的贸易和运输必须随附许可证，这意味着采购和供应需耗费更多的时 间。 Klein Karoo breeds a specific species of ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus or SA Black) that is one of the rare exceptions, being part of a handful of exotics that are not regulated by CITES.
This is because these birds are very well regulated and farmed commercially on registered farms. SA Black Ostriches are classified as a composite breed that was developed in the early 1900’s. Klein Karoo养殖的是一种特殊种类的鸵鸟（Struthio camelus domesticus或南非黑颈鸵鸟）， 它是极少数不受CITES管制的稀有皮种。这归因于这种鸵鸟在注册养殖场得到妥善监管和商业化养 殖。南非黑颈鸵鸟鸵鸟被归类为20世纪初期培育的复合品种。 The effectiveness of current production practices allows for no need to harvest wild, pure populations. The only necessity for the export of ostrich leather is the accompaniment of a Certificate of Origin, which is issued within one working day and supplied with each shipment made by Klein Karoo International. 由于目前的生产方法行之有效，因此无需捕获野生的纯种鸵鸟。出口鸵鸟皮革只需要随附原产地 证书，该证书在一个工作日内即可颁发，并随Klein Karoo International的每批货物一并提供。
8 Month Breeding Season 8个月繁殖期
Parent Breeders 种鸟
4 Months Rest 4个月休息期
40-60 Eggs per hen 每只雌性鸵鸟可产40-60个蛋
42 Days Incubation 42天孵化期
Abattoir Slaughter & Meat Processing 屠宰&肉品加工
10 - 12 Month Stock 饲养 10 - 12 个月
28 Days Raw to Crust 从生皮到皮胚需要28天
Tanning of leather 制革
28 Days Crust To Finished 从皮胚到成品皮需要28天
Even though ostriches are not regulated by CITES, there are still various organizations and regulations in place to ensure that all animals are treated in ethical and safe conditions and receive humane care through the entire process. Ostrich farmers associated with Klein Karoo International must comply with 5 basic animal care freedoms: 尽管鸵鸟不受CITES管制，但仍有各种组织和法规确保所有动物的待遇符合伦理和安全规定，在 整个过程中得到人道对待。Klein Karoo International产业链上的鸵鸟养殖户必须满足以下5大 基本的动物照护条件： 1. 1.
Freedom from hunger or thirst 享有免受饥渴的自由
Freedom from pain, injury or disease 享有免受痛苦、伤害及疾病 的自由
The health of the birds must be monitored continuously so that prevention, rapid diagnosis and treatment can be provided. 必须持续监测鸵鸟的健康状况，以便提供疾病预防、快速诊断和治疗。 4. 4.
Freedom to express normal behavior 享有正常发展自然行为的自由
All animals must have easy access to clean drinking water and should be provided with a balanced, appropriate diet to suit their needs.
An atmosphere must be created that mimics the birds’ natural habitat as closely as possible, which includes enough space and company of the animal’s own kind.
Freedom from discomfort 享有免受生理不适的自由
Freedom from fear and distress 享有免受恐惧和压力的自由
An appropriate environment must be created that include ample space, shelter and a comfortable resting area where needed.
Provision of an environment conducive to behavior which does not lead to conditions of fear and distress.
Ostriches are classified as free-range animals accustomed to the extreme heat and cold associated with semi-desert and arid regions of the world. Young ostriches are provided with shelters and heating during extreme cold, but as they mature they prefer not to make use of their shelters and rather roam free in the natural climate. Environmental conditions such as shade and cooling are however still given to protect the animals in times of extreme heat waves. 鸵鸟属于散养动物，适应半沙漠和干旱地区的极端高低温环境。鸵鸟幼年时面对严寒气温会躲进 遮蔽处取暖，随着日渐成熟，鸵鸟不喜欢待在遮蔽处内，更愿意在自然环境中散步。不过，在极 端高温时仍需为鸵鸟提供可以遮阳和降温的环境条件，预防鸵鸟在极端高温下中暑的可能性。 South African abattoirs must comply to European standards as well as to strict national and international regulations that govern slaughter methods. The most advanced technology available is used to make the slaughtering process as humane as possible.
鸵鸟产业具有完善的组织性。省农业部、南非鸵鸟商会以及南非全国防止虐待动物协会 （NSPCA）持续监督整个流程。这些组织帮助确保产业符合国际标准的养殖、加工、出口、生物 多样性、管理、生物安检和人道主义的标准。 Processing plants are inspected by Provincial and National Departments of Agriculture, as well as various client 3rd party auditing firms. An on-site veterinarian warrants that all health and welfare regulations are met. All ostrich farms are registered and subject to inspections twice a year. A specifically designed surveillance program continuously monitors each production unit. 加工厂由省农业部、国家农业部以及第三方审计公司进行检查。驻场兽医保证符合所有健康和福 利法规。所有鸵鸟养殖场都需注册，并每年检查两次。专门设计的监视程序持续监控每个生产单 位。
Klein Karoo International does not have any tolerance for the unethical or inhumane treatment of animals. It is with great determination and accountability that we aim to preserve and be accountable in an industry with healthy and happy birds that are handled ethically, in the appropriate surroundings, with humane treatment, and social responsibility.
The industry is very well organized. The Provincial Departments of Agriculture, the South African Ostrich Business Chamber and the NSPCA continually monitor the entire process. These organizations help ensure that the industry complies with international standards in farming practices, processing, exporting, biodiversity, management, bio-security and the humane treatment of animals.
Klein Karoo International对不符合伦理或人道主义的动物对待采取零容忍。秉着强烈的决心和责 任心，我们以打造健康、舒适的鸵鸟产业并处处尽责为目标，让鸵鸟得到合乎伦理和人道主义的 待遇，居住适宜的环境，尽到社会责任。
Klein Karoo International Ostrich Meat is a delicious, healthy, premium red meat. Ostrich meat is produced into a wide range of products that are convenient and easy to prepare. The fillets and steaks are perfect for creating scrumptious grills, roast dishes and schnitzels. Goulash and neck cuts are favoured for stews and soups, while ostrich liver is increasing in popularity due to the tasty pâtés it creates. Klein Karoo Ostrich Meat is exported fresh and frozen. Our pre-cooked meat range is ideal for quick preparation and ready to eat in minutes, offering more flexibility when it comes to planning your meals.
Control Point), FSSC 22000 (Food Safety System Certification) and NIHT (National Independent Halaal Trust) certified, to ensure best quality and full traceability back to the farm.
Klein Karoo International鸵鸟肉是一种美 味、健康、优质的红色肉类。鸵鸟肉产品种类 繁多，易于烹饪。。肉片和肉排非常适合制作 美味的烤肉、烧烤和炸肉排。切块颈肉是炖菜 和做汤的最佳选择，而鸵鸟肝可以制作美味的 砂锅菜，因而越来越受欢迎。Klein Karoo鸵鸟 肉以鲜肉或冻肉出口。其中，预先煮熟的肉类 产品适合快速烹煮，几分钟内即可食用，计划 餐食时更有灵活性。
The global trend towards healthier eating has escalated the international demand for ostrich meat, as it is a very healthy meat which does not inherently carry any known allergens. It contains minimal amounts of fat, cholesterol and calories while still being rich in protein and iron.
The registered ostriches of Klein Karoo producers are continuously monitored through the entire program by Klein Karoo Abattoirs, qualified veterinarians and the Directorates of Animal Health and Veterinary Public Health to ensure optimal health through the entire process until slaughtering takes place. Klein Karoo Abattoir (ZA92) is export approved and is IFS (International Food Standard), HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical
在Klein Karoo屠宰场、执业兽医及动物健康和 兽医公共卫生局负责全程持续监控Klein Karoo 生产过程，确保屠宰前全部鸵鸟处于最佳健康 状态。Klein Karoo 屠宰场（ZA92）获得了出 口许可，通过了IFS（国际食品标准）、HACCP（危害分析和关键环节控制点）、FSSC 22000（食品安全体系认证）和NIHT（国家独 立清真认证）认证，确保产品质量的同时保证 了产品的可追查性。
鸵鸟肉是一种非常健康的肉类，本身不携带任 何已知的过敏原。随着健康饮食法风靡全球， 国际市场对鸵鸟肉的需求也日益扩大。它含有 极少的脂肪、胆固醇和热量，但同时却含有丰 富的蛋白质和铁。 Klein Karoo recently launched their very own pet food range that consists of various types of nutritious hypoallergenic pet food. Klein Karoo最近又推出了独家宠物食品系列， 包括各种营养丰富的低过敏宠物食品。
Over the years, the Klein Karoo Leather Division has worked hard to establish a flawless reputation in the global leather industry. The absolutely unique pattern of our ostrich leather, combined with its incredible softness, wearing properties and durability, has made this luxurious skin one of the most soughtafter and glamorous materials used by the top international fashion houses in the creation of their exquisite garments and accessories. The inherent strength of this leather also makes it ideal for automotive, yacht and furniture upholstery. 多年来，Klein Karoo皮革事业部始终致力于在 全球皮革行业树制造优质产品的声誉。其生产 的鸵鸟皮纹路独特，再加上令人难以置信的柔 软性，耐磨性、耐用性等特质，成为国际顶级 时装公司制作精美服装配饰的首选稀有皮料。 此外，鸵鸟皮还具有极强的韧性，是制作汽 车、游艇和家具装饰的理想材料。
Numerous decades of skills and knowledge are applied in the processing of our leather to ensure that our tanned skins only turn out the best finished products possible. Klein Karoo International leather is globally available with a strong presence in France, Italy, Japan, Korea, USA and South Africa. The Klein Karoo Finest Ostrich Leather label is internationally well known to be synonymous with the very best quality ostrich on the market and is therefore referred to as the Hallmark of Quality. Klein Karoo的皮革加工汇聚了数十年的技术和 知识，以确保鞣制出最精良的成品皮。。Klein Karoo International鸵鸟皮销往全球，在法 国、意大利、日本、韩国、美国和南非享有极 高的知名度。Klein Karoo 顶级鸵鸟皮（Klein Karoo Finest Ostrich Leather）的标签享誉全 球，是市面上品质最优的鸵鸟皮代名词，因此 被称为顶级品质的标志。
FEATHERS 鸵鸟羽毛 Klein Karoo International is famous for having the finest quality ostrich plumes across the globe. World-famous stage productions, international carnivals and festivals as well as luxurious fashion houses all source their topquality feathers from Klein Karoo. Klein Karoo International以品质出类拔萃的 鸵鸟羽毛而闻名全球。世界著名的舞台剧、国 际性嘉年华和节庆以及豪华时装品牌都对Klein Karoo的顶级鸵鸟羽毛青睐有加。 Modern sorting, sizing and warehousing facilities process an astounding 350 000kg of plumes each year. Klein Karoo International produces 70% of all exported South African feathers and related products. The feathers are put through modern mechanical dryers, where after the sorting and sizing of the plumes enable Klein Karoo to classify and grade the feathers, pooling each grade and size together for accurate calculation of price and usage. 具备现代化的分拣、量尺和仓储设施，每年 的羽毛处理量达到惊人的35万公斤。Klein Karoo International占南非鸵鸟羽毛和相关产 品出口总额的70%。羽毛先用烘干机烘干，再 经过分拣和量尺，然后才能将其分类和分级， 再按等级和尺寸归类，以便准确计算价格和用 量。 Klein Karoo International strives to empower the local community by outsourcing some of the sorting and sizing of feathers on a contractual basis, doing their part to stimulate job creation.
Klein Karoo International致力于造福社区， 将部分分拣和量尺作业外包，为当地创造就业 机会贡献力量。 After grading, the feathers are sent to Klein Karoo’s modern dye-house where the plumes are bleached and/or dyed into an everincreasing range of spectacular colours. This unique process makes Klein Karoo’s feather range the international favourite for the creation of gorgeous fashion garments and trendy accessories. The feathers are ideal for interior design pieces and top-quality dusters, which include a wide range of specialized industrial, telescopic, automotive and computer dusters. 经过分级后，将羽毛运送到Klein Karoo的现代 化染厂，经脱色和染色，生产出各种色彩丰富 的材料。这种独特工艺产生的Klein Karoo羽毛 产品成为国际宠儿，搭配华丽的时尚服装和时 尚配饰。鸵鸟羽毛非常适合用作室内设计饰件 和顶级除尘掸，包括各种专业的工业级可伸缩 汽车和电脑除尘掸。 The beautiful feathers produced at Klein Karoo gets stripped and manufactured into incredible accessories that include multilayered boas, garment fringing, feather handbags, shawls, custom designed cushions and unique gift items. Klein Karoo生产的漂亮鸵鸟毛可制成令人称奇 的配饰，包括多层女士围巾、服装流苏、羽毛 手提包、披肩、定制衬垫和独特礼品。
NOTHING GOES TO WASTE 浑身皆宝 Ostriches are an even more valuable commodity when one considers the fact that no single part of an ostrich goes to waste. Ostriches provide us with the biggest eggs on earth. One egg is roughly the size of 24 normal chicken eggs and are mostly served scrambled or used to create omelettes, souﬄe’s and quiches. The egg of an ostrich contains much lower cholesterol and even a little bit less saturated fat and no sodium, making it nutritionally superior to the chicken egg while still having the same great taste. 鸵鸟全身没有一处可浪费，鸵鸟的商品价值极 高。鸵鸟可以产下全球最大的蛋。一枚鸵鸟蛋 大小相当于24枚普通鸡蛋，可做出炒蛋或煎蛋 饼、蛋奶酥和乳蛋饼。鸵鸟蛋的胆固醇含量较 低，饱和脂肪也略少，甚至还不含钠元素，因 而营养价值高于鸡蛋，口感上乘 Unlike a chicken egg, it is not necessary to crack the egg in half in order to eat it. A small hole is made in the hard shell to extract the wholesome yolk and whites. This makes it possible to still use the surprisingly strong eggshell too. Beautifully painted, carved or decorated ostrich eggshells make very popular souvenirs and gifts. Ostrich eggshells create beautiful lampshades, while cracked shell pieces are used in the creation of unique mosaic decorative pieces.
与鸡蛋不同，烹饪鸵鸟蛋时无需将蛋敲成两 半。在蛋壳上凿开小孔，即可吸取里面的蛋黄 和蛋白，剩下的坚硬蛋壳别具用途。经过精心 彩绘、雕刻和装饰的鸵鸟蛋壳是非常受欢迎的 纪念工艺品和礼品。鸵鸟蛋壳可以制作精美的 灯罩，有裂痕的蛋壳则可以制作特殊的拼接装 饰件。 Ostriches have the quirky habit of eating strange objects. One of the most frequent objects are little stones. After swallowing the stone, it will lay in the ostrich’s stomach, where the stomach acids will proceed to create an incredibly round and smooth end product, almost reminding one of the beautiful pieces of rounded glass the ocean creates. These wonderfully unique stones are sold in shops. The oil that is extracted from ostrich fat is processed into luxury soaps with a wide range of wonderful scents. 鸵鸟有吃奇异东西的怪癖。最常见的物体之一 是小石头。石头吞下之后，会沉积在鸵鸟胃 里，经过胃酸作用形成一种无比光滑圆润的石 头，令人不禁认为它是大海创造的圆形耀眼玻 璃。这种奇妙独特的石头也具有商品价值。从 鸵鸟脂肪中提取的天然鸵鸟油则被加工成多种 香味的顶级奢侈香皂
Converting Skins into Leather 生皮鞣制成革
PART 3 第三部分
Tanning is the process applied to convert hides and skins into leather. A “hide” refers to the skin of large animals like horses, cows and buffaloes, while the term “skin” is used for smaller animals including ostriches, goats and sheep. Tanning strengthens the hide’s protein structure by bonding the peptide chains. The skin consists of three basic layers: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. Only the dermis is used to manufacture leather, the other layers are removed during several processes. The main objective of the tanning process is to dissolve fats and non-fibrous proteins and to chemically bond the collagen fibres together. 鞣制是一种将生皮变成皮革的工艺。“兽皮”是指马、牛和水牛等大型动物的皮 革，而“小张幅皮革”则针对鸵鸟、山羊和绵羊等体型较小的动物。鞣制可使皮 胶原多肽链之间生成交联键。生皮基本分为三层：表皮、真皮和皮下组织。仅 真皮层用于制革，其他两层经过几道工序之后去除。鞣制工艺的主要目的是溶 解脂肪和非纤维蛋白质并以将胶原纤维化学键合成在一起。 Tanning is a very familiar process that has been with us through the ages. Since the prehistoric times, a chemical process was applied to skins whereby a vegetable material that contains tannin was used. This process is still used in less developed countries, or to achieve certain specific outcomes with leather. The newest form of tanning is chemical tanning, where mineral salts are used to produce thinner, softer leather products. Klein Karoo uses chemical tanning in order to produce the finest leather. 鞣制工艺是伴随人类发展许久的工艺。从史前时代起，人们就开始用植物鞣剂 鞣制皮革。这种工艺在一些发展中国家仍在被使用，或用于鞣制一些特殊效果 的皮革。 最新的鞣制方式是化学鞣制，用矿物盐制作皮质更薄，更软的皮料。Klein Karoo采用最新化学鞣制方法来制造最优质的皮革。 Leather production essentially consists of three main parts: preparation for tanning, where curing and the removal of hair and adherent flesh takes place, the tanning process and the finishing process. During the finishing process, mechanical and hand operations are used to soften, colour, lubricate and polish the leather. 制革主要由三个部分构成：鞣制前准备过程（防腐保存及脱毛与削肉）、鞣制 过程和后续加工过程。在后续加工过程中，通过机械和人工操作对其皮革进行 软化、上色、上光和抛光。
PREPARATION OF THE SKIN FOR TANNING
Klein Karoo has approximately 1000 farmers involved in the different phases of ostrich rearing. In order to regulate the production of the ostriches successfully, Klein Karoo does a forecast of the market demand for ostrich products per year. More stability was brought to the ostrich industry by implimenting a slaughter allocation system that provides farmers with better guidance as well as optimizing their return on investment. Ostriches are slaughtered at approximately 10 to 12 months of age at the Klein Karoo abattoir from where the skins are transported to the tannery in batches per farmer.
Klein Karoo旗下约有1000 家养殖户，负责不同阶段的鸵鸟饲养。为控制产能，Klein Karoo 会对每年鸵鸟产品的市场需求进行预测调查。通过实施一套分配制度，为养殖户提供权威的指 导，优化其投资回报，为鸵鸟产业带来了更多的稳定性。鸵鸟大约在10-12月龄时被送进Klein Karoo屠宰场，生皮再从这里被运送到制革厂。
As soon as the skin arrives at the Klein Karoo tannery, it is microchipped with details of the farmer and the bird. Unlike most other animals, ostrich fat is located in a unique singular layer under the skin called the “flesh”, rendering the meat very low in fat, but still leaving large proportions of fat in the connective tissue between the skin and the body. Most of this has to be removed, as it blocks penetration of the chemicals necessary in the tanning process. This process is known as “fleshing”. The flesh is however not completely removed, otherwise the feather follicle on the crown will collapse. 生皮送达Klein Karoo制革厂后，植入带有养 殖场和鸵鸟个体信息的芯片。与大多数其他动 物不同，鸵鸟的脂肪分布位置比较独特，位于 皮下的脂肪层中，这使得其肉中的脂肪含量极 低，但脂肪层之间仍留有部分脂肪。这些脂肪 需要被去除，因为它会阻碍鞣制过程中化学品 的渗透。去除脂肪的过程被称为“脱脂”。但是， 这些脂肪又不能被完全去除，否则羽冠上的毛 囊会被破坏。
防腐保存 Raw hides and skins decay at a rapid pace. Curing is the short-term preservation of the skins until they are required for tanning. No delay can thus be placed between the slaughtering and curing of the skin. A combination of brining, antiseptic and chilling is used in the Klein Karoo curing process. This will take place as soon as possible after slaughtering. The skins are kept in cold storage until it is due for tanning. 生皮会快速腐烂。防腐保存是生皮在鞣制前的短 期保存。因此，在屠宰和生皮防腐保存之间不容 许有任何耽搁。Klein Karoo在防腐保存过程中 同时采用盐水、防腐剂和冷却剂。屠宰结束后应 尽快采取防腐保存。生皮在鞣制前一直冷藏。
THE TANNING PROCESS
Soaking, Liming and Hair Removal 浸水、浸灰、脱毛
Soaking is the first tannery operation. The cured skins are washed in drums with disinfectants to remove the excess salt and dirt from the skin. Moisture is restored to the original levels that the skin contained. The soaked skins are now limed by immersion in milk of lime. This process removes inter-fiber protein and fats in a continued effort to prepare the hide for tanning by optimizing its accessibility to tannins. Feathers, hair and the epidermis are removed from the limed skins. 浸水是第一道鞣制工序。经防腐保存的生皮在转鼓中用消毒剂清洗，除去皮上残余的盐和 污物。水分恢复到生皮的原始含量。此时，将浸过水的生皮浸入石灰乳中。浸灰过程将持 续性除去纤维间蛋白质和脂肪，优化生皮和单宁的亲和度，从而为生皮的鞣制做好准备。 经过浸灰，除去生皮上的羽毛、绒毛和表皮。
Deliming and Bating 脱灰和软化
Deliming and bating are performed in drums and paddles at high drum speeds and warm temperatures to speed up the processes. Deliming removes the “lime”, neutralising the high alkalinity of limed hides to wash out unwanted protein, dirt scud and fat. The deliming and bating processes run concurrently without adding fresh water. Bating enzymes help with the removal of the remaining scud and conditions the grain, making it clean and smooth, leaving the leather soft and flexible with an open empty fibre structure. This process is necessary because chrome-tanning agents are not soluble under high alkaline levels. 脱灰和软化在转鼓和划槽中进行，转鼓处于高速旋转和加温状态，从而加快整个过程。脱 灰去除了“石灰”，中和了生皮浸灰后的高碱度，清除残余的蛋白质、皮垢和脂肪。脱灰和 软化过程同时进行且不添加淡水。软化酶有助于除去残余的皮垢，保护皮纹，使皮革具有 间隙的纤维结构，让它变的柔软且具有弹性。由于铬鞣剂在高碱度下不可溶解，所以这个 过程必不可少的。
The pickling process further lowers the pH levels in preparation for tanning, in the presence of 5-6% salt. This process enables the tanning agents to penetrate thoroughly and evenly for uniform distribution of dyes, syntans and fat liquors. The skins can be stored for extended periods in this state. 在5-6%盐含量下，浸酸过程进一步降低了鞣制前准备工序的pH值。浸酸过程使鞣剂能够 彻底均匀地渗透，使染料合成鞣剂和脂肪液均匀容和。在这种状态下，生皮的保存时间可 被延长。
Bleaching and Shaving 漂白和修面
Unlike other animal skins, the melanin pigmentation of the ostrich is in the corium layer as opposed to the epidermis, which is removed during the hair removal process. Bleaching is thus necessary in order to eliminate pigmentation on the surface of the ostrich skins. During the processing of hides and other skin types, the hides and skins will usually be split on a splitting machine. However, due to the variation of skin thickness and distribution of quills on ostrich skins, it cannot be split, but must be fleshed, shaved or buffed to remove excess flesh on the back of the skin at different stages during the processing of the skins. Klein Karoo shaves the ostrich skin after bleaching for the removal of excess tissue. 与其他动物皮不同，鸵鸟的黑色素沉着是在真皮层而不是表皮层，因此不能在脱毛过程中随之去除，从而需要进一步漂白 工序清除鸵鸟皮表面上的色素沉着。在一般皮料加工过程中，通常会采用剖层机进行剖层。然而，由于鸵鸟皮的厚度以及 鸵鸟皮上的毛孔分布各不相同，鸵鸟皮无法用剖层机进行剖层，只能在不同加工阶段，经过削肉、修面和抛光工序，除去 多余的皮下组织。Klein Karoo会在鸵鸟皮漂白后进行修面，除去多余的组织。
Degreasing and Re-pickling 脱脂和二次浸酸
An aqueous degreasing of the skins washes out emulsified fat, where after the skins are re-pickled in order to restore the skins’ pH levels to the correct state for tanning. 水性脱脂法可以洗掉乳化脂肪，然后对生皮进行二次浸酸，将其pH值恢复到正确状态以备鞣制。
All of the preparatory processes discussed previously are essential to ensure that optimal tanning is finally achieved. The objectives of tanning are: 以上讨论的所有准备过程对于确保最佳鞣制效果至关重要。鞣制的目的是： • • •
To modify and stabilise the protein structure, rendering it immune to bacterial attack. 重塑和稳定蛋白质结构，使其免受细菌腐蚀。 To render hides/skins unable to decompose, so it can be stored for long periods of time. 使皮革不能自然腐烂，延长使用寿命。 To enhance the natural properties of the leather. 加强皮革的天然特性。
Klein Karoo uses a non-toxic chrome tanning method. After this process, leather is referred to as “wet blue” leather and has no aesthetic appeal unless it is processed further. The leather then undergoes a neutralising process that reduces the astringency for the retanning, which is then carried out to improve the fullness, softness, grain break, roundness and the dye properties of the skin. Klein Karoo采用无毒铬鞣法。经过鞣制后的皮革被称为“蓝湿”皮，在进一步加工之前不具有艺术美感。皮革需经过中和工 序，降低收敛性以便复鞣，增强皮革的丰满性、柔软性、粒纹感、圆润感和固色性。
Fat Liquoring 加脂
Fat liquoring influences the physical properties of the leather by lubricating the skin, increasing the flexibility, softness, hand, strength, water absorbency and adhesion of the finish. Oils, natural fats and their transformation products, synthetic fats and mineral oils can be used in this process. 加脂可以润滑皮革，增强皮面的柔韧性、柔软性、手感、强度、吸水性和稳定 性。加脂过程可以使用油、天然脂肪及其转化产物、合成脂肪和矿物油。
It is evident that large amounts of water are used during the different tanning processes. Just as crucial as the management of water is during the first processes, is exactly how this moisture is finally removed before leather can move on to the finishing stage. The majority of leather will merely be processed in large batches from wet, called wet-blue, into dye batches for the finishing process of the leather. In exotics, additional processes like toggling, conditioning and buffing are done to ensure better quality control for customer specific requirements. Klein Karoo uses toggling - a drying process where skins are gently stretched onto a frame and clamped with “toggles”, which is then passed through a hot air tunnel. 很明显，在各个鞣制工序中使用了大量的水。在第一道工序中对水的管理至关 重要，在皮革进入涂饰阶段之前去除水分也同样重要。大多数皮革直接从含有 水分状态（蓝湿皮）被加工成染色成品皮。然而对于稀有皮革，还需要进行 其他工序，如绷板、护理和抛光，以确保更好地满足客户的特殊要求。Klein Karoo采用绷板法，一种烘干方式，将皮革轻轻拉伸后放到框架上，用“夹紧装 置”夹紧后用热风烘干。
Conditioning and Buffing 回湿和抛光
Conditioning takes place by restoring controlled amounts of moisture in the skin. After this process, the skin is known as being in the “crust” stage. The smooth areas of the skin are buffed to remove more of the excess tissue on the back of the skin. The skins are dry cleaned with industrial clothing dry cleaners to completely remove the last remainder of natural fats inside the skin. 回湿工序可使皮革含有适量的水分。经过这道工序，皮革将会处于“皮胚”阶段。 对鸵鸟皮的光面区域进行打磨，进一步除去背面的多余组织。用工业干洗机对 皮革进行干洗，彻底除去皮革内的天然脂肪。
Finishing is the final stage of the tanning process. This includes the chemical and mechanical processes applied to give the leather its final desired look, feel and characteristics. The surface treatment gives the Klein Karoo craftsmen and technical staff the opportunity to showcase their creative talents. Before the finishing process can begin, a crust selection will be made, dividing the crust into dye batches according to which end product is envisioned. The grade of leather the client requires, and the type of colour and finishing produced will be taken into consideration for the selection criteria applied in the specific batch. 涂饰是化学和机械工序，是鞣制工艺的最后阶段，赋予皮革最终视觉效果、手感和特性。表面 处理工序可以体现Klein Karoo工匠和技术人员的创造才能。在做涂饰之前，先进行皮胚的挑 选。按照最终产品的特性，客户对皮革等级的要求，对最终颜色和涂饰的要求进行皮胚的挑选 Klein Karoo has a dedicated research and development team that continuously experiments to create new colours, finishes and applications in order to keep up with the latest fashion trends in colours and requirements. As a result, Klein Karoo is the sole ostrich leather manufacturer that boasts with an ostrich body skin colour card of 110 different colours in 17 finishes. Over the decades, Klein Karoo Tannery has developed more than 1 000 colour variations for the fashion industry. There are currently 30 different finishes in production in a wide range of colours. Klein Karoo International is proud to offer a selection of leg skins in 11 finishes and 90 colours on the leg skin colour card. Klein Karoo拥有专门的研发团队，不断试验创造新的颜色、涂饰和用法，紧跟最新的颜色时 尚潮流和需求。凭此，Klein Karoo独创17种涂饰110种不同颜色的鸵鸟身皮色卡，这在全球 鸵鸟皮制造商中也仅此一家。几十年来，Klein Karoo制革厂为时尚界开发了1000多种不同颜 色。目前拥有30种不同涂饰可供选择，颜色和种类繁多。Klein Karoo International还能够提 供一系列腿皮，包括11种涂饰以及90多种颜色的腿皮。 The type of finish that is required is directly related to the requirements and properties of each end product, which is why Klein Karoo International has already developed a wide range of finishes in accordance to customer specifications or market trends. Klein Karoo’s full aniline Saddle Finish is well known to be the benchmark of quality in the ostrich leather industry.
OSTRICH LEATHER FINISHING
所需的涂饰与每种成品的要求和性能直接相关，这就是为什么Klein Karoo 根据客户需求和市 场趋势开发各种不同的涂饰。Klein Karoo的全苯胺鞍型涂饰（Saddle Finish）成为享誉鸵鸟 皮革业的品质标杆。
The Objectives of Finishing: 涂饰的目的： • • • • • •
To improve durability 提高耐用性能 To improve weather/dirt resistance 提高耐候性/抗污性 To colour the leather for fashion etc. 根据时尚趋势给皮革染色 To improve the feel 提高手感 To disguise and hide flaws 掩盖和隐藏缺陷 To generally enhance and create an even appearance 从整体上改善成品皮的外观
THE FIVE STAGES OF FINISHING LEATHER
Dyes are commercially available in a combination of various colours, as well as in the primary colours of blue, red and yellow. Dyes are manufactured by chemical reactions and blended to a parameter acceptable to the manufacturer’s standard. 染料有各种颜色和组合，也可以单独购买蓝红黄三原色。染料可按照不同化学反应，不同参数和 标准来混合。 To obtain a specific shade, the dyer must blend various specific dyes together. The manufacturer’s specifications are taken into consideration to ensure the leather will comply with the required amount of light fastness, resistance to perspiration, migration, etc. Klein Karoo dyers apply years of skills and knowledge in this process, making various small additions to the dye drum to adjust the colour to the client’s specific requirements. 为了得到特定的色度，调色师必须将各种特定的染料混合在一起。同时要符合生产规范，确保皮 革符合耐光性、耐汗渍性、固色性等。Klein Karoo 调色师运用多年的专业技术和知识，给染色 转鼓添加各种配方来调整色彩，以符合客户的特殊要求。 The drum conditions, type of dye and the type of crust leather material will determine the result. The evenness of the dyeing is also determined by the fixation and/or penetration of the dyestuff. Mordant or levelling agents are used to promote even distribution of the dyes. Klein Karoo uses modern dispersion technology to ensure optimal equal dye contact with the leathers throughout the dye drum. 转鼓条件、染料类型和皮胚种类将决定最终成品的效果。此外，染色的均匀性也取决于染料的固 色和渗透性。采用媒染剂和均染剂提高染色均匀度。Klein Karoo采用现代分散染色技术确保染 料与染色转鼓中的皮革达到最佳均匀染色效果。
After dyeing, the skins are horsed up to drain on wooden horses. Thereafter a few different types of drying processes can be used which include drying, hanging, pasting or toggling. In Klein Karoo, a toggling process is found to be the most effective. The same toggling method is repeated as used during the tanning process. 染色结束后，将皮料架在木马上排水。然后，可以采用几种不同类型的干燥方法，包括烘干、悬 挂干燥、贴板干燥或绷板烘干。绷板烘干法是最有效的干燥方法。这个阶段会重复鞣制过程中采 用的绷板烘干法。
After dyeing, skins are put through a conditioning process to restore controlled amounts of moisture in the skin. The skins are loaded into a drum and drymilled or drummed in specialised conditioning drums. 完成染色后，皮料再经过回湿处 理，将水分恢复到控制量。将皮 料装入转鼓中，并用专门的回湿 转鼓进行加工。
Depending on the desired outcome, skins are given a topcoat by being sprayed with a machine or by hand. At Klein Karoo the majority of the spraying is done by hand. Different topcoats are available:
The skins are polished by hand to accentuate the natural grain pattern and unique beauty of each skin. The type of finish that is required and the intention for final use of the skin will determine the type and degree of polishing applied to each skin.
Colouring agents consisting of dyes or pigments to achieve a transparent or opaque look. 着色剂，包含染料或颜料，达到外观透明或不透明的效果。 Binders that bind the dyes or pigments to the leather and impart special properties on the leather like wet and dry fastness, adhesion, softness etc. 附着剂，将染料或颜料附着到皮革上，赋予皮革特殊的性能，如耐湿性，耐干性、附着性、 柔软性等。 Diluent’s extender or solvent (most finishes can be diluted in water, whilst solvent soluble finishes are used on speciality leathers.) 稀释剂增量剂或溶剂（大多数涂料都可被水稀释，而溶剂可溶性涂料可用于特种皮革。） Season coat, also referred to as the top lacquer or fixing coat. This is available either in the form of a clear coat or with the addition of special hues or pigments. 上光涂饰，也称为面漆或固色涂饰。可以采用透明涂饰或添加特殊色调或颜料。
The final effect can also be created by applying other processes: 通过采取以下其他方法也可以打造最终效果： • • • • • • •
Glazing: Where the leather is marbled on a glazing machine. 上光 : 用打光机使皮革形成大理石花纹 。 Tipping: Applying a contrasting effect by hand. 手擦色：手工擦色形成双色效应 。 Milling: A process achieved with a drum. 摔软 : 在转鼓中进行 。 Snuffing: The sanding or suede of the top layer of the leather. 磨面：对皮革表层进行砂磨或绒面处理 。 Foiling: The application of a thin foil layer to the top of the leather. 贴箔：在皮革表层贴上一层薄箔 。 Speciality spray coatings 特种喷涂 Embossing or printing 压花或印花
KLEIN KAROO FINISHES
Saddle Finish (SF)
Classic Finish (CF)
Saddle Finish leather is a drum dyed aniline leather with a light finish that is polished to accentuate the natural grain pattern. The leather has a lively, silky sheen and soft, dry feel. This finish creates a two-tone colour effect. The final leather is relatively sensitive to direct light exposure and skin colour can change over time. It will age normally, developing a beautiful patina and taking on more character in the process. Saddle finish is available in a very large variety of colours and is mostly used in the fashion accessories market.
Classic Finish is a full grain semi-matt, pigmented finish with natural grain pattern. The high concentration of pigment used in this finish might cover less visible marks. A very high level of colour consistency is achieved on an individual skin as well as overall on skins in a dye batch. The leather has a monotone colour with high light fastness. This type of finish makes the skin suitable for a wide range of products including shoes, belts and handbags.
鞍型涂饰皮革是一种转鼓染色苯胺革，具有浅 色涂饰，革面经过抛光处理，凸显出天然的粒 纹。这种皮革光泽鲜活如丝，手感柔软干爽。 另外，涂饰给人一种双色效果。成品革对直射 光相对敏感，而且颜色会随时间而变化。它会 随着岁月形成一层好看的包浆，更添别样风 格。鞍型涂饰有各种各样的颜色，主要用于时 尚配饰市场。
经典涂饰（Classic Finish）是一种全粒面半 哑光的着色涂饰，带有天然的粒纹。这种涂 饰所用的高浓度颜料可能会覆盖不太显眼的 痕迹。整张皮料可以保持较一致的染色度， 相同染色批次的皮料整体上能做到相同效 果。这种皮革颜色均匀，耐光性强，适用于 各种产品。包括鞋子、皮带和手提包。
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Metallic Finish (MF)
A semi-aniline leather with a light finish that is polished to accentuate the natural grain pattern in a two-tone effect. The semi-aniline process achieves a higher level of colour consistency and light fastness than on Saddle Finish.
Drum dyed leather that receives a special final treatment with finishing agents that improves the light fastness of the leather. The finishing process leaves a contrast between the quills and valleys of the skin, with a semi sheen coat and a dry feel. The process results in leather with a more uniform colour in appearance and is usually used in products where a higher level of light fastness is required.
A contrasting, pigmented top coat is applied on a full grain, drum dyed aniline leather. The top coat is then brushed off by the manufacturer to reveal a rich two-tone effect. This effect is only available in limited colours. The manual brushing technique is done by skilled hands to accentuate each product’s individuality, creating a unique effect that is very popular in the production of Western boots, wallets, belts and in upholstery.
Metallic Finish is a full grain, pigmented finish that is applied on body and leg skins. A high level of colour consistency is achieved when applying this method. The metallic finishes include silver, gold and bronze and create a monotone metallic final leather look with a high light fastness.
转鼓染色皮革利用涂饰剂进行特殊后处理， 提高皮革的耐光性。这种涂饰工艺使皮料毛 孔和沟壑间形成明暗对比，涂饰如丝绸般散 发光彩，又给人干爽的手感。所形成的皮革 从外观上颜色更加均匀，通常用于对耐光性 要求更高的产品。
在全粒面转鼓染色苯胺皮革上涂上撞色面漆。 然后将这层面漆刷掉，显示出明显的双色效 果。此效果仅适用于有限的几种颜色。熟练的 工匠采用全手工刷涂技术处理每个产品的细 节，创造出在制造牛仔靴、钱包、腰带和家具 领域中非常流行的独特效果。
Semi-Aniline Finish (SA)
半苯胺皮革具有浅色涂饰，革面经过抛光处 理，凸显出双色效果的天然粒纹。半苯胺工艺 达到的颜色一致性和耐光性要高于鞍型涂饰。
金属涂饰是一种全粒面、着色金属涂饰，适 用于身皮和腿皮。运用这种方法可以保持一 致的染色度。金属饰面可染成银色，金色或 青铜色，能创造出单色调金属色效果，具有 高耐光性。
29 Kat van Duinen
Black Jack Boots
Iridescent (IR) 彩虹色（IR）
A drum dyed leather gets lightly finished with an iridescent application that creates a soft, pearly monotone colour. Perfect for evening accessories, giving a softer metallic finish. Iridescent applications are done in blue, red and yellow and can be applied to a selection of finishes as an additional effect.
A subtle, shimmering pearl effect is created by applying a pearlized finish to a full grain, aniline leather. Perfect for more formal products that include bridal wear and evening accessories.
转鼓染色皮革采用彩虹色的浅色涂饰，带来柔 和如珍珠般的色调，适合晚装配饰，给人柔和 的金属质感。彩虹色采用蓝红黄配色，可以添 加附加涂饰展现各种效果。
通过在全粒面苯胺革上涂上珠光色涂饰，形成 柔和闪亮的珠光效果。适合正式场合佩戴产 品，包括婚纱和晚装配饰。
Foiled Finish (FF)
The Foiled Finish is achieved by transferring film to the skin during a heat process. The transfer film is made from the finest grade materials and can be a single colour, metallic or a trendy design in multiple colours. The final result gives a shiny appearance that can hide defects on leather. It is very popular in smaller handbags or clutches as well as other evening accessories.
A full grain, drum dyed aniline finish is glazed to a brilliant gloss on body and leg skins. The glazing process flattens the quills, creating a firmer leather that is ideal for the creation of more structured styles of handbags, shoes and accessories. When used in manufacturing, care must be taken not to damage the glazed appearance of the skin.
在热处理过程中将薄膜贴到皮料上完成贴箔 涂饰。贴膜由最优质的材料制成，可以采用 单色、金属色或彩色时尚色调。成品皮外观闪 亮，可以遮盖自然伤痕。此涂饰在小型手提 包，晚宴包以及其他晚装配饰中非常受欢迎。
全粒面、转鼓染色苯胺涂饰经过上光，令身皮 和腿皮革散发耀眼光彩。上光工艺让毛孔变得 平滑，让皮革更加紧实，非常适用于打造更具 立体感的手提包、鞋子和配饰。制作产品时需 注意，不能破坏高光涂饰。
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During the Sequin finishing process the quills are flattened to the skin using a light plating process where some heat may be applied. This process does not affect the colour of the leather but results in a flat quill with a subtle, soft shine that reminds one of sequins. This process can either be done on the full skin or on cut panels and does not add any additional properties to the skin. The sequin finish can be applied to the majority of finishes offered in the Klein Karoo range.
The Garment look is achieved when a full grain lightweight body skin is softly tanned, finished and polished to an extremely warm and silky handle specifically for the production of garments or soft handbags.
当全粒面轻质身体皮经过鞣制、涂饰和抛光处 理后，手感会变得极度柔软、顺滑，适用于制 作服装或软手提包，即称之为服装革。 产服装 或软手提包时，即可称之为服装革。
A special skin selection process takes place where after a full-pigmented finish is applied to the tanned skins. A high level of colour consistency is achieved on the same skin and across batches. The skins are processed in accordance with specific requirements to ensure suitability for automotive applications. 先在鞣制好的皮革上做着色涂饰后再从中挑选 适合的皮料。同批次皮料可保持较一致的染色 度。根据具体要求加工皮料，以确保适用于汽 车内饰。
在亮片热压工艺处理过程中，采用轻烫工艺， 用少许热量将革面上的毛孔烫平。这个过程不 会影响皮革的颜色，而会让毛孔平滑，微微散 发柔和光泽，让人联想到一个个亮片。这个工 序可以在整张皮料上或开料后完成，这个工序 不会改变皮性。亮片涂饰适用于Klein Karoo大 部分产品的涂饰。
Upholstery (UP) 家具（UP）
The Upholstery finish can be applied to any selected finished skin, enhancing its properties and making it suitable for application in furniture production. This is done by either treating the finished leather, or the entire furniture piece with a special upholstery coating for additional protection of the leather surface which includes scotchgard. Care must be taken by the customer to specify the precise properties their final product would need. Upholstery leather can also be a full-pigmented finish with a monotone effect if high levels of light fastness and colour consistency is required by the manufacturer. 家具涂饰可应用于任何成品皮，增强其性能， 使其适用于家具产品。可以对成品革或整个家 具采取特殊的家具涂饰处理，以进一步保护皮 革表面，包括喷涂思高的皮革保护剂。客户须 准确说明成品所需的性能。如有特殊需求，家 具皮可以做到高耐光性，高色彩均衡性。
31 Cape Cobra
Eissmann Automotive Interior Design
Robin’s Nest Interiors
Mount Desert (MD)
A contrasting topcoat is applied to pigmented body and leg skins, which is then milled off to create a unique two-tone effect. This finish is available in a limited range of colours and the final leather has medium light fastness. A slight variation in colour consistency can be expected as each skin’s own unique characteristics are enhanced in the milling process.
A highly contrasted darkening of the quill on aniline dyed body skins, giving the effect of dramatic two-toned leather. This process is done by hand to ensure each skin’s natural characteristics are enhanced. The final leather will have medium light fastness.
A full grain pigmented finish that receives a topcoat in a contrasting colour. The leather then undergoes a process where the topcoat is skilfully washed off to some degree to create the desired look. The final leather will have a high light fastness.
对苯胺染色身皮的毛孔进行高明暗对比处理， 产生明显的双色皮革效果。这个过程是手工完 成的，确保每张皮料的天然特性得到增强。成 革具有中等耐光性。
对全粒面皮革进行撞色染色处理。然后用专业 技术对皮革进行水洗，最终形成所需的外观。 成革具有高耐光性。
Mount Desert is created by a contrasted darkening of the grain surface of the skin, giving a beautiful burnished effect to the leather. Uniform lightening of the dark grain is achieved, giving an antique, worn visual display to the final leather. This process enhances the natural break of the skin and the final leather ages beautifully with a natural patina.
对身皮和腿皮做撞色涂饰，然后将其磨掉以产 生独特的双色效果。这种涂饰适用于有限的几 种颜色，成品革具有中等耐光性。由于每张皮 料均有个体差异，最终水纹效果也略有差异。
沙漠山是通过皮料粒面明暗对比产生的，为皮 革带来美丽的光泽。暗纹实现均匀增亮，从而 使成革呈现复古做旧外观。这个过程增强了皮 料的自然粒纹，成革随着岁月形成精美的天然 包浆。
32 Cape Cobra
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Cowboy Classic (CC)
A special spray-coated finish is applied and the leather is then polished to a high gloss that leaves it with a slightly distressed look. This finish gets enhanced by wear. The natural patina changes for the better with ageing, making this leather suitable for a wide range of products.
Waxes are applied in the burnishing process to create Bruciato on full grain, drum dyed aniline leather. A highly burnished effect is achieved with a waxy, slightly silky feel. This leather is very popular in the cowboy boot and furniture industry and compliment less-formal designs, including western handbags and accessories.
A black top coat is applied to the dyed leather, which is then skilfully polished by hand to create a two-toned finishing that exaggerates the contrast between the quills and the valleys. The top colour remains in the valleys while the quills are left darkened by die polishing process. The finish is used successfully for cowboy boots, handbags and furniture.
Rio Grande receives a white top coat on the dyed leather. The skin is then polished in a similar fashion as Colonial finish to create a two-toned finishing that exaggerates the contrast between the quills and the valley. Rio Grande is also used in the cowboy boot, handbag and upholstery industry.
采用特殊的喷涂涂饰，然后将皮革抛光至高 光，使外观略显仿旧。这种涂饰通过摩擦而增 强效果。天然包浆随着使用时间越变越好看， 所以这种皮革适用于各种产品。
抛光过程采用打蜡工艺，让全粒面苯胺革呈现 燃烧风格。达到抛光变色效应，手感柔软，略 带丝滑。这款皮革在牛仔靴和家具行业非常受 欢迎，可以搭配流行的设计，包括手提包和配 饰。
在染色皮革上涂上黑色涂饰，然后手工精心抛 光，形成双色涂饰，凸显出毛孔与沟壑间的明 暗色差。沟壑保留皮面颜色，而毛孔经过模具 抛光工艺变暗。这种涂饰成功用于牛仔靴、手 提包和家具。
里奥格兰德风格是在染色皮革上涂上白色涂 饰。然后按照殖民地风格涂饰的抛光方式对皮 料进行抛光，形成双色涂饰，凸显出毛孔与沟 壑间的明暗色差。Rio Grande也用于牛仔靴、 手提包和家具行业。
33 Anderson Bean
Variegated Finish (VF)
Light Variegated Finish (LVF) 浅混色涂饰（LVF）
A black top coat is sprayed onto a drum dyed aniline leather. The skin is then stonewashed to reveal the primary dyed colour in the valleys. The final leather has a matt, two-toned denim look and feel where the quill reveals the underlying colour. This leather is used for boots, handbags and accessories.
Light Variegated undergoes a finishing process similar to Variegated Finish, but this leather merely receives a tone-on-tone treatment on the full grain aniline leather. When the skin is put through a stonewash process, the lighter primary dyed colour is revealed. The final product has a matt, dry feel with a very subtle denim look and is suitable for boots, handbags and accessories.
Soft Oily Pull-up Leather is a full grain, drum dyed aniline leather that receives an oil and wax finish. This process leaves the leather with a soft, oiled-wax feel and the unique pull-up colour that appears when the leather is stretched. Soft OPU leather is more robust and easier to maintain than aniline leather. This finish creates a unique distressed look that develops natural rub and scuff marks and colour variation with use. The final leather is a popular choice for boot and shoe production. It is not suitable for handbags and accessories due to the oil content.
Wild West Finish is achieved when aniline leather undergoes a suede process that removes the thin outer layer of the skin. The skin is burnished with wax to achieve a rough, dry feel to the final leather. This gives an accentuated, rounded feel to the quill. Wild West is favoured by the Western industry to create Cowboy Boots.
将黑色涂饰喷涂在苯胺革上。然后对皮料进行 石洗打磨，显示出沟壑间的主要染色。成品革 具有哑光双色牛仔布外观和手感，毛孔呈现出 底色。这款皮革用于靴子、手提包和配饰。
浅杂色皮革采用类似于杂色涂饰的涂饰工艺， 但这款皮革仅在全粒面苯胺革上进行同色系处 理。当皮料经过石磨工艺后，显露出较浅的主 色。成革具有哑光、干爽的手感，外观略显牛 仔风，适用于靴子、手提包和配饰。
软质油蜡皮是一种全粒面转鼓染色苯胺革，经 过油蜡涂饰。这一过程使皮革具有柔软油蜡手 感和独特的变色效果。软质地油蜡皮比苯胺革 更坚实，更容易保养。这种涂饰带来独特的仿 旧外观，随着使用时间而产生自然摩擦和磨损 痕迹以及颜色变化。这款成品革时靴子和鞋子 的热门之选。由于油脂过多，因此不适用于手 提包和配饰。
Wild West (WW)
当苯胺革经过绒面工艺除去革面的最薄外层 时，即可实现狂野西部涂饰。用蜡打磨皮料， 使成品革具有粗糙干爽的手感。同时增强了毛 孔的圆润手感。狂野西部受到牛仔产品行业的 的青睐，用来制造牛仔靴。
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全 去 变 于 靴
ne hat in. e a es ild to
A suede process is applied to full grain, drum dyed aniline leather that removes the thin outer layer of the skin. The leather is finished with wax and oil to create a slight pull-up effect. Lastly, the skin is polished to enhance the quills. Mojave Desert is only suitable for boots and footwear due to the oil content.
Melt is exclusively used on full grain, aniline leg skins. It creates a symmetrical ombre effect with light scales that fade into the darker contrasting side panels. The final leather is glazed to a brilliant gloss. The reverse effect can also be done by darkening the scales and fading into a lighter contrast on the sides.
Stonewash creates a two-toned, semi-suede pattern leg skin. The final leather will have relative sensitivity to direct light and colour can change over time. It is very popular for belts, smaller handbags and accessories.
层 ， 毛 的
全粒面转鼓染色苯胺革采用绒面革工艺，可除 去革面薄外层。皮革采用油蜡涂饰，有轻微的 变色效果。最后，将皮料抛光以凸显毛孔。由 于含油脂过多问题，因此莫哈韦沙漠仅适用于 靴子和鞋子。
热熔涂饰专用于全粒面苯胺腿皮。可形成一种 对称的渐变效果，浅色鳞皮会逐渐变暗，与侧 面裁片形成明暗对比。成品革经过打光，散发 耀眼光彩。同时，将鳞皮暗化处理，而侧面逐 渐变亮形成反差，即可产生反差效果。
A light finish is applied to leg skin leather that is polished to accentuate the natural grain pattern of the leg skin. This creates a finish that is similar to the Saddle Finish applied to body skins. It creates a lively, silky sheen and soft, dry feel. The final leather is relatively sensitive to direct light and the skin colour can change over time. It will age normally developing a beautiful patina and taking on more character in the process. Sateen is mostly used in the fashion accessories market.
通过石洗打磨涂饰打造双色半绒面纹理的腿 皮。成品革对直射光相对敏感，而且皮色会随 时间而变化。在皮带、小型手提包和配饰中非 常受欢迎。
腿皮采用浅色涂饰，革面经过抛光处理，凸显 出腿皮的天然粒纹。由此形成的涂饰类似于身 皮所应用的鞍型涂饰。这种皮革光泽鲜活如 丝，手感柔软干爽。成品革对直射光相对敏 感，而且皮色会随时间而变化。它会正常老 化，形成一层好看的包浆，更能添加别样风 格。仿绸锻涂饰主要用于时尚配饰市场。
35 Anna Trzebinski
SETTING THE INDUSTRY STANDARD IN OSTRICH LEATHER PRODUCTION
Quality Control and Tracking 质量控制和跟踪
Strict quality control is applied throughout the Klein Karoo Tannery. A tracking system is used to capture all the stages of processing and finishing of our ostrich leather. Final quality control is done for colour consistency and correctness of colour against colour standards. All production batches are graded according to the Klein Karoo grading norm. The skins are measured with a final size, after which a label with the logo, QR code and unique skin number as well as all skin attributes are printed as confirmation of the Hallmark of Quality supplied by Klein Karoo. With this unique form of identification, the skin is traceable all the way back to the registered ostrich farm.
Klein Karoo制革厂全程实施严格的质量控制。采用跟踪系统捕捉鸵鸟皮加工和涂饰的各个阶 段，根据颜色标准对色彩的一致性和正确性进行最终的控制。所有生产批次均根据Klein Karoo 分级标准进行分级。最终测量尺寸，然后打印标识、二维码和皮料独有编号以及所有皮料属性的 标签，作为Klein Karoo优质品质凭证。通过这种独特的识别方式，皮料可以追溯到注册的鸵鸟 养殖场。
Klein Karoo Research and Development Klein Karoo研发
Klein Karoo International is proud to be an international pioneer in the continuous creation of new dyeing and finishing techniques for ostrich leather. Our dedicated team strives to keep pace with modern trends and the latest preferences of international fashion houses. New finishes and colours are introduced to the market at international shows like Lineapelle in Milan, Italy, Premier Vision in Paris, France, APLF in Hong Kong and WESA in Denver, USA. Klein Karoo International是不断创新的鸵鸟皮革染色和涂饰技术的先驱者。其专业团队致力 于实时掌握现代潮流和国际时尚品牌的最新偏好。通过意大利米兰的Lineapelle、法国巴黎的 Premier Vision、香港的APLF和美国丹佛的WESA等国际展会，推出新的涂饰和颜色。 Chemicals available in the tanning process keep changing to comply with REACH specifications. These ever-changing chemicals need to be tested in our processes to assure compliance with other chemicals used. Finally, it is tested on ostrich production batches to ensure the outcome stays the same and that Klein Karoo continuously delivers a product of the highest quality. 为了符合REACH规范，需要不断变化鞣制工艺中可用的化学品。。这些不断变化的化学品必须 在生产流程中进行测试，以确保与所使用的其他化学品兼容。最后，再经过生产批次测试，以确 保成革品质一致，保证Klein Karoo可以持续提供最优质的鸵鸟皮产品。
Klein Karoo Laboratory Klein Karoo实验室
Klein Karoo has a dedicated in-house laboratory where tests can be performed on the leather. This is necessary when minimum requirements are specified by customers. Some standard tests for fashion houses and for each batch of automotive leather are performed before delivery of the finished ostrich skins to the manufacturer. Klein Karoo拥有一个专门的实验室，可以对皮革进行测试。通常客户指定要求后，需要进行测 试。在成品鸵鸟皮出厂前，会针对时装类的皮料以及每一批汽车用皮料进行一些标准测试。
The Characteristics of Ostrich Leather 鸵鸟皮革特征
PART 4 第四部分：
The Difference between Ostrich and Bovine (Cow) Leather 鸵鸟皮和牛皮的区别
Bovine leather is one of the more common and easily sourced leather types in the market. It is easier to care for and a cheaper type of leather due to its abundance. Full grain and top grain leather is the same thing. They represent using the top side of the hide without altering it, allowing it to maintain its natural characteristics. Corrected grain is leather of lesser quality of which the grain is sanded off and the application of prints, pigments or speciality finishes are used to cover up the defects. Bovine leathers are split to the desired weights for different products. Top Grain and Naked Bovine Leathers are usually about 1.3mm thick. Naked Bovine is a premium soft leather that is not grain-corrected and the most expensive part of the hide. Split Leather is the second layer of the hide and is naturally sueded and used for leather suede. Bovine is one of the heavier leathers, giving it tough wearing and water-resistant properties, often used as sole leather in the dress shoe industry. Bovine leather can break quite easily even though it can be somewhat stiff. Due to its plain appearance, price and availability, bovine leather is not perceived as an exotic leather. A bovine hide can measure between 45-55ft². 牛皮是市场上较常见且易于采购的皮料之一。牛皮容易 护理，而且由于市面上数量种类众多，价格更加低廉。 全粒面即为头层皮。。这种皮料使用了头层牛皮，并在 加工过程中保持其自然特征不变。修面革的品质低于头 层皮，粒面打磨，并运用印花、颜料或特殊涂饰来掩盖 皮面缺陷。根据产品不同，牛皮经剖层处理达到所需重 量。牛皮中的头层皮和面皮通常厚约1.3毫米。面皮是 一款优质柔软皮革，未经过修面，是皮料中最昂贵的部 分。二层皮是皮料的第二层，经过自然磨毛，用于制作 绒面革。牛皮是比较厚重的皮革之一，具有耐磨和防水 性能，通常用于制作服装，鞋业中的底革。虽然牛皮 比较坚硬，但还是很容易断裂。由于其外观朴素，价格 低廉又容易购买，牛皮不属于稀有皮革。牛皮尺寸可达 45-55平方英尺。
Ostrich leather can very easily be distinguished from bovine leather. Firstly, the skin is much smaller at an average size of 14-16ft². It also stands out from bovine leather due to its unique quill pattern, that gives the leather a hill and valley or goose bump appearance. The bumps are formed by feather follicles that close into quills after the feathers are removed. These quills are clearly visible in a diamond shape that covers the centre area of the ostrich skin known as the “crown”. In total, about 55% of the skin is covered in quills, which include the crown, neck and belly areas. The smooth areas are from the skin located below the wings which is not covered in feathers. Ostrich leather is not split into layers and is a full grain leather from which corrected grain leather will not normally be produced. 鸵鸟皮可以很容易地与牛皮区别开来。首先，鸵鸟皮尺寸要小得多，平均仅14-16平方英尺。由 于其独特的毛孔纹路，外观上呈现出山丘和沟壑状的或类似于鸡皮状的凸起效果，令鸵鸟皮与牛 皮大不相同。这些凸起由羽毛毛囊形成，拔出羽毛后毛囊收缩成毛孔。毛孔明显呈钻石形状，覆 盖鸵鸟皮的中央区域，即皇冠毛囊区域（“crown”）。皮料上共约55%的部分覆盖毛孔，包括皇冠 毛囊区域、颈部和腹部区域。皮料上的光滑区域位于翅膀下方没有羽毛覆盖的地方。鸵鸟皮不可 剖层，是一种全粒面皮革，通常不会用于制作修面革。 Ostrich leather is an exotic leather, making it much more sought after and expensive than normal cowhide leather. Ostrich leather is considered to be one of the finest and most durable leathers. 鸵鸟皮是一种稀有皮革，因此比普通的牛皮革更受追捧，价格也更加昂贵。鸵鸟皮被认为是最优 质、最耐用的皮革之一。
Ostrich Quill Follicles 鸵鸟皮的毛孔毛囊
The quills of each ostrich skin are unique and make it a sought-after exotic. Well-developed quills are the result of full-grown feathers that create a follicle on the skin that is rounded and closed. Development of feather follicles is genetically determined and differ from skin to skin. Feather follicles are generally not considered in the grading of the skin, except where follicles (quills) are visibly damaged due to defects caused by severely under-developed quills or in-grown feathers. 每一张鸵鸟皮的毛孔都是与众不同的，使其成为备受追捧的稀有皮革。毛孔发育完好源于羽毛发 育成熟，在皮肤上形成圆润闭合的毛囊。毛囊的发育是由遗传决定的，每张鸵鸟皮各不相同。皮 料分级时通常不考虑毛囊形状，除非毛囊严重发育不良或毛囊内有严重缺陷，导致毛囊（毛孔） 明显受损。
Why Ostrich Leather is perceived as an Exotic 鸵鸟皮为何被认为是稀有皮革
Exotic leather can be classified as leather that has a unique or striking look – some special characteristic that immediately sets it apart from common bovine leather. Exotic leather can either be made from rare animal species, or from a special part of an animal’s skin that is rarely processed into leather. Ostrich is one of the most wellknown exotic leathers, but numerous other types exist which include crocodile, snake, lizard, fish and even stingray. 稀有皮革是指具有独特或突出外观的皮革，即与普通牛皮有明显不同的特征。稀有皮 革可以取自稀有动物，也可以取自极少用于皮料加工的特殊皮革部位。鸵鸟皮是最知 名的稀有皮革之一，但还有许多其他稀有皮革，如：鳄鱼皮、蛇皮、蜥蜴皮、鱼皮， 甚至珍珠鱼皮。
Ostrich Skin Pricing Considerations 鸵鸟皮的定价因素
Under normal market conditions, ostrich skins will follow a similar pricing module as other types of leather. The pricing is then mostly based on the quality and grade of the leather, and by supply and demand. The market conditions for ostrich leather are however not always as stable and predictable. 在正常的市场环境下，鸵鸟皮将遵循与其他类型的皮革类似的定价模式。定价主要取 决于皮革的质量等级以及市场供需情况。不过，鸵鸟皮的市场环境并不总是那么稳定 和可预测。 In the South African ostrich industry, the main purpose of agricultural ostrich farming is equally focused on the production of leather, meat and feathers as main products. In certain world markets, meat is the sole main product and leather and feathers are merely by-products of the ostrich industry, which results in lower quality and cheaper skins and feathers available in markets. 在南非鸵鸟产业中，皮革、肉类和羽毛三大主产品均衡发展，占据同等地位。而在某 些其他国家，鸵鸟肉是唯一的主要产品，皮革和羽毛仅仅是鸵鸟产业的副产品，这导 致市场上的皮革和羽毛质量价格也随之下降。 If one of the three main products are negatively affected in the South African industry, it will impact the price stability of the other two products. For example, in 2011, an epidemic of avian flu caused all slaughtering of ostriches to come to a halt and no meat exports were allowed. This had a significant impact on the availability of ostrich leather – although processed leather could still be exported as it cannot carry any pathogens after tanning, the supplies could not be replenished, which drove up prices significantly.
Differentiating between Real and Fake Ostrich Leather 鸵鸟皮的真伪鉴别
It is not uncommon to see ostrich leather in luxury shops around the world. Some shops will however stock fake leather and still charge high luxury prices. Being able to tell real and fake ostrich leather apart might one day save you a lot of money. Fake ostrich leather can be very deceiving if you do not know what to look for. It is normally produced using smooth leather or even synthetic material that is then stamped to create the illusion of ostrich quills. 在世界各地的奢侈品商店中鸵鸟皮并不罕见。但一些商店会用仿制鸵鸟皮 革，并按高昂奢侈品价格出售。学会鉴别鸵鸟皮真伪有可能会为你省下一大 笔钱。如果分不清真假鸵鸟皮，假鸵鸟皮可能非常具有欺骗性。假鸵鸟皮通 常是由光面皮革，甚至是合成材料制成，然后经过压花，人为制造出鸵鸟毛 孔的皮纹。 Your first good indication of the authenticity of the product will be its texture. A quill of original ostrich leather was formed by a feather that grew out of the follicle and was removed, which means that original ostrich leather quills can be lifted or bent, and a small hole where the feather grew will clearly be visible. 场疫情对鸵鸟皮的供应产生了重大影响——虽然皮革在加工鞣制后不会携带任何病原体，仍可以出口，但因供应量不 能得到及时满足，导致价格大幅上涨。 Klein Karoo closely manages the supply and demand of leather, meat and feathers with our advanced slaughter allocation system. We strive to bring balance to the three main ostrich products, which ensures optimized income generation for the farmer while maintaining stability in all markets for the buyers. In times of over-supply, Klein Karoo will rather follow a strategy of accumulating inventory that can be used in times of short supply, than opting for the short-term solution of cutting prices in markets which will eventually result in damaging the exclusive image of the product. Klein Karoo实施先进的屠宰分配系统，严格管理皮革、肉类和羽毛的供需。我们致力于均衡发展三大鸵鸟主产品，以 优化养殖户的收益，同时为买家保持所有市场的稳定性。在供应过剩的情况下，Klein Karoo更倾向于囤积库存策略， 而不是选择损害产品形象，下调市场价格的短期解决方案。 Ostrich skin prices are influenced by what the production of each order of ostrich skins entails. When ostrich skins are made to order, the quantity of the order can greatly impact the price, as the set-up time and production capacity used for each batch remains the same for a small or a large batch. Certain colours, finishes and the amount of hand labour necessary to create the leather will also be factored in. Matt finish will for example be less expensive than a speciality finish, as will a standard skin cost less than garment leather. 鸵鸟皮的价格随最终产品而异。当采购鸵鸟皮时，定制数量也会对价格产生很大影响，因为无论订单大小，占用的准 备时间和产能都一样。特定颜色、涂饰和制作皮革所需的手工作业量也会被考虑在内。例如，哑光涂饰比特种涂饰便 宜，标准皮革价格也低于服装革。
辨别产品真伪的第一个明显指标是质地。真鸵鸟皮的毛孔是羽毛从毛囊中长 出之后又被拔出后所形成的，这意味着真鸵鸟皮的毛孔可以被提起或弯曲， 并且生长过羽毛的小孔清晰可见。 The pattern of the quills will be the second tell sign; not all feathers on an ostrich are equally spaced or of the same size. A machine-stamped embossing pattern used on fake leather will be recurrently similar, with no natural variations in size and location of the quills. The strength and smell of original ostrich leather will easily stand out from that of fake leather that usually smells like plastic – original leather will be much more scratch resistant and will never smell like plastic as the fake version might very well do. 毛孔的分布是第二个辨别指标；真鸵鸟皮的毛孔间隙是不规则的。假鸵鸟皮 是机器压花纹路，始终保持不变，而且不同位置的毛孔大小也没有变化。真 鸵鸟皮的强度和气味也不同于假鸵鸟皮，不会带有强烈的塑料味。真皮更具 耐刮性，并且永远不会像假皮革一样带有塑料味。 Original ostrich leather stands out above the rest – the combination of its beauty, softness and unique quill pattern creates a very sought-after product that makes it well worth owning your very own luxury creation. 真鸵鸟皮集美观、柔软质地和独特的毛孔纹路等特征于一体，造就出受人追 捧且独具特色的奢侈品。
THE GRADING OF OSTRICH SKINS
The quality and the grading of the ostrich skin is often mistaken for being the same thing. The standard of quality of the ostrich leather that Klein Karoo produces will always remain the same, no matter the grade of the skin. All leather at Klein Karoo undergo the same high standard of tanning, dyeing and finishing. The grade of skins will however differ, as this refers to the cutting yield of each individual ostrich skin and takes into consideration defects and the aesthetic appeal. The size of the panels of the final product is key – one can use a second grade skin and still be able to cut two perfectly blemish free small handbags from it, while a large handbag would probably require a grade one skin due to the fact that a larger blemish free area is needed to work with. 人们经常将鸵鸟皮的质量和级别误认为是一回事。无论皮革的等级如何，Klein Karoo生产的鸵鸟皮均遵循统一的质量标准。Klein Karoo的所有皮革均经过同样高标准的鞣制、染色和涂饰工艺。不 过，皮革的等级却各不相同，需考虑每张鸵鸟皮的使用率和美观性。最终产品的尺寸是选购鸵鸟皮时决定等级的关键因素——用一张二级皮仍可以裁剪出两个完美无瑕的小手提包，而想做一个大手提 包可能需要一整张一级皮，因为需要处理的瑕疵面积更大。
Terminology of the Ostrich Body Skin 鸵鸟体皮术语
The body skin consists of two major areas that are taken into consideration with grading. The Primary area or Crown is the main body of the skin that is covered with prominent quills, while the Secondary area consists of the belly area, the smooth area and the areas that stretch to the legs.
体皮由两个主要区域组成，分级时都要考虑在内。主要 部位或皇冠毛囊部位是皮料的主要部位，分布着突出的 毛孔，而次要部位包括腹部区域、光面区域和腿部的区 域。
The neck of the ostrich is covered in small neck quills 鸵鸟的颈部覆盖着细小的颈部毛孔
Wing area of the ostrich 鸵鸟的翅膀区域
The slaughter line, divides the belly in 4 parts on the ostrich skins 开腹线，将鸵鸟腹部皮分成4个部分
Terminology of the Ostrich Body Skin 鸵鸟体皮术语
Area underneath the bird’s wings without quills 鸵鸟翅膀下方没有毛孔的区域
Groin area of the bird 鸵鸟的腹股沟区域
Where the leg skins were cut from the body skin 体皮中仍然被保留的腿皮部分
The grading of ostrich body skins take place by making use of two imaginary lines drawn through the width and the length of the crown or quilled area of the skin. This divides the skin into four quadrants. Each panel will be evaluated individually, and the final number of blemished quadrants or panels will determine the grade of the skin.
对鸵鸟皮分级时，以中间皇冠毛囊区域为中心画出一个 十字虚线。这条虚线将皮料划分为四个区域。每个区域 单独评估，有瑕疵的区域数量将决定皮料的等级。
Skin Defects considered in Ostrich Skin Grading 鸵鸟皮分级时需考虑的皮料瑕疵
The skin defects or damages that influence the grade of each ostrich skin can be divided into two basic groups – defects acquired by the ostrich during its lifetime, and defects incurred during the processing and tanning of the leather. 影响每张鸵鸟皮等级的皮料瑕疵或损伤可基本分为两组——鸵鸟皮本身的瑕疵，和皮革加工和 鞣制过程中产生的瑕疵。 Due to the naturally free-range farming techniques applied in the rearing of ostriches, some damage is bound to be accrued during the bird’s lifetime. This can be in the form of: 由于在饲养中采用了自然散养方式，因此鸵鸟在生长过程中必然会出现某些伤痕。这些伤痕为 • •
• • • • • •
Holes – Cuts that pierce through the skin. 穿孔——穿透皮肤的切口。 Scars and Scabs – Healed and unhealed wounds create marks. If it blends in with the grain pattern and is smaller than the distance between two quills, it may not be regarded as a blemish during grading. 伤痕和结痂——愈合和未愈合的伤口留下的伤痕。如果伤痕小于两个毛孔间距，则不视为 瑕疵。 Scratches – Clearly visible scratches caused by sharp objects that disturb the natural grain pattern will be considered, while healed scars that blend into the pattern may be disregarded during grading. 划痕——由尖锐物体导致的皮面伤痕会影响皮革等级，但与皮面融合的愈合伤可忽略不 计。 Rough surface – Open grain damage normally associated with scuffing which may be caused by sunburn, chafing, feather pecking etc. 粗糙表面——通常与摩擦伤相关，由晒伤、擦伤、啄羽等引起的皮面伤痕。 Bacterial Damage – Sueded grain, which may form holes in severe cases. 细菌伤痕——起毛皮面，严重情况下可能形成孔洞。 Diseases and Pests – Inoculation marks, tick or lice bites, rashes and ringworm. 病害和虫害——接种痕迹、蜱或虱子咬伤、皮疹和皮癣。 Chemical Burns – When pest infested areas are treated, the chemicals may cause further damage. 化学灼伤——当处理虫咬区域时，化学品有可能会造成进一步伤痕。 Ingrown Feather Follicles – When the bird pecks its feathers, the quill and surrounding area is thickened. 未发育毛囊——当鸵鸟啄羽毛时，毛囊和周围区域会变厚。 Damaged Feather Follicles - Quills are visibly damaged or severely under-developed quills. 受损毛囊——毛囊明显损伤或毛囊严重发育不良。
During the processing of the ostrich, additional blemishes and marks can also be caused by machines or human errors. The variation in the thickness of each skin makes it unique in its handling, and it is not uncommon that a skin can incur some damage during this extremely intricate process in the form of:
A Grade 1 skin only has visible blemishes on a single quadrant on the crown area of the ostrich skin. The secondary area of the skin is reasonably clean and all parts of the secondary skin area will be intact. Grade 1 skins are normally used in the creation of products that require big, blemish free panels. Due to availability and demand, a premium price will be paid for Grade I ostrich skins. 一级鸵鸟皮在皇冠部位的四个分区域中，仅有一块区域存在瑕疵，其他区域干净无暇。一级皮料 通常用于制作需要整块无暇皮料的产品。由于供不应求，一级鸵鸟皮通常价格不菲。 Two quadrants on the crown area of a Grade 2 skin will have visible blemishes present. The secondary areas will be reasonably clean and might not have all parts of the skin entirely intact. Leather items requiring medium sized panels are created using Grade 2 skins. 二级鸵鸟皮在皇冠部位的四个分区域中，有两块区域存在瑕疵。其他区域相对干净，但并非完全 无暇。二级皮料通常用于制作中等尺寸皮料的产品。
A Grade 3 skin has visible blemishes on three of the quadrants of the crown area and can have more visible damage on the secondary area. Not all parts of the secondary area of the skin might necessarily be intact. Shoes and boots are usually manufactured from Grade 3 skins, while wallets, purses and medium sized accessories can also be created. 三级皮在皇冠部位的三个区域内都有明显的瑕疵，并且其它区域可能有更明显的伤痕。并非其它 次要区域都必须完好无损。鞋子和靴子通常由三级皮制成，同时也可以制作钱包，长夹和中型皮 具。 •
Holes, Flaying and Fleshing Marks – During the slaughtering process the thickness of the skin can be compromised, or in severe cases a hole can be cut.
Chafe Marks – During processing, chafing can be incurred by sharp edges in the drums, etc.
Chemical or Hot Water Burns – Both can be incurred during processing. Lime burns are typically found in the secondary areas.
擦伤——在加工过程中，转鼓等物体的尖锐边缘引起的擦伤。 化学灼伤或热水烫伤——两者都可能在加工过程中产生。石灰烧伤通常在次要等级部位 出现。 •
Buffing Damage – The thickness of the skin can be compromised, or in severe cases a hole can be cut.
Spray or Finishing faults – The variation in thickness and depth of each skin make errors inevitable. Skilled labour however limits these faults to a minimum.
喷涂或涂饰出错——每张皮料的厚度和毛囊大小各不相同，加工时难以避免出错。然 而，技术娴熟的技工可以将出错率降至最低。 •
Deep wrinkles – Can accumulate on the edges of the crown.
Uneven or excessive polishing – The skin can look patchy, or if excessively polished the quill tips may burn or blacken.
The crown area of a Grade 4 skin will have a blemish free space as big as an A4 panel that can be moved around to fit on the crown and still be covered with quills. There will be blemishes present on the secondary skin area and all parts of it is not always intact. Grade 4 leather is suitable for belts, wallets and small leather products. 四级皮料必须灵活调整开料位置，才能在皇冠部位获取尺寸相当于A4纸张大小的无瑕疵的皮料。 其它部位存在多处瑕疵，毛囊周边部位存在损伤。 四级皮料适合用于制作皮带、钱包等小型皮 具。
On a Grade 5 skin, you will be able to cut a blemish free area, covered with quills, as big as an A5 panel that you can move around on the crown area. Blemishes can be visible on the secondary area and the skin might have parts of the secondary area missing. Small leather goods like key chains, lipstick holders and pens are manufactured with Grade 5 skins.
五级皮料必须灵活开料，才能在皇冠部位获取尺寸相当于A5纸张大小的无瑕疵皮料。 其它部位可见许多瑕疵，而且存在缺损部分。五等皮料可用于制作钥匙环、唇膏盒、 钢笔贴皮之类的小型皮具。
Body skins with damage to such an extent that no A5 panel free of defects can be measured out on the crown area.
Pinch marks – Takes place during polishing if folds occur. 捏痕——皮料在抛光过程中一旦被折叠，就会出现捏痕。
QUALITY AND GRADING OF OSTRICH LEG SKINS
Ostrich leg skins have characteristic metatarsal scales that distinguish it very easily from the quilled body skin. This unique leather first gained popularity in the production of smaller or panelled handbags, wallets, belts and accessories. The past 15 years have seen ostrich leg leather gain ground in the luxury interior design market. Designers join different panels to create larger objects, or the panels are combined with ostrich feathers or other materials to create unique and fashionable pieces. The full ostrich leg skin measures approximately 80-100mm wide and 300-400 mm in length. 鸵鸟腿皮具有独特的跖骨鳞片花纹，与鸵鸟体皮上的粒面革截 然不同。鸵鸟腿皮最早用于制作小型皮具或拼接料的手袋、钱 包、钱夹等配饰，结果一经问世，大受好评。十五年来，鸵鸟 腿皮在高端家具设计市场站稳了脚跟。设计师把多块鸵鸟腿皮 拼接起来，用来制作较大的皮具，或者把鸵鸟腿皮与鸵鸟体皮 或其他材料相组合，制作出独具特色的皮具。一块完整的鸵鸟 腿皮大约宽80-100mm，长300-400mm。
Terminology of the Ostrich Leg Skin 鸵鸟腿皮料术语
Main body: The rectangular section with metatarsal scales are present in the centre. This section is approximately 250 mm x 80 mm. 主体区：中间部分带有跖骨鳞片的长方形部位。该区域面积大 约为250mm×80mm。 Knee area: The wider part of the leg skin, identified by its natural folds. 膝盖区：自然弯曲部分，位于腿皮的较宽部位。 The metatarsal scales: The scaled section on the front of the ostrich leg that is located between the knee and the foot area. This gives the leg skin its distinct character. 跖骨鳞片区：位于鸵鸟腿前部的跖骨部位，在膝盖与脚部之间 的区域。正是这块区域令鸵鸟腿皮变成独一无二。
The Grading of Ostrich Leg Skins 鸵鸟腿皮的评级
The grading of ostrich leg skins only takes the rectangular main body of the leg skin into consideration. The size of the main body of each leg skin varies according to its final grade. 评级鸵鸟腿皮时，我们仅考虑长方形主体区域的品质。每块鸵鸟腿皮主体的尺寸因最终等级而异。
Defects and Damages that affect Grading of Ostrich Leg Skins 影响鸵鸟腿皮料等级的缺陷与损伤
Any form of imperfection, blemish or damage that is visible on the main body of the ostrich leg skin and which will have a negative impact on the visual quality of the leather has to be taken into account in the grading thereof. The size, location and nature of each blemish will determine if the skin will be downgraded. Blemish free leg skins are very popular in the market and thus the most expensive. 在鸵鸟腿皮的主体区范围内，任何形式的不完美、瑕疵或损坏，都会影响皮革的美感，影响皮料的评 级结果。每处瑕疵的大小、位置、性质都决定了皮料的等级。完美无瑕的鸵鸟腿皮在市面上非常抢 手，因此价格昂贵。 Ostrich Leg Skin defects can include: 鸵鸟腿皮的缺陷包括： •
Scratches – Will normally occur as thin, lighter coloured scars on the skin. These blemishes can be due to raw, partially healed or healed injuries incurred by thorns or toe nails of other chicks. 划伤——通常表现为位于腿皮表面的细条浅色伤疤。这样的瑕疵，通常是鸵鸟被荆棘或其他雏鸟 的指甲划伤之后，创口半愈合或痊愈合后产生的。 Scars – Resulting from raw, partially healed or healed wounds typically visible as kick marks, holes or scabs. 疤痕——踢伤、穿孔、疮痂等伤口，或半愈合和痊愈合后产生的痕迹。 Rough Grain – Rough areas on the skin, normally adjacent to the metatarsal scales, resulting from chafing, putrefaction or bacterial action which will form “open grain”. 粗纹——皮料上的粗纹通常位于跖骨鳞片附近，是由鸵鸟身上的擦伤、腐坏或细菌感染所导致 的“组织粗大”现象导致的。 Aesthetic Appeal – The immediate overall first impression one gets at first glance when observing the leg skin. 美感——鸵鸟腿皮料给人的第一整体印象。
The main body is 250mm x 80mm. In cases where the metatarsal scale area is longer than 250mm, the main body can be moved upwards or downwards to exclude defects. Grade 1 leg skins will be blemish and hole free in the selected metatarsal scale length of the main body area. The metatarsal scales will run down the middle of the main body and all parts of the leg skin will be in a whole and good condition. 主体区面积为250mm×80mm。如果跖骨鳞片部位的长度超过250mm，则可把主体区域整体上 移或下移，避开缺陷。一级鸵鸟腿皮的主体区在跖骨鳞片纵向取料范围内毫无瑕疵或坑洞。跖骨 鳞片位于主体区正中央，鸵鸟腿皮的其他部位整体状况良好。
The size of the main body must measure at least 200mm x 80mm, and upwards or downwards movement along the metatarsal scales is allowed in order to exclude defects. The entire measured area must be free of defects and holes, with all parts of the leg skin intact. 主体区域的尺寸必须至少达到200mm×80mm，取料范围可沿着跖骨鳞片部位上下移动，避开缺 陷。整体取料测量区域必须毫无瑕疵或坑洞，鸵鸟腿皮所有部分均完好无暇。
A Grade 3 skin has a main body area of at least 150mm x 80mm. The measured area may be moved upwards or downwards to exclude defects, as long as the selected area is devoid of blemishes and holes. A small part of the knee area or the bottom edge of the metatarsal scales may not be intact. 三级鸵鸟腿皮的主体区域尺寸必须至少达到150mm×80mm。在取料部位没有瑕疵或 坑洞的前提下，取料测量区域可上下移动，避开瑕疵。膝盖部位的一小部分或跖骨鳞片 部位的底部边缘或许存在瑕疵。
There must be a main body of 100mm x 80mm which can be moved upwards or downwards to exclude defects. The metatarsal scales may contain defects, but the main body of metatarsal scales must be free of defects and holes. A Grade 4 leg skin can only be half a leg skin or parts of the knee or metatarsal scales may not be completely whole. 四级鸵鸟腿皮的主体区域尺寸必须至少达到100mm×80mm，测量取料区域可上下移动，避开瑕 疵。跖骨鳞片部位或许存在瑕疵，但是跖骨鳞片的主体区必须毫无瑕疵或坑洞。四等鸵鸟腿皮或许 仅有完整腿皮的一半，或者膝盖或跖骨鳞片部位并不完整。
Leg skins with damage to such an extent that no main body measuring a minimum of 100mm x 80mm free of defects can be selected. 鸵鸟腿皮受损严重，无法取出尺寸至少达到100mm×80mm的无瑕疵皮料。
Products Manufactured from Ostrich Leather 鸵鸟皮产品
PART 5 第五部分：
Products Manufactured from Ostrich Body Skins 鸵鸟体皮制品 Handbags, Purses & Wallets 手袋、钱包、钱夹
Exotic leather skins have shaken up the high-fashion industry. Klein Karoo International’s ostrich leather is regarded as being one of the most sought-after leather types by Fashion Houses. The unique quill markings on ostrich leather ensure an end product that stands out above the rest. The softness and durability make it easy to work with and creates handbags and wallets that are extremely comfortable and pleasurable to own. Ostrich leather compliments formal designs effortlessly, but less formal designs for everyday use are increasing in popularity and trending more each day. 鸵鸟皮珍稀华美，令整个高端时尚业为之倾倒惊艳。Klein Karoo International出品的鸵鸟皮革，更是各大时尚厂商竞相抢购的皮料。独一无二的 羽孔文理，赋予了鸵鸟皮具别具一格的迷人美感。鸵鸟皮质地柔软坚韧，制成的手袋与钱包耐用可靠，广受青睐。鸵鸟皮能够轻松驾驭适合正式场 合的设计款式，也适用于相对休闲日常的设计款式，堪称百搭多用，人气与日俱增，成为炙手可热的潮流利器。
Furniture & Automotive 家具与车辆
The use of exotic leather in feature furniture pieces can make the interior of any vehicle or household instantly fashionable and unique. Not all exotic leathers are however suitable for upholstery – fish and snake skins are just too narrow and will need too many panels. The durability and aesthetic appeal of Klein Karoo ostrich leather is extremely popular in the high-end furniture and automotive manufacturing industry. Ostrich leather excels in providing comfort and age beautifully into the leather’s natural patina. The softness and flexibility of ostrich skins create luxurious seating that invites you to touch. 采用稀有皮革制作特色装潢，无疑会为爱车或家宅锦上 添花，使其更加时尚独特。然而，并非所有稀有皮革都 适用于室内装潢——鱼类与蛇类的皮料尺寸太窄，需要 大量裁片。Klein Karoo出品的鸵鸟皮革坚韧耐用，别致 美观，在高端家具与汽车制造行业广受青睐。鸵鸟皮不 但触感亲肤舒适，而且会随着时间流逝，逐渐形成一种 迷人的皮革包浆。鸵鸟皮质感柔滑坚韧，制作出的座椅 奢美华贵，令人爱不释手。
Shoes & Boots
Klein Karoo Emporium
The durability and softness of ostrich leather has established this exotic skin as a favourite in the international footwear market. The distinct pattern has made it easy for ostrich leather to become a status symbol in the high fashion footwear market. Klein Karoo ostrich leather is considered to be one of the softest exotic skins, making ostrich leather a pleasure to wear. The use of ostrich leather is especially popular in the cowboy boot industry where the unique visual and physical attributes both ensure a very unique and comfortable end product. 鸵鸟皮质地坚韧柔软，现已成为国际鞋履 市场上广受青睐的稀有皮料。鸵鸟皮革的 美丽纹路独一无二，使其成为高端时尚鞋 履的象征。Klein Karoo出品的珍稀鸵鸟皮 革，始终以柔软质地冠绝业界，令穿着鸵 鸟皮成为一种美好的享受。独特的视觉美 感和卓越的物理特性，使鸵鸟皮革得以制 作出别具一格的舒适鞋履，在牛仔靴市场 尤其广受欢迎。
Various different accessories can be manufactured from ostrich leather including belts, phone cases, keyrings, lipstick holders and many more. The ample size of an ostrich skin makes it possible to produce numerous smaller items from a single skin or a manufacturer will utilize the remaining areas of the skin after laying out the bigger items required to be cut. Nothing goes to waist of this versatile skin. Using more affordable skins of a lower grade is possible as no large panels are necessary. 鸵鸟皮可用于制作各种配饰，包括皮带、手机壳、钥匙环、口红包等等。单块鸵鸟皮料的尺 寸足以用于制作多个小物件，制造商也可把制作大件皮具的下脚料切割后用于制作小物件。 鸵鸟皮用途广泛，利用率高。在无需消耗大块裁片的情况下，也可使用更加经济的低等皮料 进行加工制作。
Klein Karoo International’s research and development team has created a unique leather finishing known as “garment” that is ideal for the use of ostrich leather in clothing creation. The final design for each garment will determine how much ostrich leather will be required. Anything between 3-5 skins can be used for a jacket depending on the size and length of the style. Care must be taken with planning the panels to optimize the utilization of the skin, especially for the quills in the required mirror areas of the garment. Klein Karoo International的研发团队开 发出了一种叫做“服装专用”的独特涂饰， 是制作鸵鸟皮服饰的理想皮革材料。服装 的最终款式设计决定了鸵鸟皮的用量。根 据不同的尺寸与衣长，一件夹克通常需要 耗用三到五块皮料。规划裁片时，需注意 尽可能充分利用皮料，用于服装正面的毛 囊纹路，更是如此。
Products Manufactured from Ostrich Leg Skins 鸵鸟腿皮制品 Traditionally a very limited selection of ostrich leg skin products was available in the market and belts were by far the most popular. Today, a wide range of innovative products is manufactured using this small and unique leg skin. 传统上的鸵鸟腿皮制品相当少，最常见的是皮带。而 今天，出现了更多用这种小巧而独特的皮料制作的创 新产品。。
Handbags, Purses & Wallets 手袋、钱包、钱夹
The uniquely scaled rectangular form of ostrich leg skins make them a popular choice in the creation of evening handbags and smaller items made with stitched panels. Clever designing makes it possible to use multiple leg skins in the creation of a medium sized handbag. Combining ostrich leg skins with other materials like ostrich body leather or bovine leather help to enhance the unique scaled effect on the leg skin when used in a contrasting manner. Leg skins are often used on the front panel of evening bags and purses and create an ideal back panel for wallets. 鸵鸟腿皮带有独特的鱼鳞状方形纹路，深受欢迎，可 在缝纫拼接后用于制作各种皮具，堪称晚宴手袋和小 型配饰的的理想材料。可以通过巧妙设计，采用多块 鸵鸟腿皮料，制作出中号手袋。将鸵鸟体皮或牛皮等 其他材质与鸵鸟腿皮相结合，形成鲜明对比效果，有 助于凸显鸵鸟腿皮的独特鱼鳞状纹路。鸵鸟腿皮通常 用于制作晚宴手袋与钱包的正面部分，也可作为钱包 的后侧裁片。
Via la Moda
Interior Design & Furniture
The biggest growth for leg skins were experienced in the interior design and furniture market. A wide range of luxurious scatter cushions are on offer that are created by joining panels and combining it with hair-on leathers or ostrich feathers. Side tables, trays, tissue boxes and a big selection of home accessories are covered in leg skin panels. Rarity Handbags
Ostrich leg skins are perfect for accessories. The unique shape of leg skins allows for the creation of smaller items with minimal waste, making it much more cost effective. Beautiful belts are crafted by joining the leg skins down the length of the metatarsal scales. 鸵鸟腿皮是制作配饰的理想材 料。其形状独特，非常适合制 作更加小巧的配饰，浪费较 少，性价比高。鸵鸟脚部至跖 骨部位的美丽皮纹均可用于制 作工艺品。
室内装饰与家具市场对鸵鸟腿皮的需求增长最为迅猛。目前市面上纷纷推出各种用 鸵鸟腿皮拼接制成，带鸵鸟羽毛的皮料或只用鸵鸟羽毛制成的豪华靠垫产品。还有 许多鸵鸟腿皮包裹装饰的墙边桌、茶盘、纸巾盒等各种家居饰品也深受欢迎。
Shoes & Boots 鞋履
Sandals, shoes and boots are often created using leg skins. Two matching grade I leg skins are usually used for the centre piece of the vamp. The shoe can be completed by combining more leg skin panels to complete the vamp or smooth ostrich body leather also creates a good match. 鸵鸟腿皮通常用于制作凉鞋、靴子等各种鞋 履。鸵鸟腿皮制品一般采用两种质量等级相同 的皮料搭配制作，一级皮料用于制作鞋面的中 央部位。可使用多块鸵鸟腿皮来制作鞋面，或 者组合搭配鸵鸟体皮上的光面皮革来制成完整 鞋履。
KKI Ostrich Body Leather Colour Card KKI 鸵鸟体皮色卡
O S T R I C H B O D Y L E AT H E R
Mod Blue SF
Iris Blue SF
French Blue Jean SF
Navy Blue SF
Hot Pink MF
Dove Grey Pearl
Light Gold MF
Brilliant Green SF
Malta Blue SF
Old Navy SF
Flame Red IRR
Rising Sun SF
Forest Green SF
Crystal Blue SF
Indian Pink IRR
White Pearl MF
American Blue Jean SF
Canterbury Bells CF
Burnt Pink SF
Indian Pink SF
Blue Stone IRB
Linden Green IRY
Linden Green SF
Inoue Blue SF
Bright Pink SF
Sky Blue IRB
Antique Saddle SF
Rum Brown SF
African Violet SF
Shocking Pink SF
K L E I N K AK R LO EOI NI NKT AE R RO NO A TI INOTNEARLN A T I O N A L
Actual leather colour may differ slightly from printed colours displayed
KLAIOLTFLYM QA UR AK L IO TF Y QUALITY H A L L M A RHKA LO LF MQAURAH
Ostrich Special Finishes 鸵鸟皮特殊涂饰
OSTRICH SPECIAL FINISHES
Charcoal Grey SF
Kango Tabac SF
Tapestry Grey SF
Chilly Red Bruciato
Brandy Rio Grande
Antique Saddle MD
Patte Orange SF
Artic Ice SF
Meteor Rio Grande
Dove Grey SF
Flame Red VF
Straw Yellow Rio Grande
Mod Blue CC
Rum Brown MD
Chilly Red SF
Light Bark SF
Printers Blue Rio Grande
Antique Saddle Colonial
Blackberry Juice SF
Flame Red SF
Scarlet Red SF
Linden Green LVF
Black Rio Grande
Kango Tabac Colonial
R NA FS R O IUCTAH A F R I C A O U D T S H OOOURDNT S H OO UO TH
O S T R I C H L E AT H E R
KKI Ostrich Leg Skin Colour Card KKI鸵鸟腿皮色卡
Navy Blue GL
Mod Blue GL
Crystal Blue GL
African Violet GL
Burnt Amber GL
Blue Jean GL
Dark Grey GL
Tapestry Grey GL
Winter Wheat GL
Dark Bordeaux GL
Actual leather colour and finish may differ from printed colour and finish displayed
P . O . PB. O OX . B2 O 4 1X 2 4 1
Actual leather colour and finish may differ from printed colour and finish displayed
OUDTSHOORN, 6620, SOUTH AFRICA
KKI Ostrich Leg Skin Colour Card KKI鸵鸟腿皮色卡
Warm Olive GL
Linden Green GL
Flame Red Sateen
Kangaroo Paw GL
Burnt Amber Sateen
Dark Gold MF
Yellow Tea GL
Mid Brown Sateen
Brilliant Green GL
Forest Green GL
Dark Asclepias GL
Kango Tabac Sateen
Kopp Red GL
Chilly Red GL
Nutty Brown GL
Winter White MF
Scarlet Red GL
Antique Saddle GL
Ice White CF
Flame Red GL
Actual leather colour and finish may differ from printed colour and finish displayed
+27 (0)44 203 5250
FA X :
+27 (0)44 279 2649
Actual leather colour and finish may differ from printed colour and finish displayed
H A L LHMAAL RL K OR F KQ U TA YLI T Y MA OA F LQI U
KKI Ostrich Leg Skin Colour Card KKI鸵鸟腿皮色卡
Scarlet Red SW
Burnt Amber SW / Buffalo Reverse Print
Burnt Burnt Amber Amber GLT GLT
Cuban Cuban Cigar Cigar BF BF
African African Plane Plane FF FF
Linden Green SW
Dark Dark Asclepias Asclepias Vintage Vintage
Saddle Saddle Tan Tan BF BF
Platino Platino FF FF
Bone Bone WO WO
Antique Antique Saddle Saddle BF BF
Midas Midas Gold Gold FF FF
Indian Pink SW
Nutty Brown SW
Antique Antique Saddle Saddle BO BO
Chestnut Chestnut BF BF
Gun Gun Metal Metal FF FF
Crystal Blue SW
Dark Grey SW
Rugged Rugged Rio Rio Grande Grande
Tangerine Tangerine BF BF
Sterling Sterling FF FF
Navy Blue SW
Black Black Rio Rio Grande Grande
Flame Flame Red Red BF BF
Pink Pink Ice Ice FF FF
Actual leather colour and finish may differ from printed colour and finish displayed
Actual Actual leather leather colour colour and and finish finish may may differ differ from from printed printed colour colour and and finish finish displayed displayed
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Luxury Never Goes out of Style 奢华永远不会过时
Designing a new product that is unique in style while still maintaining its functionality is difficult. Choosing the right materials can play a crucial part in your design process. Ideally, your material of choice should be visually unique while still providing the ultimate customer experience. 在充分保有现有功能性的情况下，设计出款式独一无二的全新产品是相当困难的。在设计过程 中选对材料非常关键。理想条件下，上乘材料必须具备独特的外观美感，带给消费者极致的美 好体验。 The exceptional qualities inherent to ostrich leather have the potential to take any design to the next level. Ostrich leather ranks high among artisans due to its sheer beauty. The stunning extra dimension created by the raised quills guarantees heightened attraction from potential buyers. 鸵鸟皮的品质卓越，潜力巨大，能够为任何设计锦上添花。因为外观美丽，鸵鸟皮在专业工匠 心中享有崇高地位。生动立体的粒面质地带来的迷人美感，总能吸引大批潜在买家趋之若鹜。 Producing the perfect ostrich leather is only possible through the dedicated commitment of generations of skilled labour that are continuously working towards maintaining the best quality of leather. Klein Karoo International Pty Ltd proudly produces the best ostrich leather in the world. Our SA Black Ostrich is adapted to survive the extreme conditions of its natural habitat, making its leather extremely durable while maintaining a soft handle that makes it easy to work with and any product made from it a sheer pleasure to own. In a world that tends to lean towards the mild and uninspiring, make sure you leave a footprint that stands out above the rest. Switch to Ostrich. 只有世代传承的精湛工艺和对一流品质的孜孜以求，才能成就最完美的鸵鸟皮制品。Klein Karoo International 是世界首屈一指的鸵鸟皮生产商。南非黑颈鸵鸟在自然界最极端的环境中 生存，皮质坚韧耐磨，手感柔滑绵软，可靠耐用，是值得拥有的格调珍品。在这庸庸俗世，人 云亦云，何妨独树一帜，傲然独行。忠于心中真爱，选择臻品鸵鸟皮。
conservationists. 生物多样性指自然环境中有多种多样的动 植物。实现生物多样性是生态环境保护工 作者的目标。
Glossary | 术语表
Bio-security | 生物安全 The precautions taken to protect against the spread of lethal or harmful organisms and diseases. 生物安全指预防致命有害生物与疾病传播 的各种措施。
Abattoir | 屠宰场 A regulated facility where animals are culled and processed into meat. 屠宰场指用于宰杀牲畜，将其加工成肉类 的规范化工场。 Aniline | 苯胺 A colourless oily pungent liquid used in the manufacture of dyes. 苯胺是一种带有刺鼻气味的无色油状液 体，用于染色加工。 Aniline Leather | 苯胺革 A drum dyed leather with no pigment used on the topcoat during the leather finishing process. 苯胺革是一种在涂饰过程中不用染料进行 面层着色的转鼓染色皮革。
Bovine Leather | 牛皮 Bovine leather refers to cowhide leather. This is most abundant leather type that is used by manufacturers to produce moderately priced genuine leather items. 牛皮是指牛的皮革，是厂商制作中档价位 真皮制品时运用最广泛的皮革类型。 Buffing | 抛光 The process in which the thickness of the crust skin is evened out by sanding down excess flesh on the back of the skin in preparation of the skin for dyeing or before final finishing. 抛光是在准备染色或最终涂饰之前，打磨 皮革背面余肉，平整坯革厚度的加工工 艺。
胶原蛋白是皮料与其他结缔组织中含有的主要结构蛋 白，包括生皮与皮料。 Commodities | 商品 A raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold. Commodities are most often used as inputs in the production of other goods or services. 商品指可进行买卖的原料或初级农产品，通常用于投 入其他货物或服务的生产。 Corrected grain | 磨面皮 Leather of lesser quality of which the grain is sanded off and the application of prints, pigments or speciality finishes are used to cover up the defects. 磨面皮指纹理经过打磨，运用印花、颜料或特殊涂饰 工艺进加工，以此掩饰瑕疵的较次等皮革。 Crown (body area) 皇冠部位（鸵鸟身皮） The diamond shape that covers the centre area of the ostrich skin which consists of quills. 皇冠部位指位于鸵鸟皮中央部位，覆盖有毛囊纹理的 菱形皮革部位。 Crust | 皮胚 The dry stage of leather after the tanning process has been completed. 皮胚是鞣制工序完成后处于干燥状态的皮革。
By-product | 副产品 A secondary product of a manufacturing process, not the main aim or object towards which an endeavour is directed. 副产品指加工过程中产生的，主要产品或 目标产品之外的次级产品。
Curing | 防腐保存 Raw hides and skins decay at a rapid pace. Curing is the short-term preservation of the skins until they are required for tanning 生皮会快速腐烂。防腐保存是生皮在鞣制前进行的短 期保存加工工艺。 Distressed | 仿旧 A distressed object such as a piece of furniture or an item of clothing that has been deliberately made to look old. Having signs of ageing artificially applied. 仿旧制品是通过人工手段，刻意加工出古旧年代感的 家具、服饰等。
Blemish | 瑕疵 A skin defect or damage that will be taken into consideration during the grading process of each ostrich skin. 瑕疵指在进行鸵鸟皮料评级时，需要考虑 的皮料缺陷或损伤。
Certificate of Origin 原产地证书 An official document stating the name of the country, producer or area that produced a specified shipment of goods: often required by customs with other import documents before importation of goods. 原产地证书是说明特定批次货物的制造 国、生产商或生产地的官方文件，海关机 构通常在进口货物前要求将原产地证书与 其他进口文书一同出示。
Biodiversity | 生物多样性 The existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species living in their natural environment, which is the aim of
Collagen | 胶原蛋白 The main structural protein found in skin and other connective tissues, including hides and skins.
Automotive | 汽车制造 The automotive industry is a term that covers a wide range of companies and organisations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing and selling of motor vehicles and related products. 汽车制造业涵盖众多公司与组织，涉及机 动车及相关产品的设计、开发、制造、营 销与销售等。
Exotic Leather | 稀有皮革 Leather that has a unique or striking look – some special characteristic that immediately sets it apart from common bovine leather. Exotic leather can either be made from rare animal species, or from a special part of an animal’s skin that is rarely processed into leather. 稀有皮革指具有独特或醒目外观，能够从普通牛皮中 脱颖而出的皮革。稀有皮革可以取自珍稀动物，也可 以取自通常很少加工成皮革的动物皮料。
Fleshing | 去肉 The process used to cut or remove excess fat and flesh from the back of a raw hide or skin before processing it. 去肉指切削或去除生皮或皮料背面多余脂肪或肌肉的 过程。 Full grain / top grain leather 全粒面/头层皮 Represent using the top side of the hide or skin without altering it, allowing it to maintain its natural characteristics. 全粒面/头层皮指未经修饰的头层纯天然生皮或皮料， 带有自然质朴的特点。 Garment | 服装 A garment is a piece of clothing; used especially in context where you are talking about the manufacture or sale of clothes. 服装指的是服饰，常用于讨论服饰制造或销售的语 境。 Grading line | 分级线 Two lines drawn vertically and horizontally down the middle of an ostrich skin, dividing the belly in 4 parts for grading purposes. 分级线在鸵鸟皮中央，是一条水平线和一条垂直线， 将腹部区域划分为四个部份。 Grain | 皮面 The top or hair side of a hide or skin. 皮面指生皮或皮料的表层或带有毛发的一面。 Habitat | 栖息地 The natural environment in which an animal or plant normally lives or grows. 栖息地指动物或植物正常生存或生长的自然环境。 Haute couture | 高级定制/高级时装 High-end exclusive fashion clothing. Designed and constructed by hand. 高级定制/高级时装指考究时尚服饰的设计与制造，或 服装本身。 Hide | 生皮 A hide is the skin of a large animal such as a cow, horse, or elephant, which can be used for making leather. 生皮是可用于制作皮革的牛、马、象等大型动物的皮 料。
Incubator | 孵化器 An incubator is a piece of equipment used to mimic the natural breeding process of ostrich eggs. Incubation keeps eggs or bacteria at the correct temperature for them to develop and hatch in a controlled environment. 孵化器是用于模仿鸵鸟蛋自然孵化过程的设备。孵 化器可将蛋与细菌维持在适当温度，在可控环境下 使其发育、孵化。 Light fastness | 耐光性 The degree by which each skin is unaffected by the continuous exposure to light. 耐光性指皮料受到持续光照而不受损坏的程度。 Keratin | 角蛋白 Part of a family of fibrous structural proteins. It is the key structural material making up hair, nails and the outer layer of the skin called the epidermis. 角蛋白是纤维结构单位的家族一员，是构成毛发、 指甲与皮料外层表皮的关键结构材料。 Matte | 哑光 A dull surface or finish, which is not shiny or glossy and often roughened. 哑光指不具备高光或漆皮光泽，经过粗糙毛面加工 的哑色皮革表面质地或涂饰工艺。 Metatarsal scale | 跖骨鳞片 The scaled section on the front of the ostrich leg that is located between the knee and the foot area. 跖骨鳞片位于鸵鸟膝盖与脚面之间，是腿部表面的 鱼鳞状部位。
of coloured glass, pottery, or stone set in concrete or plaster. 马赛克是由镶嵌在水泥或石膏中的多色玻璃、陶瓷 或石头所构成的设计。
cover the top grain of the leather during the finishing process. 染色是在涂饰过程中，运用各种染料覆盖皮革表层的 加工过程。
Milled | 滚磨 Processing skins in a drum or cage with a milling action to achieve a specific look or feel. 滚磨是一种采用滚筒或滚笼加工皮料，实现特定外 观或质感的加工工艺。
Plating | 熨光 Leather that has been pressed in a hydraulic press under heat and heavy pressure to improve its appearance and give it a polished surface appearance. 熨光是在一定热量和压力条件下，采用液压工艺压平 皮革，使表面光滑平整，改善外观效果的加工过程。
Natural Grain Pattern | 自然纹理图案 Natural Grain Pattern refers to a specific look created on the grain or topside of the leather after hair removal and liming processes have been concluded during the tanning process. The hide or skin is finished in a manner that preserves the natural character of the leather - without embossing or correcting the grain pattern or covering the grain of the skin with finishing agents or pigments. 自然纹理图案指的是皮革在鞣制加工过程中，经过 脱毛、浸灰后在纹理或表面形成的特定外观。此时 生皮或皮料在涂饰过程中充分保留皮革的自然特 征，纹理图案未经压花或修饰加工，也未施涂涂饰 剂或染料。 Patina | 包浆 The patina on an object is an attractive soft shine that has developed naturally on its surface, usually enhanced by continuous use of the item. 包浆是物件经过持续使用，在表面自然形成的悦目 柔和光泽。 pH | pH值 A figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid and higher values more alkaline. pH is used to measure the relative acidity and alkalinity of a solution during the tanning process pH值是用来表示溶液酸碱度的数值，pH值为7时， 溶液为中性，数值越小，溶液酸性越大；数值越 大，溶液碱性越大。pH值用于测量鞣制过程中的溶 液酸碱度。
Monotone | 单色 A monotone surface does not have any variation in its colour. 单色面只有一种颜色。
Pigment | 染料 Insoluble colouring agent that is used with a binder in order to bind to the skin surface during the finishing process. 染料是在涂饰过程中，与附着剂一同作用于皮料表 面，以实现附着效果的不可溶染色剂。
Mosaic | 马赛克 A mosaic is a design which consists of small pieces
Pigmented | 染色 The use of pigments in the finishing process to
Protein | 蛋白质 Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. These complex organic substances are present in all living cells 蛋白质是肽键联结的氨基酸构成的高分子链，是一种 复杂的有机物质，广泛存在于所有活体细胞内。 Quadrant | 象限 One of the four areas created when two imaginary grading lines are drawn horizontally through the widest quill area and vertically down the hair line of the crown or quilled area of the skin for grading purposes. 在鸵鸟皮上划出两条假想基准线，一条是水平线，沿 毛囊粒面纹理的最宽部位分布，一条是垂直线，沿皇 冠部位的发缘线或皮料的毛囊分布区域分布，皮料这 样划分出四块区域时，其中任意一块区域均称为象 限。 Quill | 粒面皮 A “quill” is the small, raised, circular area on ostrich body skins also known as the “follicle” which remains after the feather is removed. Original ostrich leather quills can be lifted or bent, and a small hole where the feather grew will clearly be visible. A unique grain pattern is created by the quill marks that gives ostrich leather its unique visual appearance. “粒面皮”指的是鸵鸟体皮表面分布的小型圆形凸起部 位，也称为“毛囊”，是拔除羽毛之后，羽毛生长留下的 清晰圆形孔洞痕迹。这种独特的毛囊纹理赋予了鸵鸟 皮独一无二的视觉效果。 Retanned | 复鞣革 Leather that has been given a second tanning usually before the dyeing process is started. 复鞣革是在染色加工之前，经过二次鞣制加工的皮 革。 Semi-aniline | 半苯胺革 Leather that has been drum dyed and finished with the addition of small amounts of pigment to conceal defects but retaining the natural characteristics of the skin.
半苯胺革是一种经过转鼓染色加工，涂饰少量染料来 掩饰瑕疵，但依然保存自然特色的皮革。 Shaving | 修面 The removal of excess flesh from the back of the skin, evening out the thickness of the skin currently in the pickled stage. 修面是皮料在浸酸阶段去除背面余肉，平整皮料厚度 的加工过程。 Skin | 皮料 The term “skin” is used for the skins of smaller animals including ostriches, goats and sheep, which can be used to make leather. 皮料是可以用来制成皮革的，鸵鸟、山羊、绵羊等较 小动物的皮肤。 Split Leather | 二层皮 The second layer of the hide which is naturally sueded and used for leather suede. 二层皮是经过自然磨毛加工，用于制作绒面革的第二 层生皮。 Splitting | 削薄 The process where a skin is machine-split into two or more layers with a specific thickness setting selected on the machine. 削薄指的是在机器上设定特定切削厚度后，将一块皮 料切削成至少两层的加工过程。 Tannin | 鞣酸 A class of yellow or brown solid compounds found in many plants and used as tanning agents, a main compound in the process of making leather and in dyeing. 鞣酸是许多植物中含有的黄色或棕色固态化合物，可 用作鞣剂，主要用于制革染色工艺。 Tanning | 鞣制 The process applied to convert raw hides and skins into leather. Tanning strengthens the protein structure rendering it immune to bacterial attack, thus rendering hides/skins unable to decompose. Tanning enhances the natural properties of the leather. 鞣制是将生皮与皮料加工制作成革的过程。鞣制可加 固蛋白质结构，使其免受细菌侵害，令生皮与皮料免 于腐烂。鞣制加工还能改善皮革的天然特性。 Toggling | 绷板 A drying process where metal clamps are used to stretch the wet-blue or dyed skin onto metal frames. 绷板是一种加工工艺，即采用金属夹具，将蓝湿皮或 染色皮料放置在金属框架上进行拉伸烘干。
February and September each year at the Milan Fair in Rho. 意大利米兰琳琅沛丽国际皮革博览会是国际性的皮 革产业的展览盛会，每年二月份与九月份在意大 利米兰新国际会展馆举行，主要展销各种皮革、饰 品、部件、面料、人工合成材料与模型。
Two-toned | 撞色 Two colours or two shades of the same or different colour. 撞色指的是两种颜色或同种颜色的深浅色调构成对 比的视觉效果。 Wet-blue | 蓝湿皮 The wet stage of leather that is reached after the tanning process has been completed. 蓝湿皮是刚刚完成鞣制加工的皮革。
International Leather Trade Shows 国际皮革展销会 APLF in Hong Kong | 香港亚太区皮革展 Asia Pacific Leather Fair (formerly MM&T) is the sourcing hub for footwear, leather goods, garment & furniture industry for leather. APLF is positioned for the sourcing of leathers further downstream or related to the manufacturing industries of leather goods and mid-to-high quality footwear. This event takes place each year in March at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre. 亚太区皮革展（前身为原料及制造技术展）是皮革 鞋履、皮具、服饰、家具的采购交流盛会。亚太区 皮革展旨在帮助商家深入皮革行业下游开展采购业 务，或在皮具与中高端鞋履制造业缔结业务关系。 亚太区皮革展每年三月份在香港会议展览中心开展。 Lineapelle in Milan, Italy | 意大利米兰琳琅沛丽国际皮革博览会 Lineapelle Milano is an international trade fair for the leather industry in Italy. This international exhibition of leather, accessories, components, fabrics, synthetics and models takes place biannually during
Premier Vision in Paris, France | 法国（巴黎）第一视觉面料展 World trade fair for apparel fabrics. Premiere VisionFrance is one of the leading French Companies which is responsible for organizing Textile and Fashion Fairs. The event is considered as the heart of an international network and aims at promoting most innovative and unique designs. This event takes place twice yearly in February and again in September in Paris North Villepinte. 法国（巴黎）第一视觉面料展是服装面料的国际性 展销大会，由法国首屈一指的面料公司第一视觉公 司（Premiere Vision-France）负责组织举办。法国 （巴黎）第一视觉面料展旨在缔结国际商业网络， 激发独特创意，推动创新设计。该展会一年举办两 次，每年在二月份和九月份在巴黎北郊维勒班展览 中心举办。 WESA in Denver, USA | 美国丹佛WESA国际博览会 Western and English Sales Association international trade show for retailers and exhibitors. This show has over 750 exhibitors displaying new and innovative products all set up with the retailer in mind; to educate and impress with new and exciting concepts, along with the time tested favourites. Hosted at the Plaza Center in Denver, USA each January. WESA国际博览会是零售商与展览商的国际盛会， 会上有超过750家厂商零售展示各种创意新潮产品， 旨在传播、交流最新颖最精彩的思想理念和经典产 品。该展会于每年一月在美国丹佛市的商业广场中 心（Plaza Center）举行。
for the benefit of all. These interventions will be mainly directed at improving the quality of life of those operating in this sector and redressing the inequalities created by the past. 省农业厅的核心职能是向农户提供技术支持，发起 社区倡议活动，促进本省农业生产，为农业投资 营造良好环境。农业厅通常致力于积极干预、支持 倡议活动，提升本省的独特竞争优势，造福全体人 民。干预措施主要用于改善农业人口的生活质量， 消除历史因素导致的不平等问题。 South African Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC) | 南非鸵鸟皮革商贸协会（SAOBC） A non-profit organisation which regulates the ostrich industry in South Africa by representing both the interests of ostrich producers and processors and ensures that all role players align themselves with international standards. 南非鸵鸟皮革商贸协会是一家非盈利性机构，广泛 代表鸵鸟养殖户与鸵鸟制品加工商的利益，致力于 凝聚各方力量，实现国际产品水准。 CITES | 濒危野生动植物物种国际贸易公约 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species that regulates endangered or rare animal species. CITES plays an important part in conserving rare species and ensuring that they are protected from extinction. 濒危野生动植物物种国际贸易公约致力于监管濒危 或珍稀物种，在保护珍稀物种免于灭绝方面发挥了 重要作用。 NSPCA | 南非动物福利组织 The South African National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. A non-profit organisation that prevents cruelty, promotes kindness and alleviates the suffering of animals. 南非动物福利组织是一家致力于杜绝虐待动物，主 张善待动物，减轻动物痛苦的非盈利性组织。
Official Departments and Organisations 官方部门与机构
International Certification Systems 国际认证体系
Provincial Departments of Agriculture | 省农业厅 The core function of these Provincial Departments is to facilitate agricultural production in their province through the provision of technical support to farmers and community-based initiatives and the creation of a conducive environment for increased investment in agriculture. In many instances the Departments will actively intervene and support initiatives in order to enhance the unique competitive advantages of their Province
FSSC 22000 (Food Safety System Certification) FSSC 22000（食品安全体系认证） The FSSC 22000 Food Safety System Certification provides a framework for effectively managing your organization’s food safety responsibilities. FSSC 22000 is fully recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) and is based on existing ISO Standards. FSSC 22000食品安全体系认证基于现有ISO标准建 立，提供了一个有效管理组织内食品安全职责的框
架，深受全球食品安全倡议（GFSI）组织认可。 HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) | HACCP（危害分析临界控制点 A systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level. 危害分析临界控制点是一种系统化的预防工作法， 旨在生产流程中，预防导致不安全成品的生物、化 学、物理等危害因素，设计各种措施，减少安全风 险，保障食品安全。 IFS (International Food Standard) | IFS（国际食品标准） The International Food Standard (IFS) is a common food safety standard with a uniform evaluation system used to qualify and select suppliers. It helps retailers ensure the food safety of their products and monitors the quality level of producers of retailer branded food products. 国际食品标准（IFS）是一个运用广泛的食品安全标 准，配备统一的供应商资质授予与筛选评价体系， 能够帮助零售商确保食品安全，监管零售品牌食品 的质量水平。 NIHT (National Independent Halaal Trust) certified NIHT（国际清真食品认证） The National Independent Halaal Trust (NIHT) formerly the (IHT) is a South African organisation formed and constituted in 1992. The NIHT aspires to the highest Halaal standards as prescribed by the Sharia (Islamic Law). 国际清真食品认证（NIHT），原为清真食品认证 （IHT）认证，于1992年在南非成立，是伊斯兰教 法认证的最高清真食品认证标准。 REACH specifications | REACH认证 REACH is a regulation of the European Union, adopted to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, while enhancing the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. REACH stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. REACH认证全称是《关于化学品注册、评估、授 权和限制的法规》（Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals），是一 项欧盟管控法规，致力于改善人类健康与环境，杜 绝化学物质风险，提升欧洲化工产业竞争力。
Klein Karoo International Proprietary Ltd PO Box 241, Oudtshoorn South Africa Tel: +27 (44) 203 5250 Fax: +27 (44) 279 2649 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.kleinkaroo.com / www.kleinkaroo.com.cn
A Brief Introduction to the Ostrich Industry