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STUDIO AIR Algorithmic Journal 2016 SEMESTER 1, Sonya Xing Yi 692049


Contents INTRODUCTION PART A: CONCEPTUALIZATION A.1 Design Futuring A.2 Design Computation A.3 Composition & Generation A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning Outcomes A.6 Algorithmic Sketches

PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN B.1 Research Field B.2 Case Study 1.0 B.3 Case Study 2.0 B.4 Technique: Development B.5 Technique: Prototypes B.6 Technique: Proposal B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes B.8 Algorithmic Sketches

PART C: DETAIL DESIGN C.1 Design Concept C.2 Tectonic Elements and Prototypes C.3 Final Detail Model C.4 Learning Objectives and Outcomes


INTRODUCTION

I’m Xing, born and raised in China, currently taking Architecture as my major under the Bachelor of Environment. My family engaged in garment industry, so I was brought up under the influence of costume design. And I truly used to dream about my future about being a designer. But the real life isn’t just that easy to progress what you want to be. However, I feel very luck that I am doing architecture now which I think it is pretty similar to the costume design, both of those need to convert the idea into digital form by using various design tools and manufacture them into physical. I really enjoy the progress of making a conception in real. It satisfies me, eventhought the process was full of pain because my lack experience of using 3D modeling software. I used to spend whole week on figuring out how's the rhino work or how can I use illustrator more efficient. I always went crazy at that time and wanted to give up in every second. I even felt it was so annoying to open my laptop, it just so difficult for me. It was my hard time that I seldom slept for learning those tools. Fortunately, I finally went through the trait after my efforts, and I am delighted to have a good result at the end. Those experience always facilitate and support me right now. Eventhought, I have none experience on Grasshopper and new in Autocad, I think I can deal with them and push myself to study hard to catch up with the study process. As the development of digitization become more and more significant, the digital design tools start to increasing use in Architecture trades. Such as computer modeling, programming, imagine and so on . The digital technology really help the architects to create both virtual forms and physical structure. It rotates the architcture art in to new tendency, more declica, more elaborate, and more powerful than the traditional drawing and manufacture. The 3D modeling structure on the right was the project that I done in Digital Design and Fabrication. Used Rhino to model my conception of second skin protection on human body, then transfered the 3-dimentions model into 2-dimentions drawing. After that, used laser cut to print out various geometries drawings in plates and connected those plates to form a physical model. This was my inital experience on digital design tools, it was impressive and it totally renew my notion of architecture which was drawing and modeling by hand. So hopefully, I can keep going and discover more attractive perspective of Digital Architecture.

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FIG.1: DIGITAL DESIGN AND AND FABRICATION , SECOND SKIN , SEM 1, 2015

CONCEPTUALISATION 5


PART A: CONCEPTUALIZATION A1. DESIGN FUTURING Project Name: Entrance Arch at the Federal Garden Exhibition Architect(s): Frei Otto Location: Cologne, Germany Date: 1957

Frei Otto as one of the most famous architect who engineered the future, he contributed many ideas of various structures and building which many of them would not be exist without him. Most of his projects have indicated the ability of architecture to transform different ways of thinking. The project that I choose for design futuring is his design of tensile Arch that constructed at the entrance of the Federal Garden Exhibition. Instead of working in the usual structure of a construction, unlike the other structures, the Entrance Arch was mainly dediated in tensile structure(cabl-net structure) which brought out a new aesthetic in architectural design, the varied utilization method of material and spatial qualities. It was built in arch-spported membrane strucutre, 314m2 fabric membrane span 34m to cover the skeleton frame. Base on the idea of spatial management, the Entrance Arch bedded with 2.7m high masts hold up 6m high arch and extra 24m high membrane, that most of the structure is suspended in tha air as much as possible.

As the structure like this, roof of a tent, which use piece of fabric hanging between two points in tension, it often refer to lightweight, inecpensive membrane(fabric) strung but must engage with a complex hardware frameworks which can create a huge volumes that easy for assembling and disassembling. This project is the pioneer of many architectural designs nowaday. The inspiratioin of this project is based on nature, bubbles, spider webs, trees which also always illuminate by many architects in theris design now The most famous project that followed by Otts's cable- net structure is the Munich Olympic Game which designed with Gunter Behnisch. With the principle of utilizing tensile strength in archtiecture explore the progress of architecture development and inspire most of architectural work.

DEZEEN MAGAZINE, 2015. FREI OTTO: A LIFT IN PROJECTS. HTTP://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2015/03/11/FREI-OTTO-A-LIFE-IN-PROJECTS/ CAMPBELL-DOLLAGHAN, K. 2015. 9 BUILDINGS BY FREI OTTO, THE ARCHITECT WHO ENGINEERED THE FUTURE, GIXMODE AUSTRALIA. HTTP://WWW.GIZMODO.COM.AU/2015/03/9-BUILDINGS-BY-FREI-OTTO-THE-ARCHITECT-WHO-ENGINEERED-THE-FUTURE/


FIG 1&2: Entrance Arch at the Federal Garden Exhibitionn


FIG 3: HABITAT 67, PCTURE FROM WIKIPEDIA, PICTURE FROM : HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HABITA_67

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FIG 4: HABITAT 67, PICTURE FROM DAMI LEE,HTTP://WWW.DAMILEE.COM/HABITAT-67/


Project Name: Habitat 67 Architect(s): Moshe Sadie Location: Montreal, Canada Date: 1967

Habita 67, designed by Moshe Sadie is a project that haven been known as an architectural landmark and one of the most recoginzable and significant buildings in both Monteral and Canada right now. It used to be very controversial because the rereinvention of usual residential living, but it still remains Habitat 67 a funtional icon at that time. As the architectural design becomes more and more like LEGO, many designs pursue innovative architectural concept, such as simplicity, symmetry or geometrical, but less of architects triy to make a change in residential house, the signficant concept of a living always be the comfort, the architecture reach the client's comfort that was the primary mission. Sadie's project broke the boundaries of comtemporary architectural rules.Unlike the other residential buildings, the habitat 67 located throughtout the border of Monteral and Canada and used to be a architecture project that was ued for World Expo. It standed out with its unique structure.The special geometric construction were certainly a successful notion, through its anti-symmetry, decentralize and irrgular form, a fresh architectural aesthetics was introducted.

Also for me, this project inspire me to think about our social life, isolate and group, disperse and centralized which I think the sensibility of this project really deep into life. The relationship between human and human in society is prefectly emerged on this residential builidng. The crisscrossing structures just like the network of relationship, several graphics(building blocks) pieced together to form a whole, the tortuous passages forming a bridge of communication, like the partnership between human. On the other hand, in this staggered and complex building, there are a trace of hightlights on it. People now have a concertration on enironment, and purse a healthy lifestyle in this chaos. The exceptional arrangement of the structure contributes to the sustable design method, the staggered blocks present a spacial founctionality. It is not extends the pubilc area for residents but also allows the natural light come in and connect people with nature, people can live in a house that might have light from every aspects. The new spacial structure reach the harmony of human and human, human and nature. This project not only redefine the architectural aesthetics, but also redefine the city living. And this concept is currently used in current residential building, like the student builidings that near the university. Same structure, but more sophisticated and modern in appearance and material.

THE GUARDIAN, 2016. HABITAT 67, MONTERAL’S ‘FAILED DREAM’ - A HISTORY OF CITIES IN 50 BUILDINGS, DAY 35. HTTP://WWW. THEGUARDIAN.COM/CITIES/2015/MAY/13/HABITAT-67-MONTREAL-EXPO-MOSHE-SAFDIE-HISTORY-CITIES-50-BUILDINGS-DAY-35 WIKIPEDIA , 2016. HABITAT 67. HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HABITAT_67

CONCEPTUALISATION 9


A2. DESIGN COMPUTATION Project Name: Ordos Art & City Museum Architect(s): Chinese MAD architects Location: Ordos, Inner Mongolia, China Date: 2011

The architecture is closely associated with its content production. Only the architect who mastered the convenience of both of them can design a proper construction of the pragmatism. like the Ordos Art&City Museum designed by Chinese MAD Studio and and is focused on the history of the ordos area, as well as on the culture and traditions of Inner Mongolia. The entire construction extudes a powerful and solemn atmosphere which also demonstrates the historic information and echnology as a whole. Away from the traditional Chinese museum, this Ordos Museum is shaped like a huge undulating blob and cladded in polished metal tiles. The framework can efficiently prevent the sandstorms problem which always happen in Ordos. Inside the museum, on figure 7, we can see the unfinished structure where the polished metal ciss-crossing together and the simulated diagram on figure 6 show the complex the museum and it is a difficult mission for the architects to consider every details and issue.

Within the use of computational design tools, the architects will be able to modelling the structure quickly and also be able to develop adaptable solution for the architectural mistakes. The design computation is not only a efficiential technology for converying concept to structure but also prompted the architects to illustrate more precision architeture. Design Computation can also encourage the architect engage in a formulative thinking which benefit them to create a greater solution to a complex project like the museum. The use of the computation have developped the framework system of the building, which the metal were arched in a curve to form the shell shape and can also be refined through the computional process. Once the refinded done, the structure is more energy-saving than before which this is also respond to material consumption of building itself and apparently, it helps to save energy in future architecture.

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DESIGNBOOM, 2009. MAD ARCHITECTS: ERDOS MUSEUM, CHINA. HTTP://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/MAD-ARCHITECTS-ORDOS-MUSEUM-CHINA/ ARCHDAILY. 2012. ORDOS ART & CITY MUSEUM / MAD ARCHITECTS. HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/211597/ORDOS-ART-CTY-MUSEUM-MAD-ARCHITECTS 10

CONCEPTUALISATION


FIG 5: ORDOS ART & CITY MUSEUM, PICTURE FROM :HTTP://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/

FIG 6: INTERIOR 3D MODELLING, PICTURE FROM :HTTP:// WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/MADARCHITECTS-ORDOS-MUSEUM-CHINA/

FIG 7: INTERIOR UNFINISHED STRCUTRUE OF THE MUSEUM, CONCEPTUALISATION 11 PICTURE FROM:HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/211597/ ORDOS-ART-CTY-MUSEUM-MAD-ARCHITECTS


FIG 8: ABSOLUTE TOWERS. PICTURE FROM: HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/772466/LACMA-DISTINGUISHED-ARCHITECTS-LECTURE-SERIES-MA-YANSONG-MAD-ARCHITECTS

12 CONCEPTUALISATION FIG 9: ABSOLUTE TOWERS. PICTURE FROM: HTTP://WWW.

DEZEEN.COM/2012/12/12/ABSOLUTE-TOWERS-BY-MAD/

FIG 10: ABSOLUTE TOWERS. PICTURE FROM:: HTTP://WWW. DEZEEN.COM/2012/12/12/ABSOLUTE-TOWERS-BY-MAD/


Project Name: Absolute Towers Architect(s): MAD architects & Burka architects Location: Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Date: 2012

In this information-digitalized times, "a technological revolution that impacts the way that information is processed has the potential to affect core architectural processed and products, and also have a revoluting effect on the profession and disciplines of architecture." by Design Workshop lecture. Indeed, a new architectural design technology is developping and is emerging with us through computation. With the rapid development of technology, the computation design has also faciltated the performance and efficiency of architectural work in a better manner. Make use of computation in architecture can encourage the architect to construct the project in various ways and develop suitable method to perform the structure. Given the Absolute Towers as example. Unlike the usual skyscraper which establish the building in straight line, this project set the basement as the center of rotation which each storeys have rotated in certain degrees toward the same direction.

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By using the 3D modelling rhino with new tools Grasshopper, the architect can demonstrate the data of the degree that each storeys should shift and the potential rendings of the project. With the parametric system in grasshopper, the simulated model can preform various form of the structure, then the architect can assess the different of the structure in variouse degree, direction and even in diferent material. This is the benefit that computation bring out to contemporary design which traditional design can not reach. On the other hand, the revolution of drawing technology also shift the architectural method in a new trend. Instead of drawing the project in plane, model the project in 3D can show more aspects than 2D does. Using Rhino can allow us to play around with the model, like the towers shown on the left, in rhino, we can illustrate the model in 360 degrees in every angles and enable to discover the significant detail of the project. So, as conclusion, the computation do bring a ot of benefits to architectural design, it creates a new dynamic structure in future project.

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ABSOLUTE TOWERS BY MAD ARCHITECTS, 2016. HTTP://WWW.HOMEDIT.COM/ABSOLUTE-TOWERS-BY-MAD-ARCHITECTS/ ARCHDAILY. 2015. LACMA DISTINGUISHED ARCHITECTS LECTURE SERIES: MA YANSONG, MAD ARCHITECTS. HTTP://WWW. ARCHDAILY.COM/772466/LACMA-DISTINGUISHED-ARCHITECTS-LECTURE-SERIES-MA-YANSONG-MAD-ARCHITECTS DEZEEN. 2012. ABSOLUTE TOWERS BY MAD. HTTP://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2012/12/12/ABSOLUTE-TOWERS-BY-MAD/ CONCEPTUALISATION 13


A3. Composition & Generation Project Name: United Kingdom’s Pavilion Architect(s): Heatherwick Studio Location: Shanghai, China Date: 2010

Computation requires a extent comprehension of the relationship within the project itself and also need to incorporate the approach of geometries and algorithmic thought. The United Kingdom’s Pavilion (UK Pavilion) was constructed by the team Heatherwick tudio. It is one of the most famous Pavilions that exhibit in World Expo in Shanghai. As the budget for this project is very small, they designed to do a pavilion that is powerful and simply in visual and also enought strong to make the visitor to have a deep impression, so the UK Pavilion is sucessfully reached the brief of the project. This project can be determined as a exploration of design computation, it demonstrates an alternative theory of using programming system.

As the less of the budget caused the architect to be strategic and pragmatice, they came out with a clear, simple but firm concept of the structure itself. They had certain thought that want to use in the design process, such as “hair as forming the outward projection of the its orginal shape” “let the texture become its form”. The notion of texture is actually form the entire structure of the project. Once the theory is made, it is a challenge to do with generation within computation. The computation won’t be able to change architect’s mind if already make, it always doing prefect job and provide the best outcome of the project where the architect who is less meticulious and more focus on the exist idea of the structure itself, he might has ignored the important process of generation. Architects always find and fix the problem during the gengerative process, without it, the project might has inherent risk. So a enough generative process in computation is necessary and is a signficant process in modelling object.

HEATHERWICK STUDIO. 2010. HTTP://WWW.HEATHERWICK.COM/UK-OAVILION/ 2SEBASTIAN JORDAMA. 2010. HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/58591/UK-PAVILION-FOR-SHANGHAI-WORLD-EXPO-2010-HEATHERWICK-STUDIO 14

CONCEPTUALISATION


FIG 11: UK Pavilion. picture from http://www.archdaily.com/58591/ uk-pavilion-for-shanghai-world-expo-2010-heatherwick-studio

FIG 12: INTERIOR OF UK PAVILION. PICTURE FROM HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/58591/

FIG 13: DETAIL OF UK PAVILION. PICTURECONCEPTUALISATION 15 FROM HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/5859 UK-PAVILION-FOR-SHANGHAI-WORLD-EXPO-2010-HEATHERWICK-STUDIO


Project Name: Beetls Shell Inspired Pavilion (ICD ITKE Research Pavilion Architect(s): The University of Stuttgart Studio Location: Stuttgart Germany Date: 2013-2014 for exhibition

With the computation gradually deepen in architectural design process. The digital technologies has been commonly use in contemporay archtiectural practice. The architect have been shifted to use programming system instead of traditional architectural technique. By manipulating the program system is to discover more novel methods and invent more potential structures which can promote the architect to think in a more creative manner so architect would have more opportunities to develop their ideas step by step. And a more accurate design process would provide a better exploration in final design project.

Refer to the picture that shown on FIG 15. The pavilion was insprited by the beetls shell which is irregualar, geometric and lumpy. The drawings were all made within computational programming, showing the generation of the structure. We can see that the structure and being transform from polygon to circle inside and also the structure lines have been rotated that create a structure which is criss-cross. The concept have been generated from a simple object to final structure through computation. Architects gain information follow the programming process and therefor would be able to develop the most suitable structure for the project.

Take the Pavilion that designed by The University of Stuttgart as a example, a project that is big and complex like that, it generate in a very slow process to manufacture. It contains a lot of components and incorporates various design concepts like bend arch, hole, tensile structure, cross strusture and also the material uilization. Undoubtedly, the computation can evaluate the object in a more detailed and efficient way.

However, programming is not always work prefectly as we want, it has a limited understanding of what we want to show, the program always have a limitation in the structure setting, once our ideas excessed its boundedness, the computation would be incapable to finish the work.

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BERLY MOK, K. 2014. TREEHUGGER - SUSTAINABILITY MADE SIMPLE.. HPPT://WWW.TREEHUGGER.COM/GREEN-ARCHITECTURE/ ROBOTICALLY-WOVEN-CARBON-FIBER-PAVILION-BIOMIMICS-BEETLE-SHELL-ICD-ITKE-UNIVERSITY-STUTTGART.HTML 16

CONCEPTUALISATION


FIG 14: BETLS SHELL INSPIRED PAVILION, PICTURE FROM: BERLY MOK,K. 2014. TREEHUGGER-SUSTAINBILITY MADE SIMPLE

FIG 15: ASSEMBLING DRAWINGS OF BEETLS SHELL PAVILION. PICTURE FROM: CONCEPTUALISATION 17


A4. Conclusion

Part A explores the relationship between architectural precedect and its potential development in design computation as well as the development of computation technology itself. On the other word, the contemporary architectural design has been influenced by the promotion of the algorithmic thinking and computional theory.It has generally change our current design method in architecture. It is certained that our concept has become more and more accurate and clear to show on the construction throught the computation process. It is a revolution that influences the way that architects thinking in various ways and have different method on problem-solving. The computation development in architecture not only improve the productivity and efficiency of the design, but also provides a better condition for architects to explore their creativity.

In the case of Merri Creek, a good understanding of the site and rational analysis of the relationship between each system can make us have better conception of what should we dispose and what arhictectural theory we intend to involove in this area. Make use of the algorithmic thinking, we would be able to have a better comprehensioin of the interrelated systems of the site and then have a clear response to the environment, And for me, I intend to develop my design in process by using parametric computation which is not only more efficiency and accurate than traditional design thinking but also bring out a more sustainble and better problem-solving in future architectural practise.

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A5. Learning Outcome

After learning the conceptualization, my knowledge of architectural design has completely change. My previous understanding of design is only the discipline that I need to try my best to sell my project to the audience with beautiful layout and diagram in the presentation, a lot of CAD work, modelling my project more accurate in digital form, what I know was the better literal work that you done, the better result that you got. However, learning the algorithmic thinking and design computation, I always gain surprise during the process. Like the use of Rhino incorporate with Grasshopper can provide various potential development instead of only in one dimension. By using the algorithmic design, I can see the relationship between each pattern in Grasshopper, how can they connect together, and what cause them disconnect, although applying Grasshopper make the work more complex, I am still trying to figure out the meaning and the function of each pattern. Well, it is actually very annoying to see the failure of the connection, what can be done by rhino does not always work the same on grasshopper. However, in the grasshopper pattern network, we can clearly see the relationship between each action, it can be understanding that architecture likes nature is under sequence, it has origin which generate to the consequence, and we would be able to manipulate it if we comprehend the process. My new understanding of architecture with algorithmic theory and computational process can help me to expand my creativity in future design practise. As I have learned a lot from the computation, I might able to develop my knowledge in various disciplines and discover more architectural aesthetics in my studio and future career.

CONCEPTUALISATION 19


A6. Algorithmic Sketches

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CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION 21


PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN B1. RESEARCH FIELD

PATTERNING

We can reasonably regard the Pattern as a metaphysics which can be able to process the constructives activities in the real world. When we scraped off or reconstitue some of the substrate elements to understand the variety of pattern in our world, we are able to recreate and extending our intelligence which we call this technology. The power of self-replicating system which emerged from Pattern is exactly the technology that we can go further more in architecture field. Pattern continuously reflect in life and wisdom and it is more important that its own compositive materials. Pattern used to have its own status and adequate deveopment in traditional design concept. Eventhought it is the most orginial and most obvious element in contemporary spacial design, it is always overlooked and has not been deemed as necessary to exist (often seen as a form, material, or ornamentation). Pattern was originally serving a decorative role to adorn the building environment with culturally and religiously significant meaning. Such as the ornamentation in early Churches, Palaces and Mosques. The decorative geometric patterns at that time was generally functioned as a medium to demonstrate and exploit the religious belief and spirtual aesthetic to the world. It has indicated the pattern as a communicative role and also reveal the ability of pattern to create certain effect on visual, spirit and other aspects.

Pattern actually is a kind of fundamental feature of spatial design. Whether it is natural or artificially created pattern, it is always produced throught the interaction effect of various system such as dimension, time and proportion, and the element in pattern language are always combined, governed by certain rules. Meanwhile, every theory, design and space have its unique pattern, it might be from its own histroy, habits or regional forms which generally act like a fingerprints indicates the characteristics of different spatial morphology. Some of the patterning example can be seen in Edithvale-Seaford Wetlands Discovery Centre, by Minifie van Schaik architects. The interior of this "floating" discovery centre contains an interpretive gallery with special-designed glazing to offer views of the wetland and minimise vision into the building. And the raked external reflection with corrugate facade are always of the ground, aviod lest birds confuse relection for the reality. It is a common association throughout regional form to associate pattern with nature which relate to similar principle of nature as a self-organising system of interrelated parts and organisms. The pattern, as a expression of structure out of which it was made, might go much further more than other physical need and it would communicate and manufests the ideas in future period.

. CARTER, P. 2016. EDITHVALE-SEAFORD WETLANDS DISCOVERY CENTRE BY MINIFIED VAN SCHAIL. HTTP://ARCHITECTUREAU.COM/ ARTICLES/WITH-ALL-THE-VIEWS/ ARCHITECTS. HTTP://ARCHITECTUREAU.COM/ARTICLES/WITH-ALL-THE-VIEWS/ WIKIPEDIA. 2016. PATTERN(ARCHITECTURE). HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/PATTERN_(ARCHITECTURE) ADAM, M. 2010. PATTERNS & STRUCTURE. HTTP://PS-FALL2010.TUMBLR.COM/SYLLABUS 22

CONCEPTUALISATION


FIG 16: EDITHVALE SEAFORD WETLANDS DISCOVERY CENTRE. CONCEPTUALISATION 23 PICTURE FROM: HTTP://WWW.MVSARCHITECTS.COM.AU/DOKU.


B2. CASE STUDY 1.0 Herzog de Meuron - de Young Museum Herzog & De Meuron is a fine arts museum located in the middle of an urban park. The designers were sensitive to the appearance of the building in its natural setting. The entire exterior facade is clad with variably perforated and dimpled copper plates. Each plates have different sizes of holes which huge amount of copper plates wall has exhibited a distinct pattern along the wall than the traditional architectural facade. The light shadow are sieved to penetrate the copper holes and mapping an unique pattern of little bright spots. Insterestingly, the variably perforated and dimpled cooper plate, which are expected to eventually oxidize and take on a greenish tone and a distinct texture to echo the nearby eucalyptus tree.

It can be seen that the architects were focus on the digital design process to emphasis the patterning on the surface of the structure. They used computation and fabrication technology to precisely control the patterning transforming in a predicatable manner which laid emphasis on the vast accurate details on every structure facades. The patterning design on this museum has explored and expand the boundaries of patterning which it used to be act a decorative role. The notion of the structure surface as a closed, solid and opaque wall has changed, the transparency of surface exhibits through pattern. The patterning design on the surface is not more just for decoration, it brings a new aesthetics of material skin in architecture.

PEREZ, A. (2010). M.H. DE YOUNG MUSEUM / HERZOG & DE MEURON. HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/66619/M-H-DE-YOUNG-MUSEUM-HERZOG-DE-MEURON

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ITERATIONS 1

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CONCEPTUALISATION

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.5

1.6

1.7


FIG 17: PEREZ, A. (2010). M.H. DE YOUNG MUSEUM / HERZOG & DE MEURON. HTTP://WWW.

Species 1 - Change Parameters of Image Sampler Radian = Number slider 1.0 - Original 1.1 - Change the slider to 0.25 1.2 - Evaluate the expression to { x*y+0.1} 1.3 - Change the picture of the Image Sampler.

1.3

1.4

1.4 - Change of the filter of the Image Sampler into Saturation. 1.5 - Change the picture of the Image Sampler, evaluate the expression to { x*y*z } 1.6 - Divide Surface without selecting reparameterize. 1.7 - Replace circle with polygon, set number of segement with 3 which form triangle patterning.

1.8

1.9

1.8 - set number of segement with 4 which form square patterning. Expression {x*y+z} 1.9 - Remap the expression with new domain -1~0, which negative shift the pattern in opposite direction. CONCEPTUALISATION 25


B2. CASE STUDY 1.0 ITERATIONS 2

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CONCEPTUALISATION

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.5

2.6

2.7

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.5

3.6

3.7


2.1 - The expression of outer circle radius change to { x*y=0.1 } 2.2 - Scale up the slider of the movement on z-axis to 50. 2.3 -Evaluate the expression of the movement to {x2*(y+1)} 2.4 - Outer circle with radius 0.5. Inner circle with radius 0.1.

2.3

2.4

2.5 - Remove the expression of the movement on z-axis. 2.6 - Outer circle replaced by triangle which create smaller circlar on top and bigger triangle on bottom. 2.7 - Outer circle replaced by square which create bigger circlar on top and small square on bottom. 2.8 - Replace both inner and outer circle with square.

2.8

2.9

2.9 - Remove the Flatten element from the movement.

Species 3 - Peformence 3.0 - Reset the Remap domain to all positive. 3.1 - Remove the Remap element and insert new image. 3.2 - Use of Point Charge to evaluate the point field

3.3

3.4

3.3 - Extrude the Point field and offset to make the pattern perforated. 3.4 - Set one Charger point and alter the slider 3.5 - Set three points spread across the surface 3.6 - Set mulitiple points that run in a circle without make solid difference 3.7 - Set mulitiple points that run in two squares on the surface

3.8

3.9

3.8 - Extrude inner geometries with higher length than outer geometries extrusion 3.9 - Extrude outer geometries with higher length than inner geometries extrusion CONCEPTUALISATION 27


B2. CASE STUDY 1.0 Successful Species

Through various alterations and additions in grasshopper, we can see different potential results that being produced in rhino. It is such a testament of the eolution of idea within limited condition in design. It is noteworthy that, the designer might has to consider in advance what changes are to be made. It requires designer to think about the interrelation between ech components and make a rational process to lead to the varuation of the pattern. The patterning facade technique and the manipulation of the parameters lead me to find new opportunities for architectural design development. Like the grasshopper components for De Young Museum, due to the image in image sampling, the alteration of the image results different radius of the geometries on the surface which create vary visual effect than the original surface.

When developing the definition of De Young Museum, I was thinking about to create a new patterning that could be used in the Dights Falls of the Merri Creek. It is interesting to explore the power of self-replicating system of patterning in our design brief( relate to natural system). We can use Its repetitous and rhythmic characteristic to explore the relationships between technolohy, culture and natural systems for Merri Creek. The one that can exhibite the natural and organic systems would be the better suited for the Merri Creek environment. The four successful species that I select are shown below.

This surface extrusions likes the waves on the sea which create a dynamic patterning from its various height. The slow decline curve create a interesting surface tectonics and this give a sense of smooth and comfort feeling to visitor. And this has great potential to be applicated in my design project.

2.2

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CONCEPTUALISATION


This used the image sampler to affect the radius of each geometry. The use of square to replace circle and setdown the middle of the geometric pattern and raise up both sides to exhibite potential movement of the patterning. At the same time, the organic form of the symmetrical pattern has revealed the mechanical aethetic of the technology.

2.3

This specics explored the possibility of a pattern transforming across its parameters from one shape into another. It can see that each geometry on the pattern surface on the right has transformed its shape from circular top to triangle bottom. It is quite interesting to evoluate the pattern from one type to end up with a completed diferent form. It could be applicated in a design to develop a visual complexity on surface.

2.6

This provides variation in the patterning direction, height and shape. It likes a wind mill , rotates toward one direction which create a dynamic phenomenon of wind movement.The prominent thorn on the pattern seem blown up by the wind and show a shaped visual image to visitor. It explores the potential function of using various geometric pattern can give visitor certain experience(feeling) from its established image.

3.1 CONCEPTUALISATION 29


B3. CASE STUDY 2.0 Spanish Pavilion

Foreign office architects Expo 2005, Aichi, Japan.

The pavilion buildings for Expo 2005 all started out as similar, standardized blank boxes, for which the participating architects developed individual facades and interior environment. This project features the use of hexagonal lattices, composed by various tile blocks. Those tile blocks were coded with color to express the 'hybridization of jewish-Christian cultures and the islamic influence on the iberian peninsula" through the play of ‘characteristic architectural elements of the culture of synthesis’. The specificity of these blocks pieces is they are not regular hexagons that when they are assembled, they never repeat themselves which produce a continuously varying pattern of geometry and color. On the other hand, the design difference between culled blocks and opaque blocks on the building facade engages the visitor to involve with the play of light and shadow when they explore the pavilion.

SPANISH PAVILION. HTTP://DIGIITALARCHFAB.COM/PORTAL/ WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2012/01/SPANISH-PAVILION 30

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FIG18: SPANISH PAVILION. HTTP://DIGIITALARCHFAB.COM/PORTAL/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2012/01/SPANISH-PAVILION CONCEPTUALISATION 31


B3. CASE STUDY 2.0 Spanish Pavilion Reverse Engineering

The pattern is actually made of six variation of modules with different length on each hexagon side. Once evaluate the 6 primary hexagons, it can be simpliy multiplied through copy and paste. However, it was bit challenge to decompose the hexagonal grid in difference size, so starting from one hexagon, vary the hexagon side length to create a irregular shape and simply use extrude, boolean difference, copy and paste to create a dynamic patterning of the tile.

This pattern mapping may be used to generate a large areas of repeating pattern project, like the UK Pavilion that I introduced in Part A. Incorporate the image sampling tool might allow to create diverdiform of geometry on the grid pattern.

FIG19: SPANISH PAVILION. HTTP://DIGIITALARCHFAB.COM/ PORTAL/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2012/01/SPANISH-PAVILION

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B3. CASE STUDY 2.0 Spanish Pavilion Reverse Engineering

1 Create a 2*3 hexagonal grid and use Discontinuity to determine the end points and side curves.

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2 Re-organized the coordniates of common points(three points in the middle) to create irregular hexagonal. Then multiply the hexagonal grid in X/Y axis.

3 Hollow tiles by inversiing Offset. Use negetive slider to offset the hexagonal grid inward.


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4 Lofe inner and outer hexagonal grids and use Cap holes to create solid.

Extract Difference between inner hexagonal solid and outer hexgonal solid and make surface.

6 Colouring of tiles was a challenge becasue the patterning was form base on primary hexagonal grid(2*3 grid). So the pattern was rendened by using Set Render Colour in Rhino. CONCEPTUALISATION 35


B4. Technique Development Manipulate Modules

Image Sampler

Field Charge

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B4. Technique Development Extrude Module

Extrude Module with Image Sampler and Various Scale

Extrude Module with Field Charge

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CONCEPTUALISATION 39


B4. Technique Development Selection Criteria Some of selection critreia would be used to evaluate the iteration that response my design intention for the Merri Creek. By checking the selection criteria, I can rationally analyse some of the iterations to see whether they process in the right track or develop some of the relevent qualities that can be used for my design brief.

Complexity

Does the iteration has enough geometric variation and diversity that can complement with the natural ecosystems(specially under water) of Merri Creek?

Possibility of Movement

Can the iteration be about to have any relevant translation or rotation (dynamic action) in accordance with the environmental change of Merri Creek?

Curiosity and Sensorial Does the iteration has interesting appearance or special aesthetic that Engagement can attract user's attention and engage their sensorial experience? Spatial arrangement

Does the iteration reach in harmony with the chosen site and possess architectural qualites pof space., such as bridge, platform, walkway or seating area.

This iteration combine with various size of irregular hexagons which randomly spread over the pattern. Also the hexagons can act as the visiable rocks that half laying under the water which create a circulation for water flow and the gaps between every hexagon could provide a underwater pathway for biological activities, such as fish movement. The distinct difference in the size of the hexagon with image of stream flows create a organic form of patterning that might attract people to explore the beauty of nature.

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This iteration perforation pattern has provided a unique form of patterning which used the perforation technique to create this intricated structure that composited with culled blocks. This can be seem as a platform with subaquatic vegetations planted on the larger hollowed blocks. The plantes absorb nutrients by inserting the bottom roots into the water and germinate above the platform. People could be able to walk on green platform that is closest to natural ecology.

This iteration can be seem as the combination of previous iterations. It provides a gathering place every activities. It incorporates the features of first two pattern which the diverse pattern for water circulation and hydrobios, the perforated hexagons creates ecotope area for vegetations and the continuously connected patterns provide a rigid pavement for people walking. This might be approprated to repond the site context.

CONCEPTUALISATION 41


B5. Technique Prototypes The relationship between architecture and material fabriation is very important. The fabrication of some of the iterations give an opportunity to manage the complexity of the iteration by breaking down into several individual components and start to analysis the interconnection of each components and study the strategies and skills to assemble each piece into a whole object. Material fabrication is an essential process in computational design process. In prototyping the iteration, we should consider the material selection, the connection joints of each components, the visual aethetic, the physical performence of the prototype. In building prototypes, I was able to explore the way in which iterations could be fabricated. Three of my prototypes were produced in 3mm MDF by using laser cutting which is more accurate and neat than hand made prototype.

Prototype 1

Several pieces of ssembly panel Joints connection, interlock eachother

Final Structure

A hexagonal basement was produced to support the entire structure. Each side were 3mm inwardly reduced to create notches for connection. Six shorter piece of panels with open-joint on both side to provide interconnection with other panels. Six longer panels role as stud walls intersect each other by connecting notches. Panels were efficiently divided the big hexagonal plate(basement) into several pieces of hexagonal component which form a symmetric pattern and it demonstrated the aesthetic of technology. And the framework of this prototype provides a prompt strategy and structural logic for module assemblability. However, by physical prototyping this module, there was an issue about the structural connection. I have considered the stiffness of the material to ensure the stability of the structure, but overlooked the cross limit of the panel intersection. Panels were too hard to bend to insert the notches because the already interlocked sections have restricted the movement of the tranformation, which certainly leaded to the failure of whole assembly process. For further evolution, I might think about replaceing MDF with 3mm thick Boxboard which has certain rigidity and flexibility that might help to solve the connection issue.

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Cross limit (failure)


Prototype 2

Regular arranged holes on the surface

Sticks as columns to support structure

Sticks insert holes Lines twined around the sticks to create geometric pattern

Refer to grasshopper script, instead of building several hexagons and connect them together, a hexagonal grid was first built to analysis the primary patterning surface by useing sticks to represent the end points (points divide surface into pattern form) A thick line was used to outline the pattern by twining each stick to provide various potential movement. By using lines, it can be more flexbible to alter the pattern form. And lines twined in different height level represent the fluctuation in water. Also, some the lines role as river branches which randomly run across each stick to reveal the circulation of water. This gives better understanding of the hydrodynamic of Merri Creek.

Final Structure

Prototype 3

Several pieces of ssembly panel

Joints Connection

Hexagons interlock each other

Detail of Joints Connection

The structural form of this prototype is quite similar to the Spanish Pavilion. By using the laser cut, each panel of a fragment of the hexagon were assembled into a form of jigsaw puzzle with grooves and protrusions. Those grooves and protrusions were designed in special angles and positions for them to interlock each other. This is more beneficial as the interlock method and the stiffness material provide a stronger structure, puzzles act with others to achieve a higher structural stability. However, this structural form resist any movement, no rotation or translation and the . So, the next step with fabrication will be focusing on a more advanced structure system which can permit translation of the body. As I am creating a kinetic pattered form, the tectonics behind its structure is necessary for a successful response. So I need to consider more about the design and configuration of the mechancial function on my prototype.

Simulative Pattern Facade CONCEPTUALISATION 43


B6. Technique Proposal Dight’s Falls

Dight’s Falls

FIG 20: MERRI CREEK TRIAL MAP. SCREEN SHOT FROM:HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/MAPS/PLACE/MERRI+CREEK+TRAIL,+VICTORIA/@-

Dight's Falls is just downstream of the junction of the Yarra River with Merri Creek. The river is constricted to be 800,000 volcanic, basaltic lava flow and a much older steep, silurian sedimentary spur. The north side also contains abundant graptolite fossils in sedimentary sandstone. And the rocks were not really laid under the water, they are visible and do not avoid very large waves of the waterfall when at a very fast speed. The red circle on Figure 20 shows my proposed placement of the deign on the site.( approximate focus on the upstream of the Dight's Falls). I also highlight the possible access route to the site (white lines), as well as the water flow direction from upstream (thin blue line) to downstream (thick blue lines). I would like my design to be visible from the track(whits line) and also integrate into the surrond environment, such as creating a suspended platform from the already existed one, patterned in sandstone texture and a portion of the formation above the water surface. So it can become a part of existing activity zone (or landscape).

LAMPRELL, L.(2010). MELBOURNE GEOLOGY. RETRIEVED FROM:HTTP://LUCKYLAMPRELL.BLOGSPOT.COM.AU/ 44

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Own photo: lots of rubbished flowing on the water surface.

Upon visiting the Merri Creek, the natural toppgraphy and dese vegetation should have provided for a beautiful landscape. However, I found a something that was incompatible wih the surrounding environment which is the serious water pollution. This is evidented by the clarity of the water which the water in Merri Creek is not limpid as what I expected, the water is very turbid and yellowed. When I passed the water gentle flow area, lots of precipitated garbage were presented on the bottom. On the other side, the turbulent water on Dight's Falls muddy the water while also thrown the water stench and shun people away from the platform, which leads a waste of such a beautiful environment around Dight's Fall.

Own photo: Turbulent water which is turbid and yellowed CONCEPTUALISATION 45


My proposal is to strengten human perception of the natural environment through a parametric kinetic platform. The design is by depending on the amount of the garbage that collected under the water to pull the arch rings down which interfer user's movement, they might find it difficult ot walk through the platform once once the garbage is too mass. This design idea, inspired by the characteristic of Biothing Pavilion (My partner's research field). Biothing Pavilion is a parametric structure that mainly consist of strip and folding. Compare to Patterning which more likes a rigid form, Strip and Folding is better in flexibility and variability, and it could be better in collecting various garbage(whatever floating, sedimentary, large, small, light or heavy). Hence, my design brief would be "By interfering visior's action of movement, encourage them not only have general concept of environment pollution but also have more sensorial experience on the environmental protection"

In terms of materiality, I plan to reflect the natural context of the surrounding site environment. As I drew on the right hand side. I hope to use recycled material for the whole structure, such as use WPCs(wood-plastic composites) for rigid platform, transparent plastic strip for arch rings, plastic strip is flexible as well as not blocking any view and also glimmered like jewels to create a special aesthetic to attract people. To be able to continue the design process, the most important process for our group will be the unity of the whole structure. I think we will go for the joint connection first to see how can these two components interlock each other and then think about the kinetic system within the structure.

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B7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Part B explored a learning process by doing iterative exercise, starting from one case studies to another case studies. Althrough the first case studies has already given the programming script, it still need to spend a long time to understand how this algorithmic scripting work to generate the design idea. However, it was quite hard to figure out every process, so start to go through other case studies and play around with them might help to understand better or even explore new potential techniques. Sometime, when we using parameter manipulation to search for possible strategies, it might often come out with unexpected results, especial when confused, looking at other similar case studies also mean looking for other posibilities. And by comparing different case studies, we can also explore various limitations of the technique which would help to reduce errors in further generation. Also, our design idea would normally change during the computation process. By analysis various possiblities and limitation, some of the concepts that we used at the begining might not be incorporated into our final design. Such as, what I thought using notches to interlock components was very efficient, however, it did connect joints well and clear, but it also resists most of the movement and has lots of useless gaps between components. For my prototypes, it was important to figure out the intersected area which the cross limit would not be able to view untill fabricated, the structure worked well by folding the cardboard, but it totally failure when I fabricated it in MDF which the stiffness of the material and the length of the notches took mian responsibility to the failure. Learned from this, the fabrication strategies and the materials system have to be considered along the process of the design to make sure the structure is constructable and the material is suitable. For that, some ideas would be dismissed which are inevitable. For our design concept, a combination of strip and pattern which structural connection is the most significant procedure that determine our design model quality. Whatever using notch, pin or glue to do the connection, most of the assembly structure would be done through parametering script and digital fabrication, however there is still a lot of handwork that should be done before final fabrication---lots of simulative prototypes for testing joints. Hence, coupled with parametric design and propotype is an important strategy in design process.

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B8. Algorithmic Sketches

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PART C: CRITERIA DESIGN C1. Design Concept Interim Presentation Feedback -Return to "Strip" exploration as a form. It is much interesting to do the extruded blocks by using Grasshopper. -Take the connection details from the ICD research project and try to replicate this as a starting point for connecting your pieces. -Digital Fabrication is important. Fabricate some prototype to try the effect of the connection details.

Base on the interim feedback the approach was to fine tune the definition by: 1. Refine the Grasshopper definition of "Strip" form for our design idea (platform/bridge form). Show the development of grasshopper from the original to final idea. 2. Carefully consider the connection joints of our model which is the most important component that effect our final model's kinetic movement. 3. Try different digital fabrications to see the visual and kinetic effect of the model. Then alter and fix any of the issues to achieve a successful performance.

Despite those aspects, the "platform & movement concept" will be the main structural idea that we stick on, and make more response to grasshopper definition.

In carefully discussing the brief again, we would like to address the following in our design project. relationships between technical and natural systems, and participation from site users. upon reconsider the site environment again, we decided to find a way to relate our design project more sensorial and physcially to the visitor and the area that we chosen. We have chosen Dight's Fall as our constructive area. The area that we chose is surrounded by several landscapes which I feel can be physcially used as important explored points to our design project. There are: waterfall, where garbages can be gathered through the rapid stream. The relatively flat plantation landform, in which native vegetation is being grown. The existed platform, which can be a starting point to expend or reconstruct. The converged sidewalks, which offer more expansive tracks for observation. Our final Design B-rief would be ""By interfering visior's action of movement, encourage them not only have general concept of environment pollution but also have more sensorial experience on the environmental protection"

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Design Concept Proposed Site

MIRRI CREEK

VEGETATION HIGHWAY

MIRRI CREEK

HIGHWAY

VEGETATION

PATHWAYS

PATHWAYS

RESIDENTIAL AREA

MIRRI CREEK

MIRRI CREEK

HIGHWAY

HIGHWAY

RESIDENTIAL AREA

CHOSEN SITE

RESIDENTIAL AREA

CONCEPTUALISATION 51 PATHWAYS


Design Concept Interim Presentation Reflection Since the presentaion we have design to come up with series of structural forms wihch could better interact with users and surrounding landscape. In consdiering how to develop this, we referred back to our "research field" which are "Strip“ and "Pattern", we decided to focus more on one field that we can put more concentration on exploring the parametric technique into a simple but quintessential structure form. Due to the significant purpose of patterning, which are mostly perform in aethetic perspective, so we decided to stick on "Strip" as our main design structure to process our ideas. As "Strip" has its major feature which is flexibility, we explored it by simply implement the iteration structure which from part B as a flexible componenet that build up the construction. As we also want to build up the interaction between our project and landscape parametrically. We would like to make start from the existing platform, expland it to explore more opportunities and possibilities in responding the environmental system. Hence, our project would be initially started from the incorporation of flexible strips and rigid platform.

In order to respond to our design brief which is to collect underwater garbages, we plan to extrude the strips down into the water, below the platform as a right-angle hooked pocket that collect and fish up varied garbages. After consulting with with our tutor, she agreed that this could be our primary structure for futher development. However, the connection of the parametric technique and structure should the first thing that we need to work out. Also, the incorporation of the strip and platform should unobtrusively complement together, the connections between them would be the vital components that support the entire structure.

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Design Concept Techniques & Envisage Construction Process 1 After, we further found out that using curved strips as the bridge structure is too weak and too flexible to prop up the structure, and it can not maintain the movement regularly and shape in one direction as what we expected. These might be the potential issue that cause the failure of the structure. So we decided to change our structure again to reach the perfect outcome. Instead of using soft strips to reveal the "Flexibility" of the structure, we decided to use "Continuity" to refer the "Flexibility". In order to transmit the Continuity to have Flexibility, we have shifted the structure from curved shape to boxy shape by replacing curved strips with stright strips, make it in a more geometric form. Transformed the isolated strip to conterminous strips complex by using mesh as an attactment to connect each strip to accept the coherent movement. The next step we decided to work out is the composition of the overall structure, which we need to manipulate the grasshopper script to construct a general structural form. I started with the divide curves and movement to create geometric polylines, then transformed lines to pipes to create soild strips. Platform was constructed through lofting curves and extruded surface. On the other hand, the mesh was created by using divide surface and flip matrix to build up the general spread points, then connection each points to create surface grid through polyline

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Design Concept Techniques & Envisage Construction Process 2 In first considering how our structure would be constructed, the most important thing is to work out how would the strips connect to the platform neatly without being too rigid to move. We figured the best way to do it was to create a flexible joints between each strips and strips to platform. For the joint that connect strip and platform, the first idea we came out with is a simulation of door spindle which it stabilizes the door but also allow rotation of the door. So we started with three concentric circles with different sizes, extrude and boolean split two of the cylinders twice to create something like screw and nuts which we think is a good structure that is fixed but flexible. On the other hand, in order to make the joint rigid with platform, we extrude two panels which roled as clips to clamp the platform panel, it also works on clamping the strip to joint.

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2 2 For the joint that connect strip to strip, we were looking at something like key ring which is also stable and flexible to allow key rotate in any direction. Similar to the process above, we started with two circular panels with extruded notches, make holes and create a axis spindler between them to maintain the rotation always within same central axis shaft.

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Design Concept Techniques & Envisage Construction Process 3 After constructing a small protytpe of the flexible joints structure by using 3D printing, we were unhappy with the result. It was too tight to stick each components together and it was uneconomic to print lots of them in bigger size. So we decided to transform the solid joint into assembly components and use laser cutting techinque to fabricate the construction pieces. However, transform a 3D soild structure into 2D form was very time consuming, as the data structure of the joints were irregular and complex, it required us to consider different perspective of the structure and also need to consider the use of the material which might result varied structure form. First, we have decided to use MDF as our construction material which we think it is stiffness and easy to alter the structural issue by hand after laser cuting. One the other hand, instead of using grasshopper to build up the structural scripts, we think it would be easier to fabricate the assembly structure and make change right on the rhino, so we gave up to spend long time on figuring out how to connect the script and make it work. For the joint that connect strip and platform, we have divided previous structure in a much detailed form. We decompose the structure into varied isolated geometric piece, like the concentric cylinders decomposed into four hollowed circular panels, axis-shaft decomposed into one retangle panel with two small hollowed circular panels. Also, the two parallel panels which roled as clip stay the same but extrude some protruding tips for sticking into the hollowed circular panels.

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For the strip connection joints, it was much easier reconstruct it in assembly pieces. Mostly the structure will stay as the same, only need to add few more small size of hollowed circular panels to prevent the inner extruded panels slipping off the axis-shaft. Also, added two more protruding tips for later mesh connection. The axis-shaft will simply transform into one thick bar to connect every panels.

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C2. Tectonic Elements and Prototypes Initial Prototypes The significant construction components we have decided to develop as a detail propotype is the varied joints between strips and strips with platform, as these are the crucial factor that determine our structure success. The inital prototypes that we tried were 3D printing model, we expected it to operate well as we think the entire structure is simple to compose due to its ideal digital modelin rhino, we thought it will work the same as the door spindle work and it is easy to fabricate and construct. However, it failed because of the material. During the process of 3D printing, it not only construct the structure that we sent to Fablab, it also came out with some extra composition to fill the vacancy of the structure. Once the material have colded down, it was really hard to get rid off the extra staffs as we have lots of hollowed sections. We then concluded that it is unefficiently and impossible to wipe off all the extras and if we can not make sure the structure clear, it will be also difficult to fit every component into a whole joints, let alone testing the kinetic movement and further entire structure construction. So we change to use Laser Cutting, to fabricate assembly piece which is much complex but reliable

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Tectonic Elements and Prototypes Finial Fabrication After deciding to change to laser cutting, we decompose the assembly pieces and use make2D to create the structural data in 2D drawing. Then we classified the component pieces in a specific order and group as each joint pieces correspond to a specific position, otherwise it would be constructible. MDF is an appropriate material to use as it is cheap, stiffiness, strong but also relatively flexible. The modules can be also well-cut which nested the structural pieces. The second prototypes that we created by using Laser cutting, the result is far more satisfied than the first one. As It was produced in MDF which does not have the problem of extra naterials come out, and the module pieces were all clear cut which we could construct it without any obstacles.

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C3. Final Detail Model Final Model

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Final Detail Model The final detail model at 1:20 using laser cutted pieces worked very well. The varied notches of Joints and special spindle size were constructed and prefect fixed, it met what we expected to be and have performed a good quality kinetic movement.

-The entire structure worked well, the notches of circular panels interlocked with other four retangle panels whcih to make the whole structure stable and not easy to loose. -The clip panel with protruding tips insert into the hollowed circular panel which showed different connection method that can maintain the structure in perpendicular. -The spindle was decomposed into one retangle panels and few small size of circular panles, cicular panels sticked on both sides to create a general cylinder that roled as axis-shaft. -The Joints connection detail. Separate into two panels, few small batterns and one axis-stick. Every panels and battern were strung together on the axis-stick in specific order to make sure the panels won't slip off the stick.

-The Strip to Joint connection. It was much easier to construct strip to joint, we only need to interlock the notches on strip and the notches on circular panel and glued them together to make sure it won't spread out.

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C4. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The final presentation feedback to our group is: need more clear description and explanasion of the evolution and deformation of the idea from inital chosen field to final idea form. This feedback requires us to illustrate the process of how our idea developed and inspired from the Patterning and Strip and Folding. As we did not clearly introduce in the final presentation, and we also needed to consider the how can our idea form being created and transfomed in grasshopper and we needed to work out with one grasshopper definition of our project. We responded to this feedback by developing some diagram to illustate how our idea being processed from inital to primary structure and how did we worked out varied connection joints to responded the kinetic movement.( As described in C1 Design Concept - Construction Process 1-3) On the other hand, we also need to present in a more professional way. Such as used our propotypes, model and site model during our presentation. Present with model can help us to convey our idea to the audience and we can also start with the model first which to make the presentation more interesting and attractive, the presentation arrangement is also a skill that we need to learn in architecture. Finally, be confidence. In terms of the learning objectives of the studio, I felt that I was able to achieve these relatively well. I felt that I got better at developping � skills in various three-dimensional media", specificallly in digital fabricaion but a little bit well at parametric modelling. When we already got a conceptual construction form and need to work out the digital form and connection detail, as I have practised the connection method in Part B parametric prototype before, I found that I can efficiently figure out the structral form of each joints, how they work as an isolation and how they work as a group with other components. In fact, during the idea development, I feel that the key learning objective of this studio is to learn the technique skills in parametric design and also be able to apply these skills in our design and know how to make it respond to the brief. At all, I feel that I have learnt a lot from studio air, specially the new technique grasshopper which really promote design process, eventhough I am still weak at this part, I think I am be able to use these technique to create more creative design ideas. Rather than evoluting idea step by step, free to manipulate with grasshopper might come up with unexpected result which might inspired us. Also, I have learnt a lot through out this semester, specially writting a design journal really help me to understand the parametric design better. Part A required us to research and study different kind of projects to have a conceptual knownledge of what is parametric design, how it works in architecture and what techniques and issues does it involved with. For Part B, it gave an opportunity for me to start to practise the parametric formula through playing with grasshopper scripts, creating varied iterations and exploring them to inspired us in further design. And Part C took us truly practice a parametric project by ourselves, the physical experience of the design process really enriched our knownledge and skills in generating a parametric design which I found it is really a big step in promoting my architectual skills in my future work.

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Studio Air Journal Xing Yi