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THE OTHER

AND THE QUALITY OF BEING DIFFERENT Curatorial Proposal for the XII São Paulo international Architecture Biennial

Jorn Konijn, The Netherlands Pedro Rivera, Brazil July 2018


RESUME Who is the Other? Who or what is the Other in architecture? Who is the Other in SĂŁo Paulo and Brazil? And what does the Other means in the context of the SĂŁo Paulo Architecture Biennial? These are some of the questions behind The Other - the Quality of Being Different proposal. Investigating the Other means looking outside the norm, looking beyond our material and immaterial borders. By focusing The Other as a main theme, our aim is to address the relations between the built environment and ethnic issues, gender, religion, income or a combination of these. An investigation on the state of being different and all its potentials for architecture and planning.


DESCRIPTION This proposal for the 12nd São Paulo Architecture Biennial 2019 approaches The Other - the Quality of Being Different under three main aspects: (1) social conditions, (2) globalization and (3) changing professional field. They will be developed into three investigative programs which include exhibitions, debates, workshops and digital content. Each of the programs will invite partners who normally wouldn’t work together to collaborate, stressing the idea of discovering the Other. As in São Paulo, most global cities have a fragmented social territory. Who you are and what you have define what you can or cannot access in the city. Segregation remains the dominating spatial modus in cities development; a solution that seemingly removes all friction, but on a larger scale ignites tension. In this scenario, multiple Others appear, offering challenges both the at the small, local, community level as well as in the national, transnational and international levels. Living together - in the broadest sense of the words - is a subject that is already at the core of most political and social discourses. How to approach and stimulate engagement with the other, with the unknown? How to include these issues in a present spatial agenda? How to live together in such environment? This raises also confronting questions, such as “Should everybody live together?” or “Can we live together?” Or even stronger: “Do we want to live together?” The Other also refers to what or who is foreigner. In the early 2000s, with the advance of common markets (EU, Mercosul etc), the introduction of global currencies and the rapid reconfiguration of borders, nation states seemed to start becoming obsolete. Talking about ‘the foreigner’ seemed no longer valid as a new global citizen was on the rise. However, in recent years, global changes gave place to a backlash of many nationalists movements, like Brexit, Trump’s ’Make America Great Again’. In Brazil, both individual and artistic freedom are being threatened, with no space for difference. It’s time for Brazil to welcome ‘the Other’ again. How can an international biennial be an opportunity to experiment new forms of collaboration between countries? How to reframe the traditional notion of country pavilions to a contemporary approach? Lastly, the Other relates to developments in the professional field. In the last 20 years there has been a growing interest for the fields of architecture, design and infrastructures by others. Most notably, highly influential exhibitions such as “Design with the Other 90 percent” or “Design for the Other 90 percent” already addressed such topics. Most of the built environment and the largest part of our cities are created by others, not by architects, planners or designers. Who else builds the city? What drives them? How do they work? How they relate to experts and how experts learn from them?


PROGRAM LIVING TOGETHER - SÃO PAULO Exhibition and Dialogues Living Together - São Paulo is an experimental laboratory that will investigate the other in the city of São Paulo. This will be done by bringing together 10 Brazilian professionals to work in teams of two investigating the local context of the Other. The teams will do this by choosing points of friction in São Paulo with a broad framework in which they can explore the subject to the fullest. Like in a series of letters where thoughts and ideas are shared, these collaborations could but does not have to lead to a real architectural proposal, but they should at least include several actions to showcase the potential for improvement within the points of friction. Additionally, the participants do not necessarily have to be architects. They can be a mix of other professionals, such as artists, community leaders or policymakers. It is essential to include the other in the experimental process of investigating the other in the city of São Paulo. This program emphasizes the idea of the architectural biennale as a place of experiment to challenge and push the boundaries of the profession of architecture. It starts in anticipation of the biennale with its results being displayed in the main exhibition. This part of the biennale also creates a bridge to the previous biennale, which already researched places of friction within the city of São Paulo, specifically interventions in squatted buildings in the downtown area of São Paulo. Public presentations will be organized with participants and invited guests.

INTERNATIONAL MATCHMAKING Exhibition and Dialogues The second approach to the subject The Other is through an extensive international program. However, we would like to go beyond the traditional model of country representations and ask curators from different nations to work in pairs to together create an exhibition around the theme of The Other that relates their local contexts. For instance, a curator from the United States can be invited to work with a curator from Mexico to develop a common exhibition. In total we would like to create as many as 20 paired exhibitions, leading to the participation of 40 international entrees. In addition, public dialogues will be organized where the matches will talk about their proposals and contexts. Both Jorn Konijn and Pedro Rivera, have an extensive and relevant international


network of curators, architects and of funding bodies. With this network they can create and co-fund a large part of this second main exhibition. Below, we have included a list of countries and curators, including their present position, who we would like to invite to develop this exhibition. These curators have not yet been approached and serve as a point of reference to showcase the diversity and reach of our existing network. We are convinced that all curators mentioned on the list below would accept an invitation to participate. Below you will find a pre-matching list of ten potential coupled curators who we would invite for this international program. For the biennale itself we would like to extend this list to a total of 20 coupled curators, having 40 participating countries. UNITED STATES & MEXICO A cultural clash between neighbors, opposing politics and a possible wall? Curator United States: Nacho Galán (Architect / Scholar / Chief Curator Oslo Biennale 2016) Curator Mexico: José Esparza Chong Cuy (Curator MCA Chicago) CANADA & IRAN Reforming the political and social landscape, both within a different reality Curator Canada: Brendan Cormier (Design curator V&A Museum London, UK) Curator Iran: Azadeh Mashayekhi (Iranian architect / Bartlett Development Planning Unit, UK) CHILE & VIETNAM Tropical architecture within the historical landscape of war and dictatorship Chile: Joanna Helm (Former editor Archdaily Brazil) Vietnam: Nguyen Hai Long (architect Tropical Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) AUSTRALIA & SOUTH-AFRICA Appropriation of colonial architecture, comparing Cape Town and Melbourne Curator Australia: Urtzi Grau (University of Sidney, architect Fake Industries Architectural Agonism) Curator South-Africa: Mpho Matsipa (Adjunct Assistant Professor of Architecture, Columbia GSAPP) FRANCE & ECUADOR The collective and the Other Curator France: Coloco Architecture Collective Curator Ecuador: Al Borde Architecture Collective

SPAIN & ITALY Similar problems, apposing political directions: Spains move to the left, Italy’s to the right Curator Spain: Juan Herreros (Architect Studio Herreros / GSAPP New York) Curator Italy: Fabiola Fiocco (architecture curator, Rome) UNITED KINGDOM & INDIA Decolonizing Architecture. The former colonist becoming world-power - part 1. Curator United Kingdom: David Chambers (Architect Aberrant Architecture & Saint Martin’s UK). Curator India: Rohan Shivkumar (Dean KRVIA Architecture College Mumbai, India) BRAZIL & PORTUGAL Decolonizing Architecture. The former colonist becoming world-power - part 2. Curator Brazil: to be decided Curator Portugal: Frederico Duarte (Curator MUDE Museu do Design Lisboa) THE NETHERLANDS & MOROCCO Country identity after work migration in the 70s - part 1. Curator The Netherlands: Marten Kuijpers (Curator The New Institute, Rotterdam) Curator Morocco: to be decided GERMANY & TURKEY Country identity after work migration in the 70s - part 2. Curator Germany: Oliver Elser (Curator Deutsch Architecture Museum, Frankfurt) Curator Turkey: Selva Gurdogan (Director Studio X Istanbul, Architect Superpool)


THE OTHER ARCHITECTS Exhibition, Workshops and Dialogues The third investigation program of our proposal refers to The Other in developments in the professional field of architecture, design and infrastructures. It will investigate who the other stakeholders are that create the city. As Saskia Sassen has pointed out in her article “Who Owns our Cities?”, “privatization in the 90s has resulted in a reduction of public buildings and an escalation in large, corporate ownership. The result is a thinning in the texture and scale of spaces previously accessible to the public. Where before there was a government office building handling the regulations and oversight of this or that public economic sector or addressing the complaints from the local neighborhood, now there might be a corporate headquarters, a luxury apartment building or a guarded mall”. The city of São Paulo is an extreme example of this and therefore necessary to investigate. The attitude towards the developer from the architecture profession however is often distrustful. In this third investigation program we would like to go beyond the distrust and reach out to the other designing stakeholders in the city. This program will be carried in collaboration with local architecture schools, such as Escola da Cidade and/or FAU USP, where several workshops will be organized during the semester around this theme and subject. Project developers will be invited to showcase their working methods and students will investigate and analyze their methods. Students will research the qualities and drawbacks several of the developer’s practices have and their implications at the street level, the neighborhood and the city as a whole. From this point of view, the program will discuss the role of private stakeholders in creating the city. The final outcome will include lectures, workshops, research material (such as maps, diagrams, models and student proposals) based on the investigation.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE The international conference The Other - and the Quality of Being Different will be held on the opening week. It will investigate the biennial central themes and address them through pragmatic cases and portfolios. The curatorial team aims to organize an international, active or even interactive conference with an activist approach. It will invite international curators, architects and planners, but also community leaders, policy makers, artists, intellectuals and a large variety of speakers to generate a wide approach to the subject. The conference itself will be divided into two parts: a first theoretical part and a second part: projects and case studies, from Brazil and around the globe. Both parts consist of lectures and debates.


LECTURE SERIES & DEBATE The lecture series will start in the months leading up to the opening of the biennale with a wide variety of speakers, from architects, to theorists, designers or by other stakeholders, as long as it deals with the central theme of The Other. Part of the pre-biennial lecture series is a regular update on the Living Together – São Paulo investigation which will eventually become the main exhibition. These lecture series continue during the biennale with one lecture per week, in the main location of the biennale.


PUBLICATION Biennales in general are costly and substantial budget is difficult to find. One of the first elements from a biennial that is often cut due to financial reasons, is the catalogue. This is unfortunate since it is very important to document not only the work on the biennale itself, but everything that comprises a biennale (activities, lectures, workshops, lectures etc.) We believe it is essential to have both a hardcopy catalogue, as well as a digital ‘recording’ of the complete biennale. On an initial conversation, Cobogó Publishers demonstrated interest in producing and publishing the biennale catalogue. For the digital distribution of the biennale, we believe it is easiest - and financially most feasible - to use existing social media platforms.

ABOUT COBOGÓ Since 2008, Cobogó publishes books on contemporary art and culture. The publishing house releases books by and on Andy Warhol, John Cage, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Moacir dos Anjos and Cacá Diegues. Cobogó also published Pintura brasileira séc. XXI, Fotografia na arte brasileira séc. XXI; and monographs on Brazilian artists as Adriana Varejão, Nuno Ramos, Laura Lima, Erika Verzutti, Sonia Gomes, Marina Rheingantz, Mauro Restiffe, Paulo Nazareth and Iran do Espírito Santo. Besides that, it published the children

book Arte brasileira para crianças, 100 artistas e atividades para você brincar, based on works by Brazilian artists from 20th and 21th century, e Pássaro do Brasil, e algumas histórias: colorindo com Adriana Varejão. Cobogó also publishes books on music, dance and theater. On 2016, Cobogó win the Jabuti prize for the book Histórias mestiças, edited by the curator Adriano Pedrosa the anthropologist Lilia Schwarcz, with art works from the exhibition by the same name, showed at Instituto Tomie Ohtake, on 2014.


LOCATION The location of the biennale is important to the success of it. São Paulo has a range of excellent locations. Both the 10 and 11th editions of the biennial opted to took place on various locations through the city,. This was an important move for the biennale to break out its traditional domain. However, we believe that with our concept, a biennale dispersed over various locations around town, won’t be effective or logic. The three main exhibitions are thematically connected and will function best in comparison and therefore in the same space. Additionally, the international exhibition will consist of roughly 10 small scale exhibitions, which demands a large space. Our ideal locations would be OCA in the Ibirapuera Park, or Centro Cultural São Paulo, all depending on availability and budget. Additionally, we would like to invite five prominent cultural institutions in São Paulo to program activities around the theme of The Other. These institutions would include MASP, Museu da Casa Brasileira, Instituto Moreira Salles, Pinacoteca and SESC. The invitation would be budget neutral and would rely on the goodwill and planning of these institutions. However, our contacts with all of these museums are strong, hoping this result into interesting programming on the subject of The Other in the fields of photography, arts and design.


BUDGET Our proposal for the São Paulo Architectural Biennial 2019 is an ambitious program with three main exhibitions, of which one consist of approximately 10 smaller exhibitions. This requires a large budget. For the allocated budget of the biennial we can realize a good exhibition of what is minimal required. However, with our network and previous experiences in fundraising we are convinced that we can raise additional funding. Our contacts with the various international embassies, consulates and international cultural funding such as the Prince Claus Fund, the Graham Foundation, and cultural funders like the Goethe Institute, Alliance Française and Pro Helvetica are very strong. Additionally, we would like to raise private funding as well. We are very aware how complicated it is to raise funding through tax reduction laws such as the Lei Rouanet, however, we would like to explore the possibilities. As a precaution, funds will be raised during the first 7 months, until the end of March. On that moment we will make a financial re-calculation and base our final proposal on the available funds on that moment. We would like therefore like to work with three funding scenarios: • Basic scenario: The general of which we work with the given amount of the biennale • Plus scenario: This scenario contains the general amount with added funding from international embassies, consulates and cultural funding. Our estimation is that would can raise between 200.000 and 300.000 reais with these possibilities. • Extra scenario: The two previous scenarios with added private sponsoring. This is the most difficult scenario and in the most positive scenario we will raise an additional 200.000 reais with this sponsoring.


Living Together SĂŁo Paulo

quant

R$ unit

R$ total

Research / Selection / Production

1

5.000,00

5.000,00

Organizing kick-off meeting

1

7.500,00

7.500,00

Excursions to points-of-fractions

1

2.500,00

2.500,00

Research by design - phase 1

1

10.000,00

10.000,00

Research by design - phase 2

1

10.000,00

10.000,00

Actions & interventions

1

10.000,00

10.000,00

Fee per participant

10

2.500,00

25.000,00

Spatial & graphic design (freelance)

1

10.000,00

10.000,00

Material exhibition

1

30.000,00

30.000,00

13,35%

R$110.000,00

quant

R$ unit

R$ total

South America

4

8.000,00

32.000,00

North America

2

5.000,00

10.000,00

Europe

7

5.000,00

35.000,00

Asia

4

9.000,00

36.000,00

Africa

3

10.000,00

30.000,00

Australia

1

7.000,00

7.000,00

Spatial & graphic design (freelance)

1

10.000,00

10.000,00

19,42%

R$160.000,00

Total main exhibition 1: Living Together

International Matchmaking Each country will be offered a set-fee

Total main exhibition 2: International

The Other Architect Research / Selection / Production

2.500,00

Organizing kick-off meeting

2.500,00

Workshop 1

3.000,00

Workshop 2

3.000,00

Workshop 2

3.000,00

Spatial & graphic design (freelance)

10.000,00

Material exhibition

30.000,00

Total main exhibition 3: The Other Archi-

6,55%

R$54.000,00


Overall production Material production (tables / boards

15.000,00

Lights / signage / print work

25.000,00

Production of spatial design

15.000,00

Production of graphic design

10.000,00

Fee spatial designers (freelance)

17.500,00

Fee graphic designers (freelance)

17.500,00

Total overall production

12,14%

R$100.000,00

2 x 1 year work

100.000,00

2 x 3 months

20.000,00

Staff & personal Curators Assistent curatorial team Head of production Assistent production

20.000,00 3 x 1 month

10.000,00

Onsite production - building week - crew

14.000,00

Head of communication

20.000,00

Assistent communication

2 x 1 months

8.000,00

Volunteer & intern coordinator

1 x 3 weeks

4.000,00

Fundraiser Total overall staff & personal

4.000,00 24,27%

R$200.000,00

Travel budget Speakers symposium

10.000,00

Curators travels

20.000,00

Unforseen traveling

10.000,00

Total traveling

4,85%

R$40.000,00

Communication Online communication

5.000,00

Posters / Flyers / Prints

15.000,00

Advertising - public transport

20.000,00

Bags / books / merchandise

15.000,00

Unforseen

5.000,00

Total communication

7,28%

R$60.000,00


Symposium / lectures / workOpening symposium

15.000,00

Lecture series

10.000,00

Publication

50.000,00

Actions & Workshops

10.000,00

Total symposium / lectures / workshops

10,32%

R$85.000,00

1,82%

R$15.000,00

100,00%

R$824.000,00

Unforseen Unforseen

TOTAL COSTS


ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE & MILESTONES The proposed biennale team consists of several different groups: • Content • Production • Communication • Volunteers & coordination volunteers • Fundraiser In total this will be approximately a core team of around 10 people - all on freelance base - which will be expanded leading up to the constructing and production of the biennale. From the content point of view, the team consists of two curators, Pedro Rivera and Jorn Konijn. They would start working right away the moment they would be appointed as curators. They will be assisted by two curatorial assistants, who would be working part-time for a longer period in assisting them with research, contacts and communication. The two curators work closely with the head of production who will oversee the complete production. This head of production will also have an assistant. Both persons will only start working a few months before the opening of the biennale. Both the head and the assistant will receive a set fee. During the week of building up the biennale, the head of production will also oversee the building and construction of all the exhibitions. They will be responsible for coordinating the building and construction crew. During the course of the biennale, volunteers will be explaining the exhibition, assisting with workshops and lectures and available for various other actions. These volunteers will mostly consist of architecture students. They will be directed by a volunteer coordinator. The communication will also be done by a head of communication, which team will be completed with an assistant-communication. They will be responsible for the complete overall communication. Ideally, this would be freelancers who have both a large network in Sao Paulo and in the international architecture-field. Lastly, the team will be complimented with a fundraiser who will work on a nocure-no-pay basis and who would handle the contacts with company sponsoring, coordinate possible Lei Rouanet applications and contacts with foreigner funds, consulates and embassies.


CURATORIAL TEAM This proposal is written by Pedro Rivera (Brazil) and Jorn Konijn (The Netherlands). Both Konijn and Rivera speak an international language in architectural discourse, but are also very different from each other, coming from different cultural backgrounds. Their own otherness is the basis for this proposal for the São Paulo Architecture Biennial 2019. They have worked together for over 8 years, curating architecture exhibitions and workshops together for Studio-X Rio de Janeiro and the São Paulo Architecture Biennial 2011. Rivera was also part of the matchmaking project for the Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism Architecture and was curator at HOBRA, the Dutch-Brazilian cultural program during the Rio de Janeiro Olympics Games, both in the overall curation by Konijn.

Pedro Rivera, Brazil Pedro Rivera ,44, is an architect and urbanist that lives in Rio de Janeiro. His work flows between practice, investigation and knowledge exchange, with concentration in the relations between architecture, art and urban inequality. He is a co-founder of RUA Architects, an award-winning practice based in the city, and director / curator of Studio-X Rio, a global initiative established by Columbia University’s School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation (GSAPP). Rivera had works exhibited at MoMA (New York, 2014), MAK (Wien, 2015), Carnegie Museum of Art (Pittsburgh, 2016), Het Nieuwe Instituut (Rotterdam, 2016) and MAM São Paulo (2017); as well as in the architecture biennials of Shenzen (2014), Chicago (2015), Venice (2016) and São Paulo (2017). At Studio-X Rio, he was responsible for more than 300 events, including exhibitions, lectures and workshops; and he was principal investigator on the researches Fight, Squat, Resist (2015-16) and Housing Project (2017), both on housing issues. Rivera holds a Master in Urbanism at PROURB FAU UFRJ and a was professor at PUC-Rio. He has constant presence as a critic and lecturer in several international institutions, such as GSAPP Columbia University, ETH Zurich, Princeton, Nieuwe Instituut, among others.


Jorn Konijn, The Netherlands Jorn Konijn, 40, is an international architecture & design curator and writer. He started curating architecture exhibitions as the international curator of the Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi) curating exhibitions such as the official Dutch pavilion for the International Architecture Biennale of Sao Paulo 2011 on Unsolicited Architecture, and the award-winning Housing with a Mission exhibition for the Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism Architecture in 2011. For the NAi he curated together with Max Risselada and Giancarlo Latorraca the exhibition Lelé – Architect of Health and Happiness in 2012. Apart from curating exhibitions, Konijn developed the international matchmaking program of the NAi. This co-creation program focused on designing and realizing architectural projects in China, India and Brazil, connected Dutch architects with local architects. In total, he directed six extensive architectural matchmaking programs. In 2013 he was the overall curator for the Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism Architecture. In 2015 he was appointed as curator of the 5th Biennial Brasileira de Design, which took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, widening his scope from architecture to design. During the summer of 2016, he curated the official Dutch cultural program of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: HOBRA, a co-creation program connecting ten Dutch artists with ten Brazilian artists creating new multidisciplinary works. He regularly curates design shows at various design museums or design-weeks all around the world, recently in Toronto and Milan. Konijn has a master’s degree in art history and cinema theories from the University of Amsterdam and has worked for several cultural funding organizations, such as the Mondriaan Foundation for Arts and the Prince Claus Fund. He is an advisor to the Dutch Minister of Culture on architecture and design issues. Apart from teaching, writing and researching, he is currently he is directing a documentary on the life and work of architecture professor Max Risselada.


COMMUNICATION PLAN The communication of the biennial is as important as the biennial itself, and special attention will be dedicated. The Other project has the potential to attract a wide range of different audiences. We define several different visitor groups in our communication: • Professional architects & urban planners, designers, artists (national & international) • Architecture students, design students, art students (national & international) • Policy makers / politicians • Advocate organizations • Cultural interested audience • General audience Firstly, we will reach out to these groups via our own means of communication, consisting of: • Social Media (Instagram / Facebook / Snapchat etc.) • Traditional Media (brochures, flyers, printing) • Advertisements print / web-commercials / radio etc. • IAB-Website & IAB social media channels; other organizations media channels. For this, we would kindly like to use IAB (and possibly CAU) entities mail channels. Secondly, we would like to launch specific social media campaigns to focus on the theme of the Other. For instance, we would like to launch a specific call for São Paulo where followers can send in/post photos or small videos showing something specific in the city in relation to the topic. Thirdly, we would like to target architecture schools around the world also to address the theme of the Other, perhaps also through a small competition. Depending on time and available workforce of the team we will decide what the form of the competition will be. Additionally, to the traditional ways of communications as mentioned above, we would like to create a series of podcasts and online-radio events on architecture & urbanism, not only as a way to communicate but also to record and distribute the content of the biennial. This could be interviews with the various curators, architects or urban planners involved in the biennial. Jorn Konijn has plenty experience with architecture radio, presenting already over a year-long interviews and


discussions on architecture on Rotterdam’s Operator Radio. The team responsible for this will also deal specifically with the press approach, such as editing of (media) messages, PR and press lists, partners provided with communication packets and the right resources to implement actions, reporting process (press clippings, statistics, range and the like). Additionally, they can also produce their own content, such as digital newsletters, blogs and available press articles, interviews with the participants. They will also be responsible for filming and photography.

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