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Type Notebook by Xiaoyang Wang


Type Notebook by Xiaoyang Wang


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Contents 5

Garamond

13 Times Roman 21 Baskerville 29 Caslon 37 Bodoni 45 Helvetica 53 Univers 63 Frutiger 71 Futura 79 Gill Sans 87 Bibliography


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I

Garamond


Garamond

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Garamond is the name given to a group of old-style serif typefaces named after the punch-cutter Claude Garamont (Latinised as garamondus) (c. 1480–1561). Many of the Garamond faces are more closely related to the work of a later punch-cutter, Jean Jannon. A direct relationship between Garamond’s letterforms and contemporary type can be found in the Roman versions of the typefaces Adobe Garamond, Granjon, Sabon, and Stempel Garamond. Garamond’s letterforms convey a sense of fluidity and consistency. Some unique characteristics in his letters are the small bowl of the a and the small eye of the e. Long extenders and top serifs have a downward slope. Garamond is considered to be among the most legible and readable serif typefaces for use in print (offline) applications. It has also been noted to be one of the most eco-friendly major fonts when it comes to ink usage.

Garamond Regular

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLl MmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWw XxYyZz

1-1. These are three most common typefaces under Garamond family. Other branches are Stempel Garamond, Monotype Garamond, Garamond Antiqua, Garamond Classico, Adobe Garamond, Garamond Premier, ITC Garamond, Simoncini

Garamond Italic AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLl MmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWw XxYyZz

Garamond bold

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLl MmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWw XxYyZz 1-1

Garamond and etc.

1-2. Garamond Poster, designed by Michael Lashford in 2012. In this poster, a typical garamond 'o' is used to form the bowl of garamond 'g'.


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1-2


Garamond

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Serif: Adnate style or humanist serifs (serifs curve into the stem of the letter). The top serifs angled out, which is different than the more vertical serifs of Times New Roman and Georgia. X-heights: Low. But in Humanist serifs, its x-heights are comparatively high. Width and weight: Garamond is a narrow and light face, which likely contributes to its being so eco-friendly when printed. The result is you can fit more letters on a page and the page will still look light—so it is a good typeface for text-heavy documents where readability, legibility, and white space are key. Structure: Garamond has a fluid structure with some unique characteristics that give it the style and flair it has. These include the outward angles of the top serifs, a small counter in the lower-case a, the small eye in the e, and long extenders. Legibility and Readability: Very readable and legible in print. Wikipedia, calls Garamond one of the “most legible and readable serif typefaces for use in print.” The larger x-heights normally correspond to increase readability online; however other aspects of the typeface, including the small character size, light weight, and medium thick/thin transitions decrease online readability. The typeface still has decent legibility online in larger sizes, so I would recommend it for headings and titles online, but not for the body text. Voice-over and ethos: Garamond is (as noted above) elegant and beautiful. While the face has a lot of personality and style, it still maintains a level of professionalism. Like other Old Style serifs, it has something of a traditional feel, and perhaps more so as it is based on faces from the 16th and 17th centuries. However, it does not feel outdated—the sharp points on the serifs and long extenders move it from old fashioned to timeless. Garamond may be the voice of a stylish and elegant business woman. The ethos is strong in professional uses where a bit of style and not the plain monotony of some serifs is needed. Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a serif typeface, good contrasts include sans serif faces like Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, Tahoma, Century Gothic, Calibri, and Bell Gothic. One of my favorite combinations is Century Gothic and Garamond, and this combination works well for print (with Garamond as


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the body typeface) or online (with Garamond as the heading typeface). For a highly elegant and traditional look for print, I like Garamond for the body with Copperplate Gothic for headings. Bell Gothic also balances the elegance well, with a more modern look. Most script and decorative typefaces should also contrast (Scripts such as Blackadder ITC, Bradley Hand ITC, Brush Script MT, Freestyle Script, Rage Italic; Decoratives such as Burnstown Dam, Algerian, Hobo Std, Jokerman, Ravie, Snap ITC). Typefaces that provide conflict: Other Old Style typefaces will conflict the most, such as Book Antiqua, Bookman, Californian FB, Calisto, Centaur, Goudy Old Style, and Palatino. Transitional serif faces will also conflict, as they are not different enough to contrast. So avoid transitional faces such as Baskerville, Bell, New York, Perpetua, Times New Roman, and Georgia. Generally, serif faces will conflict and you will want to avoid them, although if you select faces from the Modern or Slab serif categories with radical differences from Garamond, you may have enough for contrast. 1-3 1-3. These're three good examples for using Garamond for headings. It's high legibility and elegance get the pages both classical and charming.

Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: The lighter weight and smaller characters may not work as well for audiences with vision issues, including the elderly. The face works very well for long documents, so one audience is readers of novels and longer print documents. Uses includes books, long reports, dissertations, and any print document where the writer/designer wants high readability and legibility. The smaller size makes it ideal for text-heavy print documents where the designer wants a clean look and wants to save space, as mentioned above. It works well for rÊsumÊs and CVs in more traditional areas or areas where a clean elegant design is warranted. It looks lovely in letters (like cover letters), giving them a formal and sophisticated feel, especially on a nice parchment or linen paper. Given its eco-friendliness in printing, green and eco-friendly companies may consider it for print use. Companies that want a more elegant and traditional but not boring feel may like Garamond—law firms, wedding businesses, clothing boutique stores, and business associated with women. The elegance does lend it a more feminine feel, so this may not be the hair club for men typeface. This face is not recommended for screen use, although it could work for small amounts of text in larger sizes, like heading and titles, so consider it for the contrast face in website with an elegant and traditional feel.


Garamond

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Very small eye

Open bowl

Small counter, large aperture

Long tail is a smooth continuation of stem stroke

Refined and readable, Garamond is probably the most popular of the Humanist serifs. Longtime users of Adobe apps will be familiar with Robert Slimbach's first crack at this classic typeface, Adobe Garamond. Despite a subdued character in Caption and Regular (Text) sizes, Garamond is never dull by any means. Use with care: it has a formal personality that might not fit more casual topics. Good for: Infusing a document with importance, reverence, or poetry.

Stem widens as it nears baseline


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Low x-height, long extenders

Straight, unmodulated tail with ball terminal

Moderately sized serifs with bracketing


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1-5 1-4. This is a good example of using Garamond for both title and body text. Its ethos is strong in professional uses.

1-5. Both Le Monde and Garamond are easily readable at small sizes and keep nice character at large sizes, making

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them work equally well in the role of headline or body copy.

1-6. Garamond still can be used online as titles and headings. But the body text in this page looks unclearly due to its small character size and light weight.

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II

Times Roman


Times Roman

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"Times Roman" is the name used by Linotype, and the name they registered as a trademark for the design in the U.S. "Times New Roman" was and still is the name used by The Monotype Corporation. The face was developed by The Times newspaper for its own use, under the design direction of Stanley Morison. Morison used an older font named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. Morison's revision became known as Times New Roman and made its debut in the 3 October 1932 issue of The Times newspaper. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. The Times stayed with Times New Roman for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font. Although no longer used by The Times, Times New Roman is still frequent in book typography, particularly in mass-market paperbacks in the United States. Especially because of its adoption in Microsoft products, it has become one of the most widely used typefaces in history.

Times Roman AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

2-1. These're three most common typefaces in Times Roman family. Others are Times New Roman Medium, Medium Italic, Semi Bold, Bold Italic, Extra Bold, Condensed, Condensed Italic,

Times Roman Italic AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Times Roman Bold

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 2-1

Condensed Bold, PS Regular, PS Bold and etc.

2-2. Times New Roman poster by Pedro Javier Arbelaez. Using typeface structure to design the whole page.


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2-2


Times Roman

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Serif: Vertical serifs style, or transitional serifs.They are between modern and style, thus the name "transitional". Differents between thick and thin lines are more pronounced than they are in old style, but they are still less dramatic than they are in modern serif fonts. X-heights: Constant and large.The corpus size exceeds half of the cap height. Width and weight: Times Roman is a relatively light face, but due to its large x-heights, paragraph in Times Roman still performs balanced, neither too heavy nor too light. Additionally, it's designed narrow and condensed to save more space. So it's used widely in press and book typography. Structure: Times Roman, as a transitional face, is more geomatricallystructerized than those old style face such as Garamond, Bembo and ect.The wedge-shaped serif and comparatively condensed letter is the most typical characterisitcs for Times New Roman. Legibility and Readability: Very readable and legible in print. Large x-heights allow Times Roman highly-legible both in paper media and screen. Balanced width and weight also make it eye-protecting. Voice-over and ethos: Due to its being preset as a default typeface in Microsoft Windows, Times New Roman appears in a book, document, or advertisement, and this kind of overusing connotes apathy. It says, “I submitted to the font of least resistance.� Times New Roman is not a font choice so much as the absence of a font choice, like the blackness of deep space is not a color. To look at Times New Roman is to gaze into the void.

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Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a serif typeface, good contrasts include sans serif faces like Arial, Helvetica,Verdana, Tahoma, Century Gothic, Calibri, and Bell Gothic. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other transitional typefaces and old Style typefaces will conflict the most, such as Book Antiqua, Bookman, Californian FB, Calisto, Centaur, Goudy Old Style, and Palatino, Baskerville, Bell, New York, Perpetua, and Georgia. Generally, serif faces will conflict and you will want to avoid them. Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: It's high legibility and readability allow Times Roman appears in different varieties of media such as books, newspaper, even digital format on screen. So it will looks friendly in the design for elder people. But because of its overusing, young audience maybe think it's boring and apathy. It should be avoided in fashion magazines, games or personal documents as it lacks special characteristic.

2-3. Times New Roman Demo Video, designed by Cheong Photography and Design in 2012 to introduce the history and influence of Times New Roman. The typeface is used in a flexible way to avoid the apathy feeling.

2-4. Eat / Read Poster, designed by Melvyn Hills, coursework, HEAJ (Haute-École Albert Jacquard, Namur, Belgium). Times New Roman still can be elegant and stylish after carefullysimplized arrangement.

2-5. Times New Roman Broadside, published by Mackenzie & Harris in 1960 to comemorate their initial offering of the Times New Roman. In this broadside, the sample text are shown in 14 and 16 point.

2-5


Times Roman

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High contrast, strong angle, especially on "e"

Fairly large x-height and extenders, narrow body

Medium-sized counter, small aperture (nearly closes on itself)

Straight leg extends beyond bowl

Times New Roman is one of today's most familiar and oftenused typefaces. It owes its ubiquity to being standard issue in digital publishing systems for many years, but the design's original intended destination was newsprint, not laser paper. Created for The Times of London, it is derived from Plantin, but is decidedly more modern, with high contrast and thin serifs. Those details, and peculiarities like its relatively wide and heavy caps, make it less suitable for everyday typesetting - which is ironic, given its status. On modern substrates, Times is actually better in Display settings than Text, where Times Ten fares better. Fresher alternatives are Starling (Font Bureau, 2009) and Le Monde Journal. Good for: A non-designed, conventional office-document look.


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Curved bracket connects stem and bar

Small dot

Long, sharp serifs with curved brackets

Very wide caps

Very small aperture


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2-6. Times New Roman has large corpus size so it can perform relatively well on screen. The page layout designed by Nick Holmer in 2012 is a good example to use Times New Roman. Careful arrangment on size, color, capital and italic comparison can get the page more elegant and less apathy.


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III

Baskerville


Bakerville

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Baskerville is a transitional serif typeface designed in 1757 by John Baskerville (1706–1775) in Birmingham, England. Baskerville is classified as a transitional typeface, positioned between the old style typefaces of William Caslon, and the modern styles of Giambattista Bodoni & Firmin Didot. The Baskerville typeface is the result of John Baskerville's intent to improve upon the types of William Caslon. He increased the contrast between thick and thin strokes, making the serifs sharper and more tapered, and shifted the axis of rounded letters to a more vertical position. The curved strokes are more circular in shape, and the characters became more regular. These changes created a greater consistency in size and form. In 1757, Baskerville published his first work, a collection of Virgil, which was followed by some fifty other classics. In 1758, he was appointed printer to the Cambridge University Press. It was there in 1763 that he published his master work, a folio Bible, which was printed using his own typeface, ink, and paper. The perfection of his work seems to have unsettled his contemporaries, and some claimed the stark contrasts in his printing damaged the eyes. Abroad, however, he was much admired, notably by Pierre Simon Fournier, Giambattista Bodoni (who intended at one point to come to England to work under him), and Benjamin Franklin. After falling out of use with the onset of the modern typefaces such as Bodoni, Baskerville was revived in 1917 by Bruce Rogers, for the Harvard University Press and released by Deberny & Peignot. 3-1. A detail from one of Baskerville’s type specimens. It has less calligraphic flow than most earlier typefaces. Whereas the earlier Humanist and Old Style types owed much to the handwritten letter form, the pen’s influence has all but disappeared in the Transitional types.

3-1


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Baskerville Regular AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Baskerville Italic AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Baskerville Semi Bold AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Baskerville Bold 3-2. These are most common typefaces belonging to Baskerville family. Additionally, the Baskerville typeface was used as the basis for the Mrs

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 3-2

Eaves typefaces in 1996.

3-3. Bakerville Typeographic Poster, by Danny Farmer, 2013. The poster shows the elegant Q which is the symbol of Baskerville.

3-3


Bakerville

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Serif: Transitional serifs. They are between modern and style, thus the name "transitional". Head serifs generally more horizontal than the old style or humanist. X-heights: Very large. In this case, Baskerville can be set in very small size but still readable. Width and weight: Perfectly balanced. John Baskerville is a perfectionist, so he almost spent all his life on perfecting the weight, letterspacing and width. The letter is light so it's ecofriendly and ink-saving. Structure: As a transitional typeface, Baskerville changed the handwritten letter form into a more structerized style. The stress in the bowls of lowercase letters is vertical or almost vertical. The thick and thin strokes compare more stronger than old style typefaces. Additionally, there are several elaborate or elegant design for some typical letters such as the swash-like tail of Q, top and bottom serifs on C, long lower arm of E, wide arms for T, high crossbar and pointed apex of A and etc. Legibility and Readability: Baskerville suffered a lot of criticism during his time for his font being too difficult to read and unfriendly to the eyes. However, after over one hundred years updating and innovation both on typeface itself and printing process, Baskerville now can perform well both on paper media and screen. Voice-over and ethos: John Baskerville is a perfectionist, so the typeface Baskerville, being his magnum opus, born with the feeling of perfection. The swash-like tail of Q and the J welling below the baseline both show the producer's aesthetic on typeface design. And the well-designed letterspacing also gives audience the feeling of meticulouseness and artistry of classic Rome style. Above all, Baskerville like a decent, steady and noble gentleman.

3-4

3-4. The Book of Common Prayer, printed by John Baskerville, 1762.

3-5. Habitat's logo, set in Fry's Baskerville. Even in 21st century, Baskerville still plays important role in corporate identity aspect.

3-5


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Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a serif typeface, good contrasts include sans serif faces like Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, Tahoma, Century Gothic, Calibri, and Bell Gothic. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other transitional typefaces and old Style typefaces will conflict the most, such as Book Antiqua, Bookman, Californian FB, Calisto, Centaur, Goudy Old Style, and Palatino, Times New Roman, Bell, New York, Perpetua, and Georgia. Generally, serif faces will conflict and you will want to avoid them. Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Baskerville is highly readable and legible so it can be applied to textbook design, newspaper and even digital media. Due to its timelessness, it also can be used in fashion aspects or art fields. Moreover, the feeling of steadiness and nobleness also make Baskerville suitable for business documents or being the part of corporate identification.

3-6. These three images show the characteristics of Baskerville. Vertical or almost vertical stress in the bowls of lowercaseletters. Greater contrast between thick and thin strokes. Serifs generally more horizontal.

3-6


Bakerville

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Horizontal bar, small eye

Long, straight leg is heaviest at the baseline

Baskerville is the quintessential Transitional serif, positioned neatly between the dynamic calligraphy of the Humanists and the static construction of the Rationalists. Like many of the old-style serifs, there are a few digital versions, but all fall woefully short of the original design by attempting to create a one-size-fits-all typeface from the variety of metal sizes. Frantisek Storm's family is not only more functional, with large and small optical sizes, but also revives Baskerville's handsome, vigorous spirit. These rich curves feel crafted by hand, not computer. Dashing - maybe even exuberant - Baskerville has been known to steal the show, so be sure the content fits it (or doesn't mind playing second fiddle).


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Fairly large x-height

Prominent dog-ish ear

Very flat upper stroke and large aperture

Modest serifs with asymmetrical bracketing

Open bowl

Moderate contrast, vertical stress

Decorative tail with stroke in two directions


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3-7 3-7. Graphic Communication Principles: Final Language Poster Design, by Simon Seziam, 2012. Different Baskerville typefaces are arranged in one page, creating humorous and balanced vision.


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IV

Caslon


Caslon

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Caslon is a group of serif typefaces designed by William Caslon I (1692–1766), and various revivals thereof. Caslon shares the irregularity characteristic of Dutch Baroque types. It is characterized by short ascenders and descenders, bracketed serifs, moderately high contrast, robust texture, and moderate modulation of stroke. The A has a concave hollow at the apex, the G is without a spur. Caslon's italics have a rhythmic calligraphic stroke. Characters A, V, and W have an acute slant. The italic p, Q, v, w, and z all have a suggestion of a swash. When thinking of typography during the 18th century, there are two prevailing names associated with Transitional fonts: Caslon and Baskerville. Caslon is the face behind the majority of typography associated with American and English printing during the 1700s, and his type is considered the first high quality English production of its kind.

Caslon Old Face AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Adobe Caslon Regular

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Adobe Caslon Italic

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Adobe Caslon Bold

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 4-1

4-1. These are the most common typefaces of Caslon family. Other branches are Caslon 471, Caslon 540, Caslon 3, Caslon 641, Caslon 224, Big Caslon, Caslon Openface, Franklin Caslon, Caslon Antique, Caslon Roman, and etc.

4-2. Pattern and figures Design in Caslon Type Specimen, by Sabina Irina Chipară's, 2013. The beautiful Caslon letters are used to organize various figures to express the ethos and background of Caslon.


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Caslon

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Serif: Transitional serifs. Like Baskerville, they are between modern and style, thus the name "transitional". Head serifs generally more horizontal than the old style or humanist. X-heights: Large. In this case, Caslon can be set in very small size but still readable. Width and weight: The Caslon Old Face has quite heavy weight but still looks open. It has considerable loose letterspace. But on the other hand, Adobe Caslon is tighter and wider than Calson Old Face that makes it more like Baskerville. Structure: Caslon is characterized by short ascenders and descenders, bracketed serifs, moderately high contrast, robust texture and moderate modulation of stroke. The A has a concave hollow at the apex, the G is without a spur. Caslon's italics have a rhythmic calligraphic stroke. Characters A, V, and W have an acute slant. The italic p, Q, v, w, and z all have a suggestion of a swash.

4-3

Legibility and Readability: Due to its loose letterspacing and robust texture, Caslon has good readability. The balance between white space and black letters can totally match the reading rhythm. Caslon is a kind of perfection of the whole, derived from harmonious but not necessarily perfect individual letterforms. So when it appears as a mass paragraph, it will make audience fell comfortable and relaxed. 4-4

Voice-over and ethos: . It is a robust and attractive typeface with small irregularities that help it appear unpretentious, honest and approachable. The contrast of the stroke and the overall rhythm of the type create liveliness on the page while maintaining a sense of order. While not as elegant as the French types, Caslon’s designs embodied a sturdier grace which better suited the English aesthetic. Every foundry in the world has offered a variation of the Caslon types, and the phrase, “When in doubt, use Caslon,� was a standard printer's epithet for generations.


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Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a serif typeface, good contrasts include sans serif faces like Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, Tahoma, Century Gothic, Calibri, and Bell Gothic. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other transitional typefaces and old Style typefaces will conflict the most, such as Book Antiqua, Bookman, Californian FB, Calisto, Centaur, Goudy Old Style, and Palatino, Times New Roman, Bell, New York, Perpetua, and Georgia. Generally, serif faces will conflict and you will want to avoid them.

4-3. Caslon Typography Poster, by Shannon Edgar, 2011. The poster showcases the typeface in a classical centered composition.

Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Calson is highly readable and legible so it can be applied to textbook design, newspaper and even digital media. Due to its timelessness, it also can be used in fashion aspects or art fields. Calson itself has great harmony so it actually can be used in many aspects which mass paragraph happens.

4-4. Caslon Typography Poster, by Shannon Edgar, 2011. The poster compares the font to an object. Caslon is timeless, classic, and goes with everything. The heel is classic, timeless, and can be paired with anything. So these two things are connected together to identify Caslon's timelessness and elegance.

4-5. Two Times Elliott, 2012. This page just showcases a dark brown lowercase a on orange background. But strong enough to show the beauty of Caslon.

4-5


Caslon

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Horizontal bar, moderately sized eye

Moderate contrast, nearly vertical stress

Long tail continues motion of the body's left stroke

Ever since its release at the height of the DTP age, Adobe Caslon has been the "default" serif for many designers. In fact, the original metal type was also a printer's standby for many years, as evidenced by the expression "when in doubt, use Caslon." The typeface is now so familiar, it simply feels right most of the time - though it could seem slightly antique for some settings. Caslon is one of the first typefaces to show hints of a transition from pen-based shapes to constructed letterforms. Adobe's interpretation emphasizes those aspects for a fairly even texture overall, especially in the italic where the slant is very consistent.


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Moderate x-height, long extenders

Large, wide lower bowl with very little weight on upstroke

Fairly large bowl. Prominent tail is obvious continuation of stem stroke

Nearly rectangular serifs with mild bracketing

Strong ball terminal points upward


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4-6

4-6. Web Design. Using Caslon as title typeface. Very simple but still eye-catching and readable. And the transitional serifs typeface can play well with the san-serifs HERMETIK logo.

4-6. The Ocean, by Daniel Duke, 2012. It's a good example to use Gotham and Caslon Italic together. They contrast well with each other.

4-7


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V

Bodoni


Bodoni

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Bodoni is a series of serif typefaces first designed by Giambattista Bodoni (1740–1813) in 1798. The typeface is classified as Didone modern. Bodoni followed the ideas of John Baskerville, as found in the printing type Baskerville: increased stroke contrast and a more vertical, slightly condensed, upper case; but took them to a more extreme conclusion. Bodoni had a long career and his designs evolved and varied, ending with a typeface of narrower underlying structure with flat, unbracketed serifs, extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes, and an overall geometric construction. Though these later designs are rightfully called "modern", the earlier designs are "transitional". Some digital versions of Bodoni are said to be hard to read due to "dazzle" caused by the alternating thick and thin strokes, particularly as the thin strokes are very thin at small point sizes. This only occurs when display versions are used at text sizes, and it is also true of much display type that is used at text sizes. Nondazzling versions of Bodoni that are intended to be used at text size are "Bodoni Old Face", optimized for 9 points; ITC Bodoni 12 (for 12 points); and ITC Bodoni 6 (for 6 points).

Bodoni Regular AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Bodoni Italic AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Bodoni Bold AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Bodoni Black AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLl MmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvW wXxYyZz 5-1

5-1. These are the most common typefaces under Bodoni family tree. Other famous Bodoni typefaces are Bauer Bodoni, Poster Bodoni, ITC Bodoni, Bodoni Old Face, and etc.

5-2. Lady GaGa's logotype also adopted Bauer Bodoni as it match the fashion and style of GaGa.

5-3. Windslo Profile, by Alexander Diner, 2011. Using Bodoni as the part of logo and logotype.

5-4. Infinite Images Photography New Logo, by Media Novak, 2012. The logo design is based on Bodoni. Some legs of the letters were taken off to make the logo more unique.


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5-2

5-3

5-4


Bodoni

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Serif: Modern or Didone serifs. Bodoni is characterized by extreme contrast between thick and thin lines. The serifs are long and fine with minimal brackets. Serifs are tend to be very thin and vertical lines are very heavy. X-heights: Small. This is the reason why Bodoni is less readable than those transitional or old style serif typefaces such as Baskerville, Caslon, Garamond, and etc. 5-5

Width and weight: The extreme thick verticle lines make Bodoni in heavy weight, and appears very wide. Additionally, its heavy thicks and hairline thins accentuated the contrast. Structure: Bodoni is an easily recognizable Romantic typeface with vertical stress, slight serif bracketing. The top serifs on b, h, l are cupped and not parallel to baseline in some versions. Moreover, the uppercase C owns both top and bottom serifs. The Q has a vertical tail started in middle. Usually, there's no middle serif on W.

5-6

5-5. Nirvana's logo. This American rock band use Bodoni as it's logo type.

5-6. Bauer Bodoni Black is used for Carnegie Mellon University's wordmark.

5-7. Cover for Vogue 1950, Jean Patchett. This classic magazine cover design perfectly matched the fashion woman figure to Bodoni title type.

5-8. ORTS. by Ted Hughes,1978. This handsome volume was printed on Italian paper using Bodoni types at the John Roberts Press in London, and bound in full calf by Zaehnsdorf.

5-7


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Legibility and Readability: Its heavy thichs and hairline thins make the text in Bodoni look dazzling. That's lead Bodoni own comparatively poor readability to those transitional and old style typefaces such as Garamond, Baskerville, Caslon, and etc. So, Bodoni is used more appropriately as a display type or logo type than as a body type. Voice-over and ethos: The high contrast between thick and thin strokes and almost fine hairline serifs build Bodoni like a modern model on the runway. Bodoni is born with fashionability and timeless aesthetic. So it is widely used in various of fashion magazines, books related to arts, music, photography, the title for posters and etc. Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a serif typeface, good contrasts include sans serif faces like Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, Tahoma, Century Gothic, Calibri, and Bell Gothic. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other modern typefaces and old style typefaces will conflict the most, such as Didot, Book Antiqua, Bookman, Californian FB, Calisto, Centaur, Goudy Old Style, and Palatino, Times New Roman, Bell, New York, Perpetua, and Georgia. Generally, serif faces will conflict and you will want to avoid them. Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Bodoni performs poorly in large mass paragraghs as the letters appear like zebra lines to make audience feel dazzled. As a stylish as well as elegant modern typeface, it is more appropriate to use Bodoni as a display type and logo type than as a body type. So Bodoni can be used as title type on poster, page and any other media that you want to pass the feeling of modern and fashion to your audience.

5-8


Bodoni

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Large eye, moderate aperture

Leg extends laterally from stem

Moderate x-height and descenders. X-height and width decrease as "optical sizes" increase

Relatively gradual change from thick to thin strokes

Bodoni created typefaces and typography to impress the eye. His designs were studied efforts meant to be seen as well as read. Few would deny that Bodoni's typefaces are beautiful; unfortunately, few would say they are also easy to read. His goal was not to create typography to be appreciated by the masses. His books and other printing exercises were large regal efforts meant to be looked upon and appreciated as works of art, rather than as mere pieces of communication. If used carefully, Bodoni type can create typography that is exceptionally beautiful, even elegant, but not particularly easy to read. If used poorly, Bodoni's extreme weight contrast and vertical stress can cause a typographic effect, "dazzling," which is visually uninviting and exceptionally disruptive to the reading process.


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Ball terminals of "g" and "a" are different size

High contrast. Verticle axis

In moderate weight

The tail begin from the middle of Q


46

5-9

5-10

5-11 5-9, 5-10. Bodoni Bedlam Popup book, by Victoria Macey. Bodoni's usage is extented to more space as the units to construct decorative patterns and illustrations.

5-11. Typeface Poster, by Stempel Schneidler. Using the elegant body carves to match the charaterisitics of Bodoni.


47

VI

Helvetica


Helvetica

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Helvetica was developed in 1957 by Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann at the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas Type Foundry) of M端nchenstein, Switzerland. Haas set out to design a new sans-serif typeface that could compete with the successful Akzidenz-Grotesk in the Swiss market. Originally called Neue Haas Grotesk, its design was based on SchelterGrotesk and Haas' Normal Grotesk. The aim of the new design was to create a neutral typeface that had great clarity, no intrinsic meaning in its form, and could be used on a wide variety of signage. When Linotype adopted Neue Haas Grotesk (which was never planned to be a full range of mechanical and hotmetal typefaces) its design was reworked. After the success of Univers, Arthur Ritzel of Stempel redesigned Neue Haas Grotesk into a larger family. In 1960, the typeface's name was changed by Haas' German parent company Stempel to Helvetica in order to make it more marketable internationally. 6-2

Helvetica Regular AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Helvetica Oblique AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Helvetica Bold

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

6-1. These are the most common typefaces under Helvetica family tree. Other famous Helvetica typefaces are Helvetica Light, Helvetica Compressed, Helvetica Textbook, Helvetica Rounded, Helvetica Inserat, Helvetica Narrow, Neue Helvetica, Helvetica World, and etc.

6-2. Helvetica is a popular choice for commercial wordmarks, including those for Societe Generale, 3M, American Apparel, BMW, ECM, Jackass, Jeep, J. C. Penney, Kawasaki, Lufthansa, McDonald's, Mitsubishi Electric, Motorola, Panasonic, Philippine

Helvetica 33 Thin Extented

Airlines, Target, current logo of

A aB bCcD d E e Ff G g H h I i J j K kLl M m NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Apple Inc. has used Helvetica

6-1

Texaco, University of Illinois at Chicago, and Verizon Wireless. widely in iOS (previously iPhone OS), and the iPod. The iPhone 4 uses Neue Helvetica.


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6-3

6-3. Helvetica 50 Poster, by Lucas Salcedo, 2011. Using red letter illustration on white background to match the simplicity and stability of Helvetica.

6-4. Helvetica Poster Designed and created by the D. Stempel AG type foundry 1960.

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Helvetica

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San Serif: San serifs typeface under Neo-grotesque classification. Lineale typefaces derived from the grotesque. They have less stroke contrast and are more regular in design. The jaws are more open than in the true grotesque and the g is often open-tailed. The ends of the curved strokes are usually horizontal. X-heights: Tall x-height, which makes it easier to read in smaller sizes. Width and weight: Helvetica Regular is set very wide, but t and f are comparatively narrow from other letters while the s is totally square-looking. The width and great x-height as well as the even lines make the context in Helvetica become heavy. Structure: Helvetica can be characterized in such appearances: two-storied a (with curves of bowl and of stem), narrow t and f, square-looking s, bracketed top serif of l, rounded off square tail of R. Monotype's Arial, designed in 1982, while different from Helvetica in some few details, has identical character widths, and is indistinguishable by most non-specialists. The characters C, G, R, Q, 1, a, e, r, and t are useful for quickly distinguishing Arial and Helvetica. First difference is that Helvetica's strokes are typically cut either horizontally or vertically which is especially visible in the t, r, f, and C while Arial employs slanted stroke cuts. Second, Helvetica's G has a well-defined spur, but Arial does not. Another difference is that the tail of Helvetica's R is more upright whereas Arial's R is more diagonal. Also the number 1 of Helvetica has a square angle underneath the upper spur while Arial has a curve. The Q glyph in Helvetica has a straight cross mark, while the cross mark in Arial has a slight snake-like curve. Legibility and Readability: Helvetica is one of the most legible typeface in the world. Thus, there are countless companies use it as wordmarks. Due to its high x-heights and wide litterspacing, Helvetica also own excellent readability. It's adopted by Apple Inc. in iOS as default font which can improve that Helvetica is aesthetically-perfect and multimedialy-readable. Voice-over and ethos: Helvetica is strong, simple and eyecatching. It's high x-height and thick strokes give audience the feeling of stability and maturement. That's the reason that lots of companies choose Helvetica as their logos or wordmarks. On the other hand, in a way, Helvetica has been overused these years. Lacking change and fresh air make audience feel in the same way

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6-6

6-5. Signage Board Design. The Chicago Transit Authority uses Helvetica on its signage for the Chicago 'L'.

6-6. New York City's Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) uses Helvetica

which will lead to a boring consequence. Though Helvetica is welldesigned, readable, strong and simple, it still need to be used in a more careful way. Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a san serif typeface, good contrasts include serif faces like Didot, Palatino, Times New Roman, Georgia, Caslon, New York, and Joanna.

for many of its subway signs, but Helvetica was not adopted as the official font for signage until 1989.

Typefaces that provide conflict: Other san serif typefaces will conflict the most, such as Arial, Futura, Century Gothic, Segoe, and etc. Some slab serif faces such as Clarendon, Rockwell and Courier will also conflict if in similar weight. Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Helvetica has perfect legiblity and readability, so it can be used as title types, logo types and wordmarks. It's high x-height make it clear in smaller size so Helvetica can be used as body type in mass text.


Helvetica

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Bowl occupies upper half of body Very low contrast

Mildly curving leg extends from far right side of bowl

Closed aperture Rounded shapes are nearly circular

More than 50 years since its release, Helvetica is the world's most widely known typeface. Its popularity is due in part to its attempt at idealized construction: contrast is minimal; strokes terminate at 90o angles; letter shapes and widths are unusually uniform, bucking conventional forms; and the overall texture is atypically even, almost hommogenous. The result is useful for logos and graphic display type, where consistency is desired, but not as effective for long passages of text, where dynamic thythm and unique lettershapes are vital. Neue Helvetica is a 1980s effort to harmonize the previously incompatible styles. Neue Haas Grotesk refers to the original drawings for an even more holistic family, unconstrained by various technological compromises.


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Moderate x-height and descenders. fairly wide body

Monocular "g" with fairly flat lower stroke

Relatively complex bowl Long bar to center of body All strokes terminate at 90o angles

Stem takes sharp turn at baseline to form small tail. Tail disappears in heavier weights


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6-7. UI Design for iOS7. Helvetica Neue Ultra Light was used in this design to pass the delicate and elegant feeling to audience.

6-7

6-8. UI Design. Helvetica nowadays is really popular in UI design aspect. It's clearness and stability totally match the feeling of technology.

6-8 6-9. Contents page for Introduction to Matrices with Applications in Statistics, 1969. Helvetica is widely used in typography.

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VII

Univers


Univers

56

Univers is the name of a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1954. Originally conceived and released by Deberny & Peignot in 1957, the type library was acquired in 1972 by Haas. Then transferred into the D. Stempel AG and Linotype collection in 1985 and 1989 respectively upon the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas Type Foundry) acquisition and closing. Univers is one of a group of neo-grotesque sans-serif typefaces, all released in 1957, that includes Folio and Neue Haas Grotesk (later renamed Helvetica). These three faces are sometimes confused with each other, because each is based on the 1898 typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk. These typefaces figure prominently in the Swiss Style of graphic design.

7-2

7-3

Univers enjoyed great popularity in the 1960s and 1970s because many corporations adopted it for usage. It is used in a modified version by the new Swiss International Air Lines (previously, Swissair used the typeface Futura), Munich Re Group (which also uses a personalized version), Deutsche Bank and for signage all over the world.

Univers 45 Light AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Univers 45 Light Oblique AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Univers 55 Roman

7-1. These are some of the typefaces from Univers family tree. Univers also has various of typefaces such as Univers Black, Extra Black, Bold Extented, Black Extented, and etc.

7-2. George W. Bush used Univers for his campaign logos in both 2000 and 2004. Bush's 2000 campaign logo was set in Univers 85 Extra Black, while the 2004 campaign logo used Univers 85 Extra Black Oblique (italic).

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

7-3. Portal's Aperture Science logo uses the Univers font.

Univers 65 Bold

7-4, 7-5. The Montreal Metro,

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 7-1

BART, various Toronto Transit Commission subway stations, make extensive use of this typeface.


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7-4

7-5


Univers

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San Serif: San serifs typeface under Neo-grotesque classification. Lineale typefaces derived from the grotesque. They have less stroke contrast and are more regular in design. The jaws are more open than in the true grotesque and the g is often open-tailed. The ends of the curved strokes are usually horizontal. X-heights: Tall x-height. Large x-heights provided greater legibility, addressing the concern that sans-serif type was more difficult to read than serif type. Width and weight: Univers 55 is lighter and narrower than Helvetica Regular. Thus, Univers expressed a factual and cool elegance, a rational competence. Structure: Univers has more stroke modulation than Helvetica. The two-storied 'a' is the most distinctive letter, with a straight back, no baseline curl, and perpendicular connection at top of bowl. The 'G' lacks Helvetica spur. Diagonal strokes of 'k' meet at stem. Universe was the first typeface in which the weights were classified with a numerical system. Univers 55 is probably the base text font — the one most similar in weight to the standard version of Helvetica anyway — but a nice thing about Univers is that the lighter weights, especially 45, have even color and can be used to set continuous text. Legibility and Readability: Univers was built up from a geometric basis, but its lines played freely so that the individuals find their own expression and join together in a cohesive structure in word, line, and page. To maintain the integrity of each letterform, careful optical adjustments were made, based on the current knowledge of the principles of perception. All of these innovations contributed to the overall harmony among letters, allowing for a smooth line flow. So Univers has perfect legibility and readability. Voice-over and ethos: Univers was created almost simultaneously with other successful alphabets: Helvetica (1957) and Optima (1958). Whereas Helvetica, for example, had a general clarity and a modern, timeless and neutral effect without any conspicuous attributes (lending to its great success), Univers expressed a factual and cool elegance, a rational competence.


59

Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a san serif typeface, good contrasts include serif faces like Baskerville, Palatino, Times New Roman, Georgia, Caslon, New York, and Joanna. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other san serif typefaces will conflict the most, such as Arial, Futura, Century Gothic, Segoe, and etc. Some slab serif faces such as Clarendon, Rockwell and Courier will also conflict if in similar weight. Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Univers has perfect legiblity and readability, so it can be used as title types, logo types and wordmarks. It's high x-height make it clear in smaller size so Univers can be used as body type in mass text. Additonally, it's also popular in sign design and map design.

7-6. Frutiger developed a more elegant, modernist way of labeling his type, introducing a grid and number system to categorized the weights of Univers without using the words bold, heavy and light.


Univers

60

Diagonal strokes meet at stem

Mildly curving leg Closed aperture

Released in the same year as Helvetica, Adrian Frutiger's masterpiece is the first multi-width, multi-weight superfamily designed as a consistent system from the beginning. The release was promoted by a multicolored grid diagram that is still wellknown and imitated today. To achieve the pioneering uniformity throughout the family, Frutiger created a core design that is quite spare, allowing for the extensive cariations in weight and width. Univers is therefore a very nwutral typeface, delivering readable text while drawing very little attention to itself. Univers Next is a modern reworking of the family that was initially optimized for photo, not digital typesetting. Good for a clear, neutral vessel for unfettered communication.

Low contrast, though more than other NeoGrotesques


61

Moderate x-height and descenders, fairly narrow body

Monocular "g"

Strokes terminate at 90o angles Bowl has flast top with perpendicular connection to stem

No tail Horizontal bar and straight vertical stroke without beard


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7-7 7-7. Univers (left), while featuring an unusually high x-height for the time, actually has a slightly smaller x-height than featured in Helvetica (right). The "x" is also slightly wider in Univers than in Helvetica.

7-8. Univers's "a" (left) doesn't flow quite as much as Helvetica's (right); it has places were strokes start and stop, whereas Helvetica's all merge. The Univers "a" also has a teardrop shaped

7-8

bowl, while Helvetica's is a modified teardrop shape instead. The stem of Univers "a" does not really have a spur, though the one on Helvetica's "a" is quite pronounced.

7-9. The "R" in Helvetica (right) is much more stylized than the "R" in Univers (left). Helvetica's "R" is wider, and appears a bit more stretched out than Univers's "R". The leg in Univers's "R" also features a shallower, more gentle curve in the leg than the one in Helvetica's "R". The spur on Helvetica's "R" is also more

7-9

obvious and defined than the one in Univers.


63

7-10 7-10. Univers (left) and Frutiger (right) both feature similar x-heights and their letterforms are also similar width and proportion within the letterforms, though Frutiger's are slightly thinner.

7-11. Univers's "a" (left) is significantly different from the later-designed Frutiger "a" (right). Frutiger "a" is wider than its predecessor, and its bowls and counters all stretch with it. The connection between the bowl and stem of Frutiger's "a" is slightly

7-11

thinner, and while the angle of the leg is the same across both, the spur in Univers's "a" has disappeared from its Frutiger counterpart.

7-12. The "R"s in the two typefaces are drastically different. The "R" in Frutiger (right) is much more condensed than its Univers (left) counterpart. Frutiger's "R" features a more rounded, shorter bowl and doesn't have as deep a connection with the leg as the "R" in Univers. Its leg is also completely straight, rather than the gently curving one in Univers.

7-12


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7-13. Created to celebrate the 50th Birthday of the Univers type family. The poster untilizes Fruitiger’s original design with the phrase ‘Twenty one going on fifty’.


65

VIII

Frutiger


Frutiger

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Frutiger is a sans-serif typeface by the Swiss type designer Adrian Frutiger. It was commissioned in 1968 by the newly built Charles de Gaulle International Airport at Roissy, France, which needed a new directional sign system. Instead of using one of his previously designed typefaces like Univers, Frutiger chose to design a new one. The new typeface, originally called Roissy, was completed in 1975 and installed at the airport the same year. Frutiger's goal was to create a sans-serif typeface with the rationality and cleanliness of Univers but the organic and proportional aspects of Gill Sans. The result is that Frutiger is a distinctive and legible typeface. The letter properties were suited to the needs of Charles de Gaulle: a modern appearance and legibwility at various angles, sizes, and distances. Ascenders and descenders are very prominent, and apertures are wide to easily distinguish letters from one another.

8-2

8-1. New Swiss road signs near Lugano use the typeface Frutiger. Its ascenders and descenders are very prominent, and apertures are

The Frutiger family was released publicly in 1976 by the Stempel type foundry in conjunction with Linotype. Frutiger's simple and legible yet warm and casual character has made it popular today in advertising and small print. Some major uses of Frutiger are in the corporate identity of Raytheon, O2, the British Royal Navy, the London School of Economics and Political Science, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Banco Bradesco in Brazil, and the Finnish Defence Forces, and on road signs in Switzerland. The typeface has also been used across the public transport network in Oslo, Norway, since the 1980s. In 2008 it was the fifth best-selling typeface of the Linotype foundry.

wide to easily distinguish letters from one another.

8-2. Cornell University uses Frutiger as its secondary typeface, along with Palatino.

8-3. Adrian Frutiger Poster, by Shaun Bhow, 2011. Using the famous grid created by Adrian Frutiger to exhibite this great designer's biography.

8-4. Frutiger vs Futura, by Grant Cavaluzzi, 2013. This page shows the differences between these two typefaces. Frutiger was built on basis of geometrical typefaces like Futura.

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8-3

8-4


Frutiger

68

a a a aa a a aaa aaaa 95 Ultra Black

75 Black

45 Light

55 Roman

65 Roman

47 Light Condensed

57 Condensed

67 Bold Condensed

76 Black Condensed

45 Light Italic

56 Italic

66 Bold Italic

76 Black Italic

77 Extra Black Condensed

8-5

8-6. These are the most common typefaces belong to Frutiger Univers 55 Roman

family tree. Frutiger Next was published in 2002, and Frutiger Neue is published in 2009.

8-6. The example shows Univers which Frutiger choose not to use compared to Gill Sans and the new typeface Frutiger, who Gill Sans Regular

combines the qualities of the two.

8-7. Frutiger font poster, Anita Cheung. This poster design make using of Frutiger 55 Roman, 65 Bold, 75 Black and 85 Ultra Black to explain the story of Adrian Frutiger and the typeface Frutiger. Frutiger 55 Roman

8-6


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Frutiger can be classified in the Humanist style of sans serif. Frutiger's simple and legible, yet warm and casual character has made it popular today in many corporate indentities, signage, advertising, and small print. Some of its most easily defining letters can include lowercase a, m, s, and y. Other easily identifiable uppercase letters include G, R, W and A. Frutiger's goal was to create a sans serif typeface with the rationality and cleaniness of Univers, but with the organic and proportional aspects of Gill Sans. The result is that Frutiger is a distinctive and legible typeface. The letter properties were suited to the needs of Charles De Gaulle - modern appearance and legibility at various angles, sizes, and distances. Ascenders and descenders are very prominent, and apertures are wide to easily distinguish letters from each other. The Frutiger typeface, with its conciseness and legibility, allows quick and easy navigation through the complex layout of the airport. It was quickly adopted as the favorite typeface for writen navigational systems. It is clear that open terminals (visible looking at the lowercase g and e) that Frutiger incorporated enhance legibility at small size, or else looked at from distance. The same thing goes for the prominend ascenders, descenders and x-heights.

8-7


Frutiger

70

Square dot

Vertical Legs, diagonals meet at baseline Strokes point outward with vertically sheared terminals

Designed in the mid-1970s for the Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris, Adrian Frutiger's eponymous typeface has become the wayfinding standard, adopted by airports and other institutions around the world. Frutiger began the commission by adapting his previous design, Univers, but favoring a Humanistic approach that aids legibility, obviously a critical factor in airport signage. Thanks to its open apertures, Frutiger is famously readable from a wide range of angles and distances. Still, there is a lot of Univers in this typeface, with its very slight stroke contrast and plain forms. Good for simple, unaffected clarity.


71

Angled terminal

Minimal contrast

Large x-height, moderate extenders and width

Rounded glyphs are nearly circular

Fairly small bowl

Nearly straight leg

Arm and leg meet at stem

Tail curves slightly upward


72

8-7. Frutiger Type Poster, Philip Mitton. Using very simple page and color to express the clearness and simplicity of Frutiger.

8-7

8-8. Signage design for Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, numbers within each terminal's letter indicate the walking time. This design also adopt the typeface Frutiger.

8-8


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IX

Futura


Futura

74

In typography, Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed in 1927 by Paul Renner. It was designed as a contribution on the New Frankfurt-project. It is based on geometric shapes that became representative of visual elements of the Bauhaus design style of 1919–33. Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry, in reaction to Ludwig & Mayer's seminal Erbar of 1922, Futura was commercially released in 1936. The family was originally cast in Light, Medium, Bold, and Bold Oblique fonts in 1928. Light Oblique, Medium Oblique, Demibold, and Demibold Oblique fonts were later released in 1930. Book font was released in 1932. Book Oblique font was released in 1939. Extra Bold font was designed by Edwin W. Shaar in 1952. Extra Bold Italic font was designed in 1955 by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype. Although Renner was not associated with the Bauhaus, he shared many of its idioms and believed that a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design. Renner's initial design included several geometrically constructed alternative characters and ranging (old-style) figures, which can be found in the typeface Architype Renner. Futura has an appearance of efficiency and forwardness. The typeface is derived from simple geometric forms (nearperfect circles, triangles and squares) and is based on strokes of near-even weight, which are low in contrast. This is most visible in the almost perfectly round stroke of the o, which is nonetheless slightly ovoid. In designing Futura, Renner avoided the decorative, eliminating nonessential elements. The lowercase has tall ascenders, which rise above the cap line. The uppercase characters present proportions similar to those of classical Roman capitals. The original Futura design also included small capitals and old-style figures, which were dropped from the original metal issue of the type. The digital versions of these glyphs were first produced by Neufville Digital under the Futura ND family.

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9-2

9-1. Futura (and its variants) have become an extremely popular typeface for countless corporate logos, commercial products, films and advertisements for years. In fact, so popular that certain art directors had began boycotting its use in with Art Directors Against Futura Extra Bold Condensed, published in 1992's TDC Typography 13.

9-2. Futura had the honor of being the first typeface on the moon, chosen for a commemorative

Futura Light AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Futura Book AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Futura Heavy

Apollo 11 in 1969.

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

9-3. The family was originally cast in Light, Medium, Bold,

Futura Bold

plaque left by the astronauts of

and Bold Oblique fonts in 1928. Light Oblique, Medium Oblique, Demibold, and Demibold Oblique fonts were later released in 1930. Book font was released in 1932. Book Oblique font was released in 1939. Extra Bold font was designed by Edwin W. Shaar in 1952. Extra Bold Italic font was designed in 1955 by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype.

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Futura Medium Condensed AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 9-3


Futura

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San Serif: San serifs typeface under Geometric Sans classification. These sans serifs are constructed of straight, monolinear lines and circular or square shapes. This can make them very cold and clinical, but also quite simple. The starkness of most geometric sans serifs makes for great headings, but they are usually less than ideal for long paragraphs. X-heights: The x-heights are relatively low due to the long extenders. That makes the typeface thin and modern. Width and weight: Futura Book and Futura Medium is narrow and thin because of the low x-height and long extenders, especially the "k", "s", "h". Structure: Much of Futura's look is determined by its tall x-height. One very noticable characteristic is that the strokes are all of similar weights, resulting in a low contrast typeface. Upper case letters such as A, M, N, V and W have extremly sharp edges. Many of the lowercase letters extend above the cap height. The "O" and other similar letters are comprised of near perfect circles. Legibility and Readability: Futura is based on geometric construction, so its simplicity leads great legibility. But due to its low x-height and narrow width, it doesn't perform well in mass body text. Even worse is that when the letter size is small, Futura will be hard to read. Voice-over and ethos: Futura shows the possibility that, through horizontal and vertical lines contructed with awareness, but not with calculation, led by high intuition, and brought to harmony and rhythm, these basic forms of beauty, supplemented if necessary by other direct lines or curves, can become a work of art, as strong as it is true. Futura shows the soul of modernization, the feeling of futurism. Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a san serif typeface, good contrasts include serif faces like Baskerville, Palatino, Times New Roman, Georgia, Caslon, New York, and Joanna. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other san serif typefaces will conflict the most, such as Arial, Frutiger Century Gothic, Segoe, and etc. Some slab serif faces such as Clarendon, Rockwell and Courier will also conflict if in similar weight.


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Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Futura's efficient and modern appearance has been utilized extensively since it's release in 1927. Many of the original Bauhaus graphic designers used the type in their print mediums such as posters, books and advertisement. To this day it has continued to appeal to designers and artists looking for a contemporary typeface that blends well with their contemporary designs. It has a global appeal and has been used over and over again for branding purposes and can be seen in many recognizable corporate logos such as Volkswagen, Domino's Pizza and SwissAir. Currently, Futura can be seen in several album and cd covers, as well as in many television shows and movies. It is said to be the favorite typeface of movie director Stanley Kubrick. And, popular movie director Wes Anderson has used it predominantly in the majority of his movies.

9-4. Futura Poster, by Alise Fisher, 2010. This poster simply used a squre, a rectangle, a circle, a triangle, and some straight lines to create a very visully appealing end result. It's also a great example of integrating type with graphics.

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Futura

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Minimal contrast

Leg connects to arm

Relatively low x-height, long extenders, fairly narrow body

Very narrow "s" made of half-circles and straight spine

Pointed apexes have deep overshoot Terminal follows path of stroke, very closed aperture, and fairly small eye

Futura has become widely known as the prototypical Geometric typeface. Bauhaus experiments in geometric form led Paul Renner to develop a typeface that was initially made entirely of straight lines and circular shapes. This was eventually tamed into more conventinal letterforms, but they remained mostly Geometric. Futura's capitals are based on classical proportions, explaining their variable widths. Caution: the protrusion of pointed apexes ("M", "N", "w") is called "overshoot", an optical compensation for type intended for text sizes, but potentially distracting when large.


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Terminals sheared vertically

Single-story form, stroke thins significantly where it meets the stem

Rounded glyphs are circular


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9-5. Nexa Branding & Web Design. This design is based on Futura. It performs well both on paper book and iPad screen.


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X

Gill Sans


Gill Sans

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Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill. The original design appeared in 1926 when Douglas Cleverdon opened a bookshop in his home town of Bristol, where Gill painted the fascia over the window in sans-serif capitals that would later be known as Gill Sans. In addition, Gill had sketched a design for Cleverdon, intended as a guide for him to make future notices and announcements. Gill further developed it into a complete font family after Stanley Morison commissioned the development of Gill Sans to combat the families of Erbar, Futura and Kabel which were being launched in Germany during the latter 1920s. Gill Sans was later released in 1928 by Monotype Corporation. Gill Sans became popular when in 1929 Cecil Dandridge commissioned Eric Gill to produce Gill Sans to be used on the London and North Eastern Railway for a unique typeface for all the LNER's posters and publicity material. Gill was a well established sculptor, graphic artist and type designer, and the Gill Sans typeface takes inspiration from Edward Johnston’s Johnston typeface for London Underground, which Gill had worked on while apprenticed to Johnston. Eric Gill attempted to make the ultimate legible sans-serif text face. Gill Sans was designed to function equally well as a text face and for display. It is distributed as a system font in Mac OS X and is bundled with certain versions of Microsoft products as Gill Sans MT. 10-1. The BBC adopted the typeface as its corporate typeface in 1997. Until 2006, the corporation used the font in all its media output; however, the unveiling of its new idents for BBC One and BBC Two has signalled a shift away from its universal use, as other fonts were used for their respective on-screen identities, but the BBC logo still uses the typeface.

10-1. Gill Sans Poster, by Manal Ahmed. This is a creative writing to explain the saying that type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters.

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10-2


Gill Sans

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San Serif: San serifs typeface under Humanist Sans. This kind of san-serif typefaces first appeared in the early twentieth century. Humanist sans-serif typefaces are characterized by the presence of the hand, an uppercase similar in proportion to the monumental Roman capitals, a lowercase similar in the form to the Carolingian script, and an overall more organic structure. Humanist sans-serif typefaces frequently have a true italic rather than a sloped roman. This is most often seen in a single-story lowercase italic "a". X-heights: The x-heights are large so it leads to high legibility and readability. Width and weight: Gill Sans Regular has moderate width and weight. Structure: The capital M from Gill Sans is based on the proportions of a square with the middle strokes meeting at the centre of that square. The Gill Sans typeface family contains fourteen styles and has less of a mechanical feel than geometric sans-serifs like Futura, because its proportions stemmed from Roman tradition. Unlike realist sans-serif typefaces including Akzidenz Grotesk and Univers the lower case is modelled on the lowercase Carolingian script. The Carolingian influence is noticeable in the two-story lowercase a, and g. The lowercase t is similar to old-style serifs in its proportion and oblique terminus of the vertical stroke. Following the humanist model the lowercase italic a becomes single story. The italic e is highly calligraphic, and the lowercase p has a vestigial calligraphic tail reminiscent of the italics of Caslon and Baskerville. Gill Sans serves as a model for several later humanist sans-serif typefaces including Syntax and FF Scala Sans. An Infant variety of the typeface with single-story versions of the letters a and g also exists. Legibility and Readability: The lighter of these fonts is seen to be the best example of Gill Sans. This is mainly due by the legibility factor of the stroke weights within the font. The Bolder the font becomes the more illegible the font is. Voice-over and ethos: Eric Gill said that the shapes of letters do not derive their beauty from any sensual or sentimental reminiscences. No one can say that the O's roundness appeals to us only because it is like that of an apple or of a girl's breasts or of a full moon. Letters are thing, no pictures of things.


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Typefaces that contrast well with it: As a san serif typeface, good contrasts include serif faces like Baskerville, Palatino, Times New Roman, Georgia, Caslon, New York, and Joanna. Typefaces that provide conflict: Other san serif typefaces will conflict the most, such as Arial, Frutiger Century Gothic, Segoe, and etc. Some slab serif faces such as Clarendon, Rockwell and Courier will also conflict if in similar weight. Likely audiences and uses of the typeface: Gill Sans is feature in much of the British Culture. It is the font used for all the street signs in the United Kingdom. The font was practically adopted by the U.K. as the type of the mid 19th century. Terror Island an online magazine uses this font as its cover and body text. Among more notable things Gill Sans is also featured as the Title for Wine and Dine Magazine (Ultra Bold), Popular children’s animated film Chicken Little (ultra bold), Local Retail Eyeglasses store Eyeglass World they incorporate the “g” and use it as eyeglasses, Popular British Act Bloc Party use Gill sans as their main text in the first two album release as well as making it the font to signify the band Bloc Party. Among others include Mega hardware store HOME DEPOT which use the font in various signage around the store. Lionardo DeCaprio directed Environmental Documentary :An Inconvenient Truth which contained Gill Sans Bold. Gill Sans has played a significant role this year especially in the two thousand and nine presidential election. President Barack Obama used Gill Sans for his presidential logo during the running of his campaign for presidency.

10-3. Gill Sans was used for all street signs in the United Kingdom, as well as the London Underground logo. Actually, Gill Sans is feature in much of the British Culture.

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Gill Sans

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Flattened bowl in which curved stroke meets top of stem, without crotch

Flat apex

Pointed apexes

Top-heavy form: heavy arch stroke, very light bowl stroke to keep counter from getting too small, tail flips up abruptly

Long a standard part of the Mac's pre-installed font bundle, Gill Sans has become known to modern-day users as an elegant sans option when compared to the others they find on their computer. But in many ways, Eric Gill's typeface, a follower of Edward Johnston's type for the London Underground, is an awkward mix of Geometric and Humanist ideas - from its circular "o" to its dynamic, calligraphic "a". Uppercase widths vary wildly. The long-legged "R" causes spacing issues, especially in the lighter weights. And the "g" is an odd concoction that even Gill himself fittingly called a "pair of spectacles". Still, there is lasting charm in this face, and it has become synonymous with British culture ever since it debuted.


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Very light stroke where arm meets stem

Binocular form with relatively small bowls, the ear is a simple horizontal stroke

Pointed triangle bracket connecting bar and stem

Tail is a long, slow curve and the terminals are vertical

Very long leg extends far beyond upper bowl

Very wide "C"

Diagonal strokes meet high above basseline to form pointed apex


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Gill Sans Light AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Gill Sans Regular AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Gill Sans Bold AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Gill Sans Condensed AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Gill Sans Bold Condensed AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Gill Sans Book Italic AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz

Gill Sans Bold Italic AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 10-4. Monotype released in August 2005 a collection of 21 fonts including Book, Book Italic, Heavy, Heavy Italic, Display Bold, Display Bold Condensed fonts of Gill Sans. It adds support of Eastern European characters but not Greek and Cyrillic.


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Bibliography Stephen Coles. The Anatomy of Type. Quid Publishing 2012 Robert Bringhurst. The Elements of Typographic Style (Fourth edition). Hartley & Marks 1992 Ellen Lupton. Thinking With Type. Princeton Architectural Press 2004. Derrick Nation. Analyzing Gill Sans. http://derricknation. wordpress.com/2009/05/17/a-look-at-gill-sans/ Brandon Pogrob. Bodoni - Contrast and Cleanliness. http:// issuu.com/brandonpogrob/docs/bodonibook Thomas Christensen. The Typehead Chronicles. http://www. rightreading.com/typehead/typehead.htm Anna Bang. Garamond. http://issuu.com/annabang/docs/ garamond_bang_final Peter Gabor. Garamond vs Garamond. http://barneycarroll. com/garamond.htm Nina Wu. Helvetica vs Arial. http://designrfix.com/fonts/ arial-helvetica Michael Tarazi. Univers Typeface Book. http://issuu.com/ tarazi_/docs/univers_book_tarazi_for_issuu Guillem Casasus. Frutiger. http://issuu.com/casasus/docs/ monografia_frutiger David Foster. Another Bloody Caslon. Type & Media 2012 Analysis: Times New Roman. http://learn.sparklelabs.com/ dmdesign3/2010/10/08/analysis-times-new-roman/ http://wikipedia.org


Gill Sans

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