Index: Week 1………………………………………………………….1—4 Week 2………………………………………………………….5—9 Week 3………………………………………………………….10—17 Week 4………………………………………………………….18—24 Week 5………………………………………………………….25—29 Week 6………………………………………………………….30—35 Week 7………………………………………………………….36—38 Week 8………………………………………………………….39—42 Week 9………………………………………………………….43—49 Week 10………………………………………………………..50—56 Construction workshop……………………………………….57—61 Reference………………………………………………………62—64
In the lecture we used a page of paper to build up a base for holing a 5kg brick. As we know, the base which is shape of triangle will be strong than other shape of base. Hence I built up a base of shape triangle. After putting the From the top: from the side: brick:
In the tutorial we need to use a great amount of block to build a building as high as we can. And we also need to leave a space for the horse to go in. Thatâ€™s mean we need to make sure that the building should be firm and tall. The base of our building:
we try to make a round base to make sure the surface touched the ground is big enough for holding the rest of the block.
use two standing block to increase the height of the building.
We built the block as a stair, it can be strong enough to hold the pressure. Because each block relate to each one hence it will be difficult to break it. The short is that if one block is broken other will be affected as well.
Here is the outward of our building. The outstanding block will be the weakness. Its very easy to attack our building if one of outstanding block has been removed.
From the top.
The open space is the door for the horse to go inside.
This was the tallest building in our tutorial. It used the shape of honeycomb. It held the structure more stronger. Each box which placed on top of the building was around 10kg. we put six boxes on it but the building still can hold it.
In this lecture we need to use two straws and a box to build a base so that it can support heavy item. A student sticks the straw from the four sides so that it could balance the box. Unfortunately its too weak for the straw to hold the heavy item.
This student uses four straws to make a shape of W. And it even has a support point in the middle of each straw. Because the straw is too weak so it still canâ€™t hold the item.
In the tutorial we cut a piece of wood into 20 slices. We need to use these 20 slices to build up a tower as high as we can. We choose to build a triangle shape base: We used tape to stick each slice together. For the base is the most important part of a building. If the base is not firm enough it will affect the rest of the structure. And all the slices should be in one horizon.
We stick the pillar part between the angles so it has a support angle.
First floor of our tower
If there is no support point in the middle the tower will not afford great forces which act on it. Hence we used another three slices to support each base then we even used three short slices to support from the middle of the pillar.
At the end, our tower has been built up to floor three. The last part which only has a slice sticks on it just to increase its height.
Due to our rough handwork our tower has lean on one side. So we need to give it a support opposite it. Thatâ€™s why at last we stick another slice to the base.
When we started to act forces on the tower we can see the one without middle support is being twist but the base still held together. The weak point of the tower is every middle point of the slice.
The bend part is the middle of the slice.
Knowledge map: •Deep foundation: have end bearing piles and friction piles.
•Raft foundation: provide increase stability by joining the individual strip together.
•Strip footing: used when loads from a wall or series of columns is spread in a linear manner.
•Pad footing: spread a point of load over a wider area of ground.
Footing and foundation
Equilibrium: equal action of opposing force.
Masonry: stone+clay+concrete The unit together act as a monolithic whole. Can used as beam, lintels, arches, vaults and domes. Equilibrium=object or system at rest. The sum of the applied and reaction forces must be zero in order for equilibrium to exist.
Mass materials: stone+stone+clay+co ncrete
Blocks: made out of concrete.
Bricks: standard size masonry unit made out of clay. Moment of force: the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. Mo=F*d moment=force*distance
Largely geometry dependant
More dense than water
Life span cost
The tendency of a force to produce rotation of a body about a point or a line, equal in magnitude to the product of the force and the moment arm and acting in a clockwise o counterclockwise direction. (Ching, 2008)
Must be designed and constructer to resist the lateral pressure of the soil being retained. (Ching, 2008)
Individual spread footings supporting freestanding columns and piers. (Ching, 2008)
Are the continuous spread footing of foundation walls. (Ching, 2008)
Slab on ground
Supported directly by the earth and thickened to carry wall and column loads form an economical foundation and floor system for one and two story structures in climates where little or no ground frost occurs. (Ching, 2008)
Foundation, the lowest division of a building constructed partly or wholly below the surface of the ground. (Ching, 2008) -12-
In week 3 tutorial we have been on site and study the structure of the building in Melbourne University.
1. Lot 6 cafe This building mainly use glass and concrete as its material. Concrete use for columns.
2. underground car park and south lawn. This is the concrete column of the structure. Itâ€™s solid system. Above the car park are trees, we may considered how the trees will affect on the car park
3. Art west student centre The wood beam use for transferring the load added from the top.
4. Stairs on west end of union house The stair have been held by the steel cable. And the load will be transfer back to the building through the cantilever.
5. North court union house The fabric has been stretched to the corner by tension force. And the base use the water system to collect the rain water from the fabric.
6. Beaurepaire centre pool It is concrete foundation wall to support the structure and protect the glass. “while strong in compression, concrete and masonry require reinforcing to handle tensile stresses.” (Ching, 2008)
7. Oval pavilion (north side) This wall built up as concrete and masonry walls. “concrete and masonry walls qualify as noncombustible construction and rely on their mass for their loadcarrying capability.” (Ching,2008)
8. New Melbourne school of design under construction The main material use for the design building are glasses and concrete. Frame system as wall. The glass is not bearing the concrete load. And the concrete column of the building is very thick, they are the main column so they transfer more loads. The structure is a cantilever. And is used of metal to form it.
9. Old geology south lecture theatre entry structure This structure mainly use steel and brick. We can see the steel column from the image out of the room. Inside the structure, is a curve shape wall, is for transfer the load back to the building. The ventilation outside the building points out that the floor inside the building must higher than its.
10. Frank tate pavilion Concrete slab underneath, and the construction joint in the intersection of each timber joist. spacing
Knowledge map: Span: distance between two structural supports. Can be measured either horizontally or vertically. Span and spacing Spacing: distance between the centre of two supports. Can be measured horizontally and vertically.
Beam: carry loads along the length of the beam and transfer load to vertical support. Beams and cantilever
In situ concrete: process include fabrication and assembly of framework placing any reinforcement. concrete
Cantilever: created when support only one end. Carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these load to the support.
Pre cast concrete: is a much more standardizes outcome. Widely use in building, bridge or civil work.
Floor and framing system:
Any of a series of small, repetitive beams for supporting floors, ceilings, or flat roofs. (Ching,2011)
Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor or roof decking by coldrolling a series of ribs or flutes into it, and usually galvanized for corrosion resistance. (Ching, 2011)
the extent of space between two supports of a structure. Also the structure so supported. (Ching, 2011)
Repeating distance between a series of like or similar element. (Newton, 2014)
Lateral support required for joist ends. (Ching, 2008)
A precast, prestressed concrete plank suitable for short spans and uniformly distributed floor and roof loads.( Ching, 2011) -19-
In this week tutorial we talk about scale and how it works: In our group we discuss that scale is a measurement for images, map etc. Scale can help them to find a right size which can fit into a fixed page and convey the idea to readers and clients. Different scale will explore different thing: â€˘Large scale: to show precise detail of a place â€˘Small scale: to contain more information and general ideas about the project Question: how does the information in your drawing set compare to what you observed at site last week? How does the scale of the building compare to the scale of the drawings? How do the architectural and structural drawing differ? The information in my drawing set is more detailing about the plan in the structure and the material use for the building. It also shows the actual size of each room. The actual scale of the building compare to the scale of drawing is most related by the start and end point. For the architectural it may exist some leaks and gaps. The structural drawing is very accurate but the architectural is not.
Construction documentation tour questionnaire:
Knowledge map: Structural frames: include concrete frame, steel frame and timber frame. Load bearing wall: include concrete and masonry. Stud wall: include light gauge steel framing and timber framing.
Walls and columns are the major vertical elements used in construction system. Wall system Fixed frame: is a grid frame connect to its supports with fixed joints
Three-hinged frame: a structure assembly of two rigid section connected to each other and to its supports with pin joints.
Hinged frame: is a grid frame connected to its support with pin joints.
Knowledge map: timber
properties Hardness Fragility Ductility Flexibility/plasticity Porosity/permeability Density Conductivity Durability/life span Reusability/recyclables
timber Medium-low Medium-low Low High flexibility, medium plasticity
High Extremely varied Poor Can very durable Very high effective -26-
Any of a repetitive series of slender, upright members of wood or light-guage metal forming the structural frame of a wall or partition. (Ching, 2011)
Brick masonry used to fill the spaces between the members of a timber frame. (Ching, 2011)
The lintel must bear loads that rest on it as well as its own load without deforming or breaking. (post-and-lintel system, 2014)
A tensile or compressive force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member and at the centroid of the cross section. Producing axial stress without bending, torsion, or shear. (Ching, 2011)
The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a compressive load. (Ching, 2011)
Seasoned timber To increase its strength, stability, and resistance to fungi, decay and insects. (Ching, 2008)
All the column use to support the truss system. We use wood stick to build the model. Relate to the scale of 1:100 we measured the length on the drawing set then calculate the actual model length. We first made the structure of different section, in the end we stick them together. Due to the inaccurate measurement some of our section has been oversized so the whole structure lean to one side .
For this model, we can see the structure has been supported by the column. In the actual building it built up with steel. And for the wall is concrete and masonry bearing wall which can require reinforcing to handle tensile stresses when it has been acted a strong compression.
This model is similar to the one we made. Its also a truss structure. Which the column is the main element for transferring the load and support the structure.
Generally fabricated by welding or bolting structural angles and tees together to form the triangulated framework.
Roofing strategies and system •Ferrous: most common metal
•Flat roof: pitch 1 degree to 3 degree. •Pitch and sloping roof: pitch > 3 degree •Concrete roof: generally flat plates of reinforced concrete or pre cast slabs with a topping of concrete •Structural steel framed roof: include 1). Flat 2). Sloping 3). Portal frame 4). Space frame 5).light framed roof
•Non-ferrous: cost most •Alloy: combination of two or more metals
Knowledge map: metal
properties Hardness Varied, depending on type Fragility Low Ductility High Flexibility/plasticity Medium-high Porosity/permeability Generally impermeable Density High Conductivity Good Durability/life span Very durable Resuability/recyclability High cost effective
The overhanging lower edge of a roof. (Ching, 2011)
A longitudinal member of a roof frame for supporting common rafter between the ridge and the eaves. (Ching, 2012)
When support only one end, and it carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these load to the support. (Ching, 2008)
A rigid frame of two columns and a beam defining a single bay. (Ching,2011)
An aluminum alloy of gaining strength. (Ching, 2011)
Soffit is the underside of an overhanging roof eave. (Ching, 2008)
Either of the two principal members of a truss extending from end to end and connected by web members. (Ching, 2011)
may be oversized to accommodate the required thermal insulation and provide space for ventilating the concealed roof spaces. (Ching, 2008)
Knowledge map of Royal Victoria Motor Yacht Club: •Foundation system
pile foundation which use concrete columns Reinforced with steel bars Placed below a concrete column Steel column: will be efficient in bearing the loads Beam: transfer load
Props and panel bracing Addition support •Enclosure systems: consist of panel of concrete •Mechanical system: contain water drainage system remove exceed storm water. Also have air conditioning system and an insulation system. Current stage: most of the foundation system and structural system have been done.
Knowledge map of 52 Buninyong St.: •Structural system: concrete slab wood stud framing Header
triple full stud
•Enclosure system: fibreboard sheathing used Water supply system
Sewage disposal system Electrical system
Current stage: mechanical system still need to finish and the structural system haven’t been done much work. For the mechanical system we can only see the electrical system, water supply system and sewage disposal system but there’s more need to be included such as heating system, firefighting system etc. -34-
wrinkle plastic sheets
A thin form of plastic, having a thickness very small in proportion to its length and width. (Ching, 2011)
A rough covering of boards, plywood, or other panel materials applied to frame structure to serve as a base for siding, flooring, or roofing. (Ching, 2011)
Knowledge map: Curved structures for spanning and opening. Support vertical load primarily by axial compression. Detail for moisture: must occur a). An opening b). Water present at the opening c). A force to move water through the opening Neutralizing the forces: a). Gravity strategies b). Surface tension and capillary action strategies c). momentum d). Air pressure differential strategies •Natural rubber
rubber •Synthetic rubber
Arches, domes and shells
Vaults are arched structure of stone, brick or reinforced concrete.
Detailing for heat: controlling heat —thermal mass. Temperature increase, heat released
Detailing for heat&moisture •Oil based •Thermo plastic
plastics •Thermosetting plastic • elastomer
paints •Water based
Harder rubber resist abrasion Softer rubber proved better seals
All rubbers are considered waterproof
Approximately 1.5 times density of water
Any of various devices for shedding rainwater so as to keep it from running down a wall or falling onto the sill of an opening. (Ching, 2011)
Impedes the passage of water vapor into the roofing assembly. (Ching, 2008)
A channel of metal or wood at the eaves or on the roof of a building, for carrying off rainwater. (Ching, 2011)
A defensive wall or elevation of earth or stone protecting soldiers from enemy fire. (Ching, 2011)
Are joints between two pieces of sheet metal in the direction of fall of a curved or sloping roof, made by turning up the adjoining edges against each other, then bending them around to form a cylindrical roll. (Ching, 2008)
Refers to thin continuous pieces of sheet metal or other impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from an angle or joint. (Ching, 2008)
A material providing high resistance. (Ching, 2011)
To provide an effective seal against the passage of water and air. (Ching, 2008)
Knowledge map: Beam: carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting element. Moment of inertia is the sum of the
Geometry and moment of inertia
products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a coplanar axis of rotation.
glass Float glass
•Timber door: might be external door or sliding door •Aluminium door: common used in office building •Steel door: use for security purpose • aluminium: commonly used in commercial building •Steel: cost more than a aluminium window or timber window •timber
•Transverse shear •Vertical shearing •Horizontal or longitudinal shearing.
Flat glass door Shaped glass
Strategies for opening window
Knowledge map: properties
Porosity/permeability Density Conductivity Hardness Fragility Ductility Flexibility/plasticity Durability/life span Resability/recyclability cost
glass Non porous/waterproof Medium-high Transfer heat and light but not electircity
High High Very low High Very durable Very high Expensive to produce and transport
word Window sash
To perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under transverse loading, increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in the moment of inertia of the section or the modulus of elasticity of the material. (Ching, 2011)
Moment of inertia
The sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a coplanar axis of rotation. Itâ€™s a geometric property that indicates low the cross-sectional area of a structural member is distributed and does not reflect the intrinsic physical properties of a material. (Ching, 2011)
The stile from which the door is hung is called the hinge stile; the other stile that receives the lockset is called the lock stile. (Ching, 2008)
The unit stress permitted a material in the design of a structural member. (Ching, 2011)
An internal force tangential to the surface on which it acts, developed by a body in response to a shear force. For equilibrium of a rectangular element subject to shear, shearing in a vertical plane necessarily involves shearing in a horizontal plane. And vive versa. (Ching, 2011)
Balanced by a counterweight or a pretensioned spring on each side so that it can be raised or lowered with relatively little effort. (Ching, 2011)
Actual structure of the building. It is the function room roof north of Oval Pavilion. In the drawing it includes thermal insulation, acoustic insulation etc.
Knowledge map: Direct stress > compressive strength column failure Short, thick column failure by crushing rather tan buckling. Effective length is the distance between inflection points and “k” is effective factor. Detailing: it’s about how material being put together in any constructive object.
Long, slender columns failure by buckling rather than crushing. Stress and structural members Cleanable surface: •Butt cove for resilient flooring •Straight base for carpeted floors •Top set cove for any flooring type Construction detailing •Cove and cap stripe Movement joints: •Compressed •As installed •Elongated
Constructability three general principles: •Detail should be easy to assemble •Detail should be forgiving if there is a mistake •Detail should be based on a efficiency use constructer facilities tools
Other consideration: •Off the shelf items •Detailing to suit construction expertise
Knowledge map: Monolithic material: •Single material •Material combined so that components are indistinguishable
Composite material are create when two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual material remain easily distinguishable.
Types: •Fibrous •Laminar (eg. Sandwich panel) •Particulate (eg. Gravel and resins) •hybrid
• • • • •
Fibre reinforced cement (FRC) Fibreglass Aluminium sheet composites Timber composites Fibre reinforced polymers
A structural panel consisting of a core of relatively light material enclosed between two sheets of a light-strength material, generally resulting in a high stiffness-to-weight ratio. (Ching, 2011)
An external moment tending to cause part of a structure to rotate or bend, equal to the algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration. (Ching, 2008)
Baseboards conceal and finish the joints where sidewalls meet the floor. (Ching, 2008)
Provide smooth transitions between the floor levels of the building. (Ching, 2008)
The uppermost member of a classical entablature, consisting typically of a cymatium, corona, and bed molding. (Ching, 2011)
This building is a concrete structure building. Here is the car parking area. For some structure it got reinforce block. Stone on the wall, concrete column. There are twenty pump down in the car parking area, some of them are for storm water. And there is no pre-cast down here. All walls are waterproof.
The pumps on top are roof drainage â€œrainwater shed by sloping roofs should be caught by gutters along the eave to prevent ground erosion.â€? (Ching, 2008) It might be the shape of the gutter.
Down to the car parking area there are many column for transferring load. It transfer both live and dead loads. And the column also support the building, by transferring the load to the foundation system.
For the rooftop there exist many issues such as some materials are unsafe. On the rooftop there are two major things one is the pump another is the power line. On one side of the roof top there is a power area, and the power line will be connected through there and to each apartment. The structure in the image is for the pump to go down. The rooftop havenâ€™t been finished yet, there still have some insecurity problems, they need to add windows and shells although there is a limited space. The hole in the image as we see is the place where the water pump goes in where we talked about aboveh. And the pump will be fixed right next to the wall downward.
We can see the wall is a concrete panel with framing in front. In this image is the steel stud for the wall structure. For the ceiling is the suspended ceiling. And in the image there are some pipeline, yellow line is gas, red line is hot water and black line is for cold water.
Here is the joint between the timber and the steel.
Knowledge map: Major design concern is resistance of lateral load Wind & earthquake force dynamic load Lateral support •Wind force: act on surface, have minimum value at base, maximum value at highest elevation •Earthquake force: act at base of building, can abruptly reverse direction.
•Braced frame: provide diagonal paths for moving the lateral load through the structure in the vertical planes. •Shear wall: resist lateral loads in the vertical plane. Collect the lateral loads from the horizontal resisting element and transfer to foundation. •Soft story: it exists when one or more floors are significantly weaker or more flexible than those above or below. •Re-entrant corners: stress point •Torsion: in an earthquake, loads are applied to each floor at the center of mass.
Knowledge map: Defective: •Material selection, too wide •Exposure to hot north sun •Painted black on outside only •fasteners Life cycle problems: •Way of looking for the best solution •Consider the longevity of material not just embodies energy •Timelessness of the material •Design for reuse, recyclability, maintenance •Design for purpose •Design for durable •Be careful for green wash
Collapses and failures
Consider: •Suitability of material for the application -exposure -compatibility -strength and deflection •Long term performance •Maintenance •Construction and detailing
Energy use and embodied energy Heros and culprits
Health and IEQ Waste/recycling/recycled pollution
Knowledge map: heros and culprits
•Reduce life span •Asthma/bronchitis •Nausea •Headache •Sick days •comfort
•Reduce VOCs •Reduce particles/dust •Green cleaning practices
Source and •Limited resources waste •Takes up space •Place that can breed disease
•Renewable/abundant resources •Timber •Waste (minimize use of composites)
Knowledge map: heros and culprits
•Climate change, green house effect, global warming •Wasteful •Pollution from energy production
•Smog •Ozone layer depletion •Acid rain •Toxicity •Radio activity •Entrification and nutrification •dioxins
•Choose material that don’t contain toxin -- national pollutant inventory •Natural material •organic
Minimize embodies energy Optimize lighting Optimize appliances
Act to stiffen a building against lateral loads. A tall shear wall works like a cantilever beam out of the ground and is loaded mainly in flexure. (Newton, 2014)
A soft storey exists in a building when one or more floors are significantly weaker or more flexible than those above and/or below. (Newton, 2014)
A panel having an air-entrained core of hardened gypsum plaster faced with fibrous, absorbent paper to which plaster adheres. (Ching, 2008)
Evaluating the full range of environmental and social consequences assignable to a product, process, and service from-cradle-to-grave. (Ching, 2011)
Applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. (Ching, 2008)
Any board, flat, horizontal surface, such as the outer edge of a cornice or roof. (Ching, 2011)
The gradual deterioration of metal by chemical action, as when exposed to weather, moisture, or other corroding agents. (Ching, 2011)
Indoor environment quality. (Hes, 2014) -54-
Detail drawing: It was a waterproof structure because the material used is flashing which can prevent the water dripping into the building. It also use thermal insulation for both roof and windows to trap the heat inside the room. And the use of the acoustic insulation can prevent the noise from the outside. Outside of the building, there is a gap in the handle. It could be the inaccurate size of the glass that cannot perfectly fit into the handel.
3D drawing of Oval Pavilion
Material used: •1200 x 3.2 x 90mm ply wood x 1 •1200 x 35 x 35mm pine x 3
Tools used: •Nail •Hammer •saws
For my group. At 310kg our structure started to crack, and the crack was began at the knot where we nailed the beams together. And the knot was the weakest point of the whole structure. For our structure, the first beam was placed in the middle. So the load transfer downward will act most of the forces in the middle point of the rest of the beam. As long as the force act on the structure was exceed the structure will start to crack at the middle point of the lowest beam as we see in the pictures. Its buckling due to tension force. Compression force
First group made their structure into a triangle shape which is the most stable structure. â€œBecause the triangle does not easily deform and is able to balance the stretching and compressive forces inside the structure.â€? (Most stable shapeâ€” triangle,2011)
At 420kg the structure started to crack. The cracking point still at the knot where they nailed two materials together.
Second groupâ€™s structure. They nailed all the beam together and use the pine to support it on the side. But it still cracked at the knot due to tension force The third group laid their structure horizontally, it spread the force that acted on the structure. But the force for the wood was exceed and there was no more element can support this structure so it cracked at 280kg.
Comparison between working with actual construction materials as opposed to working with scale model making materials. When working with a scale model we can think about how to make the structure more stable and can afford more forces. After finding the shape of the model and the length that fit the model we start to build it up. With the actual working is hard to measure an accurate length for the timber and it need more strength to cut the wood. As time passed, its enable for us to finish in a limited time. So we just nailed all the materials together.
Reference: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
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