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STUDIOAIR

2018 SEMESTER 2, STUDIO 10, ALLAN XIANRONG LI


About Me My name is Sherry and I am studying architecture at University of Melbourne. I’m from China and has lived in Australia for four years. The reason I choose architecture as my major is building design is full of fun. Besides, I love to see futurize building and historic building.The most essential, I love painting and that’s why I love to create things. At now, I am not sure what aspect I should pursuit in the future. In my experience, Architecture is modernist and post-modern. But I think architecture should focus on. I focus on how to let people live in conveniently and comfort. Also, in reality, no real-estate is willing to sacrifice their profit for the future generation. I think I would call myself a consultant instead of an artistic architect. I visited some parametric designed building. The fist one is a shooping center entrance hall in Tokyo, Japan. The second is the twin towers designed by Zaha Hadid architects in Nanjing, China. The stunning apearance is so attractive for pedestraints. That’s is my fist impression of it.


Table of Contents 6  A.1. Design Futuring 16  A.2. Design Computation 26  A.3. Composition & Generation 34  A.4. Conclusion 35  A.5. Learning Outcomes 36  A.6. Appendix _ Algorithm Sketchbook 44 Bibiliography

PART A CONCEPTUALIZATION


A.1. Design Futuring INTRODUCTION As we all know, the earth has limited resources only. Although there are renewable waste that can reuse after processes, we are using them 25% faster than it renew rate. Moreover, we have experienced consequences of sacrifice environment for development such as acid rain, more extreme climates. This environmental sacrifice is the consequence of urbanization. We cannot survive in a worsen climate and environment in the future so we have to raise the awareness of protecting or nature habitat in the Merri creek project.

In 1974, “dolphin embassy’ project initiated to study communication in between human and dolphins by the Ant Farm architects. But it is not successful as the scale is too big for them to accomplish. Fortunately, it provided a deeper view of humans civilization and awareness of the nature, raising awareness from solving aesthetic problem to ‘the wicked problemsustainability’. Designing future at now is all about sustainability and speculative future instead of focus at architect own style.

Program such as Design Democracy is a powerful freeware computer application that drives the design to focus on sustainability. At now, materialistic world will be reshaped and changes are made to the design ethics and education. As the industrialization comes at end, it is the time to think about environmental protection.

[1] JOHN WOOD, DESIGN FOR MICRO-UTOPIAS: MAKING THE UNTHINKABLE POSSIBLE, 2007 [2] “DOLPHIN EMBASSY.” ANT FARM, HIDDEN ARCHITECTURE, 1974 [3] TONY FRY, DESIGN FUTURING : SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS, AND NEW PRACTICE, 2008 [4] ANTHONY DUNNE, SPECULATIVE EVERYTHING, 2013, P.34 [5] JOHN WOOD, DESIGN FOR MICRO-UTOPIAS: MAKING THE UNTHINKABLE POSSIBLE, 2007

FIGURE 1. DOLPHIN EMBASSY [2]

“ Designers should become the facilitators of flow, rather than the originators of maintainable ‘things’ such as discrete products or images” John Wood, 2007 [1] 6

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PRECEDENT 1.1 SAHMRI BUILDING, ADELAIDE/ WOODS BAGOT, 2015

Although “dolphin em Free and cheap softw as the driving force to sense for me as a “red the material world, it’s derives from past indu

FIGURE 2. ARCHITECTURAL DIAGRAM [2]

Inspired by the skin of a pine cone, the building’s unique triangulated dia-grid facade responds to its environment like a living organism, acting as an articulated sunshade. Following an intensive environmental analysis with consultants Atelier 10, Woods Bagot used parametric modelling tools to integrate environmental, programmatic, and formal requirements into the facade. Each of its façade’s several thousand triangular glass panels responds to environmental conditions inside and out. The glass is shaded by projecting hoods that vary in depth based on solar orientation, while perforated panels draw in air. Supported entirely by a steel grid, this articulated shell wraps every visible side of the building, including its underbelly. From an aeroplane window, it appears that a diamond-shaped UFO has landed on the edge of the CBD.

Jay Weatherill, has described as “the largest biomedical precinct in the southern hemisphere”.

FIGURE 1. PARALLEL VIEW [1]

[1]HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/454746/IN-PROGRESS-SAHMRI-WOODS-BAGOT-WOODS-BAGOT?AD_MEDIUM=GALLERY [2]HTTPS://WWW.THEMONTHLY.COM.AU/ISSUE/2014/MARCH/1393592400/DAVID-NEUSTEIN/HI-TECH-ARCHITECTURE-ADELAIDE

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PRECEDENT 1.2 TWIN TOWERS, THE 323M ONE QUEENSBRIDGE & AUSTRALIA 108 TWIN TOWERS / _ at the corner of Exhibition and La Trobe streets AUSTRALIA 108 IN SOUTHBANK/ FENDER KATSALIDIS ARCHITECTS, 2012_ Australia’s tallest building when constructed.

FIGURE 1. TWIN TOWERS[1]

FIGURE 2. AUSTRALIA 108[1]

QUEENS PLACE/ COX ARCHITECTURE, FENDER KATSALIDIS ARCHITECTS AND HECKER GUTHRIE,2017_ twin 79-storey skyscrapers

FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

The ongoing development and approval for high-rise buildings in the Melbourne CBD will be the hot topic in more ways than one. With the approval of more high-rise buildings for construction the effect can only get worse. During the day the surface temperatures of the buildings will be warmer than the air – and even more so at night when the heat from the surfaces are slowly released to the surrounding atmosphere. The constant release of heat from the buildings awash the CBD with radiating heat all day long.

GREY (EXISTING) GREEN (APPROVED) YELLOW (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) BLUE (UNDER APPLICATION). PICTURE: CITY OF MELBOURNE FIGURE 5. MELBOURNE HIGH RISE BUILDINGS[1] [1]HTTPS://WWW.HERALDSUN.COM.AU/NEWS/VICTORIA/FUTURE-MELBOURNE/FUTURE-MELBOURNE-3D-MODELSHOW-FUTURES-SHAPE-OF-CITY/NEWS-STORY/C50E10AF07910F996E5DE5AA46D6AB40 [2]HTTP://WWW.SDCONSULTANTS.COM.AU/BLOG/ITEM/36-MELBOURNE-CBD-FROM-COODE-ISLAND-TO-HEAT-ISLAND FIGURE 3. QUEENS PLACE

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DESIGN TASK 1_ Mutate a Fence

This fence create the semi-private and semi-open space act as a introduction to the building complex. Plants gives vividity to the heavy construction body. It is very eye attracting and a very good example of what a fence can play multiple roles serves the building environments.

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PRECEDENT 2.2 ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-16

A.2. Design Computation INTRODUCTION

Institute for Computational Design and Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design of the University of Stuttgart designed this pavilion inspired by sea urchin’s structure as one of their research. It involves computation use in every stages.

Computer advancement provide low cost and virtual environment for designers. Programs create algorithms that not only generate a single outcome but formulate processes of generating traceable solution.[10] Designers will have more time and resources become a decision maker instead of producing a product. Creativity, is a prduct made from choosing thousands of decision. The inputs of creativity into computer system is a ‘superb analytical tool’ that fit to the complex situation at nowadays. [11] By make a good use of the software, mimic of the complex nature is possible, thus sustainability is achievable. See precedent 1. Studies for more discussion.

The individual arrangement of the calcite plate, geometric morphology of a double layered system and differentiation in the material provide high performance of the segmented structure.Also, fibrous connection maintain sea urchin’s integrity when it grow. They design the doublelayered plywood strips structure with fingers joints at edge to transfer shear and tensile forces. The timber sheet cut in shape by CNC Miling. By make good use of software, individual plywood strips are bend up by industrial robot and assembled to segment by sewing machine. The combination of architecture, biology and engineering produce this complex system with the help of computer programs. Computer allows mimics the relationship and environment between material, form and robotic fabrication to make this timber shell structure production. This proves computer provide opportunity, increase efficiency when working on a complex, multi-discipline design.

Also, computer programs minimise material waste and increase constructability and materiality. Digital fabrication is a good use for large building construction as limited waste produce and allow alteration, detail and management of the contruction. Despite designers has limitation in creativity due to limited fields and by the program, using computer allow diversify creativity and generate different solutions. [12] Program such as RhnioScrip, VBA and Grasshopper are good software and designers should be proficient in these. Oxman argues that current design is losing its rooms for tectonic expression as a “poetics of construction’.[13] In my opinion, Architecture is the relationship of technology and construction material that shine in the age of technology. Architecture firms are changing their style from hand drawing to computerize drawing. FIGURE 1. TWIN TOWERS[1]

FIGURE 1. TWIN TOWERS[1] [1]“ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-16.” INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

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PRECEDENT 2.2 ASTANA LIBRARY, KAZAKHSTAN / BIG, 2009

Follwed by screenshots from video at Ramboll. It shows the Mobius strip form of Astana library and engineered to ‘maintain the ideal form, minimize deflections, panel variations, cost and material usage to make the project a reality FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

Firstly, they use repulsion driven algorithm that set up a distribution of façade glazing panels of different shapes and sizes. After optimization of each panel, sizes are reduced from 2.245 to 1.464. Also, it reduces number of nodes and bunching of members at complex junctions.

Secondly, they optimize geometry by stressing in façade members to deduce deflection of façade and reduce steel weight. They start with a node, then morph the given size bar onto Mobius ring, then they achieve the optimum result. By using this 2 strategies, optimisation of multi-objects between façade panel and structural frame. Algorithms assist designers to build and stay in the industry as the industry is ‘survival of the fittest’.

FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

Algorithms can assist to build complex form of building in reality. In architecture, it is essential to measure, change variables and re-measure to ensure correctness. If we use traditional way, it is ineffective. The optimized algorithms help us to save time and alter many variables at a short period., The optimization method is an approach to the final product from form to detail. But, how to maximise effectiveness and efficiency according to the feature of the tree for a single architecture piece? That is the reason why will have to learn generative design and ability to deal with algorithms.

[1]HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/33238/NATIONAL-LIBRARY-IN-ASTANA-KAZAKHSTAN-BIG [2]HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/BIG-NEW-NATIONAL-LIBRARY-IN-ASTANA-KAZAKHSTAN/ [3] RAMBOLL, ‘ASTANA FACADE OPTIMISATION.MOV’, 2010, YOUTUBE [4] MICHAEL. S. BERGIN. “ TRENDS IN GENERATIVE DESIGN.” ARCHINECT, 2018

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DESIGN TASK 2_ Developed Fence

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SITE ANALYSIS_ Fences on site

Fence Location Road Contours My Route Public Transportation Green Land Water Body

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PRECEDENT 3.1 HANGZHOU SPORTS PARK NBBJ & CCDI, 2010 - CURRENT

A.3. Composition & Generation INTRODUCTION Achim Menges says computation generate complex order, form and structure with interrelated database. [20] Architectural expression transform from symmetrical composition to organic, abstracted and asymmetrical due to technology advancement in computer. Modernist and post-modern architects get inspiration from industrial products, diagrams, site attributes and experimental process. When will study Tokyo Metropolitan government building by Kenzo Tange, Crown Hall by Mise, Neue Staatsgalerie by James Stirling, they are made from materials that deconstruct or assemble together to become a master piece of architecture. Alternatively, algorithms work as a virtual machine to provide virtual environment for the design. Algorithms gives various, numerical possibility and reversible outcomes. For example, L-system, Boids Blocking and senseless drawing robots, the algorithm output random treasuravle arts works. Algorithms and parametric design can solve actual world complexity. Algorithms is used for performative design, building tectonic models and digital materiality. This is the solution to design and protect our environment. Last, algorithm helps formalize the biomimetic principles, we can “potentially create a second nature with respect to material ecology”.[21]

FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

NBBJ and CCDI designe Hangzhou Sports Park for a sustainable public spaces in the Hangzhou new suburb. Design director of CCDI’s sport division mention the design of a big stadium in a 2 million m2 land in the park as a future urban centre. The stadium bowl covered with truss structure looks like petals. A bowl profile is produced from a copy and mirroring process. The design concept is transferred to a flexible parametric system using Grasshopper. Grasshopper allow adjustment in multiple parameters such as number of rows, sightline standards, distance to the playing field,riser angles and seating capacity. For example, change in searing parameters will lead to change in exterior petal structure as well. The algorithm in grasshopper links design elements and omit the tradition 3D modelling “build-test-discardrebuild strategy”. The final composition of the centre is from function, structure, aesthetics and other considerations. Due to history is explicit, real-time change base on parameters adjustment increase efficiency of analysis and presentation. These software use allow designers to draw multiple attributes and different result. FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2] [1]“THE PROVING GROUND.”MEASUREMENT, UNCERTAINTY, AND THE DATASPACE - THEPROVING GROUN [2]BRADY, PETERS, AND XAVIER DE. KESTELIER. COMPUTATION WORKS: THE BUILDING OF ALGORITHMIC THOUGHT. LONDON: WILEY, 2013. PRINT. PP10 [3]OXMAN, RIVKA, AND ROBERT OXMAN. THEORIES OF THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE. LONDON: ROUTLEDGE, 2014. PRINT. PP6 [22]MILLER, NATHAN. “NBBJ: PARAMETRIC STRATEGIES IN THE DESIGN OF HANGZHOU STADIUM (PART 1).” THE PROVING GROUND BY NATHAN MILLER. 28 DEC. 2009.

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FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

Unlike nature, designers assemble different kind of materials into a product. The organic chemistry and biology shows the process is continuous according to the material and product properties. “It growth.” Nerri Oxman shows us 2 great maps: FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2] Assembly – the table of elements, and Growth – the human genome. From nature, designers make good use of the resources to produce their own products. Design nature_Microfluidic Co-Culture Printing. Nerri Oximan tries to change the biological function. She combines 2 prokaryotes, Cyanobacteria and E.coli. Cyanobacteria convery light into sugar and E.Coli will consumes as the biofuel. She claim it ’designers evolution” as we can create. The wearable ecosystem is 59 meters long and convert chemical energy to solar energy. Design inspired nature_Silk pavilion. Different composition in a single material. It composes of 2 protein, 1 act as structural support and 1 act as a glue for connection. The silkworm can spin a flat cocoon. They found a way to shape the raw silk without the need of boiling.

FIGURE 4. MELBOURNE CITY SKYLINE[2]

Inspired by nature-Anthoza Dress for Paris fashion show. This art piece is inspired by human skin. They designed as a continuous skirt but not assemble by different parts. This cloth can filter air and sweat due to their variation of material composition.

Engineered by nature_Biolymer printing. Most manufacture materials are toxic and not environmental friendly. Designer uses biodegradable material pritin like chitin, a polysaccharide, to produce the clothes. It is completely recyclable as it can melt into water and provide food to fishes or grow of trees. This product is a part of natural environments.

PRECEDENT 3.1 NERI OXMAN [1]“MEDIATED MATTER.” VESPERS: SERIES II ENVIRONMENT |LONDON DESIGN MUSEUM [2]TEDTALKSDIRECTOR. “DESIGN AT THE INTERSECTION OF TECHNOLOGY AND BIOLOGY | NERI OXMAN | TED TALKS.” YOUTUBE, YOUTUBE, 29 OCT. 2015 [3] WORLDECONOMICFORUM. “BIO-INSPIRED DESIGN | NERI OXMAN.” YOUTUBE, YOUTUBE, 19 FEB. 2016

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DESIGN TASK 3_ Developed Fence

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A.4. Conclusion Part A studies observe futurism design derived from nowadays living standards, limited resources and excess consumptions. Focus on the need of sustainability on the planet to encourage change in architect behaviour. So our new goal is to sustain the future generation but also maintain the quality of life. Future design require many attributes take into consideration like carbon emitted, function, transportation, function, connectivity and future development. As sustainability is ambiguous and wicked, design is difficult to have certain outcome. Designers aim to find systems that fit current complex situations and redirect the future to sustainable. When design attempt to create nature like system, computer program is the most effect tool. We acknowledge nature is interrelated, random, organic and change. So designers need to write a script to the rule rather than focus on single outcome. Parametric design perfectly present rule of nature, although we somehow limit by knowledge, discoveries or program to exhaust all circumstances. Parametric softwares allow generate composition and adjust the outputs quickly. Moreover, during fabrication stage, the algorithm can manipulate and reduce waste of material while maximize variability. In the drawbacks, digital fabrication is not popular in building industry yet but we hope it will be popular in the future. At now, modular system of parametric design can allow modular construction in future building industry. All in all, profession in 1 aspect cannot solve the complicated problems we are facing currently. As our world is diversity, computer software can help designers to experiment with different parameters like tectonics and material in building performance analysis and accurate result output.

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A.5. Learning Outcomes 1. Architecture as art pieces is speculative result. At instance is focus on how to protect our environment to allow human survival in the next few decades. Designer’s goal is to design a system that is sustainable. When there is a huge development in history, there will always be conflict and afraid of something. Architecture is not changed and architecture is changed. Designer aim to discover innovation by computer and algorithm. 2. Computerization is a new method for design by helping designers to design and make changes in form finding process. Multidisciplinary approach is preferred to make a design system. As human brain is limit, designer cannot specialize in all aspect, program and algorithm assist connection of the designer and multidisciplinary in a fast and effective manner. None the less, at fabrication stage, computation and machines help us to solve construction problems in a effective and fast pace no matter how complex the production is. 3. All design is parametric, but algorithm help designer to calculate multiple parameters as a group to generate and adjust result quickly. Grasshopper has the advantage over the Rhino. 4. Though computation is so powerful, it is a tool only at nowadays. The captain in architecture design is still the designer. Designers need to remind themselves the initiative of the design is to the future and better living but not ‘computationalism’ and loss the fundamental of design.

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A.6. Appendix _ Algorithm Sketchbook

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Bibiliography Ant Farm, “Dolphin Embassy.” Hidden Architecture, 1974 www.hiddenarchitecture.net/2016/02/dolphin-embassy.html. Brady, Peters, and Xavier De. Kestelier. Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought. London: Wiley, 2013. Print. Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby. Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming. S.l.: MIT, 2014. Print. Fry, Tony. Design Futuring Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014. Print. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16.” Institute for Computational Design and Construction. Web. 12 Aug. 2017. Kalay, Yehuda E. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories and Methods of Computer-aided Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2004. Print. “Mediated Matter.” Vespers: Series II Environment |London Design Museum, matter. media.mit.edu/environments/details/vespers-second-series#prettyPhoto. Micheal. S. Bergin. “ Trends in Generative Design.” Archinect, 2018 archinect.com/archlab/trends-in-generative-design. Miller, Nathan. “NBBJ: Parametric Strategies in the Design of Hangzhou Stadium (Part 1).” The Proving Ground by Nathan Miller. 28 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Aug. 2017. “NBBJ and CCDI Break Ground on Hangzhou Sports Park.” ArchDaily. 15 Apr. 2010. Web. 13 Aug. 2017. Oxman, Rivka, and Robert Oxman. Theories of the Digital in Architecture. London: Routledge, 2014. Print. “River Red Gum.” VRO | Agriculture Victoria, vro.agriculture.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/water_sss_river_red_gum. Stand Level Biodiversity Management - Module 3, Part B: Wildlife Trees, www. for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/training/00001/module03/wildlife-trees.htm. “Sustainability Pavilion for Expo 2020 Dubai.” E-architect. 26 July 2017. Web. 12 Aug. 2017. TEDtalksDirector. “Design at the Intersection of Technology and Biology | Neri Oxman | TED Talks.” YouTube, YouTube, 29 Oct. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVa_IZVzUoc. “THE PROVING GROUND.” Measurement, Uncertainty, and the Dataspace - THE PROVING GROUND, wiki.theprovingground.org/article-measurement-dataspace. WOOD, JOHN. DESIGN FOR MICRO-UTOPIAS: Making the Unthinkable Possible. S.l.: TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 2016. Print. WorldEconomicForum. “Bio-Inspired Design | Neri Oxman.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 Feb. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAA0DfAdiIU. “Expo 2020 Dubai: Grimshaw Plans Sustainability Pavilion.” Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine. 19 Jan. 2017. Web. 12 Aug. 2017.

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Part A  
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