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eXile • Regular Breaks • Q&A Between Sections

Why Study This? • Apologetics- 1 Peter 3:15 • The Word- John 1 • History • If the Bible is legitimate and true, it has profound implications for our life and afterlife.

Why Study This? • We do not trust in Jesus because we believe the Bible, we believe the Bible because we trust in Jesus.

Where we are going • History of The Bible • How Should We View The Bible? • Is The Bible The “Right” Bible? • Is The Old Testament Reliable? • Is The New Testament Reliable? • What About Translations?

Definitions In every area of theology, definitions are critical. Two people of differing views may agree in error based on different assumptions of definitions.

Inspiration Scripture was given to the authors directly from God. The words that they wrote were the words that were given to them by God. Exodus 4:28 Exodus 31:18 Micah 1:1

Canon From the Greek kanōn which means a rod or cane. It is the denotation of a book that is divinely inspired and part of the accepted corpus of Scripture.

Original Autographs The original manuscripts written by the original authors. Example: The actual parchment that Luke (or his amanuensis) wrote when writing the Gospel of Luke.

Inerrancy The concept of something being complete true and correct without any errors. If Scripture is inspired by God, it must also be inerrant.

Sola Scriptura “Scripture Alone”

Revelation General RevelationGod’s Revelation Through Creation Special RevelationGod’s Direct Revelation Through Scripture

Extrabiblical Attestation

Documents or evidence outside of the Bible that show things in the Bible to be accurate or true.

Literary Criticism “…To exercise judgment…” Higher Criticism: Source of the Text Lower Criticism: Text Itself Both should be debated and understood

Literary Criticism Higher: What is the source? Man? God?

Literary Criticism Lower: The reliability & accuracy of the text regardless of the source. Is it correct? Are they verifiable inconsistencies or mistakes?

Structure of the Bible 2 Testaments 66 Books 40+ Authors 3 Languages 3 Continents 1500 Years

Structure of the Bible Chapters Early 13th Century Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury Verses OT- 1448- Nathan, Jewish rabbi NT- 1551- Robert Estienne

Structure of the Bible CHAPTERS















Structure of the Bible Old TestamentTorah History Poetry Prophets

Structure of the Bible TorahGenesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy

Structure of the Bible HistoryJoshua Judges Ruth 1&2 Samuel 1&2 Kings

1&2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther

Structure of the Bible PoetryJob Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon

Structure of the Bible ProphetsMajorIsaiah Jeremiah Lamentations

Ezekiel Daniel

Structure of the Bible ProphetsMinorHosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah

Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Structure of the Bible New TestamentGospels History Epistles -Pauline

-General Apocalyptic

Structure of the Bible GospelsMatthew Mark Luke John

Structure of the Bible HistoryActs of The Apostles

Structure of the Bible Pauline EpistlesRomans 1 & 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians

Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 & 2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Structure of the Bible General EpistlesHebrews James 1&2 Peter 1,2,&3 John Jude

Structure of the Bible Apocalyptic or Prophecy Revelation

History of the bible • Order of Writing • Jewish Canon • Greek Translations • Latin Translations • English Translations (non-Modern)

Order of Writing- OT Job: Considered earliest, but date unknown Genesis: 1445-1405 BC Exodus: 1445-1405 BC Leviticus: 1445-1405 BC Numbers: 1445-1405 BC Deuteronomy: 1445-1405 BC Psalms: 1410-450 BC

Joshua: 1405-1385 BC Judges: 1043 BC Ruth 1030-1010 BC Song of Songs: 971-965 BC Proverbs: 971-686 BC Ecclesiastes: 940-931 BC

Order of Writing- OT 1 Samuel: 931-722 BC 2 Samuel: 931-722 BC Obadiah: 850-840 BC Joel: 835-796 BC Jonah: 775 BC Amos 750 BC Hosea: 750-710 BC Micah: 735-710 BC

Isaiah: 700-681 BC Nahum: 650 BC Zephaniah: 635-625 BC Habakkuk: 615-605 BC Ezekiel: 590-570 BC Lamentations: 586 BC Jeremiah: 586-570 BC

Order of Writing- OT 1 Kings: 561-538 BC 2 Kings: 561-538 BC Daniel: 536-530 BC Haggai: 520 BC Zechariah: 480-470 BC Ezra: 457-444 BC

1 Chronicles: 450-430 BC 2 Chronicles: 450-430 BC Esther: 450-331 BC Malachi: 433-424 BC Nehemiah: 424-400 BC

Order of Writing- NT James: AD 44-49 Galatians: AD 49-50 Mark: AD 50-60 Matthew: AD 50-60 1 Thessalonians: AD 51 2 Thessalonians: AD 5152

1 Corinthians: AD 55 2 Corinthians: AD 55-56 Romans: AD 56 Luke: AD 60-61 Ephesians AD 60-62 Philippians AD 60-62

Order of Writing- NT Philemon: AD 60-62 Colossians: AD 60-62 Acts: AD 62 1 Timothy: AD 62-64 Titus: AD 62-64 1 Peter: AD 64-65 2 Timothy: AD 66-67 2 Peter: AD 67-68

Hebrews: AD 67-69 Jude: AD 68-70 John: AD 80-90 1 John: AD 90-95 2 John: AD 90-95 3 John: AD 90-95 Revelation: AD 94-96

Jewish Canon • Talmud • Dead Sea Scrolls

Jewish Canon- DSS • 1947 • Qumran • Fragments of Every OT Book Found Except for Esther • Entire Book of Isaiah • Written Down By the Essenes • 11 12 Caves

OT Manuscripts Name

Original Composition

Date of Earliest Copy


Dead Sea Scroll 1 (4Q Samuel-B)

10th-9th century BC

4th-3rd century BC

1 Samuel 16, 19, 21, 23

Rylands Papyrus 458

15th or 13th century BC

150 BC

Greek Deut 23-28

Nash Papyrus

15th or 13th century BC

150 BC- AD 68

Decalogue, Exodus 20 Deut 5:6-21


15th or 13th-4th century BC AD 100-200

Entire OT in Syriac

OT Manuscripts • Masoretic Texts • The Hebrew and Aramaic texts of the Tanakh

NT Canon • Criteria: • • • •

Apostolicity- written by apostle or associate Antiquity- authored in generation of Christianity. Authenticity- historical tradition Ubiquity- acceptance and usage throughout known world • Catholicity- consistency with known NT writings and creeds

NT Canon • Why is the canon closed? • Based on the criteria

• Deuteronomy 4:2, 12:32 • Revelation 22:18 • “Although such long ages have now gone by, no one has dared to add anything to them, to take away anything from them, or to change anything in them.” Josephus

Greek Manuscripts • Manuscript & Fragments • 5,600+ Dating Between 30-300 Year of the Original Autographs

Greek Manuscripts Name


Original Autograph

•John Manuscript Fragments Rylands John& 18:31-33, 37- AD 85-100

Earliest Copy Date


AD 125

25-40 years

Fragment (P52)


Chester Beatty Papryi (P45-47)

Parts of Matt, Mark, AD 50-100 Luke, John, Pauline, Revelation

AD 200-300

100-250 years

Bodmer Papryi (P66, 72, 75)

Parts of John, 1&2 Peter, Jude

AD 50-70

AD 175-250

105-200 years

Codex Vaticanus (B)

Most of the OT & Majority of NT

AD 50-100

AD 325

225-275 years

Codex Sinaiticus (a)

Complete NT with exception of a few verses (Mark 16, John 7&8) ½ LXX

AD 50-100

AD 350

250-300 years

Magdalen Papyrus

Matt 26:7-8, 10, 14- AD 40-65 15

AD 75-200

10-160 years

Greek translations • For Comparison: Author



Earliest Copy Gap




4th Cent. BC

AD 900

1250 years




9th Cent. BC

400 BC

500 years



The Histories 484-425 BC

AD 900

1350 years




4th Cent. BC

AD 1100

1400 years


Julius Caesar

The Gallic Wars

58-44 BC

AD 900

950 years



The Twelve Caesars

AD 70-140

AD 950

900 years


Greek translations • Septuagint- LXX • Primary Translation of OT • 3rd Century BC • 72 Scholars- Ptolemy II Philedelphius

• Codex Sinaiticus• 5th Century, found 1844, oldest complete NT

Latin Translations • Latin Vulgate • 4th Century AD • Official Church Bible- Council of Trent (1545-63)

• Gutenberg Bible- 1450’s • Latin Vulgate OT • Greek NT

English translations • Wycliffe- John Wycliffe 1382-1395- Vulgate • "it helpeth Christian men to study the Gospel in that tongue in which they know best Christ's sentence"

• Tyndale- William Tyndale- 1535- Greek & Hebrew • Strangled & Burned to Death- Up to 90% the KJV 33% word for word.

• Geneva Bible- 1576- Shakespeare, Bunyan, Mayflower • King James Version- 1611- To replace the Geneva

Inspiration & Inerrancy

Who Wrote The Bible? John 1:1-5 Why Does It Matter? What if it is the word of God?

Who Wrote The Bible Traditional Christianity holds that they words of the Bible were given to the authors directly from God in order to accurately and truthfully reveal his Word to us.

InspirationOld Testament: Deuteronomy 18:18 2 Samuel 23:2 New Testament: 2 Timothy 3:16 2 Peter 2:20-21

Authors At Least 40 Authors Some Books Are Disputed

OT Authors -Torah= Moses - 1400 B.C. -Joshua = Joshua - 1350 B.C. -Judges, Ruth, 1 & 2 Samuel = Samuel/Nathan/Gad - 1000 900 B.C. -1 Kings, 2 Kings = Jeremiah - 600 B.C. -1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah = Ezra - 450 B.C. -Esther = Mordecai - 400

B.C. -Job = Moses - 1400 B.C. -Psalms = different authors, mostly David - 1000 - 400 B.C. -Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs = Solomon 900 B.C. -Isaiah = Isaiah - 700 B.C. -Jeremiah, Lamentations = Jeremiah - 600 B.C.

OT Authors - Ezekiel = Ezekiel - 550 B.C. -Daniel = Daniel - 550 B.C. -Hosea = Hosea - 750 B.C. -Joel = Joel - 850 B.C. -Amos = Amos - 750 B.C. -Obadiah = Obadiah - 600 B.C. -Jonah = Jonah - 700 B.C. -Micah = Micah - 700 B.C.

-Nahum = Nahum - 650 B.C. -Habakkuk = Habakkuk - 600 B.C. -Zephaniah = Zephaniah 650 B.C. -Haggai = Haggai - 520 B.C. -Zechariah = Zechariah 500 B.C. -Malachi = Malachi - 430 B.C.

NT Authors- Luke Luke- 60 Acts- 65

NT Authors- Paul Romans 1 & 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians

1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 & 2 Timothy Titus Philemon All 50-70

NT Authors- John John- 90 1, 2, 3 John- 90 Revelation- 90

NT Authors- Peter 1 & 2 Peter- 60

NT Authors- Misc Matthew- 55 Mark- 50 James- 45 Jude- 60 Hebrews- Unknown- 65ish

Inerrancy The Bible Is The Inerrant Word Of God. Inerrant in the Original Autographs

Inerrancy Scientific Medical Historical Archaeological Theological?

Inerrancy- Scientific The Bible contains advanced scientific information that was not known at the time of it’s writing. This would indicate a divine inspiration.

Inerrancy- Scientific Creation of the Universe Scientific Laws Evolution vs. Creation

Inerrancy- Scientific Creation of the Universe Big Bang Theory has proven that the creation of the universe happened at a specific time and a specific point. Measurements in the red shift shows our universe continuing to expand out from a single point.

Inerrancy- Scientific Scientific Laws Conversation of Energy- Genesis 2:2-3, Hebrews 1:3 Energy cannot be either created or destroyed.

Inerrancy- Scientific Evolution vs. Creation Amino Acids500 amino acids lining up at random to produce one living cell is 1 in 10200 Missing Links

Inerrancy- medical Germs were not known until the 1890’s. Leveticus 6:28 Leviticus 11:35 Numbers 19:5-13 Numbers 19:14-17 Leviticus 4:11-12

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentAmarna Tablet Black Obelisk of Shalmanaser III Ebla Tablets Mernepteh Stele

Siloam Inscription Tel Dan Inscription


Old TestamentAmarna Tablet 1400 BC Conquest of Canaan by “Habiru”

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentAmarna Tablet


Old TestamentBlack Obelisk of Shalmanaser III 841 BC ”Jehu, son of Omri” 2 Kings 9-10

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentBlack Obelisk of Shalmanaser III

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentEbla Tablets 2350 BC Describes many cities& dieties recorded in Bible.

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentEbla Tablets

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentMernepteh Stele 1230 BC Earliest mention of Israel

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentMernepteh Stele


Old TestamentSiloam Inscription 700 BC Hezekiah’s Tunnel 2 Kings 20:20, Isaiah 22:9, 2 Chronicles 32:3031

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentSiloam Inscription

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentTel Dan Inscription 9th century BC “House of David”

InerrancyArchaeological Old TestamentTel Dan Inscription

InerrancyArchaeological New TestamentPilate Inscription Erastus Inscription Yohanan Crucifixion


New TestamentPilate Inscription 1st Century- Caesarea Maritima “Tiberium Pontius Pilate Prefect of Judea”

InerrancyArchaeological New TestamentPilate Inscription


New TestamentErastus Inscription 1st Century Romans 16:23 “Erastus in return for his aedileship laid [the pavement] at his own expense.�

InerrancyArchaeological New TestamentErastus Inscription

InerrancyArchaeological New TestamentYohanan Crucifixion 1st Century Spikes & Legs Broken Found in a Tomb

InerrancyArchaeological New TestamentYohanan Crucifixion

Inerrancy- Historical Flavius Josephus Babylonian Talmud Pliny the Younger Tacitus Suetonius

Inerrancy- Historical Flavius Josephus- Jewish Antiquities- AD 93 "Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day."

Inerrancy- Historical Babylonian Talmud- AD 70-200 “Jesus was hanged on Passover Eve. Forty days previously the herald had cried, “He is being led out for stoning, because he has practiced sorcery and led Israel astray and enticed them into apostasy. Whosoever has anything to say in his defense, let him come and declare it.” As nothing was brought forward in his defense, he was hanged on Passover Eve.”

Inerrancy- Historical Pliny the Younger- AD 110 “…they were accustomed to meet on a fixed day before dawn and sing responsively a hymn to Christ as to a god, and to bind themselves by oath, not to some crime, but not to commit fraud, theft, or adultery, not falsify their trust, nor to refuse to return a trust when called upon to do so. When this was over, it was their custom to depart and to assemble again to partake of food--but ordinary and innocent food. Even this, they affirmed, they had ceased to do after my edict by which, in accordance with your instructions, I had forbidden political associations. Accordingly, I judged it all the more necessary to find out what the truth was by torturing two female slaves who were called deaconesses. But I discovered nothing else but depraved, excessive superstition.”

Inerrancy- Historical Tacitus- AD 115-117 “Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired. Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, and was exhibiting a show in the circus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft on a car. Hence, even for criminals who deserved extreme and exemplary punishment, there arose a feeling of compassion; for it was not, as it seemed, for the public good, but to glut one man's cruelty, that they were being destroyed.�

Inerrancy- Historical Suetonius- AD 120 “He expelled the Jews from Rome, on account of the riots in which they were constantly indulging, at the instigation of Chrestus.�

InerrancyTheological? Sin Salvation

Translations- Modern • KJV • NIV • ESV • CSB • NLT

• NASB • Message

Translations- KJV King James Bible- Authorized Version 1611 Originally included the Apocrypha Unicorns- Deuteronomy 33:17 (9 Instances) Translated from the Hebrew, Aramaic, & Greek manuscripts of the time.

Translations- KJV “But we will not boast of things without our measure, but according to the measure of the rule which God hath distributed to us, a measure to reach even unto you.� 2 Corinthians 10:13

Translations- NIV New International Version- 1978, 2011 Verbal equivalence with dynamic balance Biblica Hebraica and mix of NT manuscripts

Translations- NIV “We, however, will not boast beyond proper limits, but will confine our boasting to the field God has assigned to us, a field that reaches even to you.� 2 Corinthians 10:13

Translations- ESV English Standard Version- 1951, 2002 Verbal Equivalence Revision of RSV

Translations- ESV “But we will not boast beyond limits, but will boast only with regard to the area of influence God assigned to us, to reach even to you.� 2 Corinthians 10:13

Translations- CSB Christian Standard Bible- 2004 (HCSB), 2016 Verbal equivalence with dynamic balance Biblia Hebraica and Nestle Aland

Translations- CSB “We, however, will not boast beyond measure but according to the measure of the area of ministry that God has assigned to us, which reaches even to you.� 2 Corinthians 10:13

Translations- NLT New Living Translation- 1996; 2007 Dynamic equivalence Biblia Hebraica, Nestle Aland, UBS Greek

Translations- NLT “But we will not boast of authority we do not have. Our goal is to stay within the boundaries of God’s plan for us, and this plan includes our working there with you.” 2 Corinthians 10:13

Translations- NASB New American Standard Bible- 1971;1995 Scholarly Version Verbal Equivalence Biblia Hebraica, Nestle-Aland, Nestle Greek

Translations- NASB “But we will not boast beyond our measure, but within the measure of the sphere which God apportioned to us as a measure, to reach even as far as you.“ 2 Corinthians 10:13

Translations- Message 1993;2001 Written by Eugene Peterson Paraphrase Original Languages

Translations- Message “We aren’t making outrageous claims here. We’re sticking to the limits of what God has set for us. But there can be no question that those limits reach to and include you.” 2 Corinthians 10:13

Conclusion The Bible Matters! It Is Reliable. It Is Verifiable. It Is The Inspired, Inerrant Word of God. It is a Gift.

Exile: Where Did the Bible Come From?  

Exile is a 6-hour teaching event that takes one topic and digs deep! This time we will explore the question, "Where Did The Bible Come From?...

Exile: Where Did the Bible Come From?  

Exile is a 6-hour teaching event that takes one topic and digs deep! This time we will explore the question, "Where Did The Bible Come From?...